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Revival Zion. An Afro-Christian Religion in Jamaica Author(s): Emanuela Guano Reviewed work(s): Source: Anthropos, Bd. 89, H. 4./6. (1994), pp.

517-528 Published by: Anthropos Institute Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40463021 . Accessed: 30/08/2012 19:29
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" use Kikongo poses (Bilbyand Bunseki1983: 65-93). syncretism] thought religion society. a secretive Zionseems be to Revival of as intheurban ghettoes Kingston. thewater goddessof Haitianvodou(Desof also addresses question the Revival Zion. Catherine Kumina was parishes. opposing andSt. disease. The rituals Afro-American withother ber of traits religions of the liketheuse of ceremonial drums. among religions on the is going with Christhat seems a syncretism from on classified a continuum a more "European" occaKumina Revival tianRevivalZion. mangles and Jamaican in theroleof Revivalism contemporary society as Kumina.and// thesecond Africa Kikongo) (mainly during Politico.Revival it to biblical theonlyexception the doctrine.. inSpanish ever. Lares.most (Patterson anthropologists inJamaica believe this that religion originated EmanuelaGuano. Thomas conditions. practiced living mainly of butalso a wayofresisting at times."FromBaptism.A. Kumina halfof the19th pracPresently.seems. although for in of (Ryman of view.that suchdistinction basisofSimpson Lewis 1991:85).1994:517-528 Anthropos Zion Revival in AnAfro-Christian Religion Jamaica Emanuela Guano of Abstract. not Afro-Jamaican religions. century. [Jamaica. andwith orisha (Warner religion .this paper religion 1992: 143). (1993. onthe deityworshipped exists. define for still language ritual purpeople. theethnographic in of to meant contribute thestudy Revivalism to of the are the In fact. gions. as themselves the"African who titioners. to of notonlya form accommodationharsh in therural areasof St.thedefinition "African" thiscon. although it Afro-Jamaican Christianized havebeenconventionally AfroJamaican religions. Meantas an ethnography theAfro-Christian Ezili. 1 Alsocalledsimply Revival Moore Revival: although reports in theTrinidadian ZionandRevival separate also it theriverine as religions. Thismight ro-Creole beliefs ofreligious religion (Raboteau to the Zionderived African also the approach account for lackofa truly mainly literal panthe. nowa1969:201). on the like spirit the possession. point cosmology. Afro-Caribbean at to have developed thetimeof slavery and nativistic movements.and spirit Afropossession. at themselves Revivalservices. is in material African withtheir paper sharemanytraits presented this equivalents.or a thanksgiving thespirits (Jamaican Saying. which addedAfro-Creole Jamaican on in Afroreligions. published Abstracta. 1978:4). tookplace in theNew Worldand contemporary that processes Afand a Jamaican of ofthesystems of a syncretism Baptism the altered alchemy that completely called"Myal. convenient a taxonomic and." waterspirit elements 1929: lOlf. former clearly result cultural RevivalZion is theresult Jamaica.1 regarded on Kumina(Moore 1953: If. do suchas Kumina.). LouisianaStateUniversity) days laborers from of the multicultural in is currently ethnicity Caribbean onlyafter arrival indentured investigating Pensiero Central in She societies. Introduction: a an animal(usually goat). Kumina bottom ondawater knock "Wen drum occasionslike a are ceremonies heldon specific muscomea tap" de sound to a Watson 1991: 193) death. actively and.Patterson ofRevivalZion (Beckwith with 1969: 205) thatbearsresemblances Oshun."the sionally Zion. M. perceived the"Afconventionally as rural areas Jamaica well of in culture.89. manifest to as themost "Christianized. that Based on a fieldwork tookplace in 1992. Whereas is "African" that from to a markedly spirits end. Jamaican Variety Religious is as Kumina defined theleast However. no 1956:342. emphasis beingthe"Fish" or "Mermaid.Christian leastChristian angelsare taking a role in Kumina are "tables" laid from Town. sacrifice 1. sharea num(Simpson1980: 166). Although reliand cultural socialoppression. is text notconvincing.in a Revivalfashion Kuminarituals Eventheleast"European" 1984: 123). How. Widely practiced many is cult rican"end of the continuum.

At that Revival Zionpreachers denounce still although wickedness "Poco" practices. plantation bersoftheAnglican oftheScottish or had ole practices. also Revivalists ficesto thespirits.an Act of Assembly as wouldeverdefine Myal community had and thiswouldbe a confession necromancy of rituals(137). But obeah was (and stillis) notso are occasions for among particular and of as or the heldto thank spirits to urgetheir help.a Great Revivaltookplace religious practices in thisgap by flourishing the in Jamaica. ceremonial by ing manipulated obeah-men evil purposes re. between vices.churches areas to it Coming greeted as a return a pureform 89."Revivalists worshippers obeahbacktotheTwi the traces term Patterson basis(aboutthree churches a regular on tend their witches" within also but times week). Myal (the powders. offerings sacri. theHolyGhost. other was a of is network so origin the wordis unknown). and intotheRevivalZion community."as But. no definition.tralAfrica from Slave Coast. whilethe shadowwas at riskof bethe ritual. the of as another used to report against White verysim.in 1754." Pocomania from the of from Span. In to go underground the 1840s. they blacks The latter believed origin is and Jesus. Also. In theircomplementarity.sometimes by drumming backto Ginen.of counteracting evil activities obeah-mcn occasionally spirits both Kuminaand Revival (Alleyne1988).bothobeah and Myal of Jamaican all studies AfroUntil recently. of to return Africa(muchlike the gwo-bon-anj withthe Kuminabeat. Igbo. from different ofWestandCen. they havespecialfunctions obeye.whenMyalangels(Simpson of Pukumina fact.The contact are Myal and obeah werebased on the beliefthat Revivalists Zion worksbothways: although character Kumina humanbeingshave two souls: a duppyand a of awareof thenon-Christian to was the in them thedue fashion welcome death. Wolof. Virtually from Christian any Baptist can and African-derived filled In theearly1860s.insurgents thearmsof thewhites" thecontempt itsprobable (Patterorigin slaves Jamaican ish poco and mania:"a little madness" (Alleyne son 1969: 192).by distributing in has to it: Pocomania.1994 Anthropos .in 1781.Missionaries orthodox of Christian among slaves. Baptism diverged that from official the doctrine among free Afri. processof ChristianizationJamaican Blacks had already begun. worship God of theBible. ButtheAfroJamaican instead. religious to established (Stewart Christianity only as an "out-group" banned itself "Poco. and the Afro-Creole of religion until thecultof fallen 1980: 165).whichmeans"theentity a which "tables" (1969: 186). Christianity spreadamongtheBlack of slaves and ex-slaves). and the Bightof Biafra.518 Guano Emanuela the and and and drumming dancing. or little no interest all in fostering at soon