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• The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaboration between groups of telecommunications associations, to make a globally applicable third generation (3G) mobile phone system specification within the scope of the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 project of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). 3GPP specifications are based on evolved Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) specifications. • 3GPP standardization encompasses Radio, Core Network and Service architecture

• (GSM) specifications

• The 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) is a collaboration between telecommunications associations to make a globally applicable third generation (3G) mobile phone system specification within the scope of the ITU- IMT-2000 project. In practice, 3GPP2 is the standardization group for CDMA2000, the set of 3G standards based on earlier 2G CDMA technology.

• technology.


• 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2),which specifies standards for another 3G technology based on IS-95 (CDMA), • commonly known as CDMA2000.

• Qualcomm created an experimental wideband CDMA system called CDMA2000 which unified the W-CDMA (3GPP) and CDMA2000 (3GPP2) network technologies into a single design for a worldwide standard air interface

targets to provide the framework for the definition of the thirdgeneration (3G) mobile systems.3G Evolution Paths • The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) launched the International Mobile Telecommunications2000 (IMT-2000) program. together with the main industry and standardization bodies worldwide. which. ٣٧ .

On the other hand. is focused in the successful commercial realization of universal mobile telecommunication services (UMTS) globally. ٣٨ . the CDMA Development Group (CDG) is the equivalent organization supporting the successful evolution and commercialization of cdma2000. an association with over 250 member organizations.3G Evolution Paths • The UMTS Forum. and endorsed by the GSM Association and the 3G Americas.

٣٩ .IMT-2000 3G Technologies and Evolution Paths • high data rates: 144 kbps in all environments and 2 Mbps in low-mobility and indoor environments • symmetrical and asymmetrical data transmission • circuit-switched and packet-switched-based services • speech quality comparable to wire-line quality • improved spectral efficiency • several simultaneous services to end users for multimedia services • seamless incorporation of second-generation cellular systems • global roaming • open architecture for the rapid introduction of new services and technology.

Our 3G Evaluation ٤٠ .

as opposed to circuit switching. • GPRS data transfer is typically charged per megabyte of traffic transferred. where a certain Quality of Service (QoS) is guaranteed during the connection.GPRS • General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet oriented Mobile Data Service available to users of the 2G cellular communication systems Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). • GPRS is a best-effort packet switched service. ٤١ . independent of whether the user actually is using the capacity or is in an idle state.. GPRS provides data rates from 56 up to 114 kbit/s. while data communication via traditional circuit switching is billed per minute of connection time.

that is.5G". but now by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).GPRS • 2G cellular systems combined with GPRS are often described as "2. It provides moderate speed data transfer. ٤٢ . It was originally standardized by European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). by using unused Time division multiple access (TDMA) channels in GSM system. a technology between the second (2G) and third (3G) generations of mobile telephony. • GPRS is integrated into GSM Release 97 and newer releases.

GPRS • • • • GPRS upgrades GSM data services providing: Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) Instant Messaging Internet Applications through Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) • service internetworking with the Internet (IP protocols) • Short Message Service (SMS) ٤٣ .

EDGE Circuit Switched is a possible future development. High-speed data applications such as video services and other multimedia benefit from EGPRS' • increased data capacity. • EDGE is generally classified as 2.(EDGE) • Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) is a digital mobile phone technology that allows increased data transmission rates and improved data transmission reliability. • EDGE can be used for any packet switched application. ٤٤ . • such as an Internet connection.75G.

EDGE uses higher-order PSK/8 phase shift keying (8PSK) for the upper five of its nine modulation and coding schemes.(EDGE) • In addition to Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK). • EDGE produces a 3-bit word for every change in carrier phase. EGPRS modulation and coding scheme (MCS) ٤٥ .

CDMA ٤٦ .

