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BS IEC 61865:2001

Overhead lines — Calculation of the electrical component of distance between live parts and obstacles — Method of calculation

ICS 29.240.20

NO COPYING WITHOUT BSI PERMISSION EXCEPT AS PERMITTED BY COPYRIGHT LAW

BS IEC 61865:2001

National foreword

This British Standard reproduces verbatim IEC 61865:2001 and implements it as the UK national standard. The UK participation in its preparation was entrusted to Technical Committee PEL/11, Overhead lines, which has the responsibility to: — — aid enquirers to understand the text; present to the responsible international/European committee any enquiries on the interpretation, or proposals for change, and keep the UK interests informed; monitor related international and European developments and promulgate them in the UK.

—

A list of organizations represented on this committee can be obtained on request to its secretary. From 1 January 1997, all IEC publications have the number 60000 added to the old number. For instance, IEC 27 has been renumbered as IEC 60027-1. For a period of time during the change over from one numbering system to the other, publications may contain identifiers from both systems. Cross-references The British Standards which implement international or European publications referred to in this document may be found in the BSI Standards Catalogue under the section entitled “International Standards Correspondence Index”, or by using the “Find” facility of the BSI Standards Electronic Catalogue. A British Standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract. Users of British Standards are responsible for their correct application. Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity from legal obligations.

This British Standard, having been prepared under the direction of the Electrotechnical Sector Policy and Strategy Committee, was published under the authority of the Standards Policy and Strategy Committee on 29 March 2002

Summary of pages This document comprises a front cover, an inside front cover, the IEC title page, pages 2 to 23 and a back cover. The BSI copyright date displayed in this document indicates when the document was last issued.

**Amendments issued since publication Amd. No.
**

© BSI 29 March 2002

Date

Comments

ISBN 0 580 39248 1

BS IEC 61865:2001 NORME INTERNATIONALE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD CEI IEC 61865 Première édition First edition 2001-07 Lignes aériennes – Calcul de la composante électrique de la distance entre les parties sous tension et les obstacles – Méthode de calcul Overhead lines – Calculation of the electrical component of distance between live parts and obstacles – Method of calculation Numéro de référence Reference number CEI/IEC 61865:2001 .

.............................................. 17 4 5 6 7 Annex A (informative) Relationship between U 50 and the gap length........................................................... 6 Normative references ................. 11 5.................. 9 Approach used to derive the electrical distance ................... ................ 10 Overvoltages................................................... 14 6.... 3 INTRODUCTION ............................................ 12 5............. 7 ............ 20 Bibliography .................................................................................... d ..... 11 5.............................................2 Symbols.....................................................................................................................1 – Summary of the results........................................................................................................................BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 –3– CONTENTS FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................................4 Fast-front overvoltages .......................... 7 Terms....................................................................... 3................................................ 22 2 © BSI 29 March 2002 .. 15 Table B.......................................................................................................................................... 16 Calculation of the distance associated with the overvoltages .....3 Slow-front overvoltages ......................................................... 12 Required withstand voltage of the air gap ...... 7 3.............................................................................................................................................................................1 General....................................................................................................................... 5 1 2 3 Scope ....................... 18 Annex B (informative) Example of the calculation of the electrical component ............................................................................. 13 6................2 Calculation of the required withstand voltage ................ 23 Table 1 – Slow-front waves: probability of discharge .................................................................... definitions and symbols ........................... 11 5....................................2 Temporary overvoltages ................................................................................................1 Classification of overvoltages ...................................................................................................................... 14 Table 2 – Fast-front waves: probability of discharge ..........1 Definitions .......................

© BSI 29 March 2002 3 . 3) The documents produced have the form of recommendations for international use and are published in the form of standards. any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International. technical reports or guides and they are accepted by the National Committees in that sense. 4) In order to promote international unification. IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC International Standards transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional standards. The IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees. technical specifications. as nearly as possible. The IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations. This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives. 2) The formal decisions or agreements of the IEC on technical matters express.BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 –5– INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION ––––––––––– OVERHEAD LINES – CALCULATION OF THE ELECTRICAL COMPONENT OF DISTANCE BETWEEN LIVE PARTS AND OBSTACLES – METHOD OF CALCULATION FOREWORD 1) The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). International Standard IEC 61865 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 11: Overhead lines. The object of the IEC is to promote international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. Annexes A and B are for information only. Part 3. an international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all interested National Committees. the IEC publishes International Standards. Any divergence between the IEC Standard and the corresponding national or regional standard shall be clearly indicated in the latter. To this end and in addition to other activities. 6) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject of patent rights. The text of this standard is based on the following documents: FDIS 11/161/FDIS Report on voting 11/162/RVD Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on voting indicated in the above table. governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. 5) The IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any equipment declared to be in conformity with one of its standards.

