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The inTernaTional magazine of The gea group issue 05 marCh 2008

The wonders of olive oil healThy demand for goaT’s milk CreaTing The righT aTmosphere for arT

generaTe is published by the gea group aktiengesellschaft, an international technology group with operating subsidiaries in around 50 countries. listed on mdaX stock index, the company focuses on specialty mechanical engineering – especially process engineering and equipment. The principal markets in which it operates are foodstuffs, dairy, beverages, brewery systems, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, cosmetics, petro-chemical, biofuels, energy technology as well as marine. The gea group is one of the world’s market and technology leaders in 90 per cent of its businesses. The group, headquartered in Bochum, germany, reported sales of eUr 4.3 billion in 2006 and employed some 19,200 people as at september 30, 2007. Thermal engineering

welcome to the fifth issue of generaTe, published by the gea group aktiengesellschaft.
Dear Readers, One of the biggest challenges the world faces today is the need to provide for the energy supplies of the future in ways that will minimize the impact on the environment. We need more energy than ever before to fuel both the world’s traditional powerhouse economies and the rapidly developing economies in countries like China, India, Brazil and Mexico. As our feature article in this issue suggests, the answer is likely to be found not in one but in a range of energy sources: fossil fuels and nuclear power will continue to be used, but complemented by an array of technologies from wind power to geothermal. Whatever the combination of energy sources, GEA’s businesses will be at the forefront of the efforts to develop them. GEA is making a difference in more than just energy generation. We’re improving the energy usage of whiskey distillers and boosting the productivity of the US dairy industry through our technical innovations. In this issue, we look at the shipping industry’s response to challenges created by environmental pressures, how cultural institutions can benefit from climate control technology, and the myriad benefits of olive oil. Of course, staying at the cutting edge of technology needs an organization that is fit and strong. GEA enjoyed a successful year in 2007, has a full order book and is one of the technology leaders in 90 per cent of the markets in which it operates. All this should ensure we remain well placed to help meet the needs of our customers worldwide.
Jürg oleas
Chairman of the Executive Board GEA Group Aktiengesellschaft

farm sysTems

emission ConTrol

air TreaTmenT

proCess engineering

pharma sysTems

proCess eqUipmenT

refrigeraTion

meChaniCal separaTion

Contact gea group aktiengesellschaft dorstener straße 484 44809 Bochum Tel: +49-(0)234-980-0 fax: +49-(0)234-980-1087 www.geagroup.com

FEATURE STORY THE HEAT IS ON – WITH THE WORLD DEMANDING MORE POWER, DIVERSITY IS THE KEY TO PROVIDING IT

HOLIDAY ON ICE

The rise of urban ice rinks

HOW TO DO IT

Step-by-step guide to pressing olive oil

LIQUID GOLD

Cholesterol buster, digestion aid, culinary godsend, fuel and cosmetic

SUPER NANNY

Goat’s milk growing in popularity

WHISKEY GALORE

New process saves energy

Q&A

Sea change: Tony Mason tells us how the shipping industry is handling environmental challenges

INNOVATION IN DAIRY INDUSTRY

CULTURAL REVOLUTION

Unique valve boosts US milk output and cuts dairy costs

Ensuring the best environment for museums and theaters

A DAY IN THE LIFE

Steffen Bersch is GEA`s guy in Dubai

ART IN ENGINEERING

THE LAST WORD

Global news from GEA

GENERATE MAGAZINE ISSUE 05

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SKATERS ARE VOTING WITH THEIR fEET AT RINKS IN fAMOUS CITY SETTINGS ACROSS THE WORLD.IN TODAY’S TECHNOLOGY-DRIVEN WORLD. AND WITH URBAN ICE RINKS BECOMING INCREASINGLY POPULAR. 2 . THERE’S SOMETHING WONDERfULLY OLD-fASHIONED AND ROMANTIC ABOUT OUTDOOR ICE SKATING.

designer. helping to build the world’s third 400-meter ice skating circuit in Amsterdam in 1961 and the first with direct expansion of ammonia in the tubes. 50 meters above ground level. with capacity for 1. The first rink with artificially other cities to follow suit. One hour on the ice can burn outdoor rink in Britain. The tourist locations with historic buildings added to the bottom of the skates. made of steel. Today’s modern ice skates. prompting cream afterwards. ice rinks when it built one in the Hotel de Ville in 1996. Grenco has also supplied ice rinks in Belgium. that outdoor skating on temporary ice rinks has really taken off and these days outdoor skating can be held against the backdrop of some of Europe’s most stunning buildings and under the stars.000m2 rink from December 2007 to January 2008. skating was a vital means of travel and winter trade along rivers. opened in 2004. frozen ice was the Glaciarium. The pioneers of ice skating strapped sharpened animal bones to their footwear to cross Europe’s frozen wastes some 4. engineer and service provider of refrigerating installations in the Netherlands and a key supplier to the country’s temporary and permanent ice rinks. of outdoor artificial rinks: The famous Hamburg and Cologne are among the German Rockefeller Center in New York City has cities to put up rinks in the winter. Mexico City’s famous Zocalo Square was the venue for a 3. constructing a huge one every year on the That rink first opened on Christmas Day Heumarkt. and in some unlikely locations.000 years ago. Grenco B. Nowhere is this more popular than in Britain. it’s a healthy without needing wooden sticks. the latter hosted ice skating for over 70 years. elegant eighteenth-century palace is a as a backdrop are proving an irresistible enabling skaters to propel themselves superb setting for skaters from November draw. Spain and the UK. 2004 on the first floor of the Eiffel Tower. Berlin. Moscow has constructed a temporary rink in with over 250. Japan and Dubai also have temporary rinks and a city center rink in Seoul in South Korea.200 skaters at any one time. opened in London in 1876 at a cost of £20. first It looks as though outdoor skating rinks took shape in the Netherlands in the One of the most famous is at Somerset are here to stay. in the shape of Netherlands-based Grasso and Grenco businesses.000 visitors from November to February. ong before it became a leisure activity. GENERATE MAGAZINE ISSUE 05 It’s in the last decade. Temporary sites in 13th century when sharp edges were House in London.000 Paris was one of the first continental for use by ‘noblemen and gentlemen in European cities to host a temporary ice rink certain conditions’. Grenco adapted and updated the existing compressors to create a system that allows the rink and the track to be at different temperatures – and even permits different temperatures on the straights and the corners of the circuit. of years. filling it with water. Industrial refrigeration manufacturing specialist Grasso has been supplying refrigeration equipment for ice rinks in Europe since the 1960s. Surely settings There’s nothing new about the appeal don’t get much better than that. 3 . Since then. Somerset House has nearly 500 calories – unless you reward Skaters have taken advantage of really caught the public imagination since yourself with a hot chocolate and whipped naturally occurring ice for hundreds skating began there in 2000. artificial rinks can be made enclosing a level area of ground. As well as being fun.000 people taking to the ice Red Square. Bruges. to January. just off the Strand. attracts close to 200.V. is a market-leading developer. and letting it freeze. have become a far more inclusive leisure It opened an even more spectacular rink in pursuit. Brussels and Bratislava in 1936 and is now a popular venue for have all followed the trend. skaters from October to April every year.GEA And icE GEA’s expertise with refrigeration technology goes back over 45 years. Temporary rinks have been put up even further afield. Although not the first temporary activity. All Grasso’s ice rink systems use environmentally friendly refrigerants. of the Kremlin. though. overlooked by the onion domes each season. Two fifths of Europe’s 90-plus temporary rinks are in British cities and towns. But today’s urban ice rinks are made by building a bed of sand or slab of concrete and running pipes across the ‘rink’ which contain frozen fluid so water placed on top will freeze. Not to be outdone. France. In colder climates. For example it has recently converted the cooling system of a 400-meter outdoor skating track in Ijsbaan Kennemerland to liquid carbon dioxide and added a state-of-the-art skating rink inside the circuit.

which was later wasted. extra virgin olive oil.Pressing olive oil Since 1990 global demand for olive oil has more than doubled. can actually be warmed up to 27°C (80ºF). As a result the major producing countries have been under intense pressure to boost yields in an energy efficient way while improving quality. supplies 40 per cent of the world’s olive oil. Spain. one of the world leaders in providing separators and decanters for a wide range of applications and industrial sectors. then washed to remove sand and soil. More than 95 per cent of this is extracted using a two-phase process which produces a first class product and. This is how it works… WASHING & CRUSHING First the harvested olives are cleaned of any leaves and twigs. This is important because foreign particles could spoil the purity and flavor of the oil. because it uses less water than other systems. The launch of decanters with CETEC technology in 2001 brought a further increase in yield of one to two percentage points. the top producing country. This has gone hand-in-hand with the development of new and better technology in the shape of high performance separators. This eliminated the need to dilute the olive paste with water. Washed olives are fed into a hammer mill where they are crushed into a paste by highspeed rotating hammers. It also increased yield and the quality of the product. The paste is stirred slowly in a specially designed mixer. usually labeled as cold or first pressing. at low temperature. ExpErts in oil rEcovEry GEA company Westfalia Separator. is better for the environment. Surprisingly. MALAXATION This process allows the microscopic droplets of oil to concentrate so that they can be extracted more easily. Lower grades can be warmed to between 30° and 35°C (86º-95ºF). has been involved in the olive oil recovery business since the 1950s. In the 1990s the company harnessed its process and engineering know-how to develop an environmentally friendly two-phase separation process. called a malaxer. olivEs pUlp 2-stAGE mAlAxEr 4 .

