r /O
PHYSICAL CONSTANTS
Quantity
Symbol
Magnitude
1
Angstrom Unit
Avogadro's Number Bohr Radius Boltzmann's Constant Electron Charge
Electron Volt
A
A = 10 4 fan x 10
23
lO" 8
cm =
10" 10
m
NAyo
aB
6.025
molecules/gmole
0.53A
1.380
k
q
x 10" 23 joule/°K
1.602 x 10 19 x 10 31 kg
= 8.62
x 10" 5 eV/°K
kcal
19 1.602 x 10coul
1
eV
eV =
joule
= 23.1
9 ^
Free Electron Mass
m
jttm
9.108
Micron
Permittivity of Free Space
10 6
8.854
m=10 4 cm
x 10 14 farad/cm
~ 34 / 10
1
£o
H<o
—
—
\
1
Permeability of Free Space Planck's Constant
1.257 x 10 8 henry/cm
(4tt
x 10~ 9 )
h
h
6.625
hlltr
x 10
joulesec
Reduced Planck's Constant Standard Atmosphere Thermal Voltage
(T
=
x
1.054 10 4
1.033
x 10 34 joulesec kg/m 2 = 760 mm Hg
(torr)
= 300°K)
kT/q
c
0.0259 volt
2.998
Velocity of Light in Free
Space Wavelength Associated with
1
x 10
10
cm/sec
eV
A
1.239 fim
Physics of Semiconductor Devices
M. Murray New Jersey WILEYINTERSCIENCE A Division of John • Wiley & Sons • New York London Sydney • Toronto . SZE of the Technical Staff Member Bell Telephone Laboratories. Incorporated Hill.Physics of Semiconductor Devices S.
nor transmitted.PRESTON PGLYT£< HM1C 57825 m G^n'Mi 33 Copyright © 1969 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced by any means. nor translated into a machine language without the written permission of the publisher. 10 9 8 7 Library of Congress CataloeCjwtt SBN 471 84290 7 y^^"^ Number: 6916132 Printed in the United States of America . Inc.
To My Wife and Our Parents :k>' v*r~r .
Physics of Semiconductors by Moll. It with physical principles and operais intended as a textbook for firstyear graduate students in electrical engineering or applied physics and as a reference for scientists actively involved in solidstate device re search and development. 1967). Introduction to SolidState Physics by Kittel (Wiley. 1966). It is hoped that this book can serve as a basis for the understanding of other devices not included here and perhaps not even conceived of at the present time. semiconductor device is defined herein as a unit which consists. It is assumed that the reader has already acquired an introductory understanding of solidstate physics and transistor theory such as is given in the standard texts SolidState Physics by Dekker. however. new materials. A or wholly. and broadened comprehension have been applied to the creation of new devices. partially 1964). and to present them in a unified and coherent fashion. in particular. interface. of semiconducting materials and which can perform useful functions in electronic apparatus and solidstate research. and Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices by Grove (Wiley. Since the invention of the transistor in 1948 the number and variety of semiconductor devices have increased tremendously as advanced technology. made to include most of the important de vices. (Wiley. In a book of this length it is An attempt. Introduction to Semiconductor Physics by Adler et al.Preface This book is concerned specifically tional characteristics of semiconductor devices. and optoelectronic devices. . With this as a basis. the microwave. has been not possible to give a complete account of all of them. the present book elaborates on device theory in more detail. Semiconductors by Smith.
For each chapter a Stevens Institute of Technology. he can refer directly to the last chapter with out consulting any of those between Chapters 3 and 13. A. S. Rosenzweig. Lynch. C. B. M. P. T. R. brief historical review. silicon. J. Senhouse. K. Chang. I wish to express. Scharfetter. R. Loya. Edwards. Powell. and to Mrs. I am without their help this also indebted to Drs. contained and essentially independent of the others for example. my gratitude to Dr. E. Poon. H. DeLoach. T. is given in its introduction. J. if one is interested in bulkeffect devices. G. It is a pleasure to acknowledge Mr. Dyment. J. in particular. and T. Iwersen. Neuberger of the Electronic Properties Information Center. S. More than two thousand papers on semiconductor devices. Thanks are due also to Professor G. Ryder for his constant encouragement and constructive criticism and to Drs. Smits for providing a stimulating and challenging environment in which I have been welcomed. P. Boyle and F. T. cataloged at the Murray Hill Library of Bell Laboratories. Andrews. . Gummel. Boll. inspired. H. Lee. W. J. Ripper. many of my book could not have been written. who provided the uptodate compilation of data sheets and kindly checked the tables used in Chapter 2. In Chapters 3 through 14 each considers a specific device or a group is presented in such a way that it is self. C. M. Herskowitz of Stevens Institute of Technology. H. H. S. R. These data are used in analyzing device characteristics throughout this of closely related devices and each book. Harper. Misawa. H. P. E. J. M. who provided the opportunity for me to teach the course on which this text is based. Brews. C. I am especially indebted to Mrs. Carey and Mr. The literature and many illustrations used in the book are acknowledged in the reference lists at the close of each chapter. H. L. W. D. and gallium arsenide. Melchior. J. Lepselter. During the course of the writing I have been deeply grateful to colleagues at Bell Laboratories . H. who did most of the literature searching on semiconductor F. J. Paoli. The physics of the device and its mathematical formulation are then presented in subsequent sections and are generally arranged in logical sequence without heavy reliance on the original papers. M. Lee. T. Kahng. Y. Nicollian. In Chapter 2 extensive data have been compiled and presented for the three most important semiconductors: germanium. H. Zachos for their helpful suggestions and discussions on one or more chapters of the book. D. E. Blair for her lucid technical editing of the entire manuscript. W. Hughes Aircraft Company. M. Knight. A.viii Preface This text began as a set of lecture notes for an outofhours course in " Semiconductor Device Physics " given at Bell Laboratories and later presented as a graduate course in "Selected Topics on SolidState Devices" at properties the principal source For numerical data on semiconductor was the Data Sheets compiled by the Electronic Properties Information Center of Hughes Aircraft Company. and abundantly assisted. Kuhn. M. have provided background. Sevick. E. J. C. L. R. Goetzberger. Thim. S. as well as a general outline. S. J.
in particular Mr. Finally. Williams who typed the final manuscript. J. Sze . including the typing of the entire S. Y. I wish to thank Miss D. P. Tung's Chair Professorship grant and the hospitality of the National Chiao Tung University provided the environment in which to read the proofs of the book. Mrs. and the members of the Murray Hill Drafting Department of Bell Laboratories who furnished the more than five hundred technical drawings used in this book. Bohn and Mr. ix and my students at Stevens Institute. Kruegle.Preface devices. Miss J. A. many ways. A. who helped to correct many errors in the original class notes. and Mrs. McCarthy. Hendricks. P. H. M. H. her assistance in I wish especially to thank my wife Therese Lingyi for first draft. Nevitt who typed various sections of the book in its revision stage. The support of C. E.
65 PART II pn 3 JUNCTION DEVICES 77 77 . Specific 3 Remarks 5 PART I SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS Physics and Properties of Semiconductors Chapter 2 A 1. 7. 2.. Carrier 5. . ^ Chapter 1. 78 xi . Resume 11 11 Introduction Crystal Structure 2. Classification 3. Energy Bands Concentration at Thermal Equilibrium Carrier Transport Phenomena Phonon Spectra and Optical. and HighField Properties of Semiconductors 4. 1 Introduction 1 General Outline of Semiconductor Devices 1 2. pn Junction Diodes Introduction Basic Device Technology .. 25 38 50 6. 12 17 3.— Contents Chapter 1. Thermal.. Basic Equations for Semiconductor Device Operation .
Terminal Functions Heterojunction 140 Chapter 4 1. Chapter 7 1. 5. Tunneling Processes Excess Current Current. pnpn and Junction FieldEffect Devices Introduction 2. 7. 5. Depletion Region and Depletion Capacitance CurrentVoltage Characteristics Junction Breakdown Transient Behavior and Noise 84 96 109 127 131 8.. 3.. . 7. Junction Transistors 261 Introduction Static Characteristics 261 2. 172 190 193 Backward Diode 5 Chapter (IMPATT 1. Electron Bombardment. Generalized SmallSignal Analysis LargeSignal Analysis Noise Experiments 234 240 244 Chapter 6 1. .. 3. 4.xii Contents 3. 4. 320 340 . 5. Microwave Transistor Power Transistor Switching Transistor 6.. ImpactAvalanche TransitTime Diodes Diodes) 200 200 202 215 221 Introduction Static Characteristics 2. Unijunction Transistor 262 279 295 302 310 319 319 . Temperature. 6. . Basic Dynamic Characteristics 4. 4. Tunnel Diode and Backward Diode 150 150 151 Introduction of High Doping 2.. 7. 6. 5.Voltage Characteristics Equivalent Circuit 156 169 Due to Effects of Doping. 3. Shockley Diode and SemiconductorControlled Rectifier Junction FieldEffect Transistor and Current Limiter . Effects 3. and Pressure 6..
Tunneling. IGFET and Related Surface Field Effects 505 505 Introduction 2. 11 ThinFilm Devices 567 Introduction InsulatedGate ThinFilm Transistors (TFT) 567 568 2. SurfaceSpaceCharge Region Under Nonequilibrium 3. 8. 410 414 417 Chapter 9 1. 5. 6.. 5. PointContact Rectifier. . 4. Temperature. IGFET IGFET with Schottky Barrier Contacts for Source and Drain with a Floating Gate —A Memory Device 546 550 555 Surface Field Effects on pn Junctions and Metal Semiconductor Devices Chapter 1. Characteristics 467 479 492 Surface Varactor. and MetalSemicondutor IMPATT Diode Mott Barrier.Contents xiii PART III INTERFACE AND THINFILM DEVICES 363 363 Chapter 8 1. Condition Channel Conductance Basic Device Characteristics General Characteristics 506 512 515 524 . Illumination. Effects of Metal Work Function. and Radiation on MIS 5. Current Transport Theory in Schottky Barriers Measurement of Schottky Barrier Height Clamped Transistor. Energy Band Relation at MetalSemiconductor Contact . Schottky Effect 364 368 378 393 4. Ideal 3. MetalInsulatorSemiconductor (MIS) Diode Surface States.. Schottky Gate FET. Avalanche. MetalInsulatorSemiconductor (MIS) Diodes . 8. and Ohmic Contact SpaceChargeLimited Diode . . Surface Charges. 7. 7. MIS Diodes Carrier Transport in Insulating Films Chapter 10 1. 6. Crystal Orientation. and Space Charges 444 4. and Electroluminescent 6. . MetalSemiconductor Devices Introduction 2. . 3. 425 425 426 Introduction 2.
Photodetectors 640 653 Chapter 13 1. 3. 3. Contents HotElectron Transistors MetalInsulatorMetal Structure 587 614 PART [f IV OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES Optoelectronic Devices 625 Chapter 12 1. Semiconductor Laser Physics Junction Lasers Heterostructure and Continuous RoomTemperature 3. 4. BULKEFFECT DEVICES BulkEffect Devices 731 Introduction 731 2. Electroluminescent Devices Solar Cell 625 626 4. Other Pumping Methods and Laser Materials 725 PART V Chapter 14 1. Bulk Differential Negative Resistance Ridley.WatkinsHilsum (RWH) Mechanism Gunn Oscillator and Various Modes of Operation Associated BulkEffect Devices 732 741 749 778 Author Index Subject Index 789 799 . 5.xiv 3. Semiconductor Lasers 687 687 688 Introduction 2. Introduction 2. 699 723 4. 4. Operation 5.
Physics of Semiconductor Devices .
: Part 1 in Chapter 2 is intended as a summary of materials properties. A compilation of the most recent and most accurate information on these semiconductors is given in the tables and illustrations of Chapter 2. When the junction is operated in avalanche breakdown. Part 2. one obtains the new features of tunnel diode behavior (Chapter 4). under proper conditions one obtains an IMPATT diode which can generate microitself is . : optoelectronic devices. to be used throughout the book as a basis for understanding and calculating device characteristics. and GaAs. with both for junction and as a component of more involved devices. Si. Carrier distribution and transport properties are emphasis on the three most important materials: Ge. pn junction devices. The classic moderatefield pn junction of Chapter 3 is basic briefly surveyed. treats of devices with one or more interacting pn junctions. When the doped heavily enough on both sides so that the field becomes high enough for tunneling. and bulkeffect devices. interface Part 2 : Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 : and thinfilm devices. Chapters 3 through 7.: GENERAL OUTLINE CLASSIFICATION OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES SPECIFIC REMARKS Introduction I GENERAL OUTLINE The contents of Part 1 : this book can be divided into five parts resume of physics and properties of semiconductors.