At this date. or amended. withdrawn. replaced by a revised edition. the publication will be • • • • reconfirmed. 4 © BSI 29 March 2002 .BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 –7– The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until 2005-11.

to add new voltage levels). i. movement of conductors due to temperature.BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 –9– INTRODUCTION The minimum distances to be maintained between overhead line conductors and objects close to them are usually specified in national standards or regulations. sizes of objects that may normally come under a line. The method presented in this International Standard for calculating the electrical distance is mainly for use when reviewing or revising existing electrical distances (for example.e. © BSI 29 March 2002 5 . load or environmental conditions) plus a safety margin to allow for uncertainties. an air insulation distance which prevents an electrical discharge between the conductors and other objects. • It is important that the two distances are specified correctly. The method is especially suited to the case of slowfronted waves but is extended to cover the case of fast-front waves and temporary overvoltages. etc.) to derive the electrical component of the distance. The method uses the overvoltages which occur on the lines together with the prevailing atmospheric conditions (including the effects of altitude. an additional distance to account for an extreme range of certain conditions (such as human activities. Such minimum distances normally comprise • an electrical distance. even when there are overvoltages present on the overhead line conductors.

vessels on water. in some cases. capacitive coupling or magnetic induction by overhead lines. resulting in audible and electrical noise and intense arcs. minimum electrical distances required to prevent discharge to adjacent overhead power or communication circuits. 6 © BSI 29 March 2002 . currents flowing in the ground that originate from lines and result in step and touch voltages around structures during line faults or lightning strikes. flashover of line insulators or spark gaps. wildlife on the ground (but not airborne). These.BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 – 11 – OVERHEAD LINES – CALCULATION OF THE ELECTRICAL COMPONENT OF DISTANCE BETWEEN LIVE PARTS AND OBSTACLES – METHOD OF CALCULATION 1 Scope This International Standard provides guidance for the calculation of electrical distances between live and earthed parts required to prevent air-gap breakdown which may endanger members of the public who legitimately come close to live parts. such as voltages induced in vehicles under a line.c. This standard does not deal with the following public and worker safety aspects: • stationary objects – structures beneath or next to lines. etc. trees. in general. minimum approach distance for live working. ground contours. etc. Distances between conductors and the structure of the tower are normally chosen to meet the required operating reliability of the line. or in pipelines buried alongside it. • • • • • • This standard does not give the electrical distance requirements for the design of overhead line structures. It deals with the electrical component of distances between conductors and movable objects – vehicles on the ground. require consideration as to whether the structure can be climbed on. or a phase-to-phase discharge. persons on top of objects or on the ground. Neither does it give the distance requirements for overhead line structures which need to be accessible to workers while the line is energized (for example. It is possible that this distance may not always be adequate to allow live working or. dielectric breakdown of the air between the conductors and the ground due to large fires beneath conductors. It is applicable only to overhead lines designed to operate at more than 45 kV phase-to-phase a. the extent to which the tree will grow. etc. which is dealt with in IEC 61472. distances to line workers or painters). access for workers to parts of the structure near to live conductors.

are not taken into account. for example. constitute provisions of this International Standard. © BSI 29 March 2002 7 . 3. any of these publications do not apply.1 Definitions 3. 3. or revisions of. Live working – Minimum approach distances – Method of calculation 3 Terms. definitions and symbols For the purposes of this International Standard. principles and rules lEC 60071-2:1996.1 nominal voltage of a system suitable approximate value of voltage used to designate or identify a system [IEV 601-01-21] NOTE See also IEV 601-01-29: phase-to-phase voltage. certain definitions from IEC 60050(601) and IEC 60050(604) as well as the following definitions apply.BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 – 13 – 2 Normative references The following normative documents contain provisions which. IEC 60050(601):1985.1. transmission and distribution of electricity – General IEC 60050(604):1987. subsequent amendments to. Insulation co-ordination – Part 2: Application guide IEC 61472:1998. to switching operations and abnormal operation. through reference in this text. Insulation co-ordination – Part 1: Definitions.2 highest voltage of a system U S highest value of operating voltage which occurs under normal operating conditions at any time and any point in the system [IEV 601-01-23] NOTE 1 See also IEV 601-01-29: phase-to-phase voltage. as well as abnormal temporary variations of voltage. International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Chapter 601: Generation. However. NOTE 2 Transient overvoltages due. Members of IEC and ISO maintain registers of currently valid International Standards. transmission and distribution of electricity – Operation IEC 60060-1:1989. For dated references. For undated references. International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Chapter 604: Generation. the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. parties to agreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below.1. High-voltage test techniques – Part 1: General definitions and test requirements lEC 60071-1:1993.