SEPARATION A decanter separates the oil from the pomace – solids and water – by centrifugal force.lonG lifE Some olive trees can live for thousands of years. Nothing is wasted as the pomace can then be separated into pits and pulp: olive pits make good fuel while the pulp may be sold as fertilizer or a high-fiber additive for animal feed. A second decanter stage can recover some more oil from the pomace. STORAGE After processing the olive oil is stored in large containers in cool. vAlUABlE Gift According to Greek mythology Athens was named after the goddess Athena when she offered the city an olive tree. it is filtered. high performance separators. They are a key feature of the United Nations’ emblem and the Great Seal of the United States. The locals much preferred this gift to Poseidon’s offering of a salt water spring.300 years old. 2-phAsE dEcAntEr cEntrifUGE oil pomAcE GENERATE MAGAZINE ISSUE 05 5 . Once it has settled. making it more than 2. bottled and sold. usually after about two months. The oil is then ‘polished’ with self-cleaning. It is believed that a tree from the olive grove where Plato established his academy was still standing in the 1980s. dry and dark rooms. pEAcE siGn Olive leaves have been symbols of peace since Biblical times.

IE IVE N GH . E fTE E O Of W OR R I IL LD N .L RE W TH A IV . . O A NO NT D T.6 H OI GO OM L Of L H D” ER A A IT S P TH S B AND DES S E N EOP M EE . Iq S N O U AR Y S Ef RE DI RED OL ID OU OU ITS AW ET. f CR IS U E N O I IN TR LE DIT A R C BED C IT B E S E KI RE ION EC RR TAP NT IT TC A O A L U A HE SIN AL ME NE E I RIE S “L N GL BE M AN NG S.

As well as a myriad of culinary uses – for frying. she lived for an astonishing 122 years. made history as the longest-living human since records began.9 million tonnes were consumed in 2006/7. for example. followed by Italy. who took up fencing at 80 and was still riding her bike when she was 100. marinades. Oils are graded according to the content of oleic acid.8 per cent acidity (0. South Africa and the Middle East – and their numbers are growing. It is also gentle on the stomach. fish. it can be used as an eye makeup remover and as a shaving oil. wine and olive oil. Since then olive oil has brought great wealth. Olive plantations can also be found in Australia.9 million tonnes were consumed in 2006/7. Spain is by far the largest producer. Around ninety-five per cent of the world’s 750 million olive trees are in the Mediterranean region. sauces. Greece and Turkey. power and well-being to Mediterranean countries. Nevertheless. In Greek and Roman times athletes used to rub it over their bodies. On average. Their color reflects the degree of ripeness.8 grams of FFA per 100 grams of oil. which strengthen the immune system. the United States. promoting the healing of ulcers and aiding digestion. Today global olive oil consumption is at an all-time high. which help to regulate cholesterol and ward off cancer and heart disease. the French were less likely to suffer from cardio-vascular diseases than their north European neighbors or people in the United States. olive oil – generally virgin oil blended with lower grade refined olive oil. or fully ripe olives are collected later. the finer and fruitier the taste. Olives harvested at the beginning of the season are green. especially for sensitive skin. olive oil’s important contribution to a healthy diet is assured for the foreseeable future. virgin – is also cold pressed and acidity must not exceed two per cent.Acid tEst Olive oil is graded according to the FFA (free fatty acid) content. Jeanne Calment. Today global olive oil consumption is at an all-time high. 7 . attributed her amazing longevity to olive oil which she added to all her food. has no more than 0. sausage and vegetables – it’s also found in soap and provided fuel for oil lamps. Born in the Provençal city of Arles.8 grams of free fatty acid per 100 grams of oil). a single olive tree bears around 20 kilograms of fruit a year. The heart-friendly properties of olive oil were pinpointed in 2005 by researchers at the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia. As well as being an excellent moisturizer. There are hundreds of olive varieties. a simple unsaturated GENERATE MAGAZINE ISSUE 05 fatty acid. who found that the naturally occuring chemical oleocanthal had similar properties to ibuprofen. the top grade. In fact olive oil was the original fuel for the Olympic torch. which is equivalent to three to four liters of oil. As if to confirm this. despite a rich diet. uring the 1990s scientists were keen to discover why. it’s unlikely to take off as a headache cure. who died in 1997. more than double that for 1990/91. It is believed that olive trees were first cultivated on Crete around 3500 BC. extra virgin. Lovers of natural beauty remedies continue to praise its versatility. Like wine the quality of olive oil is determined by the area of cultivation and climate. She even used it as a moisturizer. salad dressings and preserving cheese. So. The lower the content of oleic acid. South America. Jeanne Calment was not the first to appreciate the cosmetic value of extra virgin olive oil. ranging from the Greek Kalamata to the French Picholine. Extra virgin – comes from the first pressing of the olives and contains no more than 0. The answer pointed to a high intake of fruits. Olive oil is the healthiest vegetable oil because it is high in antioxidants. whereas the black. as you would need to swallow 500 grams of olive oil to equal one dose of ibruprofen. and monounsaturated fats. However. With people becoming more aware of the link between what they eat and major diseases. When mixed with sea salt it makes a good natural body scrub or you can add it to melted beeswax for an effective lip balm. According to the International Olive Council 2. vegetables. According to the International Olive Council 2. This sprightly woman. with more than 200 million olive trees. the research helped to explain further the health advantages of the Mediterranean diet.

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even though goat’s milk production accounts for approximately two per cent of the audited world milk market. chocolate and skin care products GENERATE MAGAZINE ISSUE 05 9 . the market is growing by ten per cent every year and this increased demand has resulted in bigger herds.000 square meters in Oirschot near Eindhoven. from GoAt to hEro – GoAt’s milk At-A-GlAncE > The world’s most popular dairy product > Goats were first kept as domesticated animals 10. And the huge demand looks set to continue.THE GOAT IS THE TRENDIEST ANIMAL IN fARMYARDS ACROSS THE WORLD. france and England. Moreover they are cleaner and easier to milk. THE GOAT’S TIME IN THE SPOTLIGHT HAS ARRIVED. They farm 1. istorically known as the ‘poor man’s cow’. meat. In just 20 years the market for goat’s milk and associated products has changed beyond recognition. Goats are notoriously impatient so the clusters need to be attached quickly. before being further processed to produce cheese. Van de Ven says Saanens – larger and stronger than other breeds – are “more sensitive than cows. the animals allow themselves to be attached to the cluster (the milking equipment) and enjoy the ride on the carousel. goat’s milk is more easily digestible and less allergenic than cow’s milk > The plethora of products available now includes goat’s cheese. Operating without state-of-the-art technology simply isn’t a viable business option for large-scale goat farmers. And their propensity to chew everything in sight meant WestfaliaSurge’s engineers had to design totally bite-resistant equipment.” The goats are milked twice a day by just two people.000 years. Prior to its installation. Jan van de Ven and his wife Jean are typical of progressive Netherlands goat farmers.5 meters in diameter. Africa. They have been kept for their milk. which is 14. with high-yield goats each producing more than 950 kilograms of milk per year. ice cream. The AutoRotor Capri 90 holds 72 goats and all 1. In Europe. Already a global force in milking cows. phosphate and calcium as cow’s milk is not always available. an automatic driver herds the goats in the direction of the rotary parlor. NOT ANY MORE. Attracted by food in the milking box. Everything else is fully automatic.200 Saanen goats in 2.000 animals. the introduction of high-tech milking equipment and improvements in milk quality. Asia. PEOPLE WERE RELUCTANT TO EVEN TRY GOAT’S MILK. The farm’s milk is collected by one of the Netherlands’ three goat’s milk co-operatives. but on the other hand require much less space and food. In global terms. feta cheese. yoghurt. Switzerland and Greece have traditionally been among Europe’s leading goat’s milk producers but the Netherlands has become one of Europe’s biggest exporters of the product as the market has developed. yoghurt and other finished products. But all this has only been possible thanks to the entrepreneurial spirit of the goat farmers and state-of-the-art milking equipment developed by GEA company WestfaliaSurge. produce over 150 million liters of milk.200 at the van de Vens’ farm can be milked in just 90 minutes. In many developing countries. INCREASED AWARENESS Of GOAT’S MILK’S POTENTIAL HEALTH BENEfITS MEANS THAT DEMAND HAS NEVER BEEN HIGHER. goat’s milk is an important source of protein. goats are one of the world’s oldest domesticated animals. and South America are the populous continents where goat’s milk has always been popular. Once the barn gate is opened. These incredibly versatile animals eat pretty much anything and need far less grazing space than cows. NOT SO LONG AGO. It enables the farmer to assess each goat’s profitability. but increasingly health-conscious customers and a desire for innovative new products mean goat’s milk is the world’s fastest growing dairy product. france. More than 75 per cent of all goat’s milk in the Netherlands is exported to Germany. more people drink goat’s milk than milk from any other animal. fudge. They need more care with feeding and husbandry. hair and skins for more than 10. the biggest of which have around 1. It’s taken longer for goat’s milk to crack the markets in the developed countries. WestfaliaSurge’s latest generation milking control unit measures the milk yield of each goat and shares the data with the herd management program. The Netherlands’ 375 goat farms. this process took four hours. WestfaliaSurge has adapted to the market’s needs by creating a bespoke rotary parlor for goats – the AutoRotor Capri 90.000 years ago in Iran > Revered in Egypt: milk and cheese were placed in pharaohs’ burial chambers > Widely consumed by the Ancient Greeks and Romans > Goat’s milk started to become more available again in the 1970s > As well as being a good source of protein.