developed intoa native of missionary Baptists variety activities their slaves(Patterson of 1969:207). GeorgeLiele and the masses is the Black Baptist that late.ous rebellions their the to whichweresupposed immunize stillbears "fetishes as placedby "Pukumina. set of healing be as knit practices. former thought by shadow. only relatively that atthebeginning other preachers camefrom of the 18thcentury.interest Jamaican of withCreBlacks.served a form resistance religion ligions the whileobeah-men "double" masters: a ilarto RevivalZion. Myal provided that worldview was an alternative with religious a Pukumina existsvirtually 1988: 169). Dyula. tightly that. influence.or muchwitchcraft a form sorcery necroof based on theritual new brethrenmancy meantto introduce river manipulation ointbaptisms substances.Senegambia. of the of time. regard and Bantu of Fula. seemingly presently ists (all of whomweremembers missionary disappeared. in own Revivalby publicly no suchcommunityknown theKingston started their is area. at. might expected. Nowadays 1990: 137).Yoruba. religious a means and a Kumina religion.(Stewart 1990: 119). churches) the performing ecstatic their dances(139f.temofbeliefs whosesoulis "clean.Mingling masters. ments. vodoutravels with rumas prescribed Haitian the Desmangles by spraying possessed and by soakingspecial leaves in the 1992: 70). (Alleyne1988: 28-61) -. This spelling now beenre. FromMyal to RevivalZion: their activity Jamaica. Jamaican into of a itself seizingthe sensesof those blended number traditions a Creolesysto manifest by into articulated Myalandobeah. for water. of the at manifest RevivalZion ser.).theJamaican Mission(1990:128). seemsin factthatBritish UnitedStatesafter It the 1784 immediately gained almost ofwhom all were mem. proselytizing A Historical werenotparticularly successful Outline Moravians (and in theAnglicans showedlittle interest the souls In Jamaica. but themselves SierraLeone.the missionaries started had first Christian (Moravian) in Whilethe 2.almost negative supported numerown way.After they spirits.In fact. nonconformist the of doctrine these Church. the as Christians.

against its was establishment toreach peakbetween ranks White (Kerr1952: 118).A number of into a form millenialism mingled andthemiddle developed such as American of of churches North antiwith strong White a 1974). Religion an important culwith Afro-Creole the (Stewart religion Christian churches many of de1968: 170f.ly mobile)individuals. is in their to for to his 1974: 165). Revivalpastor (118).. protest.In Bedward's 118). case ofan urgent its has mitigated antiYet. turbans. Great 3. Curtin movement nominations scattered are theisland.when (or composed upper-class upwardBap. On twooccasions. butalso spirit belonging some possession.uncommon Jamaican FromBaptism.with Bedwardite mainly the Whiteand the by Church Town. In general. of colonizers the example thechurch theformer resistance vivalZionsocialandcultural -. to recognizable their by in the churches. Religion But. thereligion for ofthelatter.Revival biblical questions stranger to is: of the of on a form opposition against Christianity be askedin Jamaica "Whatis yourchurch?" in is social condemnationMembership a church an important evena moral theWhites at times a Jamaican as it inthat.1994 Anthropos .). Blackson the"White Pentecostalism.also enjoys high the on Centered a prophet.andthe that declared he. rush like its features the missionagainstobeah and Revivalists. emphasis of is atheism is and and ondrumming dancing.low class religions. origin. of dreams many experts theuse ofherbal for and baths concoctions healing purposes. morning. that inobeahandscience. upper light-skinned classes.wouldascendto the sky. Kingston.are usually Bay The for But to their offered support theinsurgents. that of as are regarded features of doctrine a new societyBlacks were to turn spiritual inspiration to RevivalZion belongs this the misfor. Bedward that in to turn a Revival of as stillregarded one of the prophets the need. The outcome tureand society. ofhislifein an asylum. as theyare regarded "mad" and was on his followers thetaboo-breaking imposed are Revivalists feared in naked theHoperiver of habit bathing (Williams "wild. and the statusof to is the vivalism derived (Austin1984: approach the nonbeliever not acknowledged mainly literal a is Zion carried 103). to theextent andmagical and strong of millenialism the has abandoned doctrine powers.and Seventh-Day 1952: thewealthy a his wouldrescue peoplefrom cataclysm creasingly he that (Kerr among popular on and emotionalism emphasis the was aboutto strike island. threatening 89.. in arealso balmhealers. among practices as 1984: 114). now becoming returned Messiah. spiritual in evenorthodox White Christians. to (Kerr 1952: 118). to to the 1971:33). to are Revivalists thought possess In RevivalZion origin. the Jehovah's Bedward Witnesses. fact. After secondfailure ascend knowledge and Afro-Creole European of therest sorcery respectively to was Bedward condemned spend thesky.in Zion:An Afro-Christian Revival Religion Jamaica 519 the and Social Status of Christianity.Seaga 1969:4). of tunes Jamaican although alongwith than more the latter that Bedward 1974:158f. Sincethen. the andas suchhe haunts visions pastors many movement. hatred (Wedenoja as to are also establishment led himto openly vivalists likely be condemned "Poco" by oftheWhite of Bedward members denominational the and (Austin its congregations reject values. In Revivalwas thereligious ofthisGreat throughout each Sunday streams wellof as still known RevivalZion. prestige theformer enjoysa little preached (Williams and 1978: 148). to at FromMyal. Bedwardite appealto thelight-skinned class(Hogg 1964: 131). of theinstitution slavery (Stewart in churches is attendance orthodox CreoleChris. 1990: 133). inare Adventists. example."At thesame time.church feltalmostas a necessity: Re. practiced by of Genetellsmuchaboutthestatus theperson. moral code(Chevannes worship spirit their andthestrict necromancy. Revivalists. Revivalsoon turned Christianity Myal. thesecongregations evident becameparticularly during tianity of native of bellion Morant in 1865. didnotprevent marker.mingling is element Jamaican of 1990:145f.regarded prestigious. One of thefirst Like doctrine. BothPentecostals ReHis had Whites tobe wipedoutofJamaica. Anglican tists Church.The Catholic August Methsocialstatus a Al. society highin Jamaican of Movement and it is attended the 1880and1920. In anycase. Blaming the rascals" category. to their distress.Kumina usually classesas less directly better-off eredbyKingston Kuminarituals and/or embarrassing. is pastor temporarily might Revival for and search help.while soon odistshave a certain movement the exander Bedward.RevivalZion developed manyof groomed peopleflock their temples. night. (Williams protest of theChurch God. theoffering sac.In addition. considis Revival Unlike Zion. Whiteand reignsupreme. Myal. rifices thespirits. and as there. Re.rally of element Jamaican The protest speaking.going church.

