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F-DTN-M-NFDB

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Paper II
Time Allowed : Three Hours Maximum Marks 300

INSTRUCTIONS Each question is printed both in Hindi and in English. Answers must be written in the medium specified in the Admission Certificate issued to you, which must be stated clearly on the cover of the answer-book in the space provided for the purpose. No marks will be given for the answers written in a medium other than that specified in the Admission Certificate. Candidates should attempt Questions no. 1 and 5 which are compulsory, and any three of the remaining questions selecting at least one question from each Section. The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question. If any data is considered insufficient, assume suitable value. Psychrometric chart is attached with this question paper. Wherever required, neat sketches I diagrams may be drawn on the answer-book itself.
IMPORTANT : Whenever a question is being attempted, all its parts/sub-parts must be attempted contiguously. This means that before moving on to the next question to be attempted, candidates must finish attempting all parts/sub-parts of the previous question attempted. This is to be strictly followed.

Pages left blank in the answer-book are to be clearly struck out in ink. Any answers that follow pages left blank may not be given credit
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SECTION A 1. (a) Air enters a steady flow adiabatic turbine at 1600 K and exhausts to atmosphere at 1000 K, Pat. = 1 bar. If the second law efficiency is 85%, what is the turbine inlet pressure ? What is irreversibility during expansion process '? Given, surrounding temperature is 25°C. Properties of air T, [KJ 1000 1600 h, 11(J/kg] 1046 1757 s, lIcJ/kg-Kl 8.6905 81349 12 (b) A very long AISI 316 stainless steel (K = 14 W/m-K) rod 5 mm in diameter has one end maintained at 100°C. The surface of the rod is exposed to ambient air at 30°C with average convective heat transfer coefficient of 50 W/m2-K. Neglecting radiation heat transfer, estimate how long the rod must be to treat it as "infinitely long" to yield a reasonable accurate estimation of heat loss. If the rod is made of copper (K = 350 W/m-K, will the length be different ? How much will it be and why ? Compare the heat transfer rates for both the rods. The analysis may 12 be based on fin tip heat loss alone.

F-DTN-M-NFDB

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[Contd.]

[kJ/kg-K] 8.icb tTr tek fWdt 495 ark ? LIR 495 (-Q q1. ? dci *LIT (K = 350 W/m-K) 38TT ? FW-. (K AISI 316 (q) La.61ri ui airgifm F-DTN-M-NFDB 3 [Contd. t-14 e. difIT q14 c14-11 85% t.6905 81349 12 741. [kJ/kg] 1046 1757 s..cb 3TUrli aid 1600 K dko154 MT cvit al-iset 4 moo iitrT ul 7..i * ? fqzfr d chI4 ertir 37F SIWT.1113 1 1.1 Hmr 4 6111. 1. 717471 W.. [K] 1000 1600 h. T1%CFI t I 'T] chkui 50 W/m2-K 34771..fq[FTW &TM 5 mm g. Tft 3T[WJq T^r147 Ttsca 59TT t -19utT 1119 .Tti15-1 3T? ATI -Tozr. -WST t1I4 30°C WIT 3-111:17. (3T) .. d ?-16 q 7 t qtt-IT t[f 7 I 11Yt][6IT t.sh A 14 W/m-K) 495.4 n zrza Tgfj u. dig 25°C t T.] .d.T Tt-th d = 1 bar I tirc ttzT fqz[Trf t. TEC ITRk7R tiff 100°C ITT of WIT * 1495 461 TNT. klIcT W(.* 61111.7 ifru -3-17(17 12 amg TNT.

