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1201-cheng pipe roof as laternative BS Underpass and above MRT Lines) 4.

The general soil parameters used in the design of the shaft and tunnel( pipe jacking ) ... The soil parameters are mainly used to design the shafts for which to lau ... From: Dche Uzumaki Add to your collectionsIntroduction I. 1. Pipe roof as alternatives to open cut and other method.Pipe roof method of construction can generally be suitable when a relatively short tunnel orculvert/underpass need to be installation in heavy traffic or where road /rail services cannot be interrupted and where settlement due to work are to be minimized. 2. Such method involve the construction of temporary works using interlocked steel pipes,installed by microtunnelling or pipe jacking ,to form the temporary ground support inside which the permanent structure is constructed. Considerations 3. The cases for the need to consider pipe roof will include: a) Installing sections across roads, railway for underpass or drainage/sewer /other culvert b) Relatively large sections, sometimes as long as 19 m x 4.5m x 293 m c) Martha Railway, Atlanta Fig 1-pipe roof in Martha Railway, Atlanta

e) Sensitive settlement issues, where cost of interruptions/repair are probative, or as mandated by Authorities such as near MRT or other services ( Singapore¶s LTA project 6 m x 4 x 53 m - undercrossing Major road, and above MRT Lines) 4. The general soil parameters used in the design of the shaft and tunnel( pipe jacking ) and portal frame will include soil investigation, study of the project areas , and discussions with the client and authority 5. Generally the pipe roof is undertaken on a design and build basis, where by the appointed main contractor will appoint either specialize sub contractor for such task or have its own specialist design team, and assemble specialist trade such as pipe jacking to carry out the works,

6. and sometimes independent check. geotechnical measurement and monitoring teams 7. 8. Additional teams of specialist will include soil improvements. Planning and Design The soil parameters are mainly used to design the shafts for which to launch the pipe roof ±pipe jacking machine .The monitoring /suspension. . II. The client will appoint its own supervising team. The performance criteria will follow pipe jacking tolerances for jacking works. and structural tolerances for others sections . and agreed upon prior to work commencement. Alert levels for instrumentation works will be decided by site and design considerations.typically: Fig 5 Soil profile (typical) -General soil profile of the pipe jacking / mined tunnel zone The design parameters is sampled as shown Fig 6 Design soil parameters.

Structural aspects such as the design of the pipe-roof and the structural steel frames supporting the piped-roof. 4) pipe roof . ii.The key design considerations can include factors such as: i. their maintenance of face pressure. timber pieces. v. including soilstructure interaction between pipe-roof and surrounding ground. Risk assessment and hazard analysis including alert and suspension levels for instrumentations such as inclinometers and settlement markers. mitigation measures and others.The key considerations. Other pertinent points related to method and operation included: the adoption of single or multiple sided( 3. excavation speed especially when encountered with obstructions such as sheet piles. type and capabilities of jacking machine used. details of pipe clutching and damages expected to be caused by excessive settlement . tilt meter etc during construction stage Other calculations: a) Thrust wall design b) Jacking force calculations. Geotechnical aspects. iii. Soil improvements and types and extent of protection to existing services. iv. c) Final drawing of culvert Fig 7-sample design drawings of culvert section . stability of the excavated face and base stability during excavation. skill of operators.

-typical section of pipe roof (3 sided) .Design modelling: Use 2 D Plaxis -2D Plan strain model Fig 8.2 D Plaxis Modelling Typical section of the pipe roof is as shown Fig 9 .

.1993). 1991)Orchard-C.Tang Underpass Singapore (Darling. Construction Construction methodology The temporary earth retaining structure to support the ground during the excavation of the mined tunnel consists of a series of 780mm diameter. 1.III.L. and consecutively on left and right before the vertical rows were done. starting from the lead central row on top.K .typical work . comprised of 10 at the top and 6 on either side . The pipe roof formed by 22 rows of steel pipes . A. This method known as pipe roof/ arch. Iseley.The interlocking sections are sampled below Fig 10. and D. 16mm thick circular steel pipes interconnected by clutch to form an inverted U pipe-roof structure around the footprint of the proposed drain. P.They were installed in predetermined sequence. . have been deployed in USA and Singapore in the last twenty years.-interlocking steel pipe ± sample - Pipe jacking of individual pipe .USA (Atalah. as reported in Martha Railway Underpass .T.

Preparing guard Rail for jacking . Constrction of jacking and receiving shaft Fig 11. Slurry shield jacking layout Fig 10.typical layout for pipe jacking ii.- The following pictures show the pipejacking and pipe roof construction i.shaft construction iii.jacking machine iv. View of jacking machine Fig 12.

v. ready for jacking Fig 15 ±ready for jacking . Setting TBM Fig 13-preapring and setting up Jacking Machine vi.welding joint Vii. Welding steel sections Fig 14.