say banenvironmentKingston. These signs performed folklore by Kumina nowachieved status an element arewarnings thespirit has the of that to thepeople. layingof hands. worldin which of the "carnalminded" manycongregations. does notimply.upper-class leisure and around island. a church needsfunds.anda number other congregationsare invited participate. sometimes In reject contact RevivalZion. Most RevivalZion churches. appreciated charm human of bonesto thechurch. and can thespiritual of power Through vivalZionappealtothelower and en. ignored. Revival congregations scattered are aroundthe unemployment a high As a matter fact. community shapedintoa fairly the is is Pentecostalism seen as less tradition harmonious network relationships. Catherine farfrom ur. of whileonlyone church suras vendors domestic or area. of the of outskirt thecity. fund to The raising In 1956. ever. like glossolalia." thedowntown orthetownships churches organize of WestKingston. in leaders soliimpact thecommunity Although promote thechurch turns obeah and secretly to carries darity a highly a as itoccasionalvirtue. it a are for Specialservices heldin thischurch a few 4. or she ly happens therelationships he that members among willcertainly attacked a fellow be In many of by cases. abortion Another on An of aspectof the investment Revival 89.1994 Anthropos ." fails.the Holy Ghostand above all the mediation of classes.and playsan important also inother aspects the thefrequent of Pentecostal use choirs. of Whenever speaking.a spiritual together to turn Pentecostalismwith rebukes thepastor. in oriented: fact. Revivalchurches found are ex.theabsenceof antagonism among and of The responsibilities the involvement Revival congregations. rivalries. the seekstorestore the of values.work. turn (mainly Thom. this hances competition the the between two.In thiscase. of mostRevivalists earntheir outskirts thecity. from spirit has a visible the that The situation not necessarily is better juresa reaction within on If itself. communities living street helpers. Revivalcongregations Kingston. rivalry the be. envies. addition. short "rough.520 Emanuela Guano takeplace in thecountryside as St.The situation onlyslightly No recent of is censusexistsaboutthenumber of in better Central like RevivalZion churches Kingston.If gives ofJamaican it remain that heritage. of In Kumina fasting "drawing sword.offer in instruction practical skillsrelated the to in defined as housework. also by but Kingston seemsnot to have changed in the last decades. are form tight a this hownetwork. addition. theyclaim bers (amongwhomilliteracy notuncommon) as is Pentecostals to howtoreadandwrite." is a whichmeansthat dancesare often at festivals: it is condemned theHolyGhost.onlytheefforts the worshipperdegenerate.manyRevivalists 1978: 153).each evil deed or intention con. the trips Jamaicans not in Each church partof theRevivalZion netis prefer to venture theseareas. Revival Zioncommunities is a moral live universe Reciprocal of obeahand"Poco" charges working where each sin. can members thecommunity alter theharmony thecongregation. many vivesin thedowntown Revival ofthem unemployed.arealso notuncommon. Nonethe. aboveall at night thetimewhenRevivalfunc. number in a of Kingston. somebody each community.Generally thepastor. clusively neighborhoods commonly Many like area also like socialactivities. Simpsonsketched image of West activity this an in case is basednotonlyon theofferthat much ingspaid by theguestcongregations. classesto teach their less. is believed something they As above mentioned. are with Whenever example.Revivalists that the the parishes).In addition. Mostmiddle. (Wedenoja tweenPentecostalism Revivalism led to and has that Besides the spiritual moralguidance and theabsorption Pentecostal of the elements Revival the pastorgives to the community. Pastorsand TheirCommunities in of nights a row.upon embracing moremodern thissolidarity "sword. cooking sewing like or clothes. Misbehavior pastor or and the"swords" thespirit restore of possessedby an enragedspirit.can make the holywaterof the fasting as and St. organizes convention. any they In Kingston.lifeof Revivalists. although problems and crime remain rate acute. Given socialandeconomic this the different background. Indigence and a verylow thesale of smallpamphlets "rosettes" and (bows standard lifestillaffect population this ofribbons).lostbalance. incontact eachother. lament arrogant the of memattitude forexample.worse happen.and gossip and leadersin their communities far that are arise on pastors inevitably areblamed theprevalence from The in beingonlyritualistic.redas blood. All in for tions takeplace. church by the role of (153). of can in envyamong thecolorof thebottles thealtar. Pentecostalism Re. Revivalists organize Pentecostal in churches Kingston.

as rigorously Bible is read. longago. The other source spiritual of important knowledge that Thisinvolves considerable is itself. A specialclass of Revival(butformer 5. the and religious three a times week. if and The and of magicalknowledge." a pastortold me once. Revivalists also expected are to attend conventions other and specialservices likebaptisms.forexample. that "wheeling pastors" a Revivalworshippers for of All categories Revivalspirits.ingsfrom spirits is Everythingin the is supthat of the tianmoralconduct.Moore1953: 80). a fancy or dressand a smallhat. need. preached. of functionaries Revivalhiof theBible is the sourceof salvation. peculiar a "butyoucan also destroy person powers aretransmitted functionis sendsyou a messagewitha special aries.eventhepastors expect spirits The prophets. The Man.6. These spirits both to destruc. viin manifest themselves dreams. and In sum.and whenyoureadit.you in thebush. at home Somebody herbsforhealand can manipulate the versefrom Bible. it is also a dangerous. wearing are supposed be described theBible.they in Revivalists it not church. Each time. example. This who spinduring costumes. spirits theHunter theBell Ringer as in and support case of economic wereregarded "Poco. The Holy Ghost. notonly colorful in meansthat. problems be solvedthrough helpof faith churches: FishorRiver of is theDove. case of need. It these in biblical origin. The Spirit are to wear appropriate clothes: "uniform" a quired and a turban. The origin thesespirits unknown. they beings take activities. Bible is erarchies. hardly ever ordinary power. and others all of them.theBugler. etc.theAmbush code and their moral Their (sic) is. spirit the The is expenses given the in Revivalism thespirit of low. 89.andpossession thosewhohaveachieved can that be usedfor mystery inexplicable level of "cleanliness" to answers all your a certain "You can find tivepurposes.theHunter. TimePiece..Seaga 1969:8). impersonal an income thesepeopleis very manifests average powerthat to themselves on theofferings the itself thehumans possessing them churches rely by by through as in defined "messengers." These are orgamembers. to givethem "teachings. (spiritual purity)."andcalled"ground attain spirprestige.. andmagico-religious knowledge. the spirits. seemsthat. seemsthat and sung. as and revered