sudden load rejection. 3. of relatively long duration and which is undamped or weakly damped [IEV 604-03-12.7 front of a voltage impulse that part of an impulse which occurs prior to the peak [IEV 604-03-16] 3.6 lightning overvoltage transient overvoltage.10 annual probability of breakdown of air gap R a probability of sparkover NOTE For a reference occupancy of 1 h per year at the electrical distance. T occ is taken to be 1 h per year.1. at which the insulation exhibits a 90 % probability of withstand 8 © BSI 29 March 2002 . modified] NOTE Temporary overvoltages usually originate from switching operations or faults (for example. with the shape of the representative overvoltage.1. single phase-to-earth faults and/or from non-linearities (ferro-resonance effects.5 power-frequency withstand voltage r. is effectively avoided 3. 3.1.BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 – 15 – 3.9 occupancy at electrical distance T occ number of hours. harmonics). the shape of which can be regarded for insulation coordination purposes as similar to that of the standard lightning impulse [IEV 604-03-30] 3.11 statistical withstand voltage U 90 overvoltage.1.1. at which the individual or any conductive part to which he/she is in contact.1.3 temporary overvoltage oscillatory overvoltage (at power frequency) at a given location.1. D el. value of sinusoidal power frequency voltage that the equipment can withstand during tests made under specified conditions and for a specified time [IEV 604-03-40] 3.m. or any conductive tool or object which they could reasonably be expected to be in contact with.s.1. 3.8 electrical distance D el reference distance which ensures that the electrical breakdown between any live part of the electrical installation to the body of a member of the public.1. is taken to be at the limit of the electrical distance NOTE As a reference.4 fifty per cent disruptive discharge voltage peak value of an impulse test voltage having a 50 % probability of initiating a disruptive discharge each time the dielectric testing is performed [IEV 604-03-43] 3. the value R a is taken to be 10 –7 .

1.17 mitigating correction factor k m factor that accounts for the fact that. derived from the statistical distribution of overvoltages generated by the power system 3.16 atmospheric correction factor k a factor to be applied to the withstand voltage to account for the difference between the average atmospheric conditions in service and standard atmospheric conditions NOTE This applies to a specific area and may not be constant for the entire geographical territory of a power system.15 statistical probability of discharge R s probability that a gap will spark over when an overvoltage with a certain statistical distribution is applied to it 3.18 gap factor k g ratio of the dielectric strength for slow-fronted waves of a given electrode geometry to that of a rod-plane configuration in which the point has positive polarity (see CIGRE Guide No.1.12 two per cent statistical overvoltage U 2 overvoltage having a 2 % probability of being exceeded.2 of IEC 60071-2 and the statistical factor. in practice. K CS .1.3 of IEC 61472.1. 72) 3.) having a 2 % probability of being exceeded 3.u. K s . the actual level of probability is reduced (see 6.1.14 statistical factor K s factor to be applied to the value of the 2 % statistical overvoltage to obtain the 90 % statistical withstand voltage NOTE This is the statistical coordination factor.3.1.2 ∆t kg km k mSF k mFF KS ka nt n SF n SFR n FF Symbols (s) (–) (–) (–) (–) (–) (–) (year –1 ) (year –1 ) (year –1 ) (year –1 ) the mean time duration of temporary overvoltages gap factor mitigating correction factor mitigating correction factor for slow-front surges mitigating correction factor for fast-front surges statistical factor or the ratio of U 90 to U 2 atmospheric correction factor number of temporary overvoltages per year number of slow-front overvoltages due to switching operations per year number of slow-front overvoltages due to reclosing operations per year number of fast-front overvoltages per year © BSI 29 March 2002 9 . of 5.BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 – 17 – 3.3) 3. of 3.1.2. 3. 3.13 per unit two per cent overvoltage u e2 statistical overvoltage phase-to-earth (expressed in per unit or p.1.

03) occupancy at electrical distance fifty per cent disruptive discharge voltage statistical withstand voltage overvoltage having a 2 % probability of being exceeded slow-front overvoltage having a 2 % probability of being exceeded fast-front overvoltage having a 2 % probability of being exceeded slow-front overvoltage having a 2 % probability of being exceeded in p.) highest r. For the purpose of calculation. Because the parameters involved are statistical variables it is necessary to calculate a probability of breakdown of the air gap.m. but they are open to review if better information is available.m.s. For the purpose of calculation. peak value of temporary overvoltages (kV r. • • 10 © BSI 29 March 2002 .u.BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 N RS Ra R aSF R aFF R aT s2 s 2SF s s SF s FF T occ US U 50 U 90 U2 U 2SF U 2FF u 2SF u 2FF UT (–) (–) (year –1 ) (year –1 ) (year –1 ) (year –1 ) (–) (–) (–) (–) (–) (h) (kV) (kV) (kV) (kV) (kV) (–) (–) (kV) – 19 – number of hours in a year – taken to be 8 760 h statistical probability of discharge annual probability of breakdown of air gap annual probability of breakdown of air gap due to a slow-front surge annual probability of breakdown of air gap due to a fast-front surge annual probability of breakdown of air gap due to a transient overvoltage coefficient of variation of the distribution of overvoltages at U 2 coefficient of variation of the distribution of slow-front overvoltages at U 2SF coefficient of variation of the distribution of sparkover voltages as a fraction of U 50 coefficient of variation of the distribution of sparkover voltages for slowfront waves (typically 0. the individual is assumed to be at the electrical distance for 1 h per year. but the method allows for other times to be used.u. this is taken as R a = 10 –7 per annum although higher or lower values may be considered. • In general an individual does not come to the limit of the electrical distance for long periods in any one year. voltage of the system (phase-to-phase) 4 Approach used to derive the electrical distance The following approach and assumptions are considered to be representative of power systems.05) coefficient of variation of the distribution of sparkover voltages for fastfront waves (typically 0. The voltages and overvoltages which are generated by the network have to be resisted by the electrical distance such that the probability of an electrical breakdown of the insulation becomes effectively zero during the occupation time. fast-front overvoltage having a 2 % probability of being exceeded in p.s.