. Drainage holes (2 nos.viii.) were also provided to release any built-up of excess pore-water pressure during the excavation. Break through at receiving shaft Fig 16. After the pipe roof and the last portal frame( at the tunnel opening into the receiving shaft) were installed.5m¶s interval. Each excavation step is also 1. Completed row Fig 17. the soldier piles and the sheet piles around the shaft were cut.5m.5m with the width of the excavated slope also limited to 1. would be provided to stabilize the face of the excavation in the F2 layer. Soil reinforcement in the form of reinforcement bar arranged in a square grid pattern at 0.Break through ix. and a 10m zone at mid-point of the mined tunnel. The face of the excavation would also be protected temporarily during each stage excavation with a layer of short-crete of 15mm thick. the receiving shaft. Three sections of soil improvements were provided and these are located at the interfaces with the jacking shaft.completed row The pipe roof (Parsons B 2009) is in-turn supported by structural steel frames at every 1.65 m spacing both ways.

which were left in place by earlier contracts. These obstructions were in the form of sheet pile. Construction problems 1.8 m were to be driven and the soil excavated . Some of the piped-roof pipes were filled with approved cement-based backfill material before the casting of the final drain section. This is within the overall construction period planned for the pipe jacking phase. The works were carried out overnight with partial lane closures to ensure minimal traffic interruption along the North Buona Vista Road. The jacking force encountered for these cases went up to over 150 tonne and additional time was needed to complete these rows. which were unforeseen. This was mostly achieved with the jacking force ranging from 50 to 80 tonne for all except three rows of pipe that encountered obstruction. 2010) helped to design and adopt a comprehensive monitoring system as shown in Fig 10 . However with skilled operators and proper design and site management. later found to be sheet pile. This provided the systematic monitoring of the ground settlement of the surrounding areas and other changes such as in ground water table and other as a result of construction of the pipe jacking and the mined tunnel . In all. galvanised steel pieces and timber residues. no significant damages were encountered in the works or utilities during the process.took much longer (over 30 days each). 2.. Two jacking machines were utilised and the teams¶ work to jack the pipes in set predetermined designed sequence to enable proper pipe roof to be formed after all pipes have been jacked.The permanent drain section inside the mined tunnel between the jacking shaft and the receiving shaft were then cast. which took over 4 hours for each joint. These had not identified during the tender stage. Pipe Jacking Pipe jacking force for each pipe was calculated to be 50 tonne for the 53 m of jacking. The pipe jacking works were planned on a 24 hours basis. whereas others were done after that to ensure that the steel pipes do not pose any corrosion problems in the long run. and it was decided that a series of steel caisson of diameter 1. Settlement Control and Monitoring The CIAR Report (Parsons B. A thorough investigation was carried. so as to enable the cutting and the extraction of the sheet pile for a number of locations. Jacking for this particular row progressed smoothly until the cutter head of the machine hit very hard object. the jacking 22 pipes was completed from Aug 2009 to Jul 2010. The three rows which hit obstructions . IV. a total of 11 months. This resulted in a cycle of 9 days in between each row of jacking. alternating between actual pipe jacking and butt welding of the steel pieces and testing of the welds. Luck does seem to play a big part as the sheet piles were encountered only in one row of jacking. The particular case of encountering of sheet pile during jacking proved to be very challenging indeed.

at some 20 m from the jacking shaft.Fig 10. This was well within the LTA allowable limit of 1/100 (LTA 2009e). Layout of instrumentation and monitoring system The allowable limits for settlement as set in CIAR are asfollows: ‡ Alert level =0. Fig 11 shows the predicted settlement (Wong K S. Fig 11 The predicted settlement along the traverse section during various stages of Excavation . or maximum gradient of 1/250 or 0.7 x deisgn values ‡ Suspension level =deisgn value The maximum settlement at the ground level was expected to be along the centre of the mined tunnel axis.4%. 2009 ) along the traverse section of 51mm.

This is below the allowable of 125 mm . after the completion of the tunnel mining . The maximum settlement at this pipe was 30 mm at about 20 m from the jacking shaft.During construction. Plots in Fig 12 depict the readings taken with the prisms installed to measure the combined effect of pipe roof and mined tunnel. Conclusion Pipe roof/arch method of construction by pipe jacking generally are useful and effective solution to situations where the constraints of settlement . crossings and client's requirements cannot be met by other cheaper method such as open cut or other trenchless method. the participants evaluated and decided on rectification measures and adjustments to the procedures to ensure working within the alert and suspensions levels and in a safe and acceptable manner. The prisms were installed along pipe L1 next to the lead pipe (The lead pipe is in the centre of the top rows of pipes) which was expected to produce the maximum settlements. At two other prisms locations in the centre of the left and right vertical pipes. specialists. SingTel. With well coordinated efforts from all stakeholders. authorities (such as LTA. PUB) and consultants were held daily / weekly accordingly to the needs. instrumentation monitoring meetings with the contractor. There are numerous issue to consider and as the work are normally contracted out on a design and build basis . the contractor will need to weight the risk and allow for specialist inputs to be always on the site. V. In the meetings. maximum settlements were muchless than this figure. the pipe roof method can perform as planned. . and predicated of 51 mm. the instrumentation personnel. Power Grid. and has been successfully adopted since the 90¶s. sub contractors. and during planning/design stage.