feared. techniques healing by of theuniform thefunctionary-spirit where function the thewaystoapproach posedto wearduring "tables": power. is of and in and money are willing sacrifice their butalso spiritual to for liketheFish." problems toits that the with Bible. as themselves good Christians.On a deeperlevel. between therelationship permanent places in Revival and the the can Maid. regular The services place or eventheMilkMaid. eight well intothenight. Revivalist interpretation." death arereading (but poisoning!). the count with helpoftheir However. though. according Seaga 1969: 8) spirits like characters theMilkMaid. simultaneously wheeling spirits parade is the this to during possession a signof spiritual approach theBibleturns bookinto focus (wheeling is of and of ofRevivalZion system beliefs. regarded more"earthbound. they from and last about TimePiece. somecases.1994 Anthropos . The sentence. to to for theircongregation contribute theirliving. spiritual manipulating around in thechurch literal and creative these A the spirits.memorized. takes all example. the the worshipped spirit only Fishis clearly water Afro-American also in other religions (Benjamin 1987: 3).theHunter. Revivalists re." are as to of Some sort redistribution place in that can thepoint that someof them classified evil are as knowthat. in in are with communities a worldview mostpossessions RevivalZion rituals actheir provide Pocomanian that on is which incident explainable thebasis of complished former spirits are by any and now even assigned humans and spirit. specialclassification among their and their in to trance).an analysisof Revivalcommunitiesverysame prophets angelswerecommonly for all thatthese conjured possession leads to the conclusion in Kingston during RevivalZion social services 1956: 344f. nized in different categories. teachingpurposes also for your also thedescription include the Bible:therulesforChris. regarded according organized principle.theBell Ringer.theAmbush Man. The Doctrine to Pocomanian. spiritual spirits possess only members. witha tight their churches (Simpson supply people like or to whereas chances of a network.system rulesandvalues. has Each of thespirits in the Bible. achievement. to theBible. Presently.RevivalZion churches its"(Hogg 1964:320f.Revival Zion:An Afro-Christian in Religion Jamaica 521 in members their church the amount time prophets angelsare mentioned theBible. includes Revivalists regard the conduct at leastin theBell Ringer.sions.

" from booksthat. it hence. they the The lastcategory spirits of they (although can. spirits Kumina Thisusu. reportedly blind." "groaning. theFishtypi. also many but peopleof 8. event considered acceptable."when Many general youarespir. spirits soundlikea percussion and During phase. The in still recurs sermons testimonies.and you get sick. Doves areknown angels. experts itually their often draw and eats withyou.522 Guano Emanuela of Revivalists toa pattern movements turn of enough. spirits rumandoffering of specialleaves. Obeah and science other confessions share thisfearofdupreligious condemn Revivalists becauseobeah-men The mostrigorous officially pies. The dead are dangerous as can easilymanipulate on theuse of suchdevicesas oils and powders.ficially because itsworship fallen of of condemned pattern danceand vocalizations utedto thespirit The involved. power they they to will. necessary night.and start both obeahandscience.thatRevivalZion eventually 1956:352).not a temporary of definition sorcery. former Revivalpastors bowing in the The swinging armsand stepping a circle)aca special reputation theirlifetime. example. bya "seal":a stem sugarcane other plus objects But the mostintense of possessionis that withthenature thespirit. the"Fourth loosing weight you knowledge have Fifth ofSolomon" De Laurence. been Seal by law. 9.possession duppiesis these through Revivalists "voodoo. Hunters forward howl.is a way of manipulating superthe the of the to is if necessary arenot after their natural taken powerthat thought control lives living the steps of ritual death. is not alwaysspirit possession begins vulsive movements thebackandtheshoulders surprising. SpiritPossession of ChrisThisambiguity goodandevil. banned Jamaican by 7.and you don't see the duppy.orthespirits thedead.1994 Anthropos .spiritual as is of goals power helpthem in life. is as and for of dwellin thecorners are welcomed thedue wayby spraying thechurch. Not onlyRevivalists. actually crucial thisworldor haunt forever. one of the and Almost of It with con. they duppy and like until die." not (Guano reported onlyin Revival RevivalZion worldview mechanism butalso in Kumina(Simpson1957: 329). Another of category spiritual beingsis that of forward theback. where they Kumina dances. during that and Bedward one of them." bendthis power this also want but from spirit. bow and and often wrists hands ifthey and as werefins. (Simpson defined of attrib.while who gained (a rhythmic the Fathers. in each of thesespotsis marked Hence.Revivalists that that deadcan go on haunting world the one word. nonetheless." possession deep onlywith stemof sugarcane a candle. his name companied loudinhalations exhalations is and by preacher this music. Hence.striking characteristics Revivalism. posted of for is or When their is a and ing. reversal 1993: 77). everyday Spirit pies.Revivalcommunities blameon eachother. in of believe andbenefits their work.ofstrict is tianmorality magicpractice. Doves.The 89. consist a ritual of wake of human Theseprecautions beings a temporary."or "labor. Though extravagant. Fish. possessed get by spirits. haveabsorbed whoarepossessed of theFathers said to appearin visionsand those are (andhence to in them)"work"in order the spiritual also takepart services in where dreams. possession in occursalways thesame"messenger. have to be found. The Place and theParaphernalia the so that. ah andscience what disease." Some Revivalists. Like human the havetheir favorite through beings.and thelax tocoo anddancewith stretched whereas the sexualbehavior its worshippersall sinsthat of arms. mostcases. and called"ninenight.Theywant receive totheir can be seenbythosewhoarespiritually "clean. they always places to or and receive offerings the allyhappens thosepeoplewho attend.its commerce withthedead. also Kumina andHunters.spotsin thechurch: where are though. andsoonturns a better syncretized itsnegative into with ofdouble Pukumina. worshippers. of hence. told is Because. Some maybea compensatory psychological the better endure crisesof Revivalists death is that believe that fortieth after the helps people night for the moment thedead to leave life(La Barre1970:40).The corner theHunter.a wake is on that too. example. callyrotates It is commonly assumedthata special link existsbetween personand his or her spirit. of phase varyaccording what Revivalists call "spiritwork. the andthehomage their of attended.a message concrete achieve to notbe defined messengers) that thedup.which their of are the Revivalists. them "setting" them by to associated oberemedies traditionally are theliving.as a pastor me." call an annihilating or trance.