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BY 2030. THE INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY PREDICTS. PHOTOGRAPHY: PETER DAzELEY STYLING: SABRINA JARD GENERATE MAGAZINE ISSUE 05 11 . THE WORLD WILL NEED 50 PER CENT MORE ENERGY THAN TODAY. WITH MUCH Of THAT INCREASED DEMAND COMING fROM CHINA. INDIA AND OTHER RAPIDLY DEVELOPING ECONOMIES. Steve HobSon ExAMINES THE CONSIDERABLE CHALLENGES THE ENERGY INDUSTRY fACES AS IT TRIES TO BALANCE THE WORLD’S INSATIABLE ENERGY DEMANDS AND DIMINISHING OIL RESERVES WITH THE NEED TO PRESERVE THE ENVIRONMENT fOR fUTURE GENERATIONS.

More fossil fuel reserves are likely to be discovered: for example. Overcoming this technical challenge has been the basis for developing a global market for liquefied natural gas (LNG). And. And that has generally meant extracting fossil fuels such as coal. Our energy needs may be more varied now and electricity was discovered long ago but heat still forms the basis of many of our systems. global energy demand – which rose by around 42 per cent between 1980 and 2000 (from 283 quadrillion British Thermal Units [btu] in 1980 to 400 quadrillion btu in 2000) – will nearly double again in the years to 2030. GEA’s Thermal Engineering Division takes a leading position in supplying cooling components for these applications. Of this. Whether it’s pipelines or LNG plants. It’s also inflexible and restricts the gas market. Cooling and liquefying the gas. he need for bodily warmth and for cooking food was what drove the first humans to make use of fire. Changing directions It’s not the first time the energy industry has needed to make a step change. The industry originally depended on thousands of miles of pipeline transporting the gas from the source to the user. According to US Department of Energy figures. Now twelve countries export natural gas and ten more may become exporters in the next few years. however. Iran and Qatar – hold around 50 per cent of the world’s natural gas resources. Our demands for electricity. while electricity and hydrogen have both been mooted as potential fuels for the transport industry.both processes currently rely largely on the same fossil fuel sources that would have provided the transport fuel. but it requires huge investment. It’s not just demand for electricity and process heat for industry putting pressure on fossil fuel resources. For example. The question of whether these unconventional sources will be fully exploited is a complex one: some have already been tapped and it is technically possible to recover most of them. They also provide fuel for transport and feedstock for the chemical and manufacturing industries. not removing. oil and gas. and it has been a constant of our search for the best energy sources for thousands of years. The World Energy Council (WEC) points out that there are still extensive reserves of fossil fuel – but they are being depleted faster than ever. Electricity must be generated and hydrogen produced and 12 . Fossil fuels No one is sounding the death knell for fossil fuels. the energy industry has been focused on finding and exploiting the best heat sources. allows it to be transported by ship. a very real concern when three countries – Russia. and transport are growing faster than ever. the ‘Estimated Ultimate Recovery’ (useable reserves) of conventional oil was originally 387 billion tonnes. Since much of our electricity production has relied on producing steam to move the turbines that produce power. heat. the burden. Developments like LNG have broadened the options available for the global energy market. this is shifting. so-called ‘unconventional’ sources such as the immense oil sands in Canada. about 143 billion tonnes had been exploited to the end of 2005 and within the next ten years fully half of the reserves will have been extracted. A recent example is the switch to using gas as both a direct source of heat and as a clean and efficient fuel for electricity generation. But the sheer rate of growth in demand and increasing fears over the future of fossil fuels have sent the energy supply industry back to the drawing board to look at how energy is delivered and used. That network is still being extended.

both from the Thermal Engineering Division. The costs of abating emissions of carbon dioxide will drive up the price of using fossil fuels.or postcombustion before transporting it via pipelines to underground storage on. is diversity: a mix of ‘renewable’ energy sources. The utilization of geothermal energy has reached the state of industrial application. geothermal energy can produce a constant source all year round. and the UK government is holding a competition to develop viable CCS among power station operators. ‘Renewable’ energy sources include solar. but they can’t always be guaranteed to match the place or time of demand. Geothermal steam and hot springs have been used for centuries but geothermal energy wasn’t used to make electricity until 1904 when a steam field in Italy powered a small generator to light four bulbs. Its economics are expected to be greatly improved when used in conjunction with enhanced oil recovery. exploitation is a matter of ‘harvesting’ them whenever they are disposable. geothermal energy. photovoltaic. oil and coal to be used without contributing to carbon emissions. The UK Government wants to see a small scale demonstration of CCS by 2014 and applied to 300 to 400MW plant by 2018. The geothermal power plant Unterhaching in Bavaria. oil. is power generated from beneath the earth’s crust. The first are the organicallybased resources of coal. There are no ‘reserves’ to be mined. Bob Taylor. it is vital CCS is developed for fitment to India and China’s rapidly growing fleets of coal-fired power stations. along with the uranium and thorium resources used as nuclear fuel.There are ‘finite’ and ‘renewable’ energy resources. robust and extensive energy networks that make the best of the energy available at any one time. tidal and bioenergies. or biofuels. The answer. is a perfect example of cross-divisional collaboration within the GEA Group: GEA Energietechnik GmbH and 2H Kunststoff GmbH. > GEothErmAl EnErGy One of the lesser-known forms of electricity generation. wave. have delivered the cooling towers including the cooling tower fills. GEA Ecoflex GmbH from the Process Equipment Division supplied plate heat exchangers. as will the increasing burden of extracting them. and storage. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is expected to be commercially viable by around 2020 and will allow fossil fuels such as gas. CCS involves extracting carbon from the fuel either pre. Perpetually available they may be. Managing Director of UK generation at German energy giant Eon. Germany. where the liquefied carbon dioxide is used to help extract more oil from depleted fields. GENERATE MAGAZINE ISSUE 05 13 . gas and tars. then. wind. instead. Geothermal energy currently accounts for less than one per cent of the world’s energy but a range of pilot projects are underway around the globe to explore its potential. as well as contributing to a reduction in the UK’s carbon emissions.or offshore. either electrical or in the form of an energy carrier such as hydrogen. Coal power stations on the UK’s North Sea coast are ideal proving grounds. Unlike many other renewable energy sources. says that. Hot water from below the earth’s surface is extracted and converted into electric power.