20°C and it adds energy to the flow to exit state of 450°C. What is availability with respect to an ambient at 100 kPa and 20°C ? 6 12 12 2. The velocity of water is maintained under 20 m/s. 300°C.0716 m3/kg (e) Nitrogen flows in a pipe with velocity 300 m/s at 500 kPa. 10 (ii) Explain the phenomena of surge and choking in centrifugal compressors. discuss two major design changes in this type of boiler. 4. 10 F-DTN-M-NFDB 4 [Contd. Determine the necessary minimum pipe flow area for inlet and outlet pipes.5 MPa.] . If this boiler is to operate on Moon.001 m3/kg vexit = 0. Given properties of water : 'inlet = 0.(c) (i) What is meant by firing order in internal combustion engines ? What are the firing orders used in 4 and 6 cylinder inline engines ? 2 (ii) 4 (iii) What are the three purposes of firing order in W" engines ? (d) A boiler receives a flow of 5000 kg/hr liquid water at 5 MPa. (a) (i) Explain briefly the design and off-design characteristics of an axial flow compressor.

5 MPa t I atd-Ifq TPU 0:41R gfirt aq 7.0.rid dTf kiT 20 m/s 04.] .4The-R afw:r trft.0716 m3 /kg (TT) 7% '77 * -11*. -rd1 20°C .4 foTr3# 10 $ TErg tf F-DTN-M-NFDB 5 ]Contd . «1I(9qr 51 7 I -r7 TTRT4 : •Tic4 % vatdrh. (30 (i) cch aitzr WU 12 ? aTril%Ff viii we" Ti4c 12 aTicavuff f- 10 4 aitrkr *11-111si'l AYE cmr at.11 t.°h ailtlelt 5000 kg/hr (-Rd girl %T R%$ 5 MPa. — $ TT4 6).(T) (i) &ate6 itirriSt ? ‘ylri`f ? ‘1.ER SETWr % e (-1241 -ET T1 44 it -garg ftzlfa sicirr %TM a”311 450°C -if% 4. .)14 cThl cht4 6 11.Fair 34mizg 11 3 47 4*F9 Vcf% --7 I .411-1 300 m/s %IT.1.4(14 zErr m74 2 (ii) 4 1-eir zcicief sh+4 4 .4 4 TcreE 411.001 m3/kg vain = 0.4.11 :1---zrr it4ici4r *Br AZ f .sqe-yr 51. 500 kPa clza I TiffkYT 100 kPa 311( 0 300°C 7 We 20°C % TITEI PAT 31112MT ITT N 2.

(i) What are the rates of heat transfer per unit length of the rod at the centre line (axis) and at the rod surface ? (ii) If the reactor power level is suddenly increased to 108 W/m3.4 6 [Contd. temperature and pressure at the exit of tube.] . the temperature distribution in the rod is t = 800 — 4. at section 1. R = 287 J/kg-K y= F-DTN-M-NFDB 1. specific heat and thermal conductivity of rod material are 1100 kg/m3. Density..(b) The volumetric heat generation rate in a cylindrical nuclear reactor fuel rod of 5 cm diameter is 5 x 107 W/m3. Under steady state operating condition. Mach no. temperature is 22°C and mass velocity is 150 kg/s-m2. the pressure is 0. (i) (ii) Mach no. The pressure in space in which tube exhausts is so low that choking condition prevails.167 x 105 r2. what are the initial time rate of change of temperature at the centre line and at the surface ? (c) A stream of air flows in an insulated tube of constant cross-sectional area of 0. 20 (iii) Total force exerted in axial direction which must be exerted to hold the tube stationary. Given. At a section 1. Determine.9 m2.6 bar. 800 J/kg-K and 30 W/m-K respectively.