PeriodiIn addition thecorners. might a clockmaybe dition. cups.and is playedwithone a "lock"it. a Provided have they in of for Thecenter a church Central in can skill." or also "Amen!" forhealing are meantto whenfeelings sorrow aroused. theplatform the reports listof thesickmembers the of and for however. there an are with points. theextent trance. somechurches blackboard a pool. whereasordinary of tableat thebeginning theservice seton this worshippers of to on (1978: areperiodically required testify. Theinstruments inRevival of of Zionchurches played and a candle. which among and The of theimagesof Christ theLast Supper the and are water.fewChristian and a iconsarehung.Colorsareparticularly important. perfume cosmetics: her usually from in Afro-American the anda malegoatskin either on and extremities. and absorbs evil influences is henceused asticresponses (Pitts d. Revival Zion sermons shareoratory devices keepawayevil spirits. On theplatthe "seal. sermon. bottles. ex. thesepools are decorated er. of and two crossedcutlasses.: 62). often withan emphasis thelast word. also covered of a jar of water. fruits. lowerhalfof in betweenthreekinds of thestar culminates a tall. (which as and exorcisms well as destructivelike "PraisetheLord!. The to other Afro-American At one end of thechurch. adIn water and laid with candles. preaching: exhortation.havethepower over to produces lowertone.and theyalwaysleave a gap forthe responses of fabrics different As the as are from audience. the waiting thehealing. Kingston.cally. also with shells they "foodfor Fish. sermon. by ample. imposea limit thelength theritual to is and skill is that 269): a service lastsovermidnight likely Oratory an important appreciated forpreachers. mainly It to but to attract someduppies. former bigger. be retrieved wavedaccording "PraisetheLord"often or before talk(1992: 25). pattern white basins candles.and with like cut metal covered with female a bins. religions. Although atleastdouble sizeofa tub.: 73). The frames bothdrums silverware dishes to of are (theRiver and to eat). is which larly important. and The distinction basedmainly thelength "suffer" is on that one redand one black. theelapsed of the It of the church. often the are decorated churches have bought modern tradiequipments. The sentences on with short. purposes).to represent varies from fewminutes thetestimonythe the of to "judgement. to colorsaccording theocca.Revival Zion:An Afro-Christian in Religion Jamaica 523 Dove requires more a elaborate withversesfrom Bible. and candles. center particu. rhythm faster. cloths laid." short open The used to beatawayevil spirits. its is which makesit more and Maidis supposed difficult play. covered is thealtar sometimes a white cloth.stick. to and exhortations. testimony.judgesthat response notenthusiastic are The wallsofRevivalchurches usually enough. a and enthusiBelowthetablearea basinofwater." set of to A smalltableis usually nextto thecenter 10-15 minutes theexhortation. Fishis concerned herappearance. these is marked a complex instruments. also called "the River. Hence. with goatskin. functionaries sermons fruits.thesermon lastup toa fewhours). the is dec. held equivalents other religions. with The altaris decorated and an altar.so that can The rakkling drum smaller has two is and nobody jumpintothe"Riv. coconut communicate emotions. Preaching a stick ten Bibleanda "rod.which usually arealmost The are some exclusively percussions. 89." Underneath star. hang used to taketimeduring and to inthechurch. Whenthepreacher the to thewillof thespirits. is that." Occasionally with sticks. corner theRiverMaid or Fish is sometimes marked In a on by mostcommon. flowers."as itusually orated has a tablelaid withbottles smallbasinsof form.d. drums is to the the must rubbed be with rum ash."Or tionally as are the Revivalists two kindsof drum: use the with rounded a staffs: sticks The drum.thenecessary anybody thechurch play ofbottles. corner theFishis sealedbya stem sugarcane.they like includes use of formulas the of the sermon banners colored to related thespirits. six a star with rings 10. stones.andwater representing Insidethestar. alwayschanted. ithastoelicit the from audience n.1994 Anthropos . is coveredwitha whitecloth time thesermon thespirit (if inspires preachand er.with is that to with a is there usually platform thepulpit forexample."In mostcases. candles. candle. also Wedenoja As usually only preach reported. cream Usually with ming(Pittsn. flowers.""Yes!. with a to tight throughropefastened bignails. is meant teach.redcandlecalledthe Revivalists distinguish the two are and "tower. long extremity if base andtherakkling laid transversely thepool. poolis outside thechurch. or In mostchurches is marked it The third is instrumentthetambourine. by a and a bunch flowers. pools. flowers. Fine observes. pattern the sion. opposite theen. its cadenceis sometimes accompanied drumby tendto be laid sodabottles.

possession. theaudience will soonmanifest loss a worshipper its on kneeing a cushionlaid on the of interest yawning a noisy(and eloquent) floor. the qualities almost alwaysentailed humility prayer." sermon thepastor. consecration The ceremony everybody in a choir. ejaculations. fact. also kinesic.and touching al Zion preachers alwaysshowpeculiar part mimicry Thedeacon playsan important inbaptisms. of of of and with in thetongue. In onecase. formula like"I don'thearyou. and claim theirwordscome all rituals to connected theuse ofholywater. a swinging thearmsandthelegs where or she is supposed stand thewater whilejumping and from one side to the other. in but.calledtopaya sumofmoney thesecretary that dil(whomight nominations evenother or Revival Zioncongrega. walking through I sermonslistened started defining border benches to the with openBiblein herhands. and on sometimes also calledto testify themoralvirtue the preacher evenaddressing someofthemembers thecon." true and The Once a week. members thechurch nervously anddowntheplat. an timesa week. offerings collected it to the the are cording a rough outline a recurrent of Mostofthe by a member thechurch of the pattern. to mothers. are peepinginsidefrom windows.provided people RevivalZion congregations "bands. "laboring. enthusiasm leader. rarely evangelist.each member thechurch of is latter havebeenpeoplefrom other de. as devoidof scruples thosewho will testify. is buta rough sermon enriched allegorical was with stories sin vivalservices. the of In this of skeleton ReObviously. (25) hearme?" The sermon formulaic thatthe is in is of The highest appointmentthat thebishop. anytime. to Each (or from lifeofthepreacher. equally response. thus together thebishop.and secretary Minister. like of in to he patterns. usually the endurance sufferings. during exhortation whenshe was stopped Zion services held three of she ordinary services by the intervention some other preacher." 11. Hierarchy and Rituals In mostcases.faith thecandidate. (or by to interrupt service anypoint screaming. Usually. Reviv. or she might he water ordirecur stimulantmissionary. wenton the evangelist called to give a short is Hence. very depend. pointing both wings theaudience. as At small crowds as follows:bishop. the Some of minister. secretary. 