It can also be installed in stand-alone applications far from the electricity grid to feed directly into the building supply. providing 94GW of electricity capacity. there have been true technological leaps. . the high capital cost of the panels. a vital material. Problems with silicon supply may ease during the next few years as new manufacturing facilities come on line. from the around 1000MW installed worldwide in 2005.WIND POWER IS PROBABLY THE fASTEST GROWING Of THE NEW POWER SOURCES. The European Photovoltaics Industry Association estimates that installed peak capacity could grow by around 35 per cent annually. The growth of the industry has been slowed by three major factors: the price and availability of silicon. such as wind power. such as solar photovoltaics. so it is often the first choice for new renewable energy. from large stand-alone panel arrays to thin films or glasses integrated into buildings. The capital cost of onshore wind is relatively low. Wind power is probably the fastest growing of the new power sources. High sales volumes (the industry hopes) will start to bring down capital costs. Turbine 14 manufacturers have full order books for years to come and so have companies providing installation and commissioning services. That means the potential for different types of installation is enormous. Major suppliers and volume production had combined to bring down capital costs. Their common thread is the need to step up these niche technologies to meet a significant proportion of global energy and power needs. Photovoltaics (PV) is unique in the variety of potential applications it offers. In others.000. and the problems of providing financial credit for domestic levels of power generation. The European Wind Energy Association puts the number of wind turbines in use worldwide at 85. and can be staged as more turbines are added to an existing wind farm. In some cases. but in recent years the popularity of wind power has been too high for the industry to manage. especially in the offshore wind sector. exploiting the resource has sent engineers back to re-examine technologies that have been used for centuries and consider how they can be re-engineered for modern purposes. ‘Renewable’ energy Tapping ‘renewable’ energy resources has proved challenging.

It is a new way to use a familiar technology that fits well into our existing energy networks. for example. hydroelectricity (dams) which is the most widely used. are at an early stage of development but are likely to encounter the issues of supply-chain development that have checked the wind industry. similarly. GTL plants and gas processing plants in the Middle East has created a new market for air cooling as water is scarce. Thus. The boost of India’s economy is great news for its petrochemical industry and GEA is supplying components there. as it will also fit directly into our existing energy infrastructure. Large-scale hydropower is another part of the renewable energy portfolio. Although hydroelectricity doesn’t give out harmful emissions and is cheaper than energy generated from fossil fuels. and there was an outcry when cash crops such as palm oil were seen to be the cause of destruction of virgin forest. oil refineries. It is a big increase and will fuel the European market for all these technologies. GEA company Batignolles Technologies Thermiques opened a new manufacturing site for Air Coolers in Qatar to tap into this market. ‘Renewables’ target All these energy sources will be needed to meet our needs. Fossil fuels are directly replaced with their plant-based equivalents: wood or other solid biomass for coal. It is an attractive solution. The different types of hydropower include waterwheels. Air cooling is used at all modern industrial facilities (from energy generation to energy transportation) – air is unlimited. building its first Air Cooled Condenser in 1939. Heat transfer technology plays a central role in the world’s power stations. petrochemical plants. or vegetable oils for fossil oil. Historically. and the Group’s reputation for knowledge. > Air Cooled Condensers. which are used in any application where heat needs to be transferred in large quantities. GENERATE MAGAZINE ISSUE 05 15 . gas pipelines and GTL (gas to liquid) and biomass facilities. but it will not allow the EU to dominate world markets. Collecting and concentrating the sun’s energy with specially shaped mirrors can allow it to be used to produce steam for driving a conventional steam turbine. The Thermal Engineering Division has businesses worldwide. GEA’s Thermal Engineering Division will be with them every step of the way. The UK. GEA is currently heavily involved in the development of new power stations there. and at ever faster rates of deployment. which are used to condense steam. > Wet cooling (a two-step method – water is cooled in a Wet Cooling Tower and then the cooled water cools or condenses the fluid or steam).As the PV industry grows. The division teams up with different GEA businesses to offer clients integrated engineering solutions to both energy production and boosting energy efficiency. free and does not require treatment. the European Commission published detailed plans on how its member states would together produce 20 per cent of their primary energy supplies from renewables by 2020. South Africa is experiencing energy shortages and GEA is also involved in projects that will recommission power stations shut down in the 1990s. There are questions over the costs and environmental impact of refining and transporting the necessary quantities of bio-energies. GEA has invested heavily in China and it is paying off with a host of contracts to supply Air Cooled Condensers for the fleet of coal-fired power plants and Air Fin Coolers for the petrochemical refineries that will power the China of the future. Demand is growing still faster in areas such as China and India. > Indirect dry cooling by means of Heller ® cooling towers (a two-step method – water is cooled in a Dry Cooling Tower and the cooled water cools or condenses the fluid or steam). They enable low cost energy to be used at long distances from the water source. But the biggest question is over their production: they compete for space with existing crops. Other technologies.g. crystallization). sometimes in stages. South Africa’s power industry is also developing at a fast rate. manufacture. bio-energies Biomass and biofuels are. for direct condensing. > Special applications (e. winning one of the largest orders in the history of its Thermal Engineering Division in December 2007 for the design. And it’s not just GEA’s Thermal Engineering Division that plays a leading role in the energy industry. too. such as California and Spain. a second solar industry is developing alongside: using the sun’s heat. and damless hydro (using the kinetic energy of rivers. The growth of refineries. de-sublimination. not least food crops. reliability and engineering excellence means it is well positioned to benefit from projected increases in energy consumption. supply and erection of Air Cooled Condensers for Medupi power station. such as oceanbased devices that abstract energy from waves and tides. a new way to fuel familiar technologies. it may not be a major option for the future in developed countries as there is little scope for further development and the building of new dams may present environmental problems. central to GEA’s energy offering are: > Air Cooled Heat Exchangers (also known as Air Fin Coolers) for direct dry cooling. GEA has been a major player in the energy sector. will soon require transport fuels to include a mix of up to five per cent plant-based equivalents. > GEA’s rolE in thE EnErGy indUstry As countries and energy companies around the world explore how to meet future energy needs. and it is growing fast in areas which can rely on sunshine. In January 2008. streams and oceans).

renewable energy. The environmental and political imperatives surrounding the need to cut greenhouse gas emissions have already persuaded the UK Government to lead the world by committing to the ambitious goal that all new homes will be built to a zero carbon standard by 2016. walkable neighborhoods. Meanwhile.000-inhabitant city will feature narrow streets. Each will be a small new town of at least 5. Work is also now underway to look at equally tough energy efficiency targets for new commercial and industrial buildings. reinvent themselves as exemplars of sustainable development? There’s a queue of designers.is EnErGy lABEllinG workinG? Essentially. The city will get the bulk of its energy from wind turbines and bio fuels. This 50. By 2050. two city-scale projects are beginning to make waves. The US Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program has called upon Federal agencies to reduce energy use by 35 per cent by 2010 on 1985 levels. improving the efficiency of fossil fuel plants etc). The house building industry has signed up to this. In 2004. the EU introduced an energy rating scheme covering white goods and light bulbs. engineers. Appliances are rated from A (the best) to G (the worst) based on energy and water efficiency. At the same time the United Arab Emirates has announced plans to start building Masdar. domestic microgeneration systems. 16 . twothirds of the global population will call a city home. while last year the European Union set a target of saving 20 per cent of its energy consumption compared to projections for 2020. there are two routes to diminishing carbon emissions from electricity use: cutting the carbon intensity of power generation (reducing the carbon dioxide emissions per KWh by using more nuclear or renewable energy. the scheme was a success but any gains were more than wiped out by modern consumers’ insatiable demand for electronic gadgets. This will be delivered by a mix of renewable energy projects.000 to 20. Can cities be green. This year’s awards will be presented at the Light+Building event to be held as part of a giant trade fair in Frankfurt in April 2008. wind. Incandescent light bulbs. a multi-billion-dollar green city in the desert. In 1985. Solar and wind energy will power the city and its water desalination plant. where A+ indicates appliances that consume 30-42 per cent of standard energy consumption and A++ those consuming under 30 per cent. internationally. with super-efficient buildings clustered in dense. The designers envisage a city powered by local. The target is definitely zero carbon with energy supplied by photovoltaics. waste to energy and other technologies. With sales of A-rated white goods rising from 20 per cent to 60 per cent in the first three years. GrEEn UrBAn dEvElopmEnt According to urbanists and statisticians. solar power. architects and politicians who say emphatically ‘yes’. the human race has just reached the point where more than half of the world’s population lives in cities. Many governments are proposing to phase out incandescent lighting and replace it with more efficient technologies such as compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). two new categories for refrigerators and freezers were added. Consultants Arup are working on what is claimed to be the world’s first sustainable city at Dongtan in China. and community heating projects based on combined heat and power systems and ultra energy-efficient new dwellings. have been specially targeted. To encourage the use of energy-efficient lighting in homes. squat buildings with shaded courtyards and no cars. or reducing the energy intensity of consumption (bringing down the MWh per square meter by improving energy efficiency of buildings or appliances or reducing energy-hungry activities). Ministers also want to see ten so-called eco-towns climbing off the drawing board by the end of the decade. which waste 95 per cent of electricity consumption. the European Commission set up the European Design Competition ‘Lights of the Future’.000 homes and all will have to achieve zero carbon development.