] .2.7 3idt~ ft cb 4-1 g ci4 * fa€0-114 * : (n Oft- 1 7 WU 317 I i .dt C d (w)tTi 2.11 T-FE5 tR TERT at.167 x 10 5 r2 1495 mileichcif fdr7TP: 1100 kg/m3.9 m2 ti Q4) P:rk ark 31.)A1:57 0.4 47 4 fr-zr-{ .Th 0.4.17 0 "4.21T AccHibi "ITCR-Qq * 150 kg/s-m2 * I frkR 310.1.q.6 bar. fizr ftcr4Z-{ cl-lIchR 3471dtT T1711 .cht11-11-1 31TR-2T-chid 2.495 cidrf 4 t = 800 .m ? (ii) ft -cr€7 7-rf PL -T4 49 trT cw-r 108 W/m3 rich nt:ir T21T ? 20 (TO k!. 7cr clzif 3141 kur °R1 I (ii) .5 3#. (114 22°C . 800 J/kg-K F2TT 30 W/m-K tur miff (i) s f.4 F-DTN-M-NFDB 7 [Contd.47 7 4-II4.W1 4r$ -th c14 0.ru(i) -RfeT1 me I evtiqi ‘5114 qr -r f71T nit : R = 287 J/kg-K y = 1.3-I-14 ifff 5 cm f7-kr-T 4 5 x 107 W/m3 tS 31 77 #21ffi .

50 kJ/kg-K ° (b) (i) A closed cylindrical vessel 0.4 x=0 Vi = 0.166 1. It cools the condenser with ocean water coming in at 12°C and returned at 15°C.114 0654 1703 1109 0.001 m3/kg Pg = 9.2 m long is filled with water upto a height of 0. (a) A small power plant produces 25 kg/s steam at 3 MPa.417 0353 20 1.60 0. Given : h45°C = 188.] .763 1.145 I I 1121 1. -o 1.62 0.Fanno line (Adiabatic constant area flow with friction) table y = F4 1‘1 0.59 kPa tt h600°C — 3682 _ 3MPa STip = 7. Find the speed of the vessel about its vertical axis.8 m from the bottom.58 0.124 0615 1828 1119 0635 1.105 1091 1.079 4f Lmax D 0576 0491 0. required mass of ocean flow water. 8 20 10 F-DTN-M-NFDB [Contd.213 1188 1. 600°C in the boiler.674 1646 3.2 m in diameter and 1. Find (i) (ii) net power output. when the axial depth of water is zero. Condenser exit is 45°C. e P p Po P.64 T — T* e ---7 .

64 1109 0674 1646 1121 1105 1.213 1188 1-166 1145 I 4f Lino.1411 25 kg/s 3-117 3 MPa. T "ZTF5 4. { (14) *1 -4 44 # I qTi t 3Tg-4 T.T.a cit( (Elfin ti 'tlaa t&I Thig * EFF VW) t MCF-hl y = F4 Ati 0.] .50 kJ/kg-K 71111 (ii) fqqr 4 37.576 0-491 0417 0.-zr F-DTN-M-NFDB 9 * 10 [Contd. 7-@ -f -4 34V m T11 i 717 -cud 71Icf t -4a1 awi.124 0615 1.7 gotI4-114 20 fWCT*1 WIN 0.079 3.828 0.703 0.)-c41 4 24 #. (34) 44 eit 4 1.62 1114 0654 1. 600°C TR a4-9.8 m ti 6.TfaT t I qg Tisinq 15°C TR 12°C TR 347 Wrrdff .-11ohR 4 0. e e .1 1-2 m t.353 20 1. Ti7 . 137 M h600°C = 3682 3MPa = 7.091 1. P P Po . Po 1.2 m -.58 T T . D 0. c1. 311 (i) t lTiNrm..4) 51cf Tfrg . qRTIT{ 45°C #711 fRit4 Tirj \Yid TNT : h45°C = 188.4 x=0 _ V1 = 0001 m3/kg 45°C = 9.59 kPa .60 1119 0-635 1-763 0.

Air enters the heating section at 10°C and 70 percent relative humidity at the rate of 35 m3/min. Determine (i) (ii) temperature and relative humidity of air when it leaves the heating section. Heater Sat. It consists of a heating section and a humidifier that supplies wet steam (saturated) at 100°C. and (iii) the rate at which water is added to the air in the humidifying section. h = 2675 kJ/kg Humidifier --> 20°C 60% 10°C 70% —> 35 m3/min C. 10 (c) An air-conditioning system (see figure) operates at a total pressure of 1 atm.) . 20 F-DTN-M-NFDB 10 [Contd.) Also draw skeleton Psychrometric chart represention showing the process. steam 100°C. the rate of heat transfer to the heating section. It leaves at 20°C and 60% relative humidity.(ii) How would you define the strength of shock wave ? What do you mean by weak shock ? Also find the expression for the strength of shock in terms of density ratio.