s 2 (i. where U S is the highest system voltage. faults. and the peak voltage. the maximum overvoltage considered here is the 2 % overvoltage. the overvoltage having a 2 % probability of being exceeded. U T. are needed to ensure safety from these overvoltages unless the distance. each of which leads. The causes of overvoltages include the following: short-term voltage changes on the power system. In order to make a calculation of electrical distance. (or u 2 when expressed in per unit) i. D el. © BSI 29 March 2002 11 . In practice. U 2. fast-front overvoltages.u.e. ∆t. the maximum value of the overvoltage. this is not well known for power systems but normally the peak amplitude.2 Temporary overvoltages There is a statistical variability in the occurrence of temporary overvoltages. the standard deviation expressed as a percentage of the mean value). or the values which are exceeded by 2 % of overvoltages. 3 Because of the statistical variability of overvoltages. The annual number of occurrences of temporary overvoltages. their mean time duration. If values are not available. it is unlikely that temporary overvoltages will be the determining parameter for D el on practical transmission or distribution lines. the duration and the number of occurrences per year are known or can be estimated. is sufficiently large for there to be no probability of sparkover. lightning strikes.e. The three types of overvoltage wave shape used in this standard are as follows: – – – temporary overvoltages. switching operations. the 2 value referred to U S . etc.1 Classification of overvoltages The dielectric strength of an air gap depends on the shape of the voltage stress across it. clause 2 of IEC 60071-2 can be used for guidance.e. to a different breakdown voltage for the same air gap. IEC 60071-2 defines the types of overvoltages and their origins. for the three types of overvoltage. both in amplitude and over time. truncated) values (see annex A of IEC 61472). are required from tests or studies.). 5. The maximum value of an overvoltage is normally expressed in per unit (p. U 2 is then given by the general expression: U 2 = u 2U S 2 3 2 3 2 3 (1) U 2SF = u 2SFU S U 2FF = u 2FFU S (2) (3) 5.BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 – 21 – 5 Overvoltages The minimum approach distance for the public is determined by the overvoltages which can occur on the electrical system. that is. in principle. The 2 % values can be derived from the maximum (i. n t. resonance conditions. slow-front overvoltages. In general. U 2 has an associated coefficient of variation.

n SF. A typical value is likely to be 1 to 100 overvoltages per year. The annual frequency of the occurrence of a slow-front overvoltage due to normal switching operations and to delayed auto-reclosure operations after faults. However. will depend upon the operation of the line. The following provides guidance for assessing the magnitude and frequency distribution of fast-front overvoltages. It is thus not possible to apply completely the procedure set out in clause 6. or result in sparkover at a tower because of the statistical variability of the gaps between conductors and the towers' steelwork. back flashover of insulator strings. lightning surges which are below the insulation level of the line are able to propagate until they are dissipated by the generation of corona discharges. This is because the energy in the surge is dissipated by the production of corona discharges. lightning ground-flash density.BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 5. A typical annual fault rate is of the order of 1 to 2 per 100 km of line per year. or induction. s 2SF.4 Fast-front overvoltages The actual probability distribution of fast-front overvoltages occurring on a line is usually not known by utilities or line designers. In the event that delayed auto-reclosure is used (with a dead time of several seconds) the trapped charge on the line will have decayed to some extent and. Lightning surges can arise due to direct lightning strokes to the line. The probability of discharge to earthed parts near the conductor within any span where a direct stroke occurs is not considered here. a suggested value for s 2SF is 20 %. The annual number of reclose operations is denoted by n SFR. etc. Their amplitude decreases and their time to peak increases as the surge travels along the line in each direction away from the stroke. In the vicinity of U 2SF a normal distribution can be fitted with a coefficient of variation. and. If better information is not available. Lightning surges that exceed the insulation level of the line will be largely dissipated to ground at towers adjacent to the lightning stroke. the breaker opening and reclosing will interrupt the passage of current. The annual frequency of the occurrence of a slowfront overvoltage due to reclosing is related to the fault rate of the line which will depend upon parameters such as line construction. The major source of fast-front overvoltages is from lightning and the frequency of occurrence of this (either in the form of ground-flash density or thunderstorm days) is known. the overvoltages are potentially higher. if the decay is to zero.3 Slow-front overvoltages – 23 – Slow-front overvoltages are statistically distributed according to a function which can frequently be approximated by a normal (Gaussian) distribution in the vicinity of the statistical overvoltage. 5. faults (for example due to lightning and pollution flashover) will occur on the line. 12 © BSI 29 March 2002 . (and u 2SF expressed on a per unit basis) which has only a 2 % probability of being exceeded. in these cases. conductor clashing incidents. In addition to normal switching operations when the line is energized. In the event that high-speed reclosure is used. so that any residual fast-front surge will then be relatively small. pollution levels. U 2SF. the overvoltage on re-energization will be essentially that of the line energization.