This characteristics is then followed by consideration of device is and physical principles. and yet it can be operated as a wave radiation (Chapter the interaction between majoritycarrier device with inherent fast response. : in order to keep the notations simple. considers some socalled "bulk property" devices. among these are the pnpn triplejunction devices. Part 4. the symbol a is used as the commonbase current gain and as the electron impact ionization is for a junction transistor. Chapter 11 considers some thinfilm and hotelectron devices which also belong to the interfacedevice family. that two closelycoupled junctions. Chapter 6 treats of the junction transistor. so and various modes of operation are of prime interest in Chapter 14. the historical events concerning the invention and derivation of a particular device or a group of closely related devices are briefly reviewed. In the presentation of each device chapter. Metalinsulatorsemi conductor devices and the related surface physics of the insulatorsemiconductor interface are considered in Chapters 9 and 10. considers optoelectronic devices which can also because of the relevance to stability detect. so that the instructor or the reader can select or rearrange the device chapters in accordance with his own less be more or schedule. which is the single is. generate. as the optical absorption coefficient for a photodetector. or surfaces between semiconductors and other materials. and then be forced to find more complicated symbols . but they do operate at reasonably high that the velocityfield relationship fields. Part 3. The Schottky diode behavior is electrically similar to a onesided abrupt pn junction. are in Chapter 8. This usage considered preferable to the alternative. These devices do not depend primarily on shall consider various photodetectors pn junctions or interfaces. Interfaces with metals. coefficient for an IMPATT diode. It intended that each chapter should independent of the other chapters. Other junction devices are in Chapter 7. primarily those concerned with the intervalleytransfer mechanism (Gunn oscillator and LSA oscillator). with different meanings for different For example. and the junction fieldeffect transistor which utilizes the junction field to control a current flow which is parallel to the junction rather than perpendicular to it. and convert optical energy to electric energy or vice versa. Chapter 14. Chapters 12 and 13. deals with interfaces. which would be to use alpha only once. Chapters 8 through 11. most important semiconductor device.2 Introduction 5). in particular the Schottky barrier. Chapter 13 is devoted to one of the most important optoelectronic devices: the semiconductor laser. We and the solar cell in Chapter 12. Part 5. it is necessary to use the simple symbols more than once. This knowledge of "surface states" is important not only because of the devices themselves but and reliability of all other semiconductor devices. A remark on notation devices.
however. This classification is used because it permits an orderly sequence from one device to another within the book.1 for convenient reference. or a combination of metal. they 2 CLASSIFICATION OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES In the previous section we have classified semiconductor devices in accordance with material combinations (such as the semiconductor alone.2 Classification of Semiconductor Devices 3 for the other uses. TABLE LIST 1. used with symbols do book. Within each chapter. each symbol is only one meaning and are is defined the first time it appears. or the intervalley transfer property).1 OF BASIC SYMBOLS Unit Symbol a 31 Name lattice spacing magnetic induction velocity of light in free space A Weber/m 2 cm/sec farad c C 2> capacitance electric displacement coul/cm 2 D E Ec EF Eg Ey <S diffusion coefficient cm 2 /sec eV eV eV eV eV volt/cm volt/cm volt/cm energy bottom of conduction band Fermi energy level energy gap band top of valence band electric field critical field $c £m f F{E) h hv I Ic maximum frequency field Hz(cps) joulesec FermiDirac distribution function Planck's constant photon energy current collector current eV amp amp amp/cm 2 amp/cm 2 joule/°K J Jt current density threshold current density k kT L Boltzmann's constant thermal energy length free electron effective eV cm mass mass kg kg or nm m m* . semiconductor. Many this have the same or similar meanings consistently throughout summarized in Table 1. and insulator) and material properties (such as the optical property.
m V operator VT £o Ss Ei temperature gradient free space permittivity °K/cm farad/cm farad/cm farad/cm semiconductor permittivity insulator permittivity e s /e or £.TABLE Symbol n I./e dielectric constant T e lifetime or decay time second radian angle A V 1*0 wavelength frequency of light freespace permeability electron mobility (Am or A Hz henry/cm Hn [Ap hole mobility resistivity cm 2 /Vsec cm 2 /Vsec ohmcm volts P <!> barrier height or imref <f>Bn <}>Bp </>.) Name refractive index Unit n Hi density of free electrons intrinsic density N NA Nc ND Nv P doping concentration acceptor impurity density effective density of states in conduction band donor impurity density effective density of states in valence band density of free holes cm 3 cm 3 cm 3 cm 3 cm 3 cm 3 cm 3 cm 3 dyne/cm 2 coulomb charges/cm 2 P <? pressure magnitude of electronic charge surfacestate density Qss R t resistance ohm sec time absolute temperature carrier velocity T V Vsl °K cm/sec cm/sec cm/sec volts volts volts volts scatteringlimited velocity Vi* thermal velocity (\ 3kT/m) voltage buildin potential / V vbl Veb emitterbase voltage Vb breakdown voltage thickness W wB X base thickness xdirection differential cm cm or fira or /u.„ Schottky barrier height on n type semiconductor Schottky barrier height on p type semiconductor metal work function angular frequency (2rrf volts volts volts CO or 2itv) a ohm Hz ohm .I (Cont.
1920's. 1 to classify this section. and can serve to organize creative thinking. be worthwhile to point out some interesting thoughts pertinent to all.4 presents some important singly. . the We shall start with homogeneous semiconductors (bulkeffect without junction) and apply the external influences one at a time. They 7. the fieldeffect diode (single junction). 1850's. and the junction field effect transistor (multiplejunction). this and the semiconductordevice and so fastchanging that today's concepts field in particular are so dynamic may be obsolete tomorrow. 3 SPECIFIC It REMARKS may book. and the external influences will be applied and so on. they are included in this chapter because of the similarities of these devices in configuration and characteristics. Table 1. Table 1. Table 1 .2 presents some of the bulkeffect devices where the symbols for external influences are defined in Table 1. Table 1. by extending the of effects and in fluences. However. we've reached the zenith in communication potenFirst of the electronics field in general tial. a triple. we shall consider multiple junction (or and the external influences will be applied accordingly. These lists are not intended to list exhaust all the possibilities. A single pn junction will be the simplest departure from bulkeffect devices."— Chief White Cloud. multiple junction (or interface) devices. For example. Finally. as pro posed by Angello."— Engineer. in pairs. The devices with next degree of complication will be the bulkeffect with a pair of external and so on. Devices are then be presented in the present classified in the order of the progressive complication of the semiconductor attributes. and so on.3 presents some important singlejunction (or interface) devices. influences. with external influences applied singly. other semiconductor devices all may be classified similarly.3 Specific Remarks 5 A more systematic method of will all classifying semiconductor devices. The system starts by listing a complete set of semiconductor properties and a complete set of external influences (such as applied voltage) which can modify semiconductor attributes. are classified into the aforementioned three groups."— Engineer. interface) devices. " With the vacuum tube. in pairs.1. "The telegraph is the ultimate in fast communication.5 shows the devices that will be considered in this book. Chapter we shall consider the current limiter (bulkeffect). We note that a chapter in may include devices from all three groups. Remember these "famous last words" 2 ? " They'll never replace the smoke signal as the fastest means of communication. This system can be used and future semiconductor devices.
2 BULKEFFECT DEVICES External Influence Number of Electrodes Features Name of Device (where applicable) No.. thus important for one to understand the fundamental physical processes and to equip himself with sufficient background in physics and mathematics to digest.. communication. to appreciate. A digital computer is basically a faster. Thermistor vr ~ VT Strain gauge s. T 2 2 2 *up «^* J=a{J)S Thomson heat. and to meet the challenge of these dynamic fields..Introduction TABLE 1. Influence transmission of light over certain frequency Optical filter hv optical and electronbeam pumping Lasers /= aS 1 Resistor voltagecontrolled negative resistance Gunn oscillator £ 2 currentcontrolled negative resistance Cryosar /= COnSt. 9 They can't possibly go beyond ary new concept. 2 s.p 3 jp j . . We should also be aware of the widespread use of digital computers in almost every field. <f. reliable means of —Engineer." — Engineer. It is . #) Hall generator 2 S. more powerful. " 1 50's. ze 4 V = f{Jf. "Integrated circuits are IT! this revolution 1960's. peizoresistance effect ©2) jp 3 Suhl effect "Transistors are the final step in the search for speedy.i 2 2 Seeback effect «? ~ \JT Photoconductor Magnetoresistor J=a{hv)£ j=o{3>?)g Hall effect. for <f > threshold Current limiter vr hv.
pn. solar cell Diode. band gaps and pp) contacts between metal and Schottky diode. Influence hv photovoltaic effect regular pn junction (pn) Photocell. semiconductor Mott diode.hv Peltier effect Peltier refrigerator J = f(S. reflection surfaces limit voltage Tunnel diode Injection laser by avalanche Voltage regulator breakdown or tunneling microwave generation by impactavalanche and transittime effect IMPATT diode unipolar device used as current limiter junction formed between Fieldeffect diode semiconductors with different Heteroj unction (nn.TABLE 1. rectifier pn used as variable resistor Varistor pn used as variable capacitor Varactor Electroluminescent pn used as light source diode pn with very high dopings on both sides with moderately high dopings. direct bandgap. pointcontact Thermocouple. VT Seeback effect thermoelectric generator minority injection into a filament Unijunction transistor (doublebase diode) r.VT £.hv) Photodiode .3 SINGLEJUNCTION (OR INTERFACE) DEVICES External Influence Number of Electrodes Features Name of Device (where applicable) No.
" nonlinear problems. important to point out that many of the devices. Influence 2 fourlayer pnpn diode Shockley diode 1 S 2 metalinsulatormetal device MIM MIS tunneling diode metalinsulatorsemi 2 conductor device pnp and npn diode 3 Junction transistors Semiconductor con3 pnpn with one gate trolled rectifier (SCR) 1 3 junction unipolar transistor insulatedgate fieldeffect JFET or 2 and/or 2 3 IGFET transistor thinfilm transistor with de3 posited semiconductor film TFT Hotelectron transistor semiconductormetalsemi3 conductor structures and other related structures £. especially the microas IMPATT diodes and Gunn oscillators.Introduction TABLE 1. The reader thus expected to have some basic familiarity with these aids.hv 3 with incident light Optical transistor and more versatile " sliderule. The material It is wave devices such presented in this book is intended to serve as a foundation. results prior to and we can simulate dynamic behavior and discover useful experimental investigations. Their largesignal behaviors and ultimate performances are by no means fully understood at the present time. The reader is . In this book many theoretial results and illustrais tions have been obtained with the help of computers. With this "sliderule" we can solve many we can handle millions of computations in a short time.4 MULTIPLEJUNCTION (OR INTERFACE) DEVICES External Influences Number of Electrodes Features Name of Device (where applicable) No. are still under intensive investigation.
D 'H O lH o ITS 13 ^! O o. 13 Q o o 3 C o o X! a.ci U T3 o &0 u GO <L> 03 C E c E !_ 03 o <a X> o Ci 3 O CO z F 3 £ TD crj O O C E <u 1> o c x: h. 3 & emp C ^ E essu u r <s m * * c mag <* <+ 13 4> X! U c/5 X LU r^ ^ *® <U °<  O > n u. U 3 rt U • J * t« oj F X) o 11 W5 >> pq • pq • > c C (J y 3 3 o (Tl 60 £ UJ • X H * <u . o c (Tl c . • L. 60 V Uh 1> c o CJ <ij '33 00 3 pq 0) u C xj (J O (I) (Tl L E c i o. T3 c 8 £ S 7. O > T3 3 V. c (]> . 60 03 GO oo E 3 U. t> ^ c 3 c C 03 l" o — v TJ <e 60 *> 77 <" U  • £ <u «C a •x. 60 . w > !D C « <1> •— it: u > 2 SiS 3 w CC •JJ ta T3 T3 JD T3 « C o62 <L> 1. u.
. Spencer. This is because IC are primarily concerned with the physics and operational principles of the individual devices which form the building blocks of integrated circuits. 46. Compiled by H. Integrated circuitry (IC) is is basically a technology. IRE. S. 968 (1958). He is also expected to attend technical conferences to exchange.10 Introduction expected to enhance his understanding by consulting the original literature with an inquiring mind that will not blindly accept all statements. We not discussed in this book. Angello. to listen to. and stimulate new thoughts." Proc. C. REFERENCES 1. and to argue about technical ideas which may clarify misconcepts. J. Only by understanding individual devices can we fully use them either as discrete components or as integrated systems. "Review of Other Semiconductor Devices. inspire new ideas. 2.