] Irrq-q F-DTN-M-NFDB . d W174 cINA 41 014 TGHT 31.uT 4 7.iv-r sr--F Tr4 ch q 100°C. h = 2675 kJ/kg 34-T 10°C 70% —> 35 m3/min 20°C 60% w CD ® dR -41L Tr tTT 9-ft niI4 §1 20 11 [Contd.r.6 q 1x1+{24 t Tr:Frd ? ? sulTr 3Trc1 tk4 trRiTrRrd 7-eTzi aTrErwr # Tito.7 f-Th e d 3-Tr--. iiii424 10 ciallttehl ffleM 1 atm i RW@ GI l R41 3TTt Tr--r t I w# lob Wcfq d tr{ 31 irfq (mac 7) i000c VZ H414 TMT * I 3{1dr -om 10°C err 70 mr rcrq 35 m3/min Tft h I tle 20°C tri 72:11. 60% R:179NV 311tH c_. c.)(11 * 111ci T1W : ) (ii) (iii) 3Tr r # -11T4 zir qi.(ii) TrErn.(-1.2T1 di.

(a) A steel strip emerges from hot roll section of a steel mill at a constant speed of 0.5 x 10-5 m2/s and 0-68.037 Re" Pr1/3 -i Symbols have the usual meaning.) .4. (ii) (iii) Neglecting radiation from the steel strip. 1 m and 0-003 m respectively. Neglect the variation in strip temperature across its width and thickness. The length. Air at a mean velocity and free stream temperature of 20 m/s and 20°C respectively flows transversely over the strip. Neglecting radiation from the steel strip.1 m/s and a temperature of 500°C. The thermal conductivity. 620 J/kg and 0-7. calculate the steel strip temperature at the trailing edge. (i) Write the governing equation for the temperature distribution along the length of the strip. are 7850 kg/m3. derive an expression for the temperature of steel strip. kinematic viscosity and Prandtl number for air at 20°C are respectively 0044 W/m-K. Density. specific heat and emissivity of steel strip. width and thickness of the steel strip are 10 m. 4. F-DTN-M-NFDB 12 20 [Contd. respectively. The following correlation for convection heat transfer may be used : Nu = 0.

(3T) r{irra fiT@ trt o1 m/s 79-R.±0-1k .m 4 -II 4 ai:kdlq k frll b oti.Hr aturr 4. 1 m Oz11 0003m% I 1:1t 3f1/2 .] . 4.49 20 m/s RTT 20°C tut URI ql4 3f41# 'Tr& # I WO fate.s-. #q-rt 71t. feI+-droRgo 14.r-werr tzt.7zrr ifTb7 10 m. 7850 kg/m3.5 x 10-5 m2/s 0-68 4 fq]U]dR] (0 11.27-AT : Tf.rrt ft7r1 f 0 folk.2i # I 20 F-DTN-M-NFDB 13 [Contd.ion 9717 4F 7 I (iii) 7zErrd- 4 fart(ur cf. fo]] 41TFUT q-INtif UT T7 #C&IT q l 7120°C TR sh41-Y]: 0044 W/m-K..) diiutr -7-7 urcr ocr 41 3T.4 far.-si7rr cmff ac\ii i4xif A14-1q1.*IT 4 c1Lc1cr ff-24-t d'r ci-) r{:crr 500°C UN 1 395R21] UUT flitc161] # I 7:crru zut Phi-RI.4.7 # I ±61-11.vr -7-41 IQ -g7 wiciAur fr Trr94 TfErra fit . 620 J/kg (1211] 0.037 Re" Pr1/3 x-/ 14k7R-9-4 *11411-4 31.15'? dv--11 Irld71 Ti] fCTT 717 -Plug Tr9g I A f rr 4 dit.4 sr-47 ft-7 7r Nu = 0.1 ay.