and warns in its 2007 World Energy Outlook: “If governments around the world stick with current policies the world’s energy needs would be more than 50 per cent higher in 2030 than today.3 bnt by 2011. GENERATE MAGAZINE ISSUE 05 17 .1 21. fossil fuels will account for 84 per cent of this increase in demand. But the picture has changed. Those emerging economies expected to see the largest increases in wealth and hence energy demand are the ‘BRICS’ – Brazil. correcting prices downwards. China and India together account for 45 per cent of the increase in demand in this scenario.4 > 53. Worryingly for the climate. China and South Africa. India.1 > 9. Past experience shows that when oil prices in particular rise too high. No country has ever managed to increase its gross domestic product without increasing its energy consumption and this will certainly hold true for China and India’s surging economies. demand in the developed economies – especially in the US – falls. The global energy industry knows the world can no longer rely predominantly on fossil fuels and that renewable forms of energy must become an increasing part of the energy supplies of the future if greenhouse gas emissions are to be reduced.1 > 175. Our future depends on it.0 > 75.4 billion toe in 2005. AMERICA TOTAL DEVELOPING NATIONS TOTAL WORLD Source: Energy Information Administration *US. partly fuelled by coal-fired generating capacity rising at 90 gigawatts (GW) a year.” It forecasts that world energy demand will hit 17. In 1990 the developed world used more than double the non-industrialized nations. After 2009.8 > 622.ReGIon INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS* EASTERN EUROPE/ FORMER SOVIET UNION DEVELOPING NATIONS ASIA MIDDLE EAST AfRICA CENTRAL & STH.4 > 20.6 > 265.9 89. By 2025. rising output and stabilizing demand are expected to more than cover this domestic increase and China will have a rising surplus for export. Western Europe and Australia eneRGY ConSUMPtIon (qUADRILLION BTU) 1990 2001 2010 2025 182.3 > 139.9 > 25. the developing world will be consuming only five per cent less than the industrialized nations. Most of this increase in coal use will be in China and India.0 > 14.7 billion tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) by 2030.9 > 470.3 billion tonnes annual production.6 85.9 348.8 > 211. China and India are currently seeing gross domestic product growth running at almost ten per cent a year and energy consumption is outpacing this growth as domestic and industrial electricity demand rockets. up from 11. however.3 > 281.5 > 13. China is both the world’s largest producer and consumer of coal.4 20.3 > 52.4 > 34. with oil consumption rising 37 per cent to 116 million barrels per day (Mbbl/d) in 2030.3 > 14.6 > 173. Russia.8 > 12. While the developed world still accounts for most of the world energy consumption.5 36. while coal demand will leap 73 per cent. And the steep increase in demand for energy – as more and more people in the developing economies aspire to own cars and have electricity – means looking long and hard at options to power the world’s economies.6 > 25.5 > 236. Coal analysts McCloskey’s expects China’s coal consumption to rise rapidly to 3. The International Energy Agency (IEA) calls the consequences of China’s and India’s rise in energy demand “alarming”.0 > 110.3 > 59.4 76. the developing economies – especially in Asia – are increasing consumption fast (see table). currently exporting around 50 million tonnes of its massive 2.9 the energy outlook World energy prices are likely to continue rising because of the combination of falling supplies of fossil fuels and rising demand from emerging economies.4 > 403.

18 . SCOTCH WHISKY IS UNDOUBTEDLY A POPULAR DRINK ENJOYED BY MILLIONS AROUND THE WORLD.IN SCOTLAND THEY PREfER IT STRAIGHT OR WITH A LITTLE WATER. IN MADRID SERVED WITH ICE AND COLA. PEOPLE IN SHANGHAI MIx IT WITH GREEN TEA AND IN NEW YORK IT’S THE BASE fOR A VARIETY Of COCKTAILS.

Campbeltown and Islay. tEchnicAl innovAtion GEA Wiegand designs.3 billion. but just about every bar in the world will have Scotch. And a team headed by Dr Daniel Bethge and Paul Hildenbrand was only too happy to oblige. A single malt is. as the name suggests. expected to be several million euros. spelled ‘whiskey’. The heat from the condensed vapors can then be re-used for the evaporation process. Mechanical vapor recompression can also be applied to bio-ethanol production. Instead they adapted the mechanical vapor recompression technology that GEA Wiegand has used successfully for other applications. that gives the different whiskies their unique flavor. dark and handsome man – fair hair is associated with Viking invaders – bringing coal for the fire. This is then ground and mixed with water to produce a mash. topped by the US which spends a whopping EUR 535 million a year. China. Scotch whisky. all of which are manufactured in GEA Wiegand’s own workshops under stringent quality controls. The fermented mash is fed into the top of the still. In China alone. or the palate. it’s been produced under strict license – if done incorrectly. a worldwide competition to bring out the best in GEA’s top talents. combined with the peat used to fuel the malting ovens. Malting and distilling Whisky is made by first baking barley to convert it into malt. such as the US. pharmaceutical and food industries as well as for environmental applications. This ground-breaking innovation won Dr Bethge and his team the GEA Product Innovation Award. Its engineers design systems for the treatment of raw material. Written by the famous Scottish poet Robert Burns (the title means ‘times gone by’). the song has become an anthem to goodwill and the soundtrack to the traditional Scottish New Year festival of ‘Hogmanay’. and steam pumped into the bottom. Famous export Scottish emigrants may have taken the spirit of Hogmanay to other parts of the world with Auld Lang Syne but nothing has quite captured the imagination. The company turned to GEA Wiegand for help. GENERATE MAGAZINE ISSUE 05 19 . the product of one distillery. Apart from the enormous cost-saving. manufactures and supplies plants for the chemical. This means that it has to be distilled in Scotland and aged for at least three years to be called Scotch. Official records show that the Scots have been distilling whisky since 1494 and. Lowland. a cylindrical tower filled with perforated plates. There are five whisky-producing regions: Speyside. Distillation is based on the different boiling points of water 100°C (212ºf) and alcohol 78. whereas blended can be a mixture from several distilleries. It’s the water. the steam is pressurized.7 million liters over the past ten years. Annual overseas sales are a staggering EUR 3. over the centuries. Mexico and Russia. “It is a closed loop cycle”.000 jobs for its citizens. it will make a major contribution to climate protection. they’ve developed it into a fine art.” Patented process The process reduces the amount of energy for alcohol production by a double-digit percentage and will cut operating costs by thousands of euros. Canada. the first footer should be a tall. says Dr Bethge. South Korea and Venezuela. fermentation and distillation. India. Of course many countries. Ideally. distilled spirits can be poisonous. The top five markets are france. a coin and whisky.hen the clock strikes midnight on December 31 millions of people across the English-speaking world join hands and welcome the New Year with a rousing chorus of ‘Auld Lang Syne’. Ireland and India. “The energy required is lower and less water is needed during the distillation. The company offers complete alcohol processing lines. The projected demand in these markets is the reason why leading drinks company Diageo is investing EUR 133. annual consumption has risen from 700. GEA Wiegand is patenting the process. as that other famous export. cakes. This investment is one of the largest ever in the industry and will create around 200 jobs over the next few years.000 to 5.5°C (173ºf). The process requires a large amount of energy to create the steam. When the vapor from the steamed solution condenses. This involves a ritual called ‘first footing’ whereby the first person to enter the house after midnight determines your luck for the rest of the year.8 million on expanding its whisky production in Scotland. The whisky industry contributes EUR 4 billion a year to the Scottish economy and provides 41. In addition the company has its own research and development center in Germany for testing the latest technology in the fields of distillation and evaporation. After the mash has been fermented. causing its temperature to increase even higher. How to reduce this has been a concern of familyowned whisky distillers William Grant & Sons. explains Dr Bethge. it is distilled and then aged for up to three years for blended whisky and eight years for single malts. Today Scotch whisky is protected by international law. produce their own versions of the spirit. separating it from the alcohol. Highland. Spain. which offers huge potential. “Our first idea was to use an open heat pump but this would have destroyed the taste of the whisky”. Water vapor from the fermented liquid condenses onto the plates and is held there by the pressure from the steam. and is currently in negotiations with William Grant & Sons and Diageo. Since the 19th century. And demand is soaring in growing markets such as Brazil.