PART SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS I Physics and Properties of Semiconductors A Resume .
consult the standard textbooks or reference works by Dunlap. many interesting properties which differ 11 . particularly its direct band gap for laser application and its intervalleycarrier transport for generation of microwaves. the purpose of this chapter to present a summary of the physics and properties of semiconductors. AND HIGHFIELD PROPERTIES OF SEMICONDUCTORS BASIC EQUATIONS FOR SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE OPERATION 2 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors — A Resume I INTRODUCTION The physics of semiconductor devices It is is naturally dependent on the physics of semiconductors themselves. In recent four tables years^ gallium arsenide has also been intensively investigated because of its from those of Ge and Si. 2 4 3 Moll. The summary represents only a small cross section of the vast literature on semiconductors only those subjects pertinent to device operations are included here.. In order to condense a large For detailed consideration of semiconductor physics the reader should 1 Madelung. Hence in this chapter emphasis will be placed on the above three most important semiconductors. amount of information into a single chapter. and Smith. INTRODUCTION CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ENERGY BANDS CARRIER CONCENTRATION AT THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM CARRIER TRANSPORT PHENOMENA PHONON SPECTRA. THERMAL. of all semiconductors. AND OPTICAL. and over thirty illustrations drawn from the experimental data are compiled and presented here. It is well known that. the elements germanium and silicon are the most extensively studied.
vv l 5 = mz + nb + pc cells (direct lattices). since the electronic shall properties of solids are intimately related to their lattice structures. in a zincblende (GaAs). and the related parameters such as the effective mass m* and the energy band gap E It is found that for most semiconductors there is a g . At higher temperatures there are electrons in the conduction band and holes in the valence band. one of the sublattices is gallium and such as gallium aresnide lattice. such as silicon. We review the Miller indices which define crystal planes in real space and designate momenta in energymomentum space. close resemblance between the electron.. For the diamond lattice. particularly for motion of an electron in a crystal and the free an electron with energy near a minimum in energymomentum space. The energy gap corresponds to the energy difference between the top of the valence band which is completely filled at 0°K and the bottom of the conduction band which is empty at 0°K. rounded by four equidistant nearest neighbors which lie at the corners of a The bond between two nearest neighbors is formed by two electrons with opposite spins. such that the crystal structure remains invariant under translation through any vector which is the sum of integral multiples of these basis vectors. shows some of the important unit A great many of the important semiconductors are of diamond or zincblende lattice structures which belong to the tetrahedral phases. c. Other related properties of semiconductors under various external influences are discussed in Section 6. we shall consider energy bands. Carrier concentration and carrier transport phenomena. the direct lattice sites can be defined by the set t }\ . For most semiconductors the transport processes for electrons and holes are considered to be independent of each other. each atom is sur tetrahedron. Figure n.e. In Section 3. The diamond and the zincblende lattices can be considered as two interpenetrating facecentered cubic lattices. (1) where m. based on the energy band theory. Most of the electronic behaviors can be described in classical terms as though they were free electrons with an effective mass m*. b. all the . and the total conduction current is simply the sum of the electron and hole current components. i. the basic equations for semiconductor device operation are summarized in Section 7. In other words. a. 1 and p are integers. 2 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE For a crystalline solid there exist three primitive basis vectors. Finally.12 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume We shall first consider the crystal structure in Section 2. are considered in Sections 4 and 5 respectively. atoms are silicon.
Mn) BODYCENTERED CUBIC (Na .etc) a ZINCBLENDE (GaAs. the other is arsenic.Ge. since it is formed from elements of Column III and Column V in the Periodic Table. We note that. Au.2 Crystal Structure 13 SIMPLE CUBIC (P. Figure 2 shows the hexagonal closepacked lattice as well as the wurtzite lattice which can be considered as two interpenetrating hexagonal closepacked lattices. Most however. PACE W.Si. 1 Some of the important unit cells (direct lattices) and their representative elements or compounds. as in the zincblende lattice. etc ) CENTERED CUBIC (At. many semiconductors (including some IIIV compounds) crystallize in the wurtzite structure which also has a tetrahedral arrangement of nearest neighbors. etc) DIAMOND (C.etc) Fig.7 wurtzite lattice is surrounded by four equidistant nearest neighbors at the . 2 6. each atom of the ' IIIV compounds crystallize in the zincblende structure. Gallium arsenide is a IIIV compound. GaP InSb.
one can define a set of reciprocal basis vectors.14 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume HEXAGONAL CLOSEPACKED LATTICE (Cd. The lattice constants of some important semi 8 conductors are summarized in Table 2. 2 Hexagonal closepacked lattice lattice. abxc c* *~ axb = 2n— a • b x c . corners of a tetrahedron. set of the direct basis vectors. such as zinc sulfide and cad mium lattice sulfide. b*.Li.1 along with their crystal structures. For a given can crystallize in both zincblende and wurtzite structures. (2) .etC) WURTZITE LATTICE (CdS. It is of interest to note that some compounds. c* such that a* = b x c 2n a • b* b x c' = 2n — c x a . a*.etC) and wurtzite Fig.
o o "3 no I/O no 1! ^ II c c o U ON 00 NO 1^ Tt 00 v£> rno ci NO "* r<i vi iri N O ON <* m m oo vd OO in V0wrj"\0iflirtvo II m ui oo uinciooooooo oo io oo m —^mvoovin>nr^inso m.  n in ^ II no * in ci II in no <3 3 o 3 55 Diamond c H) Diamond Diamond Diamond T3 "O XI U X) "c3 o c co >> N N N N ^ N N N N N N "OT3T3T3T3T3 ccc<ucccccc OOOiOOOOOO CCC.\OinooON£>Tt5frOOO — ifi II fl ifi in no m o ON Tf .3CCCCCC 4> U DOOUDU Zincblende Zincblende Zincblende Wurtzite Wurtzite Cubic u u 3 3 u antimonide u E 4> (Diamond) phosphide phosphide antimonide selenide phosphide antimonide sulfide sulfide arsenide nitride IB nitride arsenide Tin Germanium Carbon Silicon o c o o ca oxide sulfide sulfide CO Aluminum +» Cadmium Gallium Cadmium Cadmium Gallium Gallium Gallium Boron Boron Indium Indium Indium Grey Zinc Zinc Zinc j/5 Element or Compound UOmw u O y 1/3 •a t3 t3 U U U N N N c a c X) X) 3 3 > > 1 > 8 1) > > 15 .
g etc . where h. . (100) (110) (in) Fig. . It can be shown that the product g 1 = 2n x integer that each vector of the reciprocal lattice is normal to a set of planes in the direct lattice and that the volume V* of a unit cell of the reciprocal lattice is inversely pro. 3 Miller indices of some important planes in a cubic crystal where a is the lattice constant. and / are integers. a • b* = 0. k. and the general reciprocal lattice given by = ha* + kb* + • /c* (3).16 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors • —A Resume vector so that a is a* = 2% .
for a hexagonal lattice. A the center point (r) to planes. A convenient method of defining the various planes in a crystal by the use of the Miller indices which are determined by first finding the intercepts of the plane with the three basis axes in terms of the lattice constants and then taking the reciprocals of these numbers and reducing them to the smallest three integers having the same ratio. (001). cleaves on {110} planes. 4(a) is the unit cell of the reciprocal Fig. : for a full set of equivalent directions. 2) with caxis as the [0001] direction. (TOO). 4 are be used in the next section on energy bands. (010). {hkl}: for planes of equivalent (010). The result is enclosed in parentheses (hkl) as the Miller indices for a single plane or a set of parallel planes. by a WignerSeitz The WignerSeitz cell is constructed by drawing perpentypical dicular bisector planes in the reciprocal lattice nearest equivalent reciprocal lattice in Fig. [hkl] (hkl)> : for the direction of a crystal such as [100] for the xaxis. or cleavage. we can construct The result is shown in adopted from Group Theory. in Fig.e. the result cell. 4(a) for from the chosen center to the example is shown 9> 10 a facecentered cubic structure. is (Ek) relationship usually obtained i. The unit cell of a reciprocal lattice can be generally represented cell. germanium and silicon.3 Energy Bands 17 portional to the volume Vc of a unit cell of the direct lattice. i. some important planes in a cubic crystal are The shown in side of Some other conventions are given as follows: 5 (Ekl): for a plane that intercepts the xaxis on the negative the origin. V* = (2n) 3 /Vc is where Vc = a • b x c. Thus the WignerSeitz shown lattice. 4(b).. the easiest breakage. If one first draws lines from sites. lattice of an fee direct the WignerSeitz cell for a hexagonal structure. In contrast gallium arsenide. then forms the bisector the truncated octahedron within the cube —a WignerSeitz lattice lattice It lattice can be shown that 11 a facecentered cubic (fee) direct constant "a" has a bodycentered cubic (bee) reciprocal cell with with spacing Anja. Some Similarly 3 ENERGY BANDS The band structure of a crystalline solid. Miller indices of Fig. [a x a 2 a c] 2) : Here it is customary to use four axes (Fig. For the two semiconductor elements.. the energymomentum by the solution of the Schrodinger . symmetry such as {100} for and (00T) in cubic symmetry. 3. (100). 12 The symbols used will of the symbols in Fig.e. is all the eight corners of the cube. which has a similar lattice structure but also has a slight ionic component in the bonds. planes are the {111} planes.
and Cohen.2m V + P£(r) (f>k(r) )] = Ek (f) k (r) (4) are of the form k (r) = e Jk " r Uk (r) = Bloch function (5) . zone edge along <110> axes (2). (After Brillouin. then n 13 the solutions ^> k (r) of the Schrodinger equation equation of an approximate oneelectron problem. zone edge along <100> axes (A) K: 2tt/o (I. 0). 0. zone for wurtzite lattice. 0). 4 (a) Brillouin (b) Brillouin zone for diamond and zincblende lattices. . 0. 4> i). 12. One of the most important theorems basic to band structure is the Bloch theorem which states that if a potential energy PE(r) is periodic with the periodicity of the lattice. Ref. zone edge along <111> axes (A) X: 27r/o (0. Ref. Also indicated are the most important symmetry lines points and symmetry such as: zone center L: 27r/o (£. ' 2 (.18 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume (a) Fig. 9. 1).) T: 277/0 (0.
Recent results of studies of the energy band structures of Ge. 0.. The effective mass. Three of the four bands are degenerate at k = (T point) and form the upper edge of the band. which is when . The valence band in the zincblende structure consists of four subbands when spin is neglected in the Schrodinger equation. In this figure the bottom of the conduction band is designated by E c and the top of the valence band by Ev The electron energy is conventionally defined to be positive when measured upwards. > axes (A) and their intersections with the zone edge [L = 2n/a(^. E which is the g most important parameter in semiconductor physics. The separation between the energy of the lowest conduction band and that of the highest valence band is called the band gap. The upper bands are called the conduction bands. Thus to label the energy uniquely ciprocal lattice. It is thus evident that we can reduce any momen zone where any energy state can be given a label in the reduced zone schemes. 4(b). Ek = Ek+g where g is given by Eq. i)]. and the <110> axes (I) and their intersections [K= 2n/aQ.3 Energy Bands 19 where Uk(r) is periodic in r with the periodicity of the direct lattice.2. The energy bands of solids have been studied theoretically using a variety of computer methods. . it is sufficient to use only k's in a primitive cell of the re the reciprocal The standard convention is to use the WignerSeitz cell in lattice as shown in Fig. The band gaps of some important semiconductors are listed 18 in Table 2. the <100> axes (A) and their intersections ]X= 2nja(0. For semiconductors the two methods most frequently used are the orthogonalized plane wave method 14 15 and the pseudopotential ' method. 6. Above and below this energy gap are permitted energy regions or energy bands. and each band is doubled details of the picture as . i. \. 0. One notices that for any semiconductor there is a forbidden energy region in which no allowed states can exist. Also indicated are the most important symmetry points and symmetry lines such as the center of the zone the < 1 1 1 [T = 2n/a(0. 0)]. 5. 4. 5 the two top valence bands can be approximately fitted by two parabolic bands with different curvatures: the heavyhole band (the wider band with smaller d 2 E/dk 2 ) and the lighthole band (the narrower band with larger 8 2 E/dk 2 ).e. and the fourth one forms the bottom. Before we discuss the . 1)]. (3). 16 17 band structure. f. This cell is called the Brillouin zone 9 or the first Brillouin zone. we shall first consider the simplified band shown in Fig. As shown in Fig. spin is taken into account. 0)]. 4(a). Furthermore the spinorbit interaction causes a splitting of the band at k = 0. The Brillouin zone for the wurtzite lattice is tum k in the reciprocal space to a point in the Brillouin shown in Fig. Si. and GaAs are shown in Fig. the valence bands. The Brillouin zone for the diamond and the zincblende lattices is the same as that of the fee and is shown in Fig. the lower bands. From the Bloch theorem one can show that the energy £"k is periodic in the reciprocal lattice. and the hole energy is positive when measured downwards.
> 5 S S £ •o i C «j I 3 t/5 c3 3 <c < 33 »3 C3 Dfl 35 O <u 33 O rt 33 << a a OO V) t/5 < < < 33 » n n ooo o o o vo in </i 55 to 111 Z < * 8 * f Ct £ 8 w 00 ** X o 88 V© ON v© o <o o <N Q O rr §^ V) r tj ^h £2 5 VI 1? 2^ c o 88 00 ih 8 o (J n> CT\ w> CO o © <N 53 8 8 2O O Q OOO O O vo t£ oo oo rt m tJr~ a nl o^ © «h v> >/i >/> v© 00 (.00 •^.1 ^ ' 1 < 1 I 1 ( 1 O "C 4> !> s 5 g o s >o </S oo VO rt f4 ""^ o CJ\ </) r1—1 u> 1—1 >— 1 . © — *"i o © * ^* co VI r~."S d o H <— t~ 1—1 Tt Tj^H ._ O 8 < % o.on Ov ** * d odd d * t d d V) lO v~% ^H VD 5 "S > * s c o ll vq p ©d II II t.VO CJ 4> Slit * * vo * # © co d O O odd o o o odd vi m « <N r~ W ++ . PQ pq oooo rt rt rt cti Z !/3 < Ph 00 (3 < C Ph CJ e i s 20 > J 1— > 1— 1— .— Q U "* in <D COS tn "o ffi m S O o" ii V© © ii co <J Wl o" ll II © ll II p — 1 *5 ** *£*£ s s s s rs oo r. o oo es <ri o •?£ _^ o" I r4 VO vo <N •<* CO ©' d * ^ 2> c w rt PO « 8 vo rt vq >o r~ rJ d — CO vq co ^ i/o I—' 2 VO vo ron w> vq Tt o4 r» ©* r<S O* *i <S i m ^ — m m © ^ ^^ o o 3 TD C o o S in >_ — T3 J2 "2 c a o E 33 <u 5 y S2 5 uo 33 .
s •c S to T3 a « "5 in <2 U O C UN N W3 S &h Pi 3 — > 00 8"H' a G KJ O aj .© CO " 4) 00 ^3 II 3 8.5 w» S 00 O ^ 2 e G O © CO 8 VO (N Q O © o O vo J3 u 2 . r © ie VO O o d d VO fS © © © ^ d d w ctf ** S . M .' o O o\ oo .3 go i° c 2 8 > eel 'J C •— .* GO go . *\ Q e3 W » go VO CJ in 00 t.4) 3 O.— < g ° 3  n > > _g h a •1 <u * ++ s cos 21 . v© en d d 5T 4 i> o « § . 'O VJ (/J O < a VI < < < crt </3 </> ooo a a 4) a) Ctf Q GO 4_> o o o o o t. d d Sg S3 <> g > c a g ..2 c« * r~.. #.