4. Sketch five cycles (all versions of Rankine cycle) that may qualify for such a job. 5.] . 2. 3. Particulate Emission Smoke Emission NOx Emissions HC Emissions SOx Emissions 10 F-DTN-M-NFDB 14 [Contd. 2. Antioxidant Corrosion inhibitor Anti icing agent Antiknock agent Metal deactivator 10 (ii) What are the measures required for the reduction of the following emissions from diesel engine ? 1. 3. 4. 5. 20 (c) (i) What are the effects of the following additives that are added to petrol to improve its combustion and other characteristics ? 1.(b) A designer is given the job of designing a steam based power plant to compete with a nuclear power plant. Justify your answer with the notion that nuclear power is cheaper under the given steam-water conditions.

(in 3c\LF3P frft9r.r -o.1-1 ? 1. am:Eh z ttn WITT 1 5. 47T 3TrimirddIfiTtzr -kcif '447 TT4 rniTr4 4. SOK 3R:E4R.] .4r (kf -9* ft5cr TER.4r it t -rfrITTITT Tr %1 20 (Tr) 6) vi 4. 3S 2. *17 TRW 4.yell fRW--4 6 u W(-4 t aTig-FiT ZITRT 10 >TM 5. 3. trftf -2(r. IIC B--zM7 5.-@ TT f i r 41 miry e 3r 3TFIT. \Tit-1k Q.5r---cr) 3r-cici div %WWII 3374 6tik TR? ie-r -{ 6 9Trcr-. TN-mu P419 3. NOx 4.T W{ Tit 1-114 TO 4 TruFe Tr9ft .v0 ? 1.#z'rqfs>1i5d (a) ca.5d yi 31:1t k) -. F-DTN-M-NFDB 15 10 [Contd.* 2. -r r.

25°C with a volume of 10 m3. is 0008. The average temperature of the plate and free stream fluid temperature are respectively at 120°C and 20°C respectively. Also explain the uses of flow net. (a) With the help of a neat sketch explain the concept of a flow net. Pr = 0. heat is lost by radiation at the rate of 100 kJ/hr while electronic instruments generate 75 kJ/hr inside the spacecraft. 12 (b) The average friction coefficient. Initially the air inside the spacecraft is at 1 bar. Clearly mention the various assumptions made.] .SECTION B 5. (d) In the event of failure of heaters in a spacecraft.65. Fluid properties known : density = 0. 12 4 (ii) Explain four deviations of the actual p — v diagram from the hypothetical p — v diagram of four stroke Otto cycle engine. when an incompressible fluid flows over a stationary flat surface with free stream velocity of 10 m/s.88 kg/m3 and specific heat = 1001 J/kg-K. (c) (i) Draw the actual p — v diagram of a four stroke Otto cycle engine and indicate the pumping loss by hatching. How long it will take to reach air temperature of 0°C ? F-DTN-M-NFIDB 16 8 12 [Contd. Flow over the plate is laminar. Estimate the average rate of heat transfer per unit area of the plate.