OMY. INTERN ATIONAL RN ATE CHA E INTE ND CLIM HOW TH SIONS A IR EMIS KLING A E NORfOLK TAC zO RAPHY: PHOTOG 20 . GEN THE OF GRO R PLAN OU ERAL OF URE OF OUT ARY GEN THE FUT (ICS). I ONTINU OOKS B RADE C ABOUT L T UTURE NCERN RY’S F TAL CO OKE INDUST ONMEN RATE SP NVIR E WING E ET. AB SECRET ASON. A AN EXTR ORTED B SP PPING RE TRAN THE SHI A OW ONTEXT GOODS S TO GR N THE C E RIGHT. AL ECON E GLOB ORLD’S IN OF TH F THE W LYNCHP G IS A CENT O LOBAL 90 PER SHIPPIN ND AS G ARY AORDIN Y SEA. IPPING TONY M R OF SH BE STRY IS WITH AL CHAM NG INDU ATION SHIPPI NGE.

GENERATE MAGAZINE ISSUE 05 21 .

has proposed a new goal-based approach to emissions reduction and has called for a holistic consideration of emission reduction measures. is currently focusing particular attention on environmental issues. But concern about ships’ air emissions and the separate issue of global warming and the need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions are now at the top of politicians’ environmental agenda. Q. The reduction of ships’ emissions occupies center stage in the regulatory debate. Q. What are the key environmental challenges the industry faces? A. including ship construction. but should encourage different ways of achieving the agreed emission reduction goals. The immediate challenge is the IMO’s review of its Convention for the Prevention of Pollution by Ships (MARPOL) and the expected introduction of more stringent controls. and the subsequent implications for CO2 /greenhouse gas emissions. such as sulphur. But the responsible and honest approach is to suggest that the regulators consider the wider implications of their decisions and that the issues of sulphur and CO2 are linked. as opposed to shore-based refineries. Successful and concerted progress has undoubtedly been made by governments and industry with regard to reducing oil pollution. How is the merchant shipping industry responding to these issues? A. and be achieved by a mandatory switch to the use of distillate fuels by 2010. safety and management. The IMO is about to consider the latest proposals on the approach that might be taken. Technical innovation certainly needs to be stimulated but. ICS. In particular. It might be the case that CO2 emissions from shipping. eliminating harmful air emissions and tackling issues relating to environmental damage that may be caused by the movement of ballast water or by ships’ hull coatings.0 per cent. we have argued that there should be choice with regard to compliance measures. Possible options include reducing the current sulphur cap in Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECAs). Above all. The International Maritime Organization (IMO). It has drawn attention to the need to take account of the environmental justification for the proposed improvements. The shipping industry does not wish to solve one problem by creating another. and to develop best practice in the industry. requires uniform international rules in order to operate efficiently. operation. it should be established whether proven and robust technology does in fact already exist. and to consider fully the relationship between measures to reduce local air pollution. where regulation requires technical solutions. for example by generating additional CO2 from oil refineries. which is responsible for global regulation of the shipping industry.5 per cent to 1. Shipping. 22 . any new regulations should be aimed at delivering an overall net environmental benefit. especially with regard to sulphur emissions and the sulphur content of fuel. being a global transport industry. shipping policy. would not be increased by switching to distillate. It has also been suggested that such a cap should apply everywhere. But the shipping industry also has to respond to more general concerns about climate change – with the desire for ambitious targets for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions emerging as a mainstream political issue in many countries. Q. legal and technical matters.thE intErnAtionAl chAmBEr of shippinG The International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) is the principal international trade association for the shipping industry. from 1. such as the Baltic Sea. What does the industry feel about these proposed measures? A. The prevailing view of the shipping industry is that IMO should focus on the environmental outcome required. it has been important to remind governments that the agreed terms of reference for the current round of IMO discussions have been to focus on the technical and objective scientific arguments relevant to a variety of solutions. which represents the industry. But whilst the shipping industry appreciates the political impetus to the debate. with potentially major implications for both shipping economics and the image of the shipping industry. The aim of the ICS is to act as an advocate for the industry on issues of maritime affairs. Methods for reducing sulphur emissions should not inadvertently lead to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions.

her maiden voyage was in September 2006. is uncertain. Q. cutting CO2 should be a matter of enlightened self-interest. including almost everything that we buy in the shops. As the amount of cargo transported grows in future years. lube oil and hydraulic oil. and there are also big questions about the ability of the oil industry to deliver the quantities needed if the whole world fleet was required to burn distillate everywhere. SeaProtect Solutions has quickly established an enviable position in the marketplace and in 2006 won the environmental protection category of the much-coveted Seatrade Dubai International Maritime Awards. So the shipping industry does not have a fundamental objection to the proposal for a switch to distillate fuel? A. the establishment of some sort of carbon indexing system. A number of recent media reports have incorrectly suggested that shipping’s total carbon dioxide emissions are greater than those of aircraft. which have argued that under the current Kyoto framework they should be excluded from any new global rules on maritime CO2 emissions. Westfalia Separator Mineraloil Systems will be working closely with ship manufacturers and ship owners to protect the world’s oceans. of course. productivity and quality has enabled it to dominate the construction of cargo and bulk carriers. despite the considerable economic costs. but the volume of world trade has increased by 50 per cent in the last 15 years and is predicted to continue expanding. Shipowners are under pressure to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to mitigate the impact on climate change – although. the products separate solids and water from fuel and lube oils to ensure that discharges into the sea stay well within environmental guidelines. faster and more environmentally friendly. The ships of the future are going to be bigger. shipping is at least two or three times cleaner than road or rail transport and around 20 times more environmentally efficient than air transport. Addressing carbon dioxide emissions is indeed a major challenge. All with a regular crew of 13. The environmental benefit of using low sulphur fuels far from land in the middle of the ocean also needs careful examination.GEA And thE shippinG indUstry GEA company Westfalia Separator has an award-winning range of high performance engine room products and systems that help ships of all sizes protect the marine environment.400 more than its closest rival. in terms of carbon produced by every tonne of cargo transported one mile. not least by stressing the need for the IMO to address CO2 in parallel with the review of MARPOL proposals on air pollution. 1. However. There is actually a lack of definitive data. this is not to say that shipping does not have a part to play in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. treat fuel oil. GENERATE MAGAZINE ISSUE 05 23 . Owned by the Danish conglomerate AP Moller-Maersk Group.000 containers. the implications of which have not been properly evaluated. The IMO’s authority for discussions about reducing CO2 emitted by ships is derived from the Kyoto Treaty. world’s BiGGEst ship Big is certainly beautiful in the world of container ships and the Emma Maersk is the biggest of them all. South Korea’s first tanker was built at Hyundai’s Ulsan shipyard in the 1970s and since then the country’s shipbuilders’ track record of on-time delivery. More to the point. Products for processing bilgewater and sludgewater at sea are grouped together as SeaProtect Solutions and consistently achieve an oil content of less than 5ppm on some of the world’s biggest ships. The ship’s route from China to Europe and back again reflects the development of China as a manufacturing and exporting powerhouse. The future. depending on who pays the bills. In principle. but most expert sources estimate that shipping’s total carbon emissions are considerably less than those of aviation. Maritime transport is responsible for the transport of 90 per cent of all world trade. transport by sea is actually part of the solution rather than the problem. Progress at the IMO has been complicated by maritime administrations in some emerging economies. at a time when fuel prices are expected to remain high. But in any case such reports are not comparing like with like. and persuade the rest of the world to do likewise. Using centrifugal force. and ICS is taking an active role to achieve this. Europe’s shipbuilders primarily focus on the rapidly growing cruise ship industry. it is far less attractive to some shipping sectors than others. How long Emma Maersk retains top container ship spot remains to be seen. and the development of more fuel efficient engine technologies. Work is continuing on the measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from ships. They won’t come cheap – a new tanker can cost around $120 million – and their sheer size will necessitate the building of new ports across the world. What is the industry doing to reduce carbon emissions? A. especially as maritime trade is expected to continue increasing steadily. With regard to concern about reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Since being launched in 2005. At a quarter of a mile long and 61 meters high. She travels at more than 25 knots/47km/h. And some experts are predicting that shipping trade could triple as world commerce continues to expand. Q. it’s the longest ship ever built and it’s powered by the world’s biggest diesel engine and can carry 11. the shipping industry will need to be ready to respond. But. marketed by Westfalia’s Mineraloil Systems Business Unit. but as the political demand for action increases and the Kyoto Treaty comes up for review before expiry in 2012. Over the last 40 years total seaborne trade estimates have increased from six thousand billion tonne-miles to 27 thousand billion tonne-miles. many sections of the industry have no objection to a switch to distillate fuel for those shipowners who see this as the most practical solution. The majority view amongst ICS members is that other compliance options – such as the extension of SECAs and the development of exhaust scrubbing technology – should also be fully explored before the industry settles for one single solution. fUtUrE oUtlook The shipping industry’s status as the single most cost-effective method of transporting goods over long distance is likely to remain unchallenged. Discussions about reducing carbon dioxide emissions in shipping have probably not yet really begun in earnest. The engine room products. An important issue will be how shipping can respond to the European Union’s declaration in March 2007 that it intends to cut – across the board – its total carbon dioxide emissions by between 20 per cent and 30 per cent by 2030.