(After Cohen and Bergstresser. Si.22 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume VA G« GaAs f\\ CONDUCTION ELECTRONS I / UPPER \ VALLEY \ \ ~y^ 1 E9 \/ / \ .36 \ T~ LOWER VALLEY Eg LIGHT AND HEAVY HOLES 1 \ [III]. [100] [hi]* »[ioo] k [III]. Ref. 5 Energy band structures of Ge. (+) signs indicate holes in the valence bands and (— signs indicate electrons in the conduction bands. and GaAs where Eg ) is the energy band gap. .) ELECTRON ENERGY HOLE ENERGY » DISTANCE Fig. 6 Simplified band diagram./ 1 +~^^v_/ AE = 0. • [100] MOMENTUM Fig. 17.
5) consists of a number of subbands.) Experimental results show that the band gaps of most semiconductors decrease with increasing temperature. The shapes of the constant eight ellipsoids of For Ge there are revolution along the <lll>axes.43 eV for GaAs. The bottom of the conduction band can appear along the <lll>axes (A or L). the values of the band gap are 0. For highlydoped materials the band gaps become smaller. along the symmetry axes and These values also are given in Table 2. Ref.) Fig. at 7. along the <100>axes (A or X). For Si there are six along <100> axes with the centers of the ellipsoids located at about three quarters of the distance from the Brillouin zone center. is listed in Experimental results show. Si. The above values are for highpurity materials. m* z m t At room temperature and under normal atmosphere. Symmetry considerations alone do not determine the location of the bottom of the conduction band. two for Ge. Ge it is along the < 1 1 1 >axes. 7 Shapes of constant energy surfaces ellipsoids of revolution along . (The band gaps of degenerate semiconductors are considered in Chapter 4. the Brillouin zone boundaries are at the middle of the ellipsoids. (After Ziman. that in in Si the <100>axes. or at A: = (F). For Si there are six along the <100>axes with the centers of the ellipsoids located at about three quarters of the distance from the Brillouin zone center.66 eV for Ge.3 Energy Bands 23 defined as m = /d E\ 2 ' (6) Table 2. obtain the electron effective masses Si: . and GaAs. A. and the Brillouin zone boundaries are at the middle of the ellipsoids. and 1. energy surfaces 19 and in GaAs are shown in Fig. = 0. By fitting experimental results to parabolic bands. The detailed GaAs in Ge.2 for some important semiconductors. For GaAs the constant energy surface is a sphere at the zone center. we one for GaAs. 1.2. The conduction band (Fig. however. For GaAs the constant energy surface is a sphere at the zone center. 19.12 eV for Si. and two for * transverse to the symmetry axes. For Ge there are eight <111> axes.
9 MATERIAL Eg(0) Ge a (XIO" 4 ) GaAS 1. Panish Energy band gaps of Ge. Si. The variation of band gaps with temperature can be expressed by a universal function E (T) = E (0) g g .741 1 4. a and p are given in Fig. and GaAs are shown 4 in Fig. the band ~ gaps of Ge and GaAs increase with pressure 20 (dEJdP = 5 x 10 6 eV/kg/cm 2 6 2 for Ge. . 210 1 800 Fig.34 eV at 0°K to 0. 8 (after Varshni. 8.ccT2 j(T + fi). There are some semiconductors with positive dEJdT. respectively for the The band gap approaches 0.g.2). which increases from 0.7 ~ ^^\(0. PbS (Table 2. e. . Ref.75.4 x 10 eV/kg/cm 2 ).24 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume GaAs EgmEgW)*^ ^\U43) 1.8 300 1108 0. variations of band gaps as a function of temperature for Ge.6 t 400 V T(°K) Ge i 0.2 Si ^(1. 72.522 1. where ^(0). The temperature coefficient. Si.41 eV at 300°K. as a function of temperature. 73). 1.52 eV three semiconductors at 0°K. is negative for the above three semiconductors.02 0.66) 1 Si 7. Near room temperature. 8.12) 0. and GaAs and Casey.16. and about 9 x 10~ eV/kg/cm for GaAs) and that of Si decreases 6 with pressure (dE fdP= 2. dEJdT.56 . Ref.16 5. and 1.
" Similarly as shown in Fig. an additional electron is "accepted" to form four covalent bonds around the boron. and a negativecharged electron is "donated" to the : 0:©:© (a) INTRINSIC Si : conduction band. its four valence electrons with the four neighboring atoms forming four covalent bonds (also see Fig. Figure 9(a) shows intrinsic silicon which is very pure and contains a negligibly small amount of impurities each silicon atom shares . and m is the densityofstate de c M intrinsic is the with negligible impurities. N(E) is the density of states which for lowenough where carrier densities and temperatures can be approximated by the density near the bottom of the con ©.. . 9 Three basic bond (8) pictures of a semiconductor: (a) number of equivalent minima in the conduction band.© :©:0::©: : : © : : (c)pTYPE Si WITH ACCEPTOR duction band: N(E) = M. and the phosphorus atom is called a "donor. and a positive charged "hole" is created in the valence band. and (c) effective mass for electrons: 4 mde — (m 1 *m 2 *m 3 *) x/3 ptype with acceptor (9) (boron). The silicon is n type because of the addition of the negative charge carrier. The number of occupied conductionband levels is given by n (b)nTYPE Si WITH DONOR = °P f J N(E)F(E) dE EC (7) . (b) ntype with donor (phosphorus). This is p type. when a boron atom with three valence electrons substitutes for a silicon atom. 9(c). and the boron is an "acceptor. where J2(EE cy 2 h 0n de ) 3/2 Fig.©:©:©*• Ec is the energy at the bottom of the conduction band and Etop is the energy at the top. 1). Figure 9(b) shows schematically an «type silicon where a substitutional phosphorus atom with five valence electrons has replaced a silicon atom. 9." (1) ©"'© :• = © : Intrinsic Semiconductor ©© = : ©: We now consider the intrinsic case.4 Carrier Concentration at Thermal Equilibrium 25 4 CARRIER CONCENTRATION AT THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM The three basic bond pictures of a semiconductor are shown in Fig.
(12) ) is and F1/2 (r} f) is the FermiDirac integral which shown 21 in Fig. T the absolute temperature. Eq. kTV 12 h 2 Mc . 21.26 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors — A Resume . (After Blackmore. For the •642 (E c 2 4 6 E F )/kT = ^ f Fig. Ref.g. can be evaluated to be 2 /EF . and EF the Fermi energy which can be determined from the charge neutrality condition [see Section 4(3)]. in silicon mde = (raj*m.) .Ec\ en) band and is where Nc is the effective density of states in the conduction given by N _J " \ f 2nm de kT \ 2nm.* 2 1/3 ) F(E) is the FermiDirac distribution function given by (10) } F(E) = 1 1 + exp EE kT where k is Boltzmann's constant. where m t *. m 3 * are the effective masses along the principal axes of e. 10 FermiDirac integral F1/2 as a function of Fermi energy. (7). 10. .. The integral. m 2 *. the ellipsoidal energy surface.
for 27 case of Boltzmann the Fermi level several integral kT below E c in nondegenerate semiconductors. (13).e.E l2kT 4. n=p t .9 x 10 15 /^^\ \^ e E 3 g iikT (19a) . = n 2 . Again under nondegenerate conditions p^NyCxp^^^y (17) For intrinsic semiconductors at finite temperatures there is continuous thermal agitation that results in excitation of electrons from the valence band to the conduction band and leaves an equal number of holes in the valence = n This process is balanced by recombination of the band. The (18): intrinsic carrier concentration is and ( 1 np or «.e. The Fermi level for is nondegenerate) an intrinsic semiconductor (which by definition obtained by equating Eqs. 2 r. (11) becomes „ Similarly. lies close to the middle of the band gap. the approaches Jne~ ns\2 and Eq. electrons in the conduction band with holes in the valence band.4 Carrier Concentration at Thermal Equilibrium statistics. (13) we can obtain the hole density near the top of the valence band P~ where »r N {E V EF \ (14) "T*4~^> band and is Nv is the effective density of states in the valence given by Nv = where 2 J2nm dh kT\^ { 2 h 2 (15) ) m dh is the densityofstate effective mass of the valence band: 4 ™ dh = (m*V 2 + mth3/2 ) 213 (16) where the subscripts refer to "light" and "heavy" hole masses discussed before. Eq. = iV c exp(^^.. i. i. (6). (17)..) kT Nv Ec + E v 3kT (m dh \ very of an intrinsic semiconductor generally obtained from Eqs. (13) and (17): is Ec + E v Hence the Fermi level (£. 9) = = ^Nc N v e. = nc Nv exp( ° EJkT).
_. the larger the band gap the smaller the intrinsic carrier concentration.0 lOOO/TCK" Fig. Si. 1 10' i 10' 0. and Neuberger. As expected. A donor level is defined as being <°K) 800 600 500 r4 1 400 300 —— 273 1— 10" 10 V Ge 10" I co 15 to \si 10 Q £ <r 3 io' ^aAs CO 10 10" . (After Morin and Maita. 22. 11 Intrinsic carrier densities of Ge. Ref. ' t (2) Donors and Acceptors a semiconductor is When impurity energy levels are introduced.5 1. 18. T 1400 10" doped with donor or acceptor impurities.5 4. and GaAs. and GaAs as afunction of reciprocal temperature.0 2. The temperature dependence 22 23 of n is shown in Fig. Si. 11 for Ge.0 3.5 1 3.28 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors—A Resume where Eg = (Ec — Ev ).5 2. and m is the freeelectron mass.) .0 1. Hall and Racette. Ref. 23. Ref.
The above simple hydrogenatom model certainly cannot account for the details of ionization energy. e.05 eV for GaAs. the calculated values do predict the correct order of magnitude of the true ionization energies for shallow impurities. The ionization energy for the hydrogen atom is where e is the freespace permittivity. (The ionimplantation diffusion coefficient method 31 is still in its infancy. (20) *ef(£K The ionization energy for donors as calculated for Ge. and negative if filled by an electron. The filled We consider the unfilled valence band as a from the valence band edge) and about 0. and positive if empty. to be the most controllable. in Eq.g. particularly the deep levels in semi2426 conductors.05 eV for Si. ' in the Of all forbidden energy gap. We note that it is possible for a single atom to have many levels. The hydrogenatom is calculation for the ionization level for the acceptors similar to that for the donors.33 for the lowimpurity concentration case. The ionization energy for the effective Ed .) The D(T) in a limited temperature range can be described by (22) D(T) where = D exp( . Si.015 eV for Ge. The simplest calculation of impurity energy levels is based on the hydrogenatom model. es . However./l »+  + \ by the permittivity of the semiconductor.AE/kT) D is the diffusion cooefficient extrapolated to infinite temperature. from Eq. Figure 12 shows 27 28 the measured ionization energies for various impurities in Ge. 0.006 eV and 0. gold in Ge has three acceptor levels and one donor level calculated acceptor ionization energy (measured is 0.025 eV for Si. 29 the methods of introducing impurities into a host semiconductor. An acceptor level is empty.4 Carrier Concentration at Thermal Equilibrium if filled if 29 neutral neutral by an electron. one plus an imaginary hole in the central force field of a negatively charged acceptor. and The D(T) for GaAs larger concentrations D(T) .. Si. 13 for various impurities. 32. for D(T) for Ge. and AE is is the activation energy of diffusion. Values of GaAs are plotted in Fig. at the present time. 0. (21) is 0. and GaAs.007 eV for GaAs. can be obtained by replacing m by the conductivity _1 1 1 donor mass 4 of electrons m ce=3[ and e . 30 is solidstate diffusion considered.