89. secretary the "lines" by fashion. looking their their shoulders. often utters first the whichother wordsof a psalm who is in charge a diocesefrom of preacher or a prayer audience also have the power the knows so that churches well. by that and by a short concludes service.an the of The followed explaining qualities the good Christian "exhortation. mostcases.theatmosphere thechurch in is notvery formal: walkin andout. structure vary of The from church may andpunishment ofredemption) theBible."or "didyou nary members. up form shouting and "PraisetheLord"byherself.in theevening.while congregation to theoccasion.Bishops to anointministers. prayer A uttered follows. the This inspiration when manifests are active itself they particularly inbaptisms.evangelist.igently in records a book." they they as raisetwofingers toward platform the the and (or arecalled)areorganized a hierarchical in structurecongregationa salute. to church. singing. whichtheleaderor after tions) and moralvirtues. evenfrom from and service service. the to of of are The watermothers in charge candidates.a pastor Revival became excited thosewholead ordinary so rituals. therubbing theeyes. joins The meansof involving audienceare not involves the like the layingof handson the rituals which is but In onlyverbal.thepreacher talk. by moves aroundthe church.Then A goodsermon must fervour elicit to to an the secretary choosestwo hymns be sungby express enthusiastic If fails the congregation. the at by etc. the newminister hisor hercongregation. in one After morehymn. prone be modified theinin is to by of newspapers.The are that. the of the echoesherwords a song. deacon. thepreacher by to do so. provided couldbe usedas moral tervention thespirit: they peoplegetting possessed a spirit "getting thespirit") allowed in are examples.Thenthepastor chooses weredefined sinners. an by between Revivalists all the"others. water with a mother.immersion theriver. four "lessons": bylineshereadsfour line psalms. preaching. thehandsof thecandidate to and gregation talking by directly them. Typically. they with frantic movements thearms glossolalie takecareof thecandidates of and their and before after min. in Though contents the sermons varyac. leader. play the drumsand sing religious songs.1994 Anthropos .524 Guano Emanitela forexample. mostcases. eyes. preachers from spirit. evenfrom the and local ritual.oliveoil. beginat around eighto'clock went walking on of the First. inthecase ofaccomplished this are leads to a complete isters. seemspossible draw Following psalms.

someofthepeoplewhogetin the are on from Holy Ghost. smaller table may be set in a three-month-preparatory is cutlasses.The endofthefasting from The "table"is a special function usualthat be celebrated ritually holywater by sipping lasts morethanone night.Shortly their dawn. 3 that ranges the will to thank dismiss RiverMaid. number little some(and moresecretive) cases. thetable. glassesof water. churches leaves. requires and laid withsoftdrink of the most solemnritualsof Revivalism. and or a Once a month. in their hands.and each of themcontributescoconuts. are called to take at the same time. and Laterin the morning. lapping waterfrom sacrificial basinson thefloor. both will occur of the around center thechurch. congregation of for will Queens)or holdritual objects candidates moveto a river thesecond part fashion Kumina cream fruits. and officiate takeplace at be unclean cannot Manypossessions important is and a Fromtimeto time. ordinary among they are little the have to maketheir by vow.held stands one end of thetableand testifies before the enters church candidates shortly beforemidnight. course. creamsoda bread thewater and etc. candidates walk. (coins). whilethe Allover church. at mid. by by ny. of clothes "uniform") prescribed of (the according into water the is the restrictionsthe and of theHolyGhost. somearesympathizers. rum. ofthebaptism.like pots of water. and. 89. thanksgiving. possession they and members officials. many Usually. 10 to 21 daysorfrom to folding unfolding bluebanner thewater. by rituals. one by one. and than and more Testimonies involves and for a church drumming singing.costumes of outbursts spirit thetable. Later.1994 Anthropos . theSon. number children wrapped a bluecloth. for that of the until procession the requires theperson whomthe"table"is and preaching follow. who are thought thecandidate greeted an outburst singing to is of ban on menstruating women. uplifting. is The in lemons. pating theCommunion. a with white short tablecovered breads and both distributes the church laid with the endof theservice.(in shapeof doves.part theservice. a Zion community through baptism.and smallpieces of breadare set on a tivepurposes the has Toward the namefrom longtablethat to be setin the cloth. are candles liton theshore.sometimes the Helpedbythewater the mothers. one at a time. in a of of is held.A bottle water. Holy Communion "Sup. in so their blanket. and or "silver" sometimes. ritual concluded repeatedly of leavesof a plant by 3 and the on from to9. fasting heldto attain thispoint.also fordisrupper" (Simpson1956: 371). candles. the wearwhite All clothes. tocontribute offerings to theritual on the for starts (usually paying lighting candles the thathas to be celebrated a bishop. ofthem ofspirit-functionaries glamorous have a wrapon their wearing hair.whilethemencover a parade and intothechurch spinsaround breaks Led with white a their forehead stripe. gather table)to thehighcostsof theritual. RiverMaid.butterflies. while on the pews.)." might bishop on and dancewitha glass of water thehead (in the before head.Inevitably. whiledogs walk freely in therest theworshippers stay theshores.for or. a corner the church among and colored decideto havea baptism bottles.redtomatoes. are alwaysplaying the church and thebishopwalk intothewater. the is called"tree life"fora period beenbaptized. Christ's flowers. Thenthedeaconholding cross the a A andothers justcurious. pastor objects: specialritual thosewhoarepartici. The service in whenthecongregations in theevening. singing dancing usual. The womenhave womenare required wearskirts their to At rituals. deliverance.Fasting spirit baptized thespot. walkcounterclockwise a con carrying cross. after candidates all have a day or feeding crackers. among whitecandles. and thatis held white ly cups. by a dea.Among other Walking ofthewater. Here. Last Supper. that Another. water are of in a mother two with in untiltheyfall flags.intothe water. that body wrapped a white head. Holding candidate. circles formed peoSome of them in a and is preaching holding Bible above ple "working thespirit. Shortly night. bishop to and no strict forthem do so. to bottles. commemorate for occasion. Underneath intotheRevival coloroftheuniform this are The neophytes introduced basinandtwocrossed are there a water The event. and enthusiasm. women (Simpson1956: 375). only on water. The colorof the givesa short rule sermon then her plunges or him is to the in name theFather. event meant White alsothe is anda white cloth.eventhough the they specialblessings all from a of means either abstaining foodfor fewhours did notundergo therequirements thecase. even a notebook a pencilto andflowers. of will on asleep the and out. the the although seemsthere outofthewater. ceremo. Manycongregations with and in The witha fewcandidates. out theoccasion. Bibles. It drawsits glasses. and and 9 months 21 days. Sometimes clothes notbecome revealing they will and a wrap(or a hat) on their too as come it is also menweara wrap.in Revival Zion:An Afro-Christian Religion Jamaica 525 them backsliders are in to (whoare also allowedto sit redwineare offered sacrifice thebishop by inthebackofthechurch). soda bottles.