This class of overvoltages is thus potentially important for determining the value of D el. The rate of induced strikes is related to the lightning activity in the vicinity of the line but. to an object near the line. which result in significant overvoltages on the phase conductors. The number of fast-front overvoltages can be estimated from the lightning activity in the vicinity of the line. as the overvoltage is generally under 200 kV. or are dissipated by corona discharges (the range is likely to be limited to under 10 km by corona discharges).BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 – 25 – In the absence of other information. that which does not result in sparkover at the nearest tower). This class of overvoltage is thus potentially important for determining the value of D el. c) back flashovers – these result in sparkover near to the point of strike but a surge will propagate. The value of K S is chosen to provide a particular level of probability of disruptive discharge of the air gap. these are of little concern for the higher transmission voltages. If an earth wire (ground wire) is installed. This voltage is the U 90 value of the gap between the conductor and the tower for fast-front waves.3). it is recommended that the U 90 value of the conductor-to-tower gap is used as U 2FF of the overvoltage distribution to be withstood by the electrical distance. The rate of occurrence of fast-front waves on the line is thus likely to be related to the fault rate of the line rather than to the number of strikes to the line. and that all surges have this value. 6 Required withstand voltage of the air gap This value is defined statistically and known as the statistical withstand voltage. or are dissipated by corona discharges (the range is likely to be limited to under 10 km by corona discharges). K S. U 2.e. by a statistical safety factor. most strikes to the line will be conducted to earth without generating significant voltages on the phase conductors. © BSI 29 March 2002 13 . b) shielding failures which do not result in sparkover near to the point of strike – these can propagate until sparkover occurs at a nearby tower. it can be estimated from the length of the air gap between the live parts and the earthed (grounded) parts of the tower (see clause A. Such a surge can propagate until sparkover occurs at a nearby tower. The percentage of strikes. it is recommended that the fast-front voltage to be considered is the voltage which can propagate along the line (i. Those strikes that are within a distance of 10 km of the person result in overvoltages which shall be considered in the determination of D el. which is determined by multiplying the 2 % statistical overvoltage. U 90. The following cases shall be distinguished: a) shielding failure which results in sparkover near to the point of strike – this will not lead to overvoltages being propagated along the line. For establishing the electrical distance (clause 7) in the absence of other information. will depend on the construction and design of the line and is likely to be in the range of 5 % to 100 %. to an object near the line. The number of nearby strikes which will result in an induced overvoltage and the number to the line (earthed parts and live parts together) can be estimated from the keraunic level or the lightning ground-flash density. If the value of U 90 is not known.

one can calculate R S from (see 3. U 2. figure 8 of IEC 60071-2). the probability of sparkover is related to the statistical safety factor. f(U).0 1. can then be calculated for each type of overvoltage. In practical terms. Approximate values are given in table 2.2.2.07 1. is that distance where the probability of discharge from each of the three types of electrical stress is an acceptable level for the time of occupancy.1 General – 27 – The electrical distance. the electrical distance is generally determined by lightning overvoltages for systems where U S does not exceed 245 kV. and by switching overvoltages for systems where U S is above 245 kV.2 Probability R S 1 × 10 –2 1 × 10 –3 1 × 10 –4 1 × 10 –5 6. Since U 90 = K S U 2. s 90 (which can be taken to be 5 % or 6 % for slow-front waves and 3 % for fast-front waves). Knowing the probability density function of the overvoltage. generally as described in lEC 60071-2.2. The probability of a disruptive discharge thus depends on the number of standard deviations between U 90 and U 50 of the gap. and the probability function of the discharge voltage. It is recommended that values from overvoltage studies are used.1 Probability of disruptive discharge for slow-front waves The probability of discharge. based on a normal distribution for the gap. when these are available.3. This probability can be calculated using equation (4) and assuming a Weibull distribution for each function. s 2. P(U). and the associated coefficient of variation. approximate values derived from this figure are shown in table 1. and the relevant coefficient of variation. Guidance in the application of equation (4) is provided by IEC 60071-2. U 90. equation (8) of lEC 60071-2): RS = ∫0 f (U )P(U )dU ∞ (4) Under certain assumptions and for slow-front surges.1. 6.2 Probability of disruptive discharge for fast-front waves The distribution of the lightning overvoltages is taken to be such that all have a voltage of U 90 of the gap between the conductor and the tower. D el.1.13 1. 14 © BSI 29 March 2002 .3. The resulting values are given elsewhere (see 3.BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 6. otherwise the values from figure 8 of IEC 60071-2 are used. Table 1 – Slow-front waves: probability of discharge KS 1. Function P(U) can be derived from the statistical withstand voltage. function f(U) can be determined from the 2 % overvoltage. R S.2. K S. D el.