28.039 P AS Bi s Mn Ag pt Hg 00 44 0. and GaAs Fig.07 AC ML Be zn cd Mn Ni Hg Pt cr Sb 0.143 .66. Ref. and GaAs.31 A 0. and 1.37 0.63 D 0.37 GAP CENTER 0.52 0.24 0. Si.35 D 0. Ga in t£ co zn SHALLOW LEVEL GAP CENTER 0.51 0. 0.40 0.12 ooi B ooi aoi °JJ go — in 0.05 <L!± ° 05 0. (After Conwell.Li sb [&0095QO096 — Ag 0.069 Q.045 B " AS.20 0.28 0. 12 respectively. The levels below the gap centers are measured from the top of the valence band and are acceptor levels unless indicated by D for donor level.33 0.04 A 0.15 0. Ref. and Sze and Irvin.023 0.52 0.43 eV for Ge.07 OI3_ 0.25 0.16 0. Si.049 0.37  D 0. The band gaps at 300°K are 0.12.) 30 . 1. 27.35 GAP CENTER _A 030 _J_ 0.023 Mg cd zn Mn Co Ni si Fe cr Li Measured ionization energies for various impurities in Ge.29 Au 0.14 0.55  53 Q.019 0_02l O023 Li 0. The levels above the gap centers are measured from the bottom of the conduction band level and are donor levels unless indicated by A for acceptor level.15  "A 0.09 A 0.04 6~o 7~ 0.09 0.
0 I.I 1.65 0.9 1. Ref.6 0.) 31 .8 . (After Burger and Donovan.8 1 \ 0. Ref. and Kendall. '"^^Cu A^ ^IHe Zn *>^A9 \Au V^Au """* SMn( WITHOUT As) \Mn(WITH \° o I0" 10 l\ «yS \Au 0\sb 10"" V\ai \\ InTi p\\ B \^B \ T 3»^\ ^\uVV VSn vv\B \ Zn ^ \ \£«S As Ago \\ as\ 1 1 \ Cd \ 1 \V\ 2"S * > 0.Cu ^Li Li ^Li Fe ^""^n.9 0.2 0. Si. 33. 32. 13 Impurity diffusion coefficients as a function of temperature for Ge.TEMPERATURE 900 1 (°C) 800 1 700 1 600 1 1400 1 1200 1 H00 1 1000 1 1200 1 1100 1 1000 1 900 1 Cui h Ni.8 0.7 \ 0.7 Si GoAJ 1000/ T(°K) Fig. and GaAs.
This situation depicted in distribution Fig. a function of (After Trumbore. 34. 14 as a function of temperature. 14 Solid solubility of various elements in Ref. This figure shows that arsenic or phosphorus should be used as the impurity in making highly doped ntype doped ptype silicon. from left to right.32 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume with the becomes increasingly concentrationdependent. the density of states N(E). the FermiDirac schematically the simplified 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 TEMPERATURE Fig. impurity diffusion coefficient there is In connection the solid solubility of the impurity which is the maximum concentration of an impurity that can be accommo34 of some dated in a solid at any given temperature. (18) and is very close to the middle of the band gap. . silicon while boron should be used for highly (3) Calculation of Fermi Level level for the intrinsic The Fermi lies semiconductor is given by Eq. The solid solubilities important impurities in Si are plotted in Fig. 15(a) where.) Si as CO temperature. are shown band diagram.
Consider n = N c expj(E c E F )/kT~ (ns) = N v expj(E F E v )/Kt1 ( = n. (b) ntype. Note that pn =n 2 t for all three cases. density of states. the must adjust itself in order to preserve charge neutrality.0 N(E) (c) p F(E) n AND p TYPE Fig.) (b) n TYPE 0. The shaded areas in the conduction band and the valence band are the same indicating the n = p = n for the intrinsic case. 15 Schematic band diagram. . (c) and at ptype semiconductors thermal equilibrium. and the carrier concentrations. t When Fermi level impurity atoms are introduced as shown in Fig. and the carrier concentrations for (a) intrinsic. FermiDirac distribution. 15(b) and (c).4 Carrier Concentration at Thermal Equilibrium 33 function F(E).5 1.
the hole density 35 valence band. 16. . we obtain K exp( 1 (E v — EF + 2 expl kT (26) For a set of given Nc ND Nv Ec ED Ev . . and T. g . determine (26). . Si. 15(b) are present case n = ND + +p p is (23) where n in the is the electron density in the conduction band. a new Fermi level is thus N . . . is a similar expression can be written for the charge neutrality condition. this particular solution (with is the Fermi level close to the conduction band edge and adjusts itself so that almost all the donors are ionized. the Fermi level EF can to be uniquely determined from Eq. and the expression for ionized acceptors Nr = 1 f — exp r 9 \ (25) kT where the ground state degeneracy factor g is 4 for acceptor levels. one can first evaluate the values of JVC and v which are pro3/2 then obtain from Fig. . To preserve electrical neutrality we must have the total negative charges (electrons and ionized acceptors) equal to the total positive charges (holes and ionized donors). or for the shown 3 ) in Fig. An For elegant graphical method 70 ND — 10 16 cm 3 T = 300°K) .34 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume the case as tion JVD (crrT where donor impurities with the concentraadded to the crystal. and ND + is the number of 1 ionized donors given by N D + = ND where g is 1 . This is because in Ge. When acceptor impurities of con centration NA are added to a semiconductor crystal. (23)..exp r 1 (Ed \ — EF kT (24) is the ground state degeneracy of the donor impurity level which equal to 2 because of the fact that a donor level can accept one electron with either spin or can have no electron. 11 the value of n^T) which deterportional to r mines the intercept of the lines n(EF ) and p(EF). For another temperature. 1 + . and GaAs each acceptor impurity level can accept one hole of either spin and the impurity level is doubly degenerate as a result of the two degenerate valence bands at k = 0. Rewriting the neutrality condition of Eq. EF is illustrated in Fig.
4
Carrier Concentration at Thermal Equilibrium
35
Fig. 16
Graphical method to determine the Fermi energy level E,
(After Shockley, Ref. 70.)
obtained.
As
the temperature
is
lowered
sufficiently, the
Fermi
level rises
toward the donor
partially filled
semiconductors) and the donor level is with electrons. The approximate expression for the electron
level (for «type
density
is
then
4
n
x
°
I
A
2N
)N C expiEJkT)
(27)
for a partially
compensated semiconductor and for
NA >±Nc exp(EJkT)
36
Physics and Properties of
Semiconductors— A Resume
where
Ed =
(Ec
— ED ),
or
n*j= WoNc)
for
1
1 '2
exp(EJ2kT)
example
is
(28)
ND > iVc exp( — EJkT) P NA A
.
typical
where n
is
plotted as a function of the reciprocal temperature.
peratures
we have
the intrinsic range since n
« p P ND
is
.
shown in Fig. 17 At high temAt very low tem
peratures most impurities are frozen out and the slope
given by Eq. (27) or
Eq. (28), depending on the compensation conditions. The electron density, however, remains essentially constant over a wide range of temperatures
(~ 100°K to 500°K The Fermi level
concentration 36
is
in Fig. 17).
for silicon as a function of temperature
shown
is
in Fig.
18.
The dependence of
the
and impurity band gap on
temperature
(cf.
Fig. 8)
also incorporated in this figure.
is still given by Eq. (19) which is called the massaction law and the product is independent of the added impurities. At relatively elevated temperatures, most of the donors and acceptors are ionized, so the neutrality condition can be approximated by
When
impurity atoms are added, the np product
n
+
NA =p + ND
.
(29)
10
F
: "
1

i
N°
=
.J 5
10
cm"3
INTRINSIC
RANGE
=
SLOPE
E
g
16
'e
io
1
r

1
1
l
SATURATION RANGE
ID
10
:
1
^
s^
FREEZEOUT RANGE
1
4
•H
1
io'
b
r

i
\
i
n,
(p))
1
1
,
I
1
8
12
20
1
1000/T
Fig. 17
(° K"
)
Electron density as a function of temperature for a
Si
sample with donor impurity
concentration of 10 l5 cm
(After Smith, Ref. 4.)
3
.
4
Carrier Concentration at Thermal Equilibrium
37
100
200
300
T (°K)
400
500
600
Fig. 18
Fermi level for
Si as
a function of
temperature and impurity concentration. The
is
dependence of the band gap on temperature
(After Grove, Ref. 36.)
also incorporated in the figure.
We
can combine Eqs. (19) and (29) to give the concentration of electrons and holes in an «type semiconductor:
n no
= K(ND 
NA
n
2
t
)
+ J(ND 
NA 2
)
+ Anh
and
*ND
Pno
if
\ND
NA \^fii
,
ND
$>NA
,
(30)
=
ni /n no
2
~
jND
(31)
and
EC
or from Eq. (18),
E F =
kT In
(32)
EpE^kTln^.
(33)
(37) In the above formulas the subscripts n and p refer to the type of semiconductors.38 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume is The concentration of given by holes and electrons on a ptype semiconductor P Po = KWa ~ *d) + J(NA ND) 2 + 4nft wNA n po if \NA i ND \>n . since the electron concentration is the larger of the two. t and NA >ND . namely scattering due to acoustic phonons and to ionized impurities. fi is given by t . (34) (35) = n 2 /p po i ^n 2 /NA and EF or E v = kT\n^. and m* the conductivity mass. (36) E t EP = kT]n^. band per unit dilation of the lattice. For »type semiconductors the electron is referred to as the majority carrier and the hole as the minority carrier. The mobility due to acoustic 37 phonon. = nS. and the subscripts "o" refer to the thermal equilibrium condition. From the above equation it is expected . and the proportionality constant or vd is defined as the mobility in cm 2 /voltsec). (38) For nonpolar semiconductors such as Ge and Si there are two scattering mechanisms which significantly affect the mobility. where C x t is Eds the displacement of the edge of the effect the average longitudinal elastic constant of the semiconductor. 5 CARRIER TRANSPORT (1) PHENOMENA Mobility electric field the drift velocity (vd) is proportional to the electric At low (fi field strength ($). The roles are reversed forptype semiconductors.
5
Carrier Transport
Phenomena
39
that the mobility will decrease with the temperature
and with the
effective
mass.
The mobility due
to ionized impurities,
/z f
,
is
given by 38
~{m*y ll2 N; T Z12
l
(40)
r is the ionized impurity density, and s s the permittivity. The mobility expected to decrease with the effective mass but to increase with the temperature. The combined mobility which consists of the above two mechanisms is is
where
N
fi
=(+)
.
(41)
For polar semiconductors such as GaAs there is another important scattering mechanism: opticalphonon scattering. The combined mobility can be approximated by 39
ji~(/«*) 3/2 r 1/2
.
(42)
which
In addition to the above scattering mechanisms there are other mechanisms also contribute to the actual mobility: for example (1) the intravalley scattering in which an electron is scattered within an energy ellipsoidal
and only longwavelength phonons are involved; and (2) the interwhich an electron is scattered from the vicinity of one minimum to another minimum and an energetic phonon is involved. The measured mobilities of Ge, Si, and GaAs versus impurity concentrations at room temperature are shown 2 8 25 40 in Fig. 19. We note that,
(Fig. 7)
valley scattering in
>
>
in general, as the impurity concentration increases (at
room temperature
most impurities are ionized) the mobility decreases as predicted by Eq. (40). Also as m* increases, p decreases, thus for a given impurity concentration
the electron mobilities for these semiconductors are larger than the hole mobilities (the effect masses are listed in Table 2.2).
ptype silicon
on mobility is shown 41 in Fig. 20 for wtype and samples. For lower impurity concentrations the mobility decreases with temperature as predicted by Eq. (39). The measured slopes, however, are different from (3/2) owing to other scattering mechanisms. It is found that for pure materials near room temperature the mobility varies 166 as T~ and T~ 233 for n and ptype Ge respectively; as T~ 25 and 1 T~ 2J for n and /Hype Si respectively; and as and T~ 2A for n and
The temperature
effect
r

^ptype
GaAs
respectively.
40
Physics and Properties of Semiconductors
—A Resume
carrier
equili
Another important parameter associated with mobility is the and D p for holes). In thermal 4 brium the relationship between D n and fi n (or D p and (i p) is given by
diffusion coefficient (Z>„ for electrons
::::
t= 300°K=:
.
MP
Ge^(
Hn
o
UJ
to
10'
I0<
.
o >
Mn
>i
3 =s
rSi
LJ.
Mm
j:::^
ffi
1
2
io
/xp
"^;
i^4
(
3oAs(
Mn
10*
— zk~~~"~
:
:
/xp
"*""*.
.
10
14
10
15
.16
10
17
10
18
10
19
IMPURITY CONCENTRATION (Cm
Fig. 19
)
Drift mobility of
Ge and
Si
and Hall mobility of GaAs at 300°K
vs.
impurity con
centration.
(After Sze and Irvin, Ref. 28; Prince, Ref. 40; and Wolfstirn, Ref. 35.)
,
5
Carrier Transport Phenomena
41
</>
4000
> 2000
Si
—
i
>"
1000
14
800 600
s=rN=iO
'.
_6"""
1_l
ffi
400
N=
IC
r»
o
?
£.
—
200
N
100
=
o at
\
N = I0
I0
19
o
50
50
(0)
100
150
200
1000 800 600
400
200
Si
N=l0i r*.
—
y* I0 14
N=I0
7
100
80 60
r
fir
40
20
10
N=l
I9
.
50
50
100
150
200
TEMPERATURE
(b)
Fig.
CO
20
Electron and hole drift mobilities
in Si as
a function of temperature and impurity
concentration.
(After Gartner, Ref. 41.)
where
F1/2
and F_ l/2 are FermiDirac
integrals.