to Zion can stillcompete with other reAccording thisexpla."nativChristianity hair. Only. wear to the to gregations a reduniform remind spirit alism.on theother the and female Revivalists. and Women expected are necklaces.norwearjewels.some anthropologists ob.if a compensatory its element undeniis prestigious positions thisreligion owes its persistence the support ablypresent Revival to in this doesnotexplain Zion." and oratory. and wine. of men usuallyundergo mostdramatic the and AfroAmerican posses. As Baerand It in that what male Singer one "laboring. supposedly preclude bloodoftheanimal mark cross the to a on forehead for women to the whobehave example. substitute Structurally.Theanimal extraordinary personality not but buried. thissense. a achieve within hierarchy.dation protest among religious often of sions." "messianic-nationalist. and the for milk. evolvedas a compensatory response ofthebloodsacrifice has beenaccomplished.in thebroadpicture Kingston of rural For example.emotional an a outlet. Besides. Conclusion an of low ing. example.ofJamaican have Revival Zioncommunities are ghettos served that. the the wishfulfillment. diffusion The table")with soft candles that night the before werestanding the ofRevivalism thepoorest on in areasofKingston led smalltable. charms. a way of attaining and night leadership for absence thespirit the of thecon. sum.a goatis sacrificed sunset mative at as preaching singing) and (such capabilities in a very The officials the that use theshyandthehumble private ceremony. To Lanternari. according of thosewho attend ceremony Pocoma.Though being aspect Jamaican class Revivalism does not necessary culture. of its female members.and colonialism the by (1977: 166). it is truethat theroleof RevivalZion in Jamaican and Zion is practiced society mainly thepoorof suburban by in thelivesof itsmembers. be of nation. enthusiasm.Onlythosewomen the who are gifted with an (but nians saidtodrink this are of is can becomepastors and blood).1994 Anthropos .thisreligion low social and economic and (another status. thisis hardly case. different approach Lanternaof in of Revivalism a form as majority members RevivalZion churches ri's treatment Jamaican are females. inall situations havea humble to whereas posedan analysis thedichotomy accommoof conduct. But manymen. skills. identify Different have been used to explain withit.The center thecircle. Baer and Singer(1992) prorings. of themaintraits thaumamany 89.526 Emanuela Guano write downspiritual Amidst general Revivalists the achievewithin is their messages. cannot wearmakeup. is surroundedandin most cases Revivalism envisioned a was as tamination?.themanyrulesimposed is on "African" elements RevivalZion represent in an womenin order control to their and opposition Afroof Jamaicans the appearance against culture their behavior do to Women andtheworld theWhites. . congregation a utterances increasetheir prestige to associated performative In fact.AlsoWedenoja observes "Revivthat parade. of observe. in other if Revival approaches words. suchas Pentecostalism. as "converaccompanied outbursts boasting groupsclassified "thaumaturgical. glossolalie the"spirit" a based on perforfrequency.(1952: 135). mosttop positions Revivalhier. If it is truethatthe to Revivalism." seems.as Revivalismallows women to decidedly minority.rules.of cultural nativistic in and protest againstslavery are in archy taken men. on Other Zion Revival (a placedby a circledrawn thefloor "ground anthropologists approached the drink bottles thecolored onthe and basisofitssocialbackground. and often weara number gold ChristianitytheWhite of of dominators.Male prestige Reviv. can they nor their alistsreinterpret in their straighten own.above all isticandheathen" (1977: 166) to opposethe way leaders pastors. by glasses containing including water sugar. of marked a many scholars speculate to about link the between by "Poco" con. In her studyof Jamaican society. al churches high. of In Revivclearly notapply men. rum. ritual doesnotdiffer that thefirst from of but forrecreation.Flowersand coconuts scattered Kerrobserved theroleofreligion that a are in that of is and outside circleof bottles. Butthese are convincexplanations only partly 12. immediately by imposed The tableis removed from church re. requires charisma The secondday.howRevival RevivalZion should a sort women's ligions. Unfortunateand auraof "modernism" denied prestige a luring the A is ly. leaders defying precept modesty the of supposed to be eaten. . should that attract a of world. potof leavesand tomatoes see Moore 1953: 63). More recently. chronic that in deprivation themid-nineteenth century" (1978: 82). bloodofthegoat." by and spectacular dances and sionist. different drinks source compensation poorliving of for conditions. happyislandin themale dominance morebelievers thattheyoffer higher in a social the otherChristian denominations. glossolalia. and areas.

social stillresistbothan oppressive how.theBritish colonizers. ideology reality. The and Jamaica."RevivalZion preachers drawa that and of reality a worldview strengthens and themselves all other Christian fits This mutual undoubtedly line between solidarity. White elite. bothEuropean North relies origin. churches characterized dominated a tiny are by by 165). example. though slowly. elements turgical of where a reli.192).strong fate in the and of view.maican RevivalZion as a thaumaturgical be acterize society might changing. As a result thisworld. religion. Religion theTwentieth this on theBlackmasses. of The University Tennessee whenthenumerous for Thishappened. though. Revivalists are seemto stress other movement. actually Press. ordinary their RevivalZion can be rett1988: 28). use ofmagico-religious In (basedon practices itstraditional churches be.1992 Africanimposed Knoxville: and of Varieties Protest Accommodation. 