7 × 10 –3 2. these mitigating factors could reduce the probability of disruptive discharge by a factor of more than 3 and in this case k m = 0. is then given by the formula: Ra = nTocc k m RS N (5) The actual probability of sparkover of the electrical distance in a year.3 × 10 –2 5. the appropriate statistical safety factor.05 1. Together. this reduces to T Ra = occ {( nFF RSFF kmFF ) + ( nSF RSSF kmSF ) + ( nSFR RSSFR kmSF )} N (7) © BSI 29 March 2002 15 . the probability is further reduced by the term k m that defines the reduction resulting from mitigating factors.0 in the absence of other information.33. k m can have a value less than unity because – – – about half the slow-front overvoltages are of negative polarity.7 × 10 –2 5.4 Choosing K S To stay below the annual acceptable probability level. The reduction in probability is specific to each overvoltage type and for fast-front and temporary overvoltages it is recommended that k m is set to 1. which in itself has a statistical variation that is not taken into account in this procedure. For n overvoltages.01 1.06 Probability R S 9. associated with R S has to be selected.BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 – 29 – Table 2 – Fast-front waves: probability of discharge KS 1.7 × 10 –2 1. fast-front overvoltages and temporary overvoltages (of duration ∆t). That is: T Ra = occ {(nFF RSFF kmFF ) + ( nSF RSSF kmSF ) + ( nSFR RSSFR kmSF ) + ( nT ∆tRT )} N (6) If the temporary overvoltages are not significant in determining D el as is normally the case. U S. the actual time-to-peak of slow-front overvoltages will usually be less stressful than the so-called critical time-to-peak on which the gap discharge formula is based.02 1. 6.1. U 2 is calculated on the basis of the highest voltage of the system.4 × 10 –3 9.04 1. For slow-front waves.3 × 10 –2 2.1. is the sum of contributions from slow-front overvoltages.03 1.0 1. R a. K S. the overall annual probability. R a. which is less severe for geometries relevant to the determination of D el.3 × 10 –4 6.3 Mitigating factors In reality.

BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 – 31 – The procedure to derive the electrical distance.3 s SFR ) slow-front: (15) slow-front reclosing: U 50SFR = (16) 16 © BSI 29 March 2002 . in general. will then be the greater of these distances.3 s) (13) (12) U 50 = (14) Hence the 50 % statistical withstand voltages can be determined for each overvoltage by the following formulae: U 50SF = K SSFU 2SF (1 − 1.3 s SF ) K SSFRU 2SFR (1 − 1. to give the desired probability of withstand of the gap (R SFF. for fast-front overvoltages. R SFF.2 Calculation of the required withstand voltage (8) (9) (10) (11) From the voltage U 2. D el.3 s) K SU 2 (1 − 1. D el should be increased accordingly. R S will be of order 10 –3 for R a of 10 –7 ). The overall electrical distance. NOTE It is prudent to confirm that the overall risk is not then greater than the specified value for R a (for example. R SSFR) U 90 = K SU 2 The (50 %) statistical withstand voltage. If this practical point of view is followed. recognizes that R S is a function of the length of the gap and is selected to be a small value (for example. R SSFR and R t are derived from the following equations: T Ra = occ ( nFF RSFF kmFF ) N T Ra = occ ( nSF RSSF kmSF ) N T Ra = occ ( nSFR RSSFR kmSF ) N T Ra = occ ( nT ∆tRT ) N 6. R SSF. D el. reclosing overvoltages and temporary overvoltages. From a practical point of view. the statistical safety factor. D el. U 50. it is best to calculate the electrical distance. in clause 7. the 90 % withstand voltage of the air gap can be determined by multiplying by the appropriate value of K S. is then determined from: U 50 = U 90 (1 − 1. 10 –7 ) and if this is the case. switching overvoltages. R SSF.

6). and allows for the influence of the electrode geometry. The effect of these factors has been determined in impulse tests conducted by many laboratories over many decades. the 50 % disruptive withstand voltage. the gap is nearer to a rod-conductor gap (for which the gap factor is typically 1.BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 – 33 – fast-front: U 50FF = K SFFU 2FF (1 − 1. depending on voltage shape (usually given in terms of the discharge voltage. 7 Calculation of the distance associated with the overvoltages Once the required U 50 of the gap has been calculated. The gap factor for the slow-front overvoltage can be used to determine the effective gap factor for the a. in each case.2 can be used for calculating the electrical distance for many configurations. s. 101 kPa. a gap factor of 1.1 to 1. The relationship between D and U 50 is given in clause A. c) the atmospheric conditions: air density and humidity (air density is markedly affected by altitude above sea-level and by temperature). U 50. b) the separation and shape of the electrodes forming the air gap. other than at 20 °C.c. s SF. the slow-front gap factor.15 but for many practical objects under a line. and often also its statistical conventional deviation. and fastfront overvoltages (see annex A). © BSI 29 March 2002 17 . s SFR and s FF are the applicable coefficients of variation. A general expression for U 50 of an air gap of length d is : U 50 = k g k a f ( d ) where (18) f(d) is an expression for the variation of U 50 with distance d. have normally been determined for a certain air-gap length. k a is an atmospheric correction factor to allow for non-standard atmospheric conditions (i. but it should be borne in mind that higher and lower values can occur. k g is the gap factor and can be expressed in terms of k gSF. In many cases where there is an absence of other information. of a rod-plane reference gap). The slow-front gap factor for a conductor over a plane is 1. and summarized in annex A of this standard.e. In these tests. It is recommended that the gap factor appropriate to the configuration for which the electrical distance is required be used.3 sFF ) (17) where K SSF. The U 50 voltage that an air gap of a given length can sustain without discharge depends on three main factors: a) the waveshape of the applied voltage. The example in annex B demonstrates the derivation of D el. the length of the air gap can be determined.011 kg⋅m –3 ). 325 kPa and a moisture content of 0. K SSFR and K SFF are the statistical safety factors. U 50RP. The response of air insulation to the three types of overvoltages is described in annex G of IEC 60071-2.5.