For nondegenerate semi
conductors, Eq. (43) reduces to
"(tK
and
similarly
(44a)
D p=\rW
f?>
(44b)
. which have been shown to be equal to the 27 They are. 21 Schematic setup of fourpoint probe method to measure sample resistivity. we obtain a If n q(fi„n + n p p) (47) >p as in «type semiconductors. is (48a) the fourpoint The most common method probe method as shown 42 43 ' for measuring resistivity in Fig.: 42 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors—A Resume The above two equations temperature kT/q as the Einstein relationship. different from the Hall mobilities to be drift mobilities. Ref. a = l/p. p~ or 1 (48) q\x n n <j~q\i n n. (2) Resistivity and Hall Effect constant between the The resistivity (p) is defined as the proportionality electric field and the current density (/) (45) & = pJ. Its reciprocal value is the conductivity. For semiconductors with both electrons and holes 1 1 as carriers. A small current from a constant SEMICONDUCTOR SAMPLE Fig. 42. The mobilities discussed above are the conductivity mobilities.0259 volts.e. i. and (46) J=aS. At room and values of D's are readily obtainable from the mobility results shown in Fig. (After Valdes. 21. are known = 0.) . however. considered in the next section. 19.
(UJOWHO) A1IAUSIS3U iZ 43 .
the electric field (Hall field) should exactly balance the Lorentz force. of holes at the bottom side of the sample. For example. 12 3 16 in a/Jtype silicon with 10 17 cm 3 gallium acceptor impurities. is and 18]. the carrier concentration [from Eq. . 4 54  \\n2} (at IW~ W / F\ (49) \l) centration 300°K) as a function of the impurity con22 for Ge. and GaAs. and the probe spacing S ^> W. along the zaxis. the resistivity is given by W _ ~ The measured resistivity 28 A4A5 is shown I n \ V ~. The impurity concentration may be different from the carrier conin Fig. For a thin slice with its thickness much smaller than its diameter.7 x 10 cm 46 . Figs. only 7. the most common method where an electric magnetic field. To measure the carrier concentration directly. The basic setup 47 is shown in Fig. Consider field is applied along the xaxis and a downward a ptype sample. unionized acceptors at room temperature make up about 23 % in other words. which in turn gives rise to an uses the Hall effect. Fig. 23 & electric field Sy . (25).44 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume current source is passed through the outer two probes and the voltage is measured between the inner two probes. centration. Since there is no net current along the y along the j>axis direction in the steady state. Si. The Lorentz force (qvx x x ) exerts an average and the downwarddirected current will cause a piling up force on the holes. 23 Basic setup to measure carrier concentration using the Hall effect. Thus we can obtain the impurity concentration of a semiconductor if its resistivity is known.
g. which for semiconductors with spherical ~ E~ 1/2 for phonon scattering. From Boltzmann's distribution for nondegenerate semiconductors the average value of the rath ionized impurity scattering. (56b) ..18 for phonon scattering and 3157r/512 = 1. p) as given in Eq. x = aE~ s power of t is m <t > = •'o x m E 3/2 exp(£//cT) dE / E3 Jo ' 2 exp(E/kT) dE (53) so that using the general form of x <r > 2 = = a (kT) 2 2 T(i  2s)/r(l) (54a) and <t> 2 [a(/cT)T(l  5)/r(l)] 2 (54b) where T(«) is the gamma T(n)= function defined as xn ~ l e. We obtain from the above expression r = 3n/S = 1. depends on the carrier energy.93 for ionized impurity scattering. in general. (or jj. and. {T{\) = Jn). ju„ (55) The Hall mobility should be if distinguished from the drift mobility r. between carrier collisions. q(FTbny'> <t >/<t> 2 bs ^» ~ E 312 (51) = (52) The parameter x is the mean x free time e.: : 5 Carrier Transport Phenomena is 45 This Hall field can be measured externally and given by (50) £ y = {Vy lW) = R H Jx @ z where Ru is the Hall coefficient and is given by 4 R" = r 1 r P~b 2 n 2 . x for where a and s are constants. (51). n Pp \qnj (56a) and if p>n R H = r(±±) . The Hall mobility \i H is defined as the product of Hall coefficient and conductivity Ii h =\Rho\. (48a) which does not contain the factor From Eq. constantenergy surfaces.x dx.
thermalequilibrium condition of a physical system is i. The latter process is the inverse process to impact ionization. means of which the system The basic recombination probandtoband recom shown in Fig. For sphericalenergy surfaces the bulk resistivity at field is ratio of the incremental resistivity to the 4 zero magnetic given by Po r 2 (i)r(i . Figure 24(a) illustrates the bination where an electronhole pair recombines.. and hole emission. (Ap/p ) for the case p > n. For n > p. 1 3 48 sec (in unit of cm tion rate. 24. This transition of the electron from the conduction band to the valence band is possible by the emission of a photon (radiative process) or by transfer of the energy to another free electron or hole (Auger process).3 S ) r 3 (fs) fi n + n p 3 pi H„n + n P P 3 n T(i)T(i2sy p n H P V r 2 (fs) J ln n n + n p p] It is 2 2 (57) proportional to the square of the magnetic field component perpendicular similar /'« to the direction of the current flow.+ : 46 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume Thus the carrier concentration and carrier type (electron or hole) can be obtained directly from the Hall measurement provided that one type of carrier dominates. result can be obtained A (3) Recombination Processes the Whenever distributed. there are processes by i. ).e. However. electron The recombina U U= n "<• Vp<rnVth(pn T n 2 )N t exp HH (E t t E \l J + h p + / ni exp E Ei\t _ (58) r ~tt) . is given by recombination consists of four steps: namely. The singlelevel capture. can be restored to equilibrium. pn ± n 2 ..e. cesses are pn = n 2 t . which are important for most IIIV compounds with direct energy gaps. and Fig. electron emission. Figure 24(b) shows singlelevel recombination in which only one trapping energy level is present in the band gap. small enough that there In the above consideration the applied magnetic field is assumed to be is no change in the resistivity of the sample. and the former is the inverse process to direct optical transitions. 24(c) multiplelevel recombination in which more than one trapping level is present in the band gap. significant under strong magnetic increase of the resistivity is observed the socalled magnetoresistance effect. hole capture. fields.
TO . Noyce. 48.) 47 .BAND /4/ D // / /"7 / / / /* E.ENERGY TRANSFERRED TO FREE ELECTRON OR HOLE (AUGER PROCESS) m* PHOTON EMISSION OF (RADIATIVE) (Q) BAND . and Shockley. Ref. & / V D ' (i) (2) D (3) (4) / / / y / / / / / / / /? ELECTRON EMISSION I ELECTRON CAPTURE HOLE CAPTURE HOLE EMISSION (b) SINGLE LEVEL D / // ? 6 i a n // / (c) A/ LEVEL M 1 I'. (After Sah. (a) (c) multiplelevel recombination. MULTIPLE 24 Recombination processes bandtoband recombination (radiative or Auger process) (b) singlelevel recombination Fig.
(61) carrier lifetime (hole lifetime) in Comparison of Eqs.. (58) becomes . under the simplified condition that a„ = a p — a. Eq. Eq.e. as the energy level of the recombination center approaches mid gap.. 2 obvious that under a thermal equilibrium condition. { U = ap v N th t (pn . and neutral trapping levels. N t the trap density.e. particularly in the highinjectionlevel condition (i. however. negatively charged. density. . The details of behavior are. It is E t the intrinsic Fermi level and n the intrinsic carrier t . (58) reduces to U= av th N t n +p+ 2n cosh t — P^) — E «E t t . pn = n Furthermore. i. when the injected carriers (Am =Ap) are much fewer in number than the majority carriers.e. thermal velocity equal to s/3kT/m*.48 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume E t where a p and a„ are the hole and electron capture cross section v th the carrier respectively. the recombination process may be characterized by the expression U= Pn ~ P»° ( 60 ) where pno is the equilibrium minority carrier concentration. . Under low injection conditions. (59) The recombination tive rate approaches a maximum i. (60) and (61) yields the minority an Htype semiconductor. and n > n and p. and 1 P ap vth N (62) t Similarly for a /?type semiconductor.. p„ = Ap + pn0 and x p is the minority carrier lifetime. the electron lifetime 1 (63) WthNt For multiplelevel traps it has been shown that the recombination processes have gross qualitative features that are similar to those of the singlelevel case. where An = Ap a5 majority carrier concentration) where the asymptotic lifetime is an average of the lifetimes associated with all the positively charged. where n « n no =the equilibrium majority carrier concentration. U= 0. Thus the most effec recombination centers are those located near the middle of the band gap.pno ). t the trap energy level. different. In an Htype semiconductor.
the radiationinduced trapping centers relatively may be annealed out at low temperatures. introduce energy levels in the band gap. is given by The J pem = q(M„ + HP)@Z . Another method of changing the minority carrier lifetime is by highenergy particle irradiation which causes displacement of host atoms and damage to lattices. 12 that solidstate diffusion and (63). typical example gold in 29 A It is found that the minority carrier to 10 lifetime decreases linearly with the gold concentration over the range of 10 14 17 cm 3 where t decreases from about 2 x 10~ 7 second to 2 x 10~ 10 is important in some switching device applications when a desirable feature. and other semiconductors. The lifetime thus given by An J pr G£q(n n G + u) (65) A measurement setup will be discussed in Section 7. GaAs. For example. These impurities impurities have energy levels close to the middle of the may serve as efficient recombination centers. Eqs. This effect irradiation an acceptor level at 0. silicon.5 Carrier Transport Phenomena 49 The expressions.25 eV above the valence band. The PC effect Jpc is given by = q{Hn + Hp)An£ (64) where JPC is is the incremental current density as a result of illumination and S the applied electric field along the sample. which appears when a constant field effect we @ magnetic z is current density applied perpendicular to the direction of incoming radiation. deuteron irradiation gives rise to an interstitial state with an energy level 0. (62) by the use of in Fig.(tG) D (66) . in turn.56 eV. The quantity An is the incremental carrier density or the number of electronhole pairs per the illumination which equals the product of the generation from photon (G) and the lifetime (t) or volume created by rate of electronhole pairs resulting is An = xG. Similar results are obtained for Ge. The minority carrier lifetime has generally been measured using the photoconduction effect 49 (PC) or the photoelectromagnetic effect 50 basic equation for the (PEM ). These.4 eV above the valence band and a donor level at 0. have been verified experimentally and highenergy radiation. neutron irradiation creates an acceptor level at 0. 18 in silicon electron a short lifetime is second. It can be seen many is band gap. Unlike the solidstate gives rise to diffusion. For the PEM measure the shortcircuit current.36 eV below the conduction band.
and GaAs.50 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume where L= J Dx is the diffusion length.wavelength vibration of the lattice. since it is the analogue of a long. For a threedimensional with one atom per unit cell such as a simple cubic. This is the acoustic branch. while for the optical mode. 1/2 a 4 sin „ 2 2. (67) fi p ). Si. This is the optical branch. Those modes with the displacement vectors of each atom along the . ) ^ ^)//^ m 2 (68) if J The frequency v_ tends the force constant. T = r *™ MjDGq{[i n + — The 2 lifetime is given by „ (JpEM i@ z f. (1) Phonon Spectra known that for a onedimensional lattice with only nearestand 2 placed alternately. = I _ af /I (— + — ' 1 \ ) Wi m 2/ ± . The where a f is frequency v+ tends to 2a r . and a the lattice spacing. there are only three acoustic modes. and since the frequency corresponds to that of sound in such a medium. For a threedimensional lattice with two atoms per unit cell such as Ge. 6 PHONON SPECTRA AND OPTICAL. AND HIGHFIELD PROPERTIES OF SEMICONDUCTORS we have considered some other the effect of low to moderately In the previous section high electric section fields on the transport of carriers in semiconductors. 3 frequencies of oscillation are given by m m V+ + . (— + — m \m x 1/2 2 as q approaches zero. since the frequency v+ is generally in the optical range. there are three acoustic modes and three optical modes. This branch is separated considerably from the acoustic mode. the t It is well neighbor coupling and two different masses. bodycentered. different For the acoustic mode the two sublattices of the atoms with masses move in the same direction. THERMAL. In this effects we shall briefly consider and properties of semi conductors which are important to the operation of semiconductor devices. they lattice move in opposite directions. q the wave number. to be proportional to q near q = 0. af — + —V v \^i m // A /( L . or facecentered cubic lattice.