WHERE WOULD WE BE WITHOUT MILK AND. WITHOUT BEING ABLE TO DRINK IT SAfELY? 24 . MORE TO THE POINT.

compared to 25 per cent in 1938. 800 people in the US have been taken ill as a result of drinking raw milk or eating cheese made from unpasteurized milk.000 of the new valves have already been installed in multiple dairy plants across the US. vitamins and minerals. was on a walking trip in Pennsylvania when he called at a farmhouse for a glass of water. President of Tuchenhagen Flow Components. Dr Howard Kelly (1858-1943). The operation was a success and she was discharged. 8. PMO regulations stated that a Mixproof valve could not be cleaned until all milk had been removed from it. on average. the FDA lifted the restriction on Mixproof valves for the first time in US dairy plant design – but only for the new generation of valves designed by GEA company Tuchenhagen Flow Components. This enables the plant to be cleaned in sections while production continues in other parts of the plant. along with her bill on which Dr Kelly had written: “Paid in full with one glass of milk. as milk now accounts for just one per cent of disease from contaminated food or water. such as calcium – milk is widely regarded as nature’s miracle food. 27 pounds of fat-free milk. is taking the US dairy market by storm.6 pounds of yogurt. for centuries people have been consuming milk and associated dairy products. With milk consumption showing no let-up the two key parts of the US dairy industry – collecting the milk and processing it – can now work together round the clock. Tuchenhagen Flow Components is leading the revolution in the world’s biggest milk market. Practically overnight these plants have gained up to 30 per cent additional production time and. The Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Director of Dairy and Egg Safety said in 2006 that drinking raw (unpasteurized) milk was “like playing Russian roulette with your health”. In 2005. Meeting this demand requires production on an industrial scale. You would expect that processing the milk would require the same intensity. in turn. GENERATE MAGAZINE ISSUE 05 25 . each person in the US consumed. who was to become one of the founders of Johns Hopkins. which will allow significant productivity increases and cost reductions for dairy facilities all over the US”. in a landmark decision. Therefore. the plant could not sustain production. But the little girl who answered the door brought him milk instead. But even though selling untreated milk is illegal in 25 states and Washington. 32 pounds of cheese. This revolutionary new valve has been specially designed so that one half of it can be cleaned. The US dairy industry is now poised for a major change and. since 1998.. There has been a backlash against pasteurization from some health-conscious consumers who believe that the process harms the milk. It seems appropriate that an actual glass of milk should be at the heart of a very touching example of compassion involving a distinguished American physician. it can be infected by potentially deadly bacteria.coli and Listeria. the first medical research university in the US. Processing milk on a 24/7 basis in a typical dairy plant requires the use of Mixproof valve technology. D. enough to kill the harmful bacteria. Thankfully. such as Salmonella. Sadly. Years later the girl went to him for surgery.” This story helps to highlight the value placed on milk. says David Medlar. Being full of essential nutrients – particularly protein.C. pasteurization has been hailed as one of the all-time public health successes. A combination of vast herds – some farms have as many as 20. substantial increases in operating profit. many choose to play the game. 57 pounds of whole milk and 26 pounds of ice cream. the FDA’s Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) regulations didn’t permit its use in US dairy plants. hakespeare coined the phrase. 81 pounds of reduced fat milk.dAiry BrEAkthroUGh Tuchenhagen Flow Components' new generation of valves.000 cows – and modern milking technology have made milking a 24/7 operation. to describe compassion for others. During the process the milk is fed through heated pipes. Around 1. raising the temperature of the milk to 71. ‘the milk of human kindness’. this is a tiny minority of consumers. During this cleaning period. In the US.7°C (161ºF) for 15-20 seconds. US dairy plants were required to shut down for two to three hours a day in order to clean the pipework. In April 2007. which enable dairy plants to continue operations while the other half of the plant is being cleaned. while the other is in operation. “This is a huge breakthrough for the dairy industry. during the milking process. E. Which is why pasteurization – invented by and named after the french scientist Louis Pasteur in 1864 – has become such a vital part of the milk production process around the world. Unfortunately. Although this technology has been on the market for some time and is widely used outside the US. with the unique valve.

for instance. they absorb water. Composite objects may expand and contract at different rates. A night at the theater Theaters and similar spaces have their own requirements. Temperature and humidity control through carefully designed units is vital. while in summer the figures would rise to 21-24°C (70-75°F) and 45-55 per cent. Naturally. S AND A PRO CONDITION ENERATE MOSPHERIC AT IRONMENT. Take an art gallery. 26 . crack or become brittle. The answer is to closely monitor and control the environment where paintings are stored or displayed.LAYS USEUM DISP EED IONS. The result could be irreparable damage to masterpieces. contain relatively high proportions of water. The recently refurbished Admiralspalast entertainment center in the heart of Berlin isit an art gallery. Historic buildings and museum collections also require stable environmental conditions. with the chance of swelling. Excessively high light levels can cause oil paintings to fade or darken. an acceptable level would be a temperature of 18-21°C (65°-70°F) and a relative humidity of 40-45 per cent. Equally important though are temperature and humidity levels. ENV CONTROLLED E CULTURAL CLIM TH CHECKS OUT Organic objects. Air conditioning is essential in many locations. conversely. In damp air. or from excessive humidity which can cause mold growth – a common problem in basements. paintings need to be kept away from additional heat sources such as furnace vents. and what takes your eye will obviously be the display or the performance you came to see. warping or other deformation. but paint can crack and flake off as the frame and the canvas move. they give off water – which could make them shrink. a national library or a theater. When the air is dry. Wood and canvas are relatively resilient. In winter. a museum. M ART COLLECT L PERFORMANCES N ICA TO GIVE AND THEATR ANT SPACES JUST ELEG RIGHT MORE THAN O NEED THE THEY ALS PERLY THEIR BEST. so it’s normal for them to be displayed away from direct sunlight. but there is also a need for quiet running so as not to interfere with the performance. But often. G ATE. for example. Extremes in those variables can cause both wooden frames and canvases to swell and shrink. what goes on behind the scenes may be just as important – and may make all the difference to that building’s future.

as required. It was closed in 1997 and remained empty and unused until August 2006. by providing up to 37. and the century-old building boasts a state-of-the-art ventilation system. Last but not least. Today. the fourth level swimming pool. since one half of the air output needs only one eighth of the full-output electric power for the fans. ventilation and air conditioning system at the theater guarantees comfort for up to 1. It is now once again a home of art and culture.is a testament to what can be achieved. Here again the GEA air-handling units score heavily: their low air speed effectively eliminates any noise problem. the managers were able to meet the specifications. Indeed. even when the actors only whisper on the stage. Both the air-handling units make use of adiabatic cooling: this is an environmentallyfriendly system whereby air flowing in from outdoors is cooled by evaporative heat loss of exhaust air. they will easily make any sound from the ventilation inaudible. Nevertheless. This feature boosts energy economy. The maximum noise is just 30 dB(A) one meter from the air outlets. GENERATE MAGAZINE ISSUE 05 27 . the Grand Café. The frequency converters and free-running fans allow continuously variable control of the air output.000m3/h of conditioned and temperature-controlled air. the quietness of any theater ventilation system is vital. The present building was constructed in 1911 and converted to a theater in the 1930s. At this level. using two compact but advanced air-handling units from GEA’s Air Treatment Division. the Keller Club and the conference room.700 theatergoers. requiring no electric energy. Other facilities in the complex will also be served by the system: these include the theater foyer. the heating. The project managers faced a challenging task since the renovation plans stipulated extensive preservation of the building shell and the indoor facilities. cooling without drafts is possible up to a temperature of 27°C (80°F). They also needed to replace the entire existing ventilation system because the old facilities either no longer functioned or did not meet current regulations. entertainment and social gatherings.

