You are on page 1of 3

1

INTRODUCTION TO RADIOLOGY
I. DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY - Small intestinal series (SIS)
X -rays are useful: o To evaluate the small
• In diagnosis of diseases bowel segments
involving bones, lungs, gut, - BARIUM ENEMA (BE)
kidneys & gall bladder o To evaluate the colonic
• In CT- scan , Mammography segments
- IVP
• In detecting the congenital,
o Intravenous contrast for
inflammatory, traumatic,
degenerative & neoplastic functional & structural
disease assessment of kidneys.
PLAIN STUDY - Hysterosalpingogram studies
o To evaluate uterus &
• Certain diseases need only plain
tubes of infertile women
X-rays for diagnosis e.g. in bone, - Angiogram study
lungs, intestines, kidneys & gall o To evaluate the lumen of
bladder stones.
blood vessels
RADIO-OPAQUE/DENSE
II. ULTRASOUND
• Infiltrate / inflammatory process Advantages
• Mass / tumor
• No radiation risk.
• Fluid
• Non-invasive.
• Lithiasis
• Inexpensive
• Foreign body e.g. coin
• Painless.
RADIOLUCENT • Don't require contrast material
• Pneumoperitoneum • Sedation is not required.
• Pneumothorax
• Pneumomediastinum SOLID NODULE VS CYST
• Pneumopericardium SOLID NODULE
• tumor • Well defined
• Ovoid shape
Fluoroscopy Contrast examination • With uniform internal echoes
Contrast (barium / iodine ) CYST
• Contrast is given orally / IV • Well defined
/other routes depending upon • Round or oval shape
region ( part ) under
• Anechoic
investigation.
- Upper gastrointestinal series • Enhance through transmission
(UGIS)
o To evaluate the Limitations of the UTZ
esophagus, stomach, • Large body habitus, obese
duodenal bulb and the patients limit image quaility as
prox small bowel the overlying adipose tissue.
segments • Have trouble penetrating bone
2

• Performs very poorly when there


is a gas
• It is operator-dependent. IV. CT Scan
• There is no scout image as there • technique that uses X-rays to
is with CT and MR. Once an take many multiple "cross-
image is acquired there is no section" images of the body,
exact way to tell which part of which are then assembled into a
the body was imaged. three-dimensional image by a
computer. It is painless non
III. MAMMOGRAPHY -invasive radiological
• plays a central role in early investigation.
detection of breast cancer Uses of CT Scan
because it can show cancer signs • Detection, measurement,
in the breast even years before a localization, extent of lesions and
patient or physician would be its relationship to other organs
able feel a breast cancer lump. • Characterization of borders,
• Screening mammography can composition and content
assist in the detection of disease • Used for staging tumor
even if a woman has no • Locating internal bleeding and
complaints or symptoms organ damage in trauma patients
BENEFITS
• Detecting and staging tumors of
• Use for early detection of breast
various body parts
cancers
• Detecting sources of infection
• Ability to detect small tumors /
and deep abscesses.
non-palpable nodules and
microcalcifications, first • Detecting urinary stone disease
indication of breast cancer without x-ray dye
LIMITATIONS • Performing non-invasive blood
• the appearance of an image may vessel imaging (CT angiography
be compromised if there is DISADVANTAGES
powder on the breasts or • Requires placement of an
undergone breast surgery. intravenous line for IV contrast.
• need to compare the image to • Exposes patient to radiation.
views from previous • Contrast toxicity or allergy
examinations • Most young children require
• declines significantly with sedation to undergo a CAT scan.
increasing breast density with Attenuation value
dense breasts. Hyperdense
• Breast implants can also impede • + 1000 calcium -------
accurate mammogram readings • >250 compact bone
• 30-230 spongy bone
• 70-90 bld coagulated
• 50-60 whole bld
3

• Even very slight movement of


the part being scanned can cause
very distorted images that will
Isodense have to be repeated.
• 20-70 soft tissue
• > 18 Exudate-
• < 18 Transudate
Hypodense
• 0 Water
• -50 to -75 Fat
• -1000 Air

V. MRI
- technique that uses a magnetic
field and radio waves to take
multiple 'cross-section' images of
the body, which are then
assembled into a three-
dimensional image by a
computer
• Uses radiofrequency waves
• no ionization radiation is used
• gives multiplanar display ( axial,
coronal, sagittal and transverse)

What are advantages of MRI Scan


over CT Scan
• No radiation.
• No bony or air artifact.
• Multi-section imaging.
• High intrinsic contrast.
• Specificity & extension of
disease is more accurate.
• Few diseases can diagnosis early.
Limitations
• Can not be used by people with
pacemakers or other metallic
implants.
• More expensive than the price
for CT.
• Not very useful for bones