25 Measured phonon spectra in Ge. Si. and GaAs (in alphabetical order). 0. and Waugh and Dolling. Those modes with their atoms moving in the planes normal to the wave vector are called the transversely polarized modes. Fig. (2) Optical Property Optical measurement constitutes the most important means of determining the band structures of semiconductors. (After Brockhouse and Iyengar. TO for transverse optical modes. and 0. and GaAs. LA for longitudinal acoustic mode. Ref. 25. and GaAs are shown in Fig. Ref. 53. = 0. 6 Phonon Spectra and Properties of Semiconductors 51 thus wave vector are called the longitudinally polarized modes we have one longitudinal acoustic mode (LA) and one longitudinal optical mode (LO).3 along with other important properties of Ge. Photoninduced electronic Ge TO Si LOnO.. 51 Brockhouse. mode.]  '" q/q MAX REDUCED WAVE NUMBER. the energies are proportional q The Raman phonon energy is that of the longitudinal optical phonon at Their values are 0.05 TO LO LA/ LA/ TA TA__ [ioo]  [00. Si. LO for longitudinal optical . 51 53 for Ge. 52.063 eV for Si. Ref. These results are listed in Table 2.037 eV for Ge.035 eV for GaAs. results #'s. We have two transverse acoustic modes (TA) and two transverse optical modes direction of the (TO). Si. The measured to q. TA for transverse acoustic modes. We note that at small with LA and TA modes.) .
or within a single band such as the freecarrier absorption.52 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume transitions can occur between different bands which lead to the determination band gap. k the absorption constant. both n and k can be obtained and related to transition energy between bands. phonons must be incorporated. n the refractive index. In addition y equals 1/2 for allowed indirect transitions to exciton states where an exciton is a bound electronhole pair with energy levels in the band gap and moving through the crystal lattice as a unit.Egy (72) is the photon energy. and GaAs are 54" 56 in Fig. 4 Near the absorption edge the absorption coefficient can be expressed as a ~ (Av . higher energy bands will participate in the transistructures will be reflected in the tion processes. Optical measurement can also be used to study lattice vibrations. The absorption coefficient per unit length a is defined as « . The transmission coefficient T and the reflection coefficient R are the two important quantities generally measured. The shift of the curves towards higher photon plotted . When hv > Eg . 26] it shown in Fig. the (hv — Eg ) become com Coulomb interaction be tween the and electron must be taken into account. and x the thickness of the sample. or by making or T for different angles of incidence.4nk = —• nn (71) By analyzing the observations of R T — X or R — X data at normal incidence. 27. 26] where . Near the absorption edge where the values of parable with the binding energy of an exciton. For hv absorption merges continuously into that due to the higher excited free hole < Eg the states of the exciton.nf + k 2 where X is the wavelength.R 2 )exp(4nx/X) ' lU 2 exp(87tx/A) (1 (69) . and complicated band absorption coefficient. and y is a constant which g equals 1/2 and 3/2 for allowed direct transition and forbidden direct transition where hv respectively [with k min = k max as transitions (a) equals 2 for indirect transition [transition (c) and (b) shown in Fig. Si. For normal incidence they are given by of the energy (1 . The experimental absorption absorption coefficients near and above the fundamental edge (bandtoband transition) for Ge. E is the band gap.
This means that the thermoelectric power is negative for «type semiconductors. EF the Fermi energy. and the differential thermoelectric power.6 Phonon Spectra and Properties of Semiconductors 53 CONDUCTION BAND Fig. (74) + PP. the thermoelectric power is given by & E ( k{ 4 25 + In (v)]^^"Vn s  ln (y). energies at lower temperature is obviously associated with the temperature in Fig. (c) indirect transition involving phonons. This fact is often used in . (b) are direct transitions. dependence of the band gap as shown (3) Thermal Property a temperature gradient is When applied to a semiconductor in addition to an applied electric field. and positive for /?type semiconductors. where k is the Boltzmann constant. PM. 8. and A^c and Nv are the effective density of states in the conduction band and valence band respectively. For a nondegenerate semiconductor with a mean free ~s time t ~ as discussed previously. the total current density (in one dimension) is 4 3EF q dx ~8x) (73) where a is the conductivity. (a) 26 and is Optical transitions.
(After Dash and Newman. ~s for both electrons and holes. Measured absorption coefficients near and above the fundamental absorption edge Si. At room temperature resistivity: 1 the thermoelectric results (except a power silicon increases with mV/°K for a 0. k. 55. 54. Similar change of the sign for 0>) can be obtained for ntype silicon samples. 56. The thermoelectric power can also be used to determine the position of the Fermi level relative to the band edges.) . Ref. if t ~ E K = KL + (nn„ + pn? (75) 6 7 8 9 10 Fig. Philipp and Taft. Another important quantity in thermal effect is the thermal conductivity. and GaAs.1ficm sample mV/°K for a 100Qcm sample. 27 for pure Ge. and Hill.7 determining the conduction type of a semiconductor. Ref.54 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume ^ of/?type and 1. is given by which. Ref.
GaAs. 59. Ref. 61. The measured thermal ture for Ge. 60. Si. 28 Measured thermal conductivity vs. Cu. 57. conductivity is 5759 as a function of lattice tempera and GaAs shown in Fig. Ref. the electronic contribution. Si.6 Phonon Spectra and Properties of Semiconductors 55 1000 1 " ~ 100 / / // ys' / 1 / A \diamond \ VTYPE1I) / / <"~f ^n\ \ "^ \ / / Go As I 1 / * / i \ 'Si v Cu / \\ 1— I 1 1 1 \\ Si\ «w 1 VN 4Ge\  Ge/ GoAs^' \ 10 100 300 1000 T CK) Fig.) al. and third term on the righthand side of the above equation represent the lattice contribution. It is expected that the Eg thermal conductivity will first increase with T at low temperatures and then decrease with temperature at higher temperatures. and the contributions due to mixed conduction respectively. The third may be quite large when > kT. and diamond type II. Holland. White. second. The thermal conductivity is lower than indicated here for samples with high impurity concentrations. tion carriers to the thermal conductivity are in general quite small. Ref. however.. Their room temperature values . 28. temperature for pure Ge. and Berman et al The first. The contributions of conduc term. (After Carruthers et Ref. 58.
will occur. diamond type II has the highest roomtemperature thermal conductivity known to date and is useful as the thermal sink for junction lasers and IMPATT oscillators to be are listed in Table 2. and the proportionality electric field. however. on the average. called the mobility which is independent of the When and in the fields are sufficiently large. we have the quadratic departure of mobility from con(76) stant value at low fields. 28 are the thermal conductividiamond type II. acquire more energy than they have at thermal equilibrium. $ the electric field. both emit and absorb phonons. and Eqs. The carriers thus. and C s the velocity of When n $ <^ C s . At thermal equilibrium the equilibrium is carriers net rate of exchange of energy zero.56 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume ties shown in Fig. impact ionization We is shall first consider the nonlinear mobility. the average energy of the carriers also increases. As the field increases. At reasonably high fields the most frequent scattering event is the emission of optical phonons. nonlinearities in mobility some cases saturation of drift velocity are observed. and (77) reduce to 2 3tc/Mo*\ 32 m 1 (78) . the drift velocity in a proportional to the electric field. Te which is higher than the lattice tempera From the rate equation such that the rate at which energy fed from the field to the carriers must be balanced by an equal rate of loss of energy to the lattice. Also 60 61 ' for Cu and for discussed later. At still larger fields. In the presence of an electric and lose it to phonons by emitting more phonons than are absorbed. at low electric fields. Copper is the most commonly used metal for thermal conduction in pn junction devices.2. and the The energy distribution at thermal field the carriers Maxwellian. we obtain for Ge and 1 Si: 3 3tt T and + 8 kA \ : l/2\ 2 C J (76) where ^ sound. and they acquire energy from the field acquire an effective temperature ture T. (4) HighField Property in is As discussed semiconductor constant is Section 5(1). is the lowfield mobility.
02 x 10 19 7.16 /?& = 0.32 10.6 28. Ge and Si approach a Uw = 8£p 3ttWq 10 7 cm/sec Table (79a) where Ep is the optical phonon energy (listed in 2.08 144. 0.* Electrons Holes Electron Affinity.9 Density (g/cm 3 ) Dielectric Constant Effective Density of 16 States in Conduction Band.8 x 10 19 4.6 Phonon Spectra and Properties of Semiconductors 57 and —i>mn When Finally at sufficiently high fields the drift velocities for scatteringlimited velocity: (79) the field is increased until n g ~ SCJ3.42 Si GaAs 2.7 x 10 17 States in Valence Band.8 Zincblende 5.068 0.05 4. x(V) = 1.3267 ~3 x 10 5 ~4 x 10 5 Diamond 2.43 .5 4.3 AND GaAs (AT 300°K IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER) Ge 4.0 4.3). TABLE PROPERTIES OF Ge. Properties Si.5 t t fc 0.12.0 x 10 22 x 10 22 Atomic Weight 72.0 x 10 18 Mass m*/m w.04 mth = 0.12 1. ATc (cm.3) Effective Density of 1.1 x 10 18 1.97 m * = 0.07 Energy Gap (eV) at 300°K 0.04 x 10 19 • 2. 2. AVCcm" 3 ) Effective 6.63 Breakdown Field (F/cm) Crystal Structure ~10 5 Diamond 5.6 w *= 0.19 w& = 0.21 Atoms/cm 3 x 10 22 5. the carrier temperature has doubled over the crystal temperature and the mobility has dropped by 30%.082 mf = 0.328 11.3 mf =0.66 1.
6 x 10" 6 1420 5.3 (Cont. and a lowmobility satellite valley (/z « 100 cm /Vsec) along the consider the band structure of <100>axes.) Ge Si GaAs Intrinsic Carrier Concentration (cm" 3 ) Lattice Constant (A) 2. We must GaAs as shown in Fig.46 Thermal Diffusivity (cm 2 /sec) 0.4 x 10 13 1.7 (Joule/g°C) 0.8 x 10.063 0.2 m in the mass of the elecupper valley.8 Work Function (V) 4.6534 Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion AL/LA7TC 1 ) 5.64 1. about 0.7 For GaAs the velocityfield. the electrons in the .1 x 10 7 5. The is effective 0. from Eq. (12).43086 5. There is a highmobility valley (n « 4000 to 8000 cm 2 /Vsec) located at the Brillouin zone 2 center.35 Thermal Conductivity at 300°K (watt/cm°C) 0.037 0.4 10.45 0.068 m in the lower valley and about 1.36 trons is eV higher in energy.035 Heat 0.6 937 2.58 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume TABLE Properties 2.3 at 1600°C 10. 5.31 0.65748 5.8 at800°C 4.44 1 at 1050°C 100atl220°C Vapor Pressure (torr) 10" 3 at 1270°C 10.9 0.5 x 10" 3 ~10~ 8 Mobility (Drift) (cm 2 / Fsec) jjl„ (electrons) /x p (holes) 3900 1900 1500 600 8500 400 Raman Phonon Energy (eV) Specific 0. As the field increases.8 at 930°C 4. relationship is more complicated.36 0.6 x IO 10 1.6 1238 Melting Point (°C) Minority Carrier Lifetime (sec) io. lower thus the density of states of the upper valley about 70 times that of the lower valley.3 2.9 x 10.
the carriers gain enough energy that they can excite electronhole pairs by impact ionization. (After Seidal and Scharfetter. Ref. Duh and Moll. For GaAs there is a region of differential negative mobility between 3 x 10 3 to 2 x 10 4 V/cm. We next consider impact ionization. The will intervalley transfer mechanin ism and the velocityfield relationship be considered in more detail ' Chapter 14. The experimentally deduced drift velocity is plotted 62 63 in Fig. We note that the drift velocities for the three semiconducapproach 10 7 cm/sec. 62a. however. Ref. and GaAs. electric field for highpurity Ge. The electrontors all hole pair generation rate (G) due to impact ionization is given by G= a n nii n + at pfi (80) ELECTRIC FIELD (V/cm) Fig. Ref. and Ruch and Kino. In highfield region. 62.) . 29 for Ge. 29 Measured carrier velocity vs. 63. For highlydoped samples. Norris and Gibbons.6 Phonon Spectra and Properties of Semiconductors 59 valley can be fieldexcited to the normally unoccupied upper valley. the velocity is essentially independent of doping concentration. Ref. the initial lines are lower than indicated here. and GaAs. 62b. resulting in a differential negative resistance in GaAs. Si. Si. When the electric field in a semiconductor is increased above a certain value.
GaAs. 65. 67. 66. Ref. Si. These results are all obtained by the use of photomultiplication measurements on pn junctions.) where cc„ is the electron ionization rate defined as the number of electronhole by an electron per unit distance traveled. electric field for GaAs. and GaP.5 2 3 4 (x IO 5 5 6 8 9 10 ELECTRIC FIELD Fig. Figure 30 shows the experimental results of 6467 the ionization rates for Ge. 64. Si.. Lee et al. (After Miller. Ref. It pairs generated . 30 V/cm) Ge. Similarly a p is the analogously defined ionization rate for holes. Ref. Measured ionization coefficient for avalanche multiplication vs. Both a„ and a p are strongly dependent on the electric field.60 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume  Get°<pyy {/ / Si («*„)/  /3e(°<n) / 5 io' / V / GaAs/ 7 fVV/ /si(« p j ) / ' ~ GaP/ f j evvy i 1. and GaP. and Logan and White. Ref. Logan and Sze.