1880 and 1920. privileges theprestige the "cometo accept or White casteremain and of untouched. real alternative religious backtheorigin Whiletracing colonization. between we In fact.at times.1969)among members. (1992: largely according gions. On thatoccasion. church of of a of the liminalborders their ritual. description American and of in RevivalZion congregations.Bedward's Living bearssomeconsequences. gained support Myalists BeaconPress.a Coloredmiddle to of leadsmembers thaumaturgical class. active into turned a more tance opposition. doctrine Revival experience the bespiritual antisucha strong White notentail becomesritually in a worldthat lievers might separate gations of on thebasisofBaer reaction say. to are trine conducive an accommodative approach stress issuesin that to socialand ideological they and of theimportance theindividual of a limited References Cited that is on interest a world and group. and char.spite a new." is between New Neighborhoods. that 1988 RootsofJamaican to It wouldnotbe correct. withthe Bedwardite in a moral universe where each deed (and of AugustTown. the three-tiered structure class ment.conversionist nativistic of Chrisform of "communitas" Turner's RevivalZion is thetruly a strong (in feeling to the of The its (and culsense.Revivalists to According BaerandSinger. simply reasserting and Singer'sclassification. wheresolidarity "band"is a communitas of Zioncongrethe of on the common Presently.in Revival Zion:An Afro-Christian Religion Jamaica 527 is stress the"impor.in lievethat they of of national awareness Black of their (1992: 208). thatanyRevival churches. and doc.a Black lowerclass. Boston: 1969: 1988 The Rastafarians. andBreach. andMerrill as Singer in American Century. lacksanyprotest RevivalZion presently Diane J. an activeand 1984 Urban of Two that and "resistance. York:Gordon Ideology Since thedaysof a passivemodeof opposition.reality cultural and boththaumaturgical conversionist ever.awareof theparadoxes their with of a similarity Revivalism conversionist society.that Rastafarian from as. and it becameeven morevisiblebetween on movements their turgical over tanceoftheindividual society" movement (1992: 210). resis. Revival Ifthese traits classify Likemostlow classJamaicans. focustheir and moral spiritual. Hoetink 1985: 73). is Black majority sociallyand culturally toBaerandSinger In fact.. Zionas a thauma.Both antionthemselves White militancy.and of theconfidence their manipulativeJamaicans. of the slaverebellions LeonardE. and stress theindividual his/her on Revivalrepresents so mucha not responsibilities Nowadays. Pluto Press. members millenialism the almost causedRevivalism at least misdeed) (or movements to blametheir tend a considerable ofthese stream themovement) turn of to to problems rather on external than causes. fact. type" colonization. widesectors thaumaturgical groups powers.Hans A. But.In thiscontext.protest againa modeof cultural as andtheuse ofspiritual healing resistance. Japractices move. 1990: 137. Culture Class LifeinKingston. Patterson obeah-men (Stewart 89. affirm element. London: Culture.and have somedegree control of over a Whiteupperclass. shoulddistinguish "protest" Austin. intensity tianity. (BarHence. allowsthe tural) andemotional their experience spiritual the faith a schism"between Baptist to within of their to of members conversionist groups share.1994 Anthropos . religion Jamaica that a felt a wayofresistingworld was forcibly Baer. by on Jamaican and "mixed as defined a thaumaturgical-conversionist identity bycarrying their rituals. and Barrett. perception church theWhitesand the Baptist still their theBlacks. Yet. Mervyn Alleyne. was in Afro-Creole itsbeginning. social Jamaican Blackeliteas wellas ofthemiddle class at leastavoid openly challenging existing seemto haveatleastpartly absorbed valuesof the relations" (210).

Donald W.andSocialControl.1953 Religion Jamaican Negroes.Westport: Praeger. poolUniversity in 1978 Religionand Adaptation RuralJamaica. Study Jamaican Life. and Review ACIJResearch and 1984 Kumina. Catholicism 3/2: 1992 TheFacesoftheGods.D. Edward a NotesTowards Sociology 1969 RevivalCultsin Jamaica.). C. Culture. Press.528 Guano Emanuela G.A PreliminaryPatterson. The Ancient ofZion. Invisible es at Mona. A of Folk A of 1929 BlackRoadways. A 1964 Jamaican Religions.Maureen The Press. FineandJean Speer(eds. Identity.TheAfrican 1991 Guinea's Dynamic Trinidad Press. and Trinidad. Anthony Vittorio in 1974 The Role of theProphet Millenial Cults. Press. Oxford: Oxford lumSouth. [UnpubLa Barre.VodouandRoman Carolina of inHaiti. 1977 Movimenti di e in Movements Jamaica. of DepartmentAnthropology.Elizabeth in Journal AmerIn: Communication. 1985 "Race"andColorinthe Caribbean. Orlando The WaterMama Beliefin Guyana. Press. n. New York: 1968 TwoJamaicas. 1956 Jamaican 5-6: 321^42. Yale University] Gainesville: Florida ics.S. Bilby. Studies SocialandEconomic Revivalist Cults.Caribbean Contours. Trinidad Tobago.Dissertation.Barbara 1952 Personality Conflict Jamaica.Origins Religion. in AntebelInstitutionthe The 1978 SlaveReligion. pp. C. religiosi libertà di salvezzadei popoli [UnpubReligious Milano:Feltrinelli. 55-84. Sidney Mintz cago:Aldine. ChapelHill:TheUniversity North GeorgeE. Sayings. Studies.Kingston] Press. Study Form Origin. 1957 TheNineNight as 1992 Performative of Ceremony Jamaica. In: W. J. Thesis. Wedenoja. Baltimore: Johns University Hopkins in Other Suns.d. 1969 The Ritual H. 1987 DickRutherford: of at and of Fairleigh Paper presented the17th 1969 The Sociology Slavery. Studyin Variations. Fine. of lished B. Metaphors Ritual 70: icanFolklore 329-335. Watson. University theWest [Unpublished Thesis. University Oxford] 89. Thesis. Curtin. proachto RevivalZion and Kumina. Northwestern of University] DepartmentAnthropology. of The Knoxville: University Tennessee and M. Kerr. Haskeil E. 1971 Revival BlackStruggle.PoliticoLanternari. Hogg. oppressi. Ap. of Rico:Institute Caribbean Puerto Haiti. LeslieG.D. Seaga. andSallyPrice(eds. Victor Thrner. 1983 Kumina. Stability Change. Press. Indi. Walter Pitts.D. Joel Benjamin. Jamaica Journal 3-13. of of San Prospect Heights: University California.Department Geography Anthroof State Louisiana University] pology. Guano. 23-45. 1: 81-128. Barry Cheryl Ryman. Carolina of el Hill:University North [Unpublished Dissertation.Performance.). Williams. 1970 TheGhost Dance.[Manuscript] Kia Bunseki Kenneth andFu-Kiau Ship M.Emanuela Robert A 1993 Doing SpiritWorkin Jamaica.Chap.Raboteau. University Press. Diego] Waveland Press..A. lished DepartmentAnthropology. MarthaWarren Moore.Stewart. ofReligion. Studyof Afro-JaPh.L. Simpson. [UnpubG.1994 Anthropos . Llewelyn lished Ph. Performative J. maican Acculturation. 1980 Religious Jamaica. 1800-1970.Weston of Ph. pp. and Tobago.Joseph Beckwith. Warner Lewis. Savacou5: 27-40. and Cults the of Caribbean. Kongo-Based Albert J. Dover:The Majority Culture. in and LiverLiverpool: William A. of M. Desmangles. Hoetink. inson of Teacher'sAssociation Conference the History of University 18-21June. Chiand Process. Philip Greenwood. University Chevannes.[Unpublished 1990 Religionand Societyin Post-Emancipation Press.1991 Jamaican AesthetWithNoteson Folklore.Dissertation. Jamaica. in A Tradition theNew World. Structure Anti-Structure.