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Mahathi Deva 10927540

5.1) What two functions are performed by an antenna? Ans) A antenna performs two functions mainly: a)It converts radio-frequency electrical energy from the transmitter into electromagnetic energy and radiates it into surrounding environment. It helps in transmission of signal. b) It also converts impinging electromagnetic energy on antenna into radiofrequency electrical energy and feds it into receiver. It helps in reception of a signal. 5.5) What factors determine antenna gain? Ans) Antenna gain is used in deciding directionality of an antenna. It is denoted by G.

Here, G = antenna gain, Ae = effective area, f = carrier frequency, c = speed of light (3 X 108 m/s), A = carrier wavelength We can see that wavelength and effective area are the deciding factors of antenna gain. 5.6) What is the primary cause of signal loss in satellite communications? Ans)In any type of wireless communication, a transmitted signal attenuates over a distance as it is distributed over a large area. This attenuation is known by Free Space Loss. This is the primary cause of signal loss in satellite communication. 5.7) Name and briefly define four types of noise.? Ans) When a data signal is received, it contains not only transmitted signal but also additional unwanted signals introduced somewhere between transmission and reception. These unwanted signals are classified as Noise. It is divided into 4 types 1)Thermal Noise: This is mainly due to thermal agitation of electrons in electronic devices and transmission media. It is proportional to temperature. It is also known as white noise. It is expressed as N=kTB, Where N=noise, k= Boltzmann's constant = 1.38 X 10-23 J/K, T=temperature, B= bandwidth in Hz. Also N = 10 log k + 10 log T + 10 log B = -228.6 dBW + 10 log T + 10 log B 2) Intermodulation Noise: When same transmission medium is shared by different frequencies, it results in intermodulation noise. When there is nonlinearity in the transmitter, receiver, or intervening transmission system intermodulation noise is produced. Intermodulation noise produces signals at a frequency that is the sum or difference of the two original frequencies or multiples of those frequencies. 3) Crosstalk: it is an unwanted coupling between signal paths. It often occurs when electrical coupling comes into picture in between nearby twisted pairs or coax cable lines

52 dBm 5.147. each 1.147.56. received power(dBm) = transmitted power.147. receiving end power(dBm) = 47-111. What is the gain of each antenna in decibels? b.52 = -24. Gr = 2.56 =111. what is the received power in dBm at a free space distance of 100 m? c. what is the effective radiated power of the transmitted signal? .08 + 80 – 147. Assume that this transmitter is used in a microwave communication system where the transmitting and receiving antennas are parabolas. b.08 + 80 – 147. Ans) a) we know that equation of power in dBm = 10 log (Power in mW) = 10 log 50000 = 47 dBm Also equation of power in dBw = 10 log (Power in W) = 10 log 50 = 17 dBw b) since LdB = 20log(f) + 20log(d) . It also occurs when microwave antenna picks up unwanted signals. Repeat (c) but assume a receiver antenna gain of 2.10) Suppose a transmitter produces 50W of power.56 dB therefore.56 = 71. a. Gt = 1. If the transmitter's power is applied to a unity gain antenna with a 900-MHz carrier frequency.52 dB So.52 = -61.3 =108.56 dB LdB = 20log(900 * 106) + 20log(10000) .52 = -64. This noncontinuous is generated from causes like external electromagnetic disturbances(lightning.1 W at 2 GHz.2 m in diameter.08 +40 – 147.52 Therefore.2 Mahathi Deva 10927540 carrying multiple signals. we know that LdB = 20log(f) + 20log(d) .52 receiving end power(dBm) = 47-108. Exercises: 5.56 dB – 10l0g(GrGt) here.147. LdB = 20log(900 * 106) + 20log(100) .147.56 dB =120+59. Express the transmit power in units of dBm and dBW. d.52 dBm c) Here. Repeat (b) for a distance of 10 km.147. faults and flaws). 4) Impulse Noise: It contains noise spikes of very short duration and high amplitude. Taking into account antenna gain.56 dB = 120 + 59.11) A microwave transmitter has an output of 0.free space loss = 47-71. LdB = 20log(900 * 106) + 20log(10000) . a.56 dB -10log(2) = 120 + 59. So.52 dBm d) as we know LdB = 20log(f) + 20log(d) .

14 = 55. received power (dBm) = transmitted power.46 = 75.56-25.85 Gain G in dBW = 10 log( 351.14)Determine the height of an antenna for a TV station that must be able to reach customers up to 80 km away? Ans) In line of sight propagation.02+87.6-147.10 log(351.1 * 351.51 dBW Also we know value of noise L watts in dBW is M=10*log L Therefore. we have d = 3. If the receiving antenna is located 24 km from the transmitting antenna over a free space path.6 dBW = -163.57 *sqrt( 4/3 * h) h = (80/3.09 +40–228. Thermal noise N in watts = 10 -163.147. power gain is given by G = 7Af2/c2 Therefore.57)2 * 3/4 Therefore.56.463 b) Transmitter output is 0.free space loss = 20 – 75.6 = 25.14 dB.56 dB – 10l0g(GrGt) = 20l0g(2*109) + 20log(24000) – 147. G = 7* π* r2* f2/c2 = 7*3. So.51/10 = 4*10-17 W .185 W c) Transmitter power(dBm)= 10 log(100) = 20 as we know LdB = 20log(f) + 20log(d) .14* 0. find the available signal power out of the receiving antenna in dBm units.1 W So.6 dBW = 10 log(323. Ans) a) For parabolic antennas.14 dBm. L=10 M/10 So.15) What is the thermal noise level of a channel with a bandwidth of 10 kHz carrying 1000 watts of power operating at 50°C? Compare the noise level to the operating Power? Ans) Thermal Noise in dBW =10 log T + 10 log B . effective radiated power = 0.85) = 25.85) -10 log(351.3 Mahathi Deva 10927540 c.228.62* (2*109)2/(3*108)2 =351. taking d as distance between two antennas. 5.46-25.57 sqrt(Kh) 80= 3.15) + 10 l0g (10000) – 228.85) = 186. we get h= 378 meters 5.85 = 35.

4 Mahathi Deva 10927540 5.8 . T = 1500 Since we know that Eb/N0 = signal power(dBW) – 10 log R + 228. Eb/N0 = –151 dBW – 10 log 2400 – 10 log 1500 + 228.6 = 12 dBW .6 dBw – 10 log T Therefore.7 + 228.17) If the received signal level for a particular digital system is -151 dBW and the receiver system effective noise temperature is 1500 K.33.6 dBW = -151.31. what is Eb/N0 for a link transmitting 2400 bps? Ans) bit rate= 2400.

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