GaAs. in general. Similar results have been obtained for Si. has been shown that the dependence of the ionization rate on the electric field and on the lattice temperature can be expressed in terms of a modification of Baraff's threeparameter theory. Since for a given set of ionization measurements the values of Ej( = $E ). The value of Ep>IEi is 0. by fitting the ionization data to the . <.) (83) <£„> = £p tanh^) (84) and ± = <Ep> ^o Ep (85) Ep is the optical phonon energy (listed in Table 2.4. Once we know the value A we can predict . We obtain 64 A for the roomtemperature electronphonon mean free path. 31 where od is plotted against EjjqSA. and m are given in Table 2. and A is the highenergy lowtemperature asymptotic value of the phonon mean free path.4.6 is Phonon Spectra and Properties clear of Semiconductors 61 from the figure that over a limited field range one can approximate or "'MfJ A (81) where a and fit <? are constants. From the room temperature data one can obtain the value of A from Eq. the optical phonon mean free path. The average value of A and A (at 300°K) are listed in Table 2.022. and GaP. y and A and (E > are given by X = A tanh(A. one can thus obtain g the opticalphonon mean free path. ct. b. Baraff plot. A. and (Ep). the average energy loss per phonon scattering. 68. The values of E for The It t best fit are approximately threehalves the bandgap energy. with the ratio of average opticalphonon energy to ionization threshold energy. (82) values of A. varies from 3 to 9. ( A typical result is shown in Fig. where Baraff's result is shown in Fig.Ep}/Ej as a parameter.4). (84). and 69 A for the holephonon mean free path.69 The parameters are: £/? the ionization threshold energy. and n. better to the ionization rates over a wider range of field can be given by the following expression a = ^exp[(Z)/(f) m ]. A. 31 for Ge at 300°K. and its field dependence are fixed.
< Oh O o in o © in in © o X Tf * O X oo fS H m ^r « < O V) m m O o" >n V) o ~H X en <o 1 o ' H in H 00 in X (S © f IT) <1> in O *— X in VD o X VO "o DC <* ro ^O m H W in in CW o o c o 4) V0 >c >n • in o x oo CO O X in f H es V£> w H VO r « 1) « O X o X 00 "o a r q O H in o H in o r~ O d c o ~ o u H O X in in \o © X v£> w in i ? E o S 5" O o 3 a o o 's C/3 Si ^ < > ^ 5 © o ro ^< 2 o << ^^ c •2 ^ b E o 1 1— o 1 5 ctf II 8 «© 62 .
6 Phonon Spectra and Properties of Semiconductors 63 2x10"'. (84). 66.i results. Ref. 31 vs. = f Eg and g is the electric field. Ref. (After Logan and Sze. 68. 32.) The experimental data are obtained from Ge A = 69A for holes. The running parameter is the where <£ p > is the average optical phonon energy. theoretical predicted electron ionization rates in silicon as obtained from the above approach are shown in Fig. Fig.) pn junctions with A = 64A for electrons and the values of A at various temperatures and from the temperature dependence of <£„}. The solid curves are Baraff's (aA) ratio theoretical (After Baraff. The . Also shown are the experimental results at . Eq. we can choose the correct Baraff plot. Ej/qtfA <Ep>\£. plot— product of ionization rate and optical phonon mean free path where E.
17r 2 + 4 2 3.9 x 10~ )x 1 od = exp { 2 11.75 x 10" )x + (46r (757r 2 + 75. Ref. the curves as shown in Fig. (After Crowell and Sze. To facilitate numerical analysis.1.300°K \ \ \300°\ \ A  THEORETICAL I00°K 2I3"K \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ 5xl0 6 400°K 400°^   \/e (v/cm)" Fig. reciprocal electric field for Si. The agreement is satisfactory. 32 Electron ionization rate vs.) three different temperatures. k EXPERIMENTAL O n  100 °K \\\ V'\ \ \ N .2I3°K .5r. 31 can be represented by the 69 following approximation: 2 [(11. 5r  1. 9r + 1.92) + J  (86) .64 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume I0 : S^ ^o**  ^ ^   \\ \  \ ^ \\\ f\ \\a v X \ \\ s  \ Si t=ioo . 69.
06 and 5 <x< 16. £ and Q) are the electric field and displacement vector respectively. Eq. . z). (92) reduces to 3) = zs g under static or very low frequency conditions. J cond the conduction current density.7 Basic Equations for Semiconductor Device Operation 45 where r = <EP >/Ej . e s and ^ujare the permittivity and permeability respectively. jT and are the magnetic field and induction vector respectively. and x = E^qSk. (89) V ^ = 0. The errors are within +2% over the range 0. + "a7" (87) Jcond = Jtot ' ( 88 > V • S> = ' p(x. and J tot the total current density (including both conduction and convection current components and the above six equations the most important is the (89).01 <r< 0. and the continuity equations. The basic equations can be classified in three groups: the Maxwell equations. A. 7 BASIC EQUATIONS FOR SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE OPERATION (1) Basic Equations 70 The basic equations for semiconductor device operation are those which describe the static and dynamic behaviors of carriers in semiconductors under the influence of external fields which cause deviation from the thermalequilibrium conditions. y.  (90) (91) ® = HoJ?. p(x. z) the total electric M charge density. Jtot 0) v  = Among Poisson equation. which determines the properties of the pn junction depletion layer (to be discussed in the next chapter). the current density equations. O dt' (92) ao where Eq. ^0> = e. Maxwell Equations for Homogeneous and Isotropic Material m Vx<f=_^.(* f— t')S(r. y.
Continuity Equations ^ = G„£/„ + V. . The above equations do not include the effect due to externally applied magnetic field.„. For a onedimensional case. nS + lD n .«. and t„ the electron (minority) lifetime. There is a similar expression for the hole recombination rate with lifetime x p . = . Under low injection conditions (i.U. J„ (94) (95) = + JP  Where respectively.„. With an applied magnetic field. B. Un is the electron recombination rate in /?type semiconductors.). t = Gp U. C.. Current Density Equations 3 H =qix H n£+qD n Vn. J. (93) and (94) respectively..J„ q at (96) S J. Eqs. 3p (97) where G„ and G p are the electron and hole generation rate respectively 1 3 sec (cm ) due to external influence such as the optical excitation with high energy photons or impact ionization under large electric fields. n po the thermalequilibrium minority carrier density. (93) and (94) reduce to J. For nondegenerate semiconductors the carrier diffusion constants (D„ and D p ) and J„ the mobilities are given by the Einstein relationship (D n = (kT/q)n„. J! .(. when the injected carrier density is much less than the equili brium (n p majority carrier density) U„ can be approximated by the expressions — n po )fr„ where n p is the minority carrier density.66 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume (93) B. _.n _ (93a) . dn\ .e. kT dp\ : nA (94a) .= Wn {nS + I dn „ kT — ).* dp ( „ _). The values of the electron and hole mobilities (//„ and pc p) have been given in Section 5(1). where J„ x is the current component of J„ perpendicular to the magnetic field and tan 9 n =qn„nR H \Jf\ RH is negative for electrons) (which has negative value because the Hall coefficient similar results are obtained for the hole current. . they consist of the drift and J p are the electron current density and the hole current density component due to field and the diffusion component due to carrier concentration gradient.. 3p Jcon d = qH p p£qD p Vp. another current of J„ ± tan 0„ and J pl tan 6 P should be added to Eqs.. etc.
We have from Eq. 33(c). For the onedimensional case under a lowinjection condition. The above example presents the main idea of the StevensonKeyes method for measuring minority carrier lifetime. ( 98 ) At steady state.) current is crease manifests itself by a drop in voltage across the sample . The in when a constant passed through it. ?£? dt Pn~ r. io °) _ x Pnit) = Pno (101) The variation of p n with time is shown in Fig. which is shown in Fig. the light is suddenly turned off. The excess carriers generated uniformly throughout the sample by the light pulses cause a momentary increase in the conductivity. and Pn If at =Pno + ? P G= constant. say  . 33(a).tlx ". Decay of Photoexcited Carriers. (99) t = 0. d Pn jt= and the solution is — + ^P PnPno /f ( vr~ Ge. (The pulse width must be much less than the lifetime. (97a): A. and dpjdx = 0. Eqs. x n with no trapping or other = xp . as illuminated with light and where the electronhole pairs are generated uniformly throughout the sample with a generation rate G. The decay of this photoconductivity can be observed on an oscilloscope and is a measure of the lifetime. 33(b). (99) and oo) = p no p n (t The differential equation is now an arbitrary time. The boundary conditions are S = 0.7 Basic Equations for Semiconductor Device Operation 67 in pairs If the electrons and holes are generated and recombined effects. the boundary conditions are p H {0) = Pno + Xp G as given in Eq. = g— — P . and (97) reduce to dn P (96) r r np ~ n po di dn p 2 n d np d Pn Pn Pno dS „ 8 Pn 2 ^ d Pn (2) Simple Examples Consider an «type sample. 49 A schematic setup is shown in Fig. dpjdt = 0.
5 eV the absorption coefficient in other words. light intensity decreases by l/e in a . 49. 1 . 33 (a) Decay of photoexcited carriers ntype sample under constant illumination (b) (c) decay of minority carriers (holes) with time StevensonKeyes experiment. the about 10 6 cm distance of 100 A.68 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume hv (b) LIGHT PULSE ilUU I > i \ 1 > '> © " K I (c) rh Fig.. Figure 34(a) shows an(e. Ref. other simple example where excess carriers are injected from one side by highenergy photons which create electronhole pairs Referring to Fig. (After Stevenson and Keyes.) B.g. at the surface only). is we note that for hv = 3. SteadyState Injection From One Side. 27.
7 Basic Equations for Semiconductor Device Operation 69 INJECTING' SURFACE \U/r ALL EXCESS CARRIERS EXTRACTED (b) Fig. The At steady differential state there is a concentration gradient is. (97a). d 2* = dt =  Pn ~ Pno +D 82p" dx' (102) The boundary conditions are pn (x = 0) = (0) = constant value. and Pn(x) = pno + L Pn (0)  Pno ]e xlL " (103) where Lp = ^[Dpt~ p . the diffusion length. The maximum values of L and . semiinfinite sample (b) sample with length W near the surface. 34(a). equation from Eq. 34 (a) Steadystate carrier injection from one side. pn pn (x > co) = pno The solution of pn (x) which is shown in Fig. is .
When pulses generate excess carriers in a semiconductor. the order of 10 cm in gallium arsenide. W x sinh Pnfr) = Pno + [P«(0)  Pno] (104) sinh E density at x The above result is shown in Fig. This means that the whole " package " of excess carrier moves toward the negative end of the sample with the drift velocity \i p $. is the If an electric field is applied along the sample. 35(b). from which it can be seen that the carriers away from the point of injection. Fig. = N y/4nD p t exp 4D p t tp + Pn (107) where N solution diffused number of electrons or holes generated per unit area. (102) a new solution. in germanium and silicon. applied field. 8= 0. the transport equation after the pulse OPn dt If there is given by Eq. n d pn 2 (106) no field applied along the sample. The is shown in Fig. (97a). At the same time. (94a) JP = 4 D p «D>»(0)  n Dp £ p 1 PnoJ (105) sinh © localized light It will in junction transistors be shown later that the above equation (Chapter 6). and that they also recombined. Pn „ dPn . and the time delay between the applied diffuse . The above example is essentially the celebrated HaynesShockley experiment 71 for the measurement of carrier drift mobility in semiconductors. the solution is given by P„(x. 34(b). 35(c). The current = W is given by Eq. (107) but with x replaced by (x . is related to the currentgain C. Transient and SteadyState is Diffusion. the solution is in the form of Eq. 35(a).n p £t) as shown in Fig. the carriers outward and recombine as in the fieldfree case. With known sample length.: 70 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume but only of L n ( = ^/D n x n) If the are of the order of ~2 1 cm is . second boundary condition n x = W are extracted or p (W) =p no then changed so that all excess carriers at we obtain from Eq.
Ref. 36 When one introduces surface recombination at one end of a semiconductor sample (Fig. 71. 36). 35 (a) Transient and steadystate diffusion HaynesShockley experiments (After Haynes and Shockley. = ox QSJp„(0) .) (b) (c) Without applied field With applied field electric pulse and the detected pulse (both displayed on the drift oscilloscope). Surface Recombination.7 Basic Equations for Semiconductor Device Operation 71 hi/ '^ nTYPE (a) PULSE GENERATOR (5. (c) Fig. the boundary condition at x = is given by D.pno ] (108) . one can calculate the mobility (/i = xjSt).
and the minority carrier density at the surface approaches its thermal equilibrium value p no Analogous to the lowinjection bulk recombination process. p n (x)^p no + x p G[l exp(x/L p)]. . (111) at the . the same as obtained previously (example A). given by S p = o p v th Nst where Nst is the number of surface trapping centers per unit area boundary region. the constant which reach the surface recombine has the dimension cm/sec is defined as the surface recombination velocity. 36 is Surface recombination at x = 0. The differential equation is states that the minority carriers Sp which Pn~ dt Pn ' d Pn p 2 dx 2 (109) The solution of the equation subject to the above boundary conditions is Pn(x) = P„ + iP G _ Tp S p exp(x/L p ) kp ~^~ (110) Tp p which is plotted in Fig. N t . p„(x) > p n0 + x p G. The minority carrier distribution near the surface affected by the surface recombination velocity. which there. 36 for a finite Sp When Sp » 0. when Sp ^> co.72 Physics and Properties of Semiconductors —A Resume SURFACE RECOMBINATION kv \\<\\\\)\„ I nTYPE i i \ i i i i i ( P M (0) p n P„„ Fig. in which the reciprocal of the minority carrier the surface recombination velocity is lifetime (1/r) is equal to a p v th . The boundary condition at x = oo is the same as that for example A.
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