d is in metres and U in kilovolts. A.0 see note 1 (A.3 Fast-front overvoltages Positive polarity: f(d): gap factor: U 50RP = 530 d k gFF = 0.1) (A. and an atmospheric correction factor.4 times higher than positive polarity for gaps from 2 m to 14 m. k gA is generally lower than for slow-front overvoltage. up to 8 % for negative (CIGRE Guide No 72). a fast-front coefficient of variation.8 to 2.4) (A. The negative polarity strength is 1.4) is valid for gaps up to 8 m.2 ) 2 k gA = 1.35 k gSF see note 1 see note 2 (A.1 of IEC 60071-2. NOTE 1 Equation (A.5) s FF is the coefficient of variation for fast-front waves (= 0. k gSF is the slow-front gap factor. 18 © BSI 29 March 2002 . the discharge occurs either along the insulator string or across the air gap to the tower.05) NOTE 1 U is in kilovolts and d in metres.74 + 0. d A. NOTE 2 For gaps less than 2 m.55 d 1.3) gap factor: see note 2 see note 3 s SF is the coefficient of variation for slow-front waves (= 0. s A = 0.26 k gSF (A. and can therefore generally be ignored.04.3 sFF ) k a (A. For gaps greater than 2 m. and is quite close to unity for gaps up to about 1 m.26 k gSF ) (1 − 1. the peak value is about 20 % to 30 % higher than the corresponding value for slow-front overvoltage. The following derivation is of the U 90 of the conductor-to-tower gap (which is taken to have a distance of D LT in metres).03 to 0. s FF. Five per cent for positive impulses. NOTE 2 NOTE 3 See table G.74 + 0.s.1 f(d): gap factor: Temporary overvoltages U 50RP = 750 ln (1 + 0. Equation (A.35 k gSF − 0.03).46 d + 1) k gSF = 1. critical-front waves and gaps in the range of 1 m to 24 m.6) NOTE 2 The distance D LT to be considered is that between the conductor and the structure which discharges when fast-front impulses are applied to the conductor. k a.3) is valid for positive polarity. U 90FF = 530 DLT (0.2) the coefficient of variation for temporary overvoltages. and d in metres. an associated slow-front gap factor of k gSF.BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 – 35 – Annex A (informative) Relationship between U50 and the gap length. A.2 f(d): Slow-front overvoltages U 50RP = 1 080 ln (0.m. NOTE 1 U is in kilovolts r.0 to 2.

k a = 1 U 90FF = 1 574 kV (A. to give the following expressions for the electrical distance: a) for temporary overvoltages 2 1.26 k gSF ) k a (A.4 s FF = 0.12) c) for fast-front overvoltages (positive polarity) U 50F = 530 {0.35 k gSF ) k a ln (1 + 0.833 x 2 x = 750 k a (1.03 and an atmospheric correction factor.74 + 0. using the atmospheric pressure and temperature at the point of interest.4 Atmospheric correction factor.55 Del ) (A.13) hence: (A.2.8) hence: U Del = 1.7) A. the temperature. k gSF = 1.17 {exp ( ) − 1} (A. each of which has variability over time.35 k gSF ) (A.46 DSF + 1) U 50 1 080 k gSF k a (A. The value of this correction factor can be derived from IEC 60060-1. which has a value that depends mainly on altitude above sea level.74 + 0. k a.5 Calculating the electrical distance The equations given in the previous subclauses can be converted in terms of distance and combined with the values of U 50 for each overvoltage determined in 6. A.BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 – 37 – For example. k a For each type of overvoltage. affect the dielectric strength of an air gap. or by referring to IEC 61472. This can be taken into account by the atmospheric correction factor.26 k gSF } k a DF DF = U 50F 530 (0.9) where: (A.8 m.35 k gSF − 0.2 U 50 A = 750 (1.14) © BSI 29 March 2002 19 .11) hence: DSF = 2. D LT = 2. pressure and absolute humidity.10) b) for slow-front overvoltages (positive polarity) U 50SF = 1 080 k gSF k a ln (0.35 k gSF − 0.65 [exp( 50 ) − 1] 0.