A1/4 -( ft.frirat aT . 1#7 7 t 4 4 c111 3717 ct)t .1 -4 fq! std-171: 120°C = 0.Itc.m wig d - oThIr ? 12 17 F-DTN-M-NFDB [Contd.v 3 -11 alt 8 fawd4 4rg (g) 344($i trrq urtr rwr 61 ffir 11 6)t- Ng 6IP( '14 75 kJ/hr 411 t 51c11 firhkti f clkf 100 kJ/hr c cl-*I 14) 31-1114.717 diRT 13T# 1 1.65.c 1 11 ?-lcli fai4q A T147 ' ci ch 31 cbcA.88 1 20°C kg/m3 cP4 SAM = 1001 J/kg-K.v T11 4 12 attaash ntrr 4 mist) •314 a ct) p . Pr = 0.v ..* k.9 bgTrVi 5.] .1 3i. 34d-RaT it a7 99 1 bar.19 . tad.-4 (ii ) AT 3 1Tha 3Tra - 1 -U p .i *- g c14 Ertkr 11:r "d'4T txt clke fdrUff 3i ki 0008 t c114 34 M clkei re. (3T) 'Id. 4re- -A(g Tlf 7 -(4) 311rich 4 A r 1741g • -- 39 Pt t 5 i i ATE t 12 V 'Leh ft7 4trra krr 1() m/s RN Z L ztsi 341 17 cltrf trh qi4 d Aqig TT. si rt n -7 . 25°C I 9 TT dig 1 10 m3 andR.-1-trt -crtsmwr{ •YId itcR 51Pr wrzu ket tr A-71 1 (4) (i)alt p .-c 1hF 4 Am Tu 3i 14 7 .

tsat = 107°C).3 bar (saturation temperature.05 kg/s helium entering at 1000 kPa. For steam. It is proposed to double the flow rate of air to heat the same for the same rise in temperature in the same gas heater.6 151. Explain any assumptions needed here.5 143.8 158. What should be the pressure needed if the overall heat transfer coefficient remains the same for both the operating conditions ? Specific heat of air =1005 kJ/kg-K.8 165. the following pressure and the corresponding saturation temperature are known • p (bar) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 tsat(°C) 120. One way of doing this is to increase the condensing pressure of saturated steam. (a) Derive aT) OP )s (DP av aS )p aT )p av al3 from the first principles.193 kJ/kg-K 12 6. 20 (b) A tubular gas heater heats air flowing at the rate of 5.4 20 F-DTN-M-NFDB 18 [Contd. Find the rate of heat transfer neglecting kinetic energy. C p He = 5.le) A small expander (turbine with heat transfer) has 0. The power output on shaft is measured at 55 kW. 300 K.] .0 170-4 175.5 kg/s from 20°C to 75°C using saturated steam condensing at 1.2 133.

6 151.5 kg/s Srdt0 ait wift ftftr dr* cip-yr w--341 dig doh T'P Alt{ WdlT ykir ch( f(Lit fit 1.ro-r d 12 c p He = 5.4) .05 kg/s tratirr 1000 kPa.4 175.193 kJ/kg-K al-:1 'tr : 0 -77 (30 SRN fira ( Dv ) 1 DT ) JP JS SL.1.2 133.zTF W(T91 T.14Z 3t.3 bar 7 tiNdri 1 'aTtr T1-'7 ITTEF.m1--r zig tliTr lirct z1Itt 1 --frr 31-ftgft qr4 ftwir titIdd qI4 4 'Hir ea Tr.41.4 20 F-DTN-M-NFDB 19 [Contd.7 err 31-ffe4 717 1-11 34 -cileirr t fafFP: err tt.T (as) (av) )P)T 20 tf-7 I 4 4 Tie 31r-7-zrT ftt *cr4-113# dl 1. gTr4mfitGIs .(7) 6.FTTR 14 -11-4 711d 9 7 8 6 4 5 3 p (bar) 2 tsat(°C) 120. = 107°C) r71 ch1 20°C 75°C dish 5.5 143. 300 K 7 SOT TCd1 1 4 14 :tlith 55 kW -1141 111 4 I iirchir DiI 11 .8 165.0 170. 4tIlt4b (TE1:11 31f7uT 771 dtc115-0 .] . DS \ ( DP) av .8 158.4 0.'(11 t ? ft-2td-a# 1005 kJ/kg-K. it (N) (s 1)71 WCd1" (TETTF c114 t.