28 .

AND. service engineers and administrative staff. “A lot of business in the region is run through partner and contracting companies based in Amman”. otherwise his working day revolves around the Dubai office where he heads a team of ten sales engineers. “Because I can only get in touch with headquarters for four days of the week. “It took me some weeks to get used to the different times”. “I’m in a very good mood”.30am start.WHEN SteFFen beRSCH MOVED TO DUBAI TO HEAD UP GEA COMPANY WESTFALIA SEPARATOR’S MIDDLE EAST OPERATIONS HE NOT ONLY HAD TO GET USED TO A CHANGE OF CLIMATE BUT ALSO DIFFERENT WORKING HOURS AND WAYS OF DOING BUSINESS. AS GeneRAte DISCOVERED. HE’S ENJOYING EVERY MINUTE. which are an essential part of the oil treatment process. late meetings and having to fit in talks with Jordanian customers the following day. he says. He is also responsible for a network of 20 agents representing the company in the different countries across the region. Also this particular trip. The two children are happily settled in an American school which includes pupils from 70 countries. But then talking to customers and winning new business is what Bersch enjoys most about his job as General Manager for Westfalia Separator’s Dubai office. he explains. As well as acclimatizing himself to the searing summer heat – 50°C (122ºF) during the day and 37°C (98ºF) at night – Bersch has had to get used to a different way of working. “Now I train twice a week with a group of cyclists in Dubai and my kids are also taking part. The climate means that he can indulge his love of cycling all year round. a six-hour flight delay. Steffen Bersch is remarkably cheerful. “There is a lot of administration work because Dubai is such an international city that almost everyone you hire needs to have a visa and work permit.” is an organization with someone to solve every problem. he laughs. pharmaceuticals. to the Jordanian capital of Amman.” “IT IS VERY DIFFERENT FROM WORKING AT OUR HEADQUARTERS IN GERMANY WHERE THERE IS AN ORGANIZATION WITH SOMEONE TO SOLVE EVERY PROBLEM. “Environmental technology is also a growth area that is providing major opportunities for us. “Typically there is a lead partner who can make a decision at the end. for example. “When I was in Germany it was not possible to cycle in the winter”. you have to deal with procurement groups which means you have to convince more people. In addition to selling the company’s products. The visit to Amman was to discuss supplying his company’s products for energy and service projects in the region. whereas here you have to be master of everything”. Bersch is responsible for all Westfalia Separator’s activities across the Middle East region. Bersch and his team look after the servicing and repair of existing machines. But during those four days we can be sure of fantastic support from our colleagues in Germany. “It is very different from working at our headquarters in Germany where there GENERATE MAGAZINE ISSUE 05 29 . meant leaving behind the heavy rain which had earlier flooded parts of Dubai. he says. “Other important areas are growing as the Middle East countries recognize the need to create their own added value to products by investing in. espite a 4. whereas in Europe for example. Friday is the Muslim holy day so the working week generally runs from Sunday to Thursday and some companies operate Saturday to Wednesday. says Bersch. the energy sector is currently by far the biggest market in the region for Westfalia Separator’s centrifuges.” Another difference is the way negotiations with customers are conducted in Dubai. with his wife and two children in August 2007. WHEREAS HERE YOU HAVE TO BE MASTER OF EVERYTHING” Traveling accounts for around 40 per cent of his time. Due to the high power demand.” Bersch and his family have embraced the international lifestyle of Dubai. Germany.” And that includes Bersch himself. He moved to this boomtown from Bochum. food and industrial products”. I have had to organize my time accordingly. Bersch recalls.

Designer dress fabric? A shoal of metallic fish? In fact this striking picture shows a disk stack in a separator bowl. beverage technology. energy as well as industrial and environmental technology. Centrifugal separation technology is a key process used in a broad spectrum of applications: dairy technology. pharmaceuticals. chemistry. oils and fats recovery. thereby increasing the clarification area and shortening the sedimentation distance that the separated particle has to cover. biotechnology. It splits the product to be separated into a large number of thin layers. edible oil processing. marine. starch technology. 30 . oil field technology.

GENERATE MAGAZINE ISSUE 05 31 .

regardless of their size.com GEA powErs AhEAd in soUth AfricA GEA’s Thermal Engineering Division has won a turnkey order for a brand new fossil-fuelled power station in South Africa. The robotic milking equipment will continue to be manufactured at PUNCH Technix’s plant for WestfaliaSurge. www.westfalia. www. It required new equipment for a partner manufacturing plant to up-scale production of one of its products. Tuchenhagen. able to satisfy the most demanding palettes and preserving the reputation of this proud brewery. The project includes the supply and integration of granulation technology with GEA pelletizing systems. GEA Aircooled Systems will be designing. including molecular sieves and complex membranes. The unique “T!TAN” system offers the financial economies of scale necessary to cope with herd growth and increases the number of potential new customers for WestfaliaSurge. www.com nEw phArmA procEssinG linE in thE nEthErlAnds GEA Pharma Systems (GPS) has developed a complete processing line for one of Europe’s most successful manufacturers of generic medicines. it’s the only known process of its type without recirculation or redilution. In addition. evaporation and separation techniques. Wiegand’s bioethanol technology is the most advanced on the market. The end customer is Eskom.BAvAriA’s finEst GoEs Alcohol-frEE One of Bavaria’s most famous wheat beers is soon going to be available alcohol-free as a result of a unique process developed by GEA Wiegand. is working with Wiegand on the new plant. with sections of the PUNCH Sales and Service Team being integrated into the organization. The result is a natural product. manufactures a range of products for worldwide distribution through its marketing partners. based in the Netherlands. The company also has superior fuel ethanol drying technology. GEA Aircooled Systems has extensive experience in the field of air-cooled power plants in South Africa. and is seen as the perfect complement to WestfaliaSurge’s existing range. The 2007 Frost & Sullivan Award is given for technological excellence. No other company has such a deep understanding of rectification. reducing plants’ carbon footprint in the process. Wiegand has pioneered key technology developments in this challenging area. superb customer support and timely delivery of technology. Schneider & Sohn’s Kelheim site will use a process first developed by Wiegand in the 1980s.gea-wiegand.gea-wiegand. from training and maintenance to operation and upgrading. The major portion of the equipment and services for Medupi will be put in place between 2008 and 2013. www. The Medupi Power Station is an integral part of the country’s policy to increase installed power capacity. It can help cut operating and energy costs. “T!TAN” is currently the only system that enables the use of robotic milking on virtually all farms.gea-energytechnology. Synthon BV. manufacturing. having previously supplied Eskom with air-cooled condensers for both the Matimba and Majuba Power Stations. WestfaliaSurge will also take over all PUNCH’s existing robotic milking contracts. coating technology and fluid bed drying.com risE of thE roBots The acquisition of the global license for the “T!TAN” robotic milking system from PUNCH Technix nv of Vijfhuizen in the Netherlands has boosted GEA WestfaliaSurge’s leading position in the world’s dairy equipment business. supplying and erecting the air-cooled condensers for the Medupi Power Station in Limpopo Province. it offers a host of plant support services. The new beer de-alcoholization plant at family brewer Private Weissbierbrauerei G.niropharmasystems.com 32 . South Africa’s leading power producer. Based on the falling film evaporator principle. and will result in significant work for GEA’s Johannesburg-based operation. and chose the GPS Nica system after an exhaustive evaluation process. one of GEA’s brewery specialist companies. www.com wiEGAnd rEcEivEs tEchnoloGy lEAdErship AwArd GEA Wiegand’s work in the bioethanol market has been recognized with a European award for technology leadership.

l-d. all rights reserved. 44809 Bochum.GENERATE is the external magazine of the gea group.co.merchant. germany.lang-communications.co. .com PRiNTEd by laupenmühlen druck GmbH & Co. published three times a year.i.johnstonworks.uk in collaboration with: lang Communications – copywriting www.) Nina Remmer Katrin lamprecht generate@geagroup.d. KG www. it is distributed to gea group offices across the world.de PHoToGRAPHy Cover & feature: peter dazeley Page 20-21: Zoe norfolk Page 28-29: marcus wilson-smith Page 30-31: Jörg winde published by gea group aktiengesellschaft.p. dorstener straße 484.uk JohnstonWorks – design www.s.com PRoduCEd by Merchant www. EdiToRiAl boARd Peter Caspar Hamel ( v.