8 p. NOTE The value to be used depends upon the configuration of the object and the line. and the duration is not known with certainty.2 for this calculation. 20 © BSI 29 March 2002 . The slow-front gap factor is taken to be 1. Further information is given in CIGRE Guide 72 and IEC 60071-2.5 p.e. 1 × 20 fast-front overvoltage per year of 100 relevance for calculating individual probability of sparkover and of amplitude U 90 of the gap between conductor and tower). k a = 1. (i. 3 kV) and one reclosing operation per year (n SFR = 1) with u 2 = 2.0 for lightning overvoltages and temporary overvoltages.1 for a gap between a line and the top of a flat object such as the line to the top of a vehicle. (i. It is presumed that there are 20 switching operations per year (n SF = 20) with u 2 = 2. A gap factor of 1. The temporary overvoltages can be up to 1. the reference altitude is 0 m. 5 × 420 × 2 3 = 857 .e. and 1.75 m.2 kV) One fast-front overvoltage per year per 100 km (i.u. 2 . The gap between conductor and tower is 2.e.4 is taken to be typical of the gap between a line and the outstretched hand of an individual. i. T occ = 1 h k g is the slow-front gap factor.4 and to be 1. 2.5 p. but 1.BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 – 39 – Annex B (informative) Example of the calculation of the electrical component The example is for a line with a highest system operating voltage of 420 kV. k m = 0. the ambient temperature is 20 °C and moisture content 11 g⋅m –3 .u.8 × 420 × 2 3 = 960.e.4 for switching and reclosing waveforms.u.

has to be less than 10 –7 and so the probability of sparkover of the gap.2 U 90 = k SU 2 = 1.BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 – 41 – B. the annual probability.1 Determination of Del for switching operations From clause 6.4) × k a × 2.2) (B. The altitude correction factor. R aSF.13 from figure 8 of IEC 60071-2 From 6.3 × 0. R a.5) (B. has to be less than 10 –7 and so the probability of sparkover of the gap. U 50FF.2 = 998 kV U 50 = U 90 = 1 068 kV (1 − 1. is calculated from its dimension (2.2) B. R S.2 Determination of Del for reclosing operations From clause 6.1) RS ( Del ) = 1.8) (B.80 m for k g = 1.04 from figure 8 of IEC 60071-2 From 6.4 (and D el = 2.2) B. can be calculated: Ra RS = RS ( Del ) = n T k ( SFR occ m ) N RS ( Del ) = 2.14 m for k g = 1.24 m for k g = 1.13 × 857 = 968 kV U 50 = U 90 = 1 036 kV (1 − 1.75 m) and the assumed gap factor of the insulator string (1. k a (which equals 1 in this example) is included to show that in general it cancels out.66 m for k g = 1. can be calculated: RS = RS ( Del ) = ( Ra nTocc km ) N (B.75 = 1 609 × k a and next U 90FF is derived: U 90FF = U 50FF (1 − 1.095 × 10 −4 K S = 1.7) © BSI 29 March 2002 21 .19 × 10 −3 K S = 1. the annual probability.4 (and D el = 2.26 × 1.4 for slow-front waves).05 ) (B.4) and (B.6) hence D el = 2. R S.05 ) (B.3 × 0.03 ) = 1 546 k a (B.04 × 960.2 and U 90 = k S × U 2 = 1.3) hence D el = 2. U 50FF = 530 × (0.74 + 0.3 Lightning The fast-front U 50 of the insulator string.3 × 0.

70 m 3.4 and D el = 1.4 Temporary overvoltages The U 50 of the gap is taken to be four standard deviations above the peak value of the maximum amplitude of the temporary overvoltage (1. 1. it is not necessary so D el = 3.24 m D el for k g =1.1.56 m for k g = 1.01 m B.2 Table B.87 m for a gap factor of 1.2.26 k gSF ) (B. increase the 3.u.9) D el = 1.70 m for k g = 1. for k g = 1.4 × 10 −3 0.u.87 m 2.2 1.4.2.03 ) and (from clause A.04 × 4) × 343 × 1.04. D el = 2.87 m for k g = 1. i.80 m The D el will be the greatest of the components for each wave type.5 p. 22 © BSI 29 March 2002 .2 and D el = 2.1 – Summary of the results Wave type Temporary overvoltage Lightning overvoltage Switching overvoltage Reclosing overvoltage Value p.9) K S = 1.3) DelFF = U 50 530 (0.4 1.5 U 90 of line / tower gap U 2 = 2.2.u.2 U 90 of gap to object = 1 546 K S k a = 1 608 k a U 50 = U 90 (1 − 1.5 p. U 2 = 2.01 m 2.04 from 6.2 ) ( 8 760 RS ( Del ) = (B.4.01 m so that the probability is below the acceptable value.01 m for k g =1. In this case. D el = 3.01 m for a gap factor of 1. D el for the lightning overvoltage is close to D el for the reclose overvoltage. if necessary. Because.74 + 0. it is necessary to check that the overall probability of sparkover does not exceed 10 –7 and.8 p.14 m 2.10) for k g = 1. D el for k g =1. in this example) and the coefficient of variation s A is taken to be 0.3 × 0.66 m 2.5 = 597 kV Solving D el in the equation (A.e.BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 – 43 – The probability of sparkover of the gap is given by: 10 −7 = 4.87 m for k g =1.u. So U 50 = (1 + 0. 2.4 and 3.56 m 2.

1992. prepared by CIGRE SC 33/WG 07 ––––––––––––––– © BSI 29 March 2002 23 . 72. Guidelines for the evaluation of the dielectric strength of external insulation .BS IEC 61865:2001 61865 © IEC:2001 – 45 – Bibliography CIGRE No.

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