NFDB 20 [Contd. Also draw the P — V and T — S diagrams of the cycle. (a) Draw the schematic arrangement of a simple cycle with intercooled and heat exchanger and explain briefly the working principle.] . (b) Explain how the Diesel Fuel is rated by the following with their salient features : (i) (ii) (iii) Critical Compression Ratio Method — CCR Calculated Cetane Index — CCI Diesel Index 8 4 8 20 F. Draw their trends as a function of pressure ratio. 12 (iii) Give two disadvantages and their effects of open combustion chambers. Further.DTN-M. derive expressions for specific work output and the efficiency of a simple cycle with intercooled and heat exchanger. swirl in compression ignition engine. 4 7..(c) (i) What is the purpose of shrouding the inlet valve in compression ignition engines ? 4 (ii) With the help of cross-section figures and schematics show the shrouded inlet valve and masked cylinder head for producing net in-cylinder angular momentum viz.

r d 3-T. Tich &ATN 7 Rcmciv ft:Jr aft giki iiAcer ttr4 5i4 I 20 PiHreircv 1Id TrEdT 3(i) Tinr Ter'r (ii) Jinidr g -2T 313c 7vati -r : 3Ticrm 43c fafiT — 8 ft-7 Jp-ir 21 — #r 31 4 (111) ihticd 11 4tT F-DTN-M-NFDB 8 [Contd.TN T (TO Tcfg 4 0.friGt)( Tcru12 4 ufTztt cor aRt 3r441 tr47 -7.3r 7rt7t T--4 spfrq 31q f7 -sfilt 1urrq-1 . [qqk 34(3T) Td TN-Fur . 14 31driTr ? 4 u tarMSt %.4.] . Tr.ft. 0 tz c4di few.24T T .of itcol az T-{4 [doh 4 { Tlittr T{.fq itt loadrr ozoiqrr -01(14 5. d717frn TEFET J21. 1. fibqififq & &]aT-21T 1711 (tIdlcb1 Ozr -1]-1 th -k *4. P -V B.S 3&@ W 4W I TrA f(tR far71g qr01:1 T14 dfiTh $k4 TrRTR 0-r -c47t] 33f 1211 T.471FiR ceri .7 d u.

It gains a net heat of 450 W from the surroundings. The inlet state of compressor is 60 kPa and — 34°C.47 hwater. (i) (ii) refrigeration load COP (iii) theoretical maximum refrigerant load for the same power input to the compressor.2 MPa and 65°C and it leaves at 42°C.23 kJ/kg = 0.] .25 kg/s and it leaves at 26°C. Sketch T — S diagram and determine. It rejects heat to cooling water that enters the condenser at 18°C and at the rate of 0. Given properties : 60 k Pa h —C 34° 230.23 kJ/kg 42°C X 60 kPa 111. 26°C = 108.16 kJ/kg 65'C h4200 kPa 111.(c) A commercial refrigerator with refrigerant 134a as the working fluid keeps a space cooled at — 30°C. I8°C = 75.03 kJ/kg hI200 kPa = 295.9 kJ/kg 20 F-DTN-M-NFDB 22 [Contd. The refrigerant enters the condenser at 1.4 kJ/kg h water.

23 kJ/kg — 4°C 2 60 kPa X 111. 26°C = 108.134a Tf TI*1 1a1f .941. 0115 31-dir# cils thed7 = 230.(*) kion -Tt zlch 3171Th •Trz4 (co-r c1211 TZIF 5171.] 23 .d .23 kJ/kg 111. Tit 450 W T— S 3T1tU '4777 REIT (i) (ii) (iii) 7471t-q afwffrf TT7DUI h-0 4 c 6 3 kya tr77 : 5171179.16 kJ/kg 65°C h1200 kPa _ 111.0.9 kJ/kg F-DTN-M-NFDB 20 [Contd.a ART Tum t *rf4q # 18°C q -lirkc-qTte 0-25 kg/s a1 TOT T g 71T 26°C 7 q1#7 65°C 1.47 hwater.2 MPa d7 Plcbdcli # I SitTI2TT 42°C IR frIchrldf # I Tilfft7 7 A47T Sidill:I 7 qkli 60 kPa 9.34°C t 148471 .30°C 771 .03 kJ/kg h1200 kPa = 295. . 18°C = 75'4 kJ/kg hwater. 131:ET TIT4CdT t I 77-1 4a.23 =.