2288 Mcps. both forward and reverse • links use a single.25 Mhz.SR1 is often referred to as "1X".CDMA Standardization • Spreading Rate 1 (SR1) .e. Multi-Carrier).25 MHz. each with a chip rate • of 1.6964 Mcps ٤٧ . A SR3 Forward CDMA • Channel uses 3-Direct-Sequence spread carriers (i. • • Spreading Rate 3 (SR3) . A SR3 Reverse CDMA channel uses a • single Direct-Sequence spread carrier with a chip rate of 3.SR3 is often referred to as "3X". with a chip rate of 1.2288 Mcps and a bandwidth of 1. Allowing • for the required "Guard Bands" this requires a RF carrier Bandwidth of 1. In this mode. Direct-Sequence spread carrier.

as with the forward Link.Direct-Sequence (DS) • In the Direct-Sequence configuration. when using SR3. ٤٨ . • CDMA-2000 does not use time synchronization on the uplink and therefore cannot use codes that • are orthogonal with IS-95. Thus. the whole available link bandwidth is allocated to one • direct spread narrow band (SR1) or wideband (SR3) carrier. yields no benefits. splitting the reverse link carrier into several • narrow band components.

٤٩ .generation CDMA systems. in order to evenly occupy the whole system bandwidth available and In this respect FH/MC DS-CDMA systems exhibit compatibility with the existing 2nd.DS-CDMA system is a broadband wireless mobile system constituted by multiple narrowband • DS-CDMA sub-systems.Multi-carrier CDMA • FH/MC DS-CDMA system the entire bandwidth of future broadband systems can be divided into a number of subbands and each sub-band can be assigned a subcarrier. in order to occupy the whole system bandwidth and to efficiently utilize the available frequency resources.and 3rd. the set of sub carriers can be distributed in line with the users’ instantaneous information rate requirements. • According to the prevalent service requirements. FH techniques are employed for each user. FH techniques are employed for each user. Again.

Multi-carrier CDMA Transmitter ٥٠ .

Multi-carrier CDMA Receiver ٥١ .

Multi-carrier CDMA ٥٢ .

Or there are sub channels that exhibit a sufficiently high SIR. However. a range of different access strategies might be offered by the FH/MC DS CDMA system. which are not occupied by any other users. • • However. then the new user accesses the network by spreading its transmitted evenly across the sub channels. if all the sub channels have been occupied and the SIR of each of the sub channels is insufficiently high. Specifically. • ٥٣ .Multi-carrier CDMA • Access Strategy • When a new user attempts to access the channel transmission. the simplest strategy for a new user to access the network is by randomly selecting one or several sub channels. if there are sub channels. in order to minimize the interference inflicted by the new user to the already active users. This access scheme imposes the minimum possible impact on the QoS of the users already actively communicating. then the new user can access the network using these passive sub channels or The sub channels exhibiting a high SIR.

WCDMA ٥٤ .

WCDMA VS Multi-carrier CDMA ٥٥ .

• Transmitter Performance Requirements • Term channel refers to the first adjacent 5MHz UMTS frequency band.001 for the Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH) must be achieved with the appropriate test channel settings.WCDMA Performance Requirements • Receiver Performance Requirements • Bit Error Rate (BER) of 0. • Frequency Bands and Channel Arrangements → ٥٦ .

WCDMA ٥٧ .

٥٨ .WCDMA • FDD frequency band allocation.

WCDMA ٥٩ .

The use of OVSF and scrambling codes is different in the downlink and uplink.WCDMA SPREADING codes • WCDMA uses a two level code system: orthogonal spreading codes and pseudo random scrambling codes. In order to support variable data rates. In the downlink. the WCDMA air interface allows for per-channel selectable spreading factors. and this family of spreading codes is called • Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes. ٦٠ .

WCDMA SPREADING codes • OVSF Codes the ratio of the data symbol rate to the chip rate is the spreading factor SF. and by varying the spreading factor for a specific code in the range from 4 to 512. a wide range of data rates can be supported ٦١ . • for WCDMA.

٦٢ .FDD: Frequency Division Duplex • Frequency-division duplexing means that the transmitter and receiver operates at different carrier frequencies.

As the amount of uplink data increases. ٦٣ . It emulates full duplex communication over a half duplex communication link.Time-Division Duplex (TDD) • Time-Division Duplex (TDD) is the application of timedivision multiplexing to separate uplink and downlink channels.Time division duplex has a strong advantage in the case where the asymmetry of the uplink and downlink data speed is variable. more bandwidth can dynamically be allocated to that and as it shrinks it can be taken away.

Time-Division Duplex (TDD) ٦٤ .

WCDMA • W-CDMA is a wideband spread-spectrum mobile air interface that utilizes the direct-sequence spread spectrum method of asynchronous code division multiple access to achieve higher speeds and support more users compared to the implementation of time division multiplexing (TDMA) used by 2G GSM networks. ٦٥ .