(a) An electric furnace consisting of two flat surface heaters.8. 20 (ii) (iii) Calculate the required electrical power. The plate and side walls have emissivities of 0. There is one open feedwater heater operating at 800 kPa with an exit as saturated liquid at 0°C. The heaters and the plate are 2 m x 2 m on a side. a pressure of 3 MPa and superheat of 80°C. and each heater is separated from the plate by a distance of 0. top and bottom. Each heater is well insulated on its back side and has an emissivity of 0. both heaters are at 800 K while the side walls are at 400 K. Sketch the corresponding T — S diagram. (i) (ii) F-DTN-M-NFDB Sketch the schematic of this plant. 24 [Contd. (i) Sketch the system and its equivalent thermal network and label all pertinent resistances and potentials.62. is used to heat treat a coating that is applied to both surfaces of a thin metal plate inserted midway between the heaters.] . (b) A low temperature power plant operates with a refrigerant maintaining — 20°C in the condenser.5 m. View factor between the heaters and the plate is 0. Calculate the associated resistances and driving potentials. Under steady operating conditions.9 at its exposed surface.6 and 0.3 respectively.

1 iiumr Tlf-7 I 20 fq-qq.T 0.0 t I .6 3t-.S F-DTN-M-NFDB 25 WH-1$7 [Contd. wr f7 faiTth' gaTN 72Tr Trift aTraTEr surm4W (ii) me4 %ffi 1.1 1 ipt Tr{ 3T11117 fwzrr Trzrr t.711 T .21T tUrr 7 r4-11. 0. 7Tf5 a1 fluirlf Tf 31577 51-tendTh-Rf WEI -7Tr3 (a) t TtEfThq 4 .5 m 7tri-74 r471f9-d t •atir 3-TQ slew 6t-f4chcil 0.g-).62 * (i) 7 #1. TErcr wcg fMcismMrf t-zugfldrtIwg tit t I 7TEE 727 trT 4t/T Tl ff-zrd fwzrr (IN* tit 14.11:g c1211 41 Wit 174 Thri 0.t 72TT c C >iliTutrzr Aida.3 t i 3TEITTdMcf.2TT 80°C 3fdwcr w4T7 WaTtIT{T#RT fwv srciRtrr *1 17 800 kPa Nterld cif t BNT erfg 1 tc‘LI T1W).] .ch 774 2mx2mt BtIT ThT Ifg c\ .20°C (tit 3 MPa a c . I (i) airar 1 (ii) WC.crra Ta mw d Pi dzir (31) Jirb tiff Tur f7-4 T{:r )0) ci.800 K 1T( 'l4 14174 c113# t 4-qft 400 K'1-{ t I .9 t I lit 7211 7174 tqft d1 ( acktalchcil 9111-RI: 0.dT vrIT.7 --f A of 1a1 dzir tilen oh 143-Ta1 '01.7BT t I 0°C 'TT TfTTi 4z11.

. (iv) Indicate in your answer which refrigerant properties are needed. 20 (c) Discuss briefly how the following alternate fuels considered for Compression Ignition Engines i.e. algae and municipal wastes (ii) (iii) (iv) Hydrogen Gas Ethyl Alcohol Cashewnut Shell Liquid (CNSL) 4x5=20 F-DTN-M-NFDB 26 .(iii) Set up equations only to compute extraction fraction of the flow out of turbine and the turbine work per unit mass flowing through boiler. water hyacinth. Diesel Engines compare with respect to introduction into the engine. calorific value. part load and full load operation and safety aspect : (i) Biogas produced from cow dung.

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