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Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 69, 93–100, 2007


Shanghai Institute of Microsystem & Information Technology CAS Shanghai 200050, China Abstract—A compact open-loop resonator bandpass filter with suppression of the second and the third harmonics is demonstrated in this paper. This novel filter is based on a Tri-Section SIR to achieve size minimization and suppressed spurious response. The simulations and measurements of a 0.9 GHz prototype bandpass filter are presented. The measured results agree well with simulation and calculation.

1. INTRODUCTION As one of the key components in RF front-ends, bandpass filters with compact size, good performance, and low cost are highly demanded. The open-loop resonator bandpass filter which was first proposed by J.-S. Hong in 1995 [1, 2] has been widely used in many microwave and wireless systems due to its planar structure, narrow realizable bandwidth and easy fabrication process. In order to suppress spurious response, a number of technologies have been investigated. Stepped impedance resonators (SIR) [3, 4], DGS(defected ground structure) [5, 6], complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) [7, 8] are widely used in filter design. In the previous work [9], an open-loop resonator structure with capacitive termination has been proposed. The filters constructed using the prototype is compact in size and provide very good in-band and outband characteristics. However, there are no theoretical formulae to support the design procedure and it takes times of simulation to attain suitable parameters.

The first three authors are also with Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Layout of the proposed open-loop resonator bandpass filter with Tri-section SIR. it can offer more design flexibility and exhibit better characteristics with simple design process.94 Zhang et al. In this letter. 2. Compared with the conventional SIR. where the Trisection SIR has the total electric length θT = 6θ and impedance ratio . This filter is constructed with a Tri-Section SIR. consists of a Tri-section SIR. Figure 2. Tri-section stepped impedance resonator. a novel open-loop resonator filter is introduced. The feature of the high order spurious response suppression originates from multiple resonances of the stepped-impedance resonator as shown in Figure 2. CIRCUIT DESIGN The schematic diagram of the proposed bandpass filter is shown in Figure 1. W2 L1 G1 W4 L3 G2 W1 L2 W3 Figure 1.

.2 Ω. unequal odd. Figure 3. As a demonstration example. K2 = Z2 /Z1 .5D EM simulator. a bandpass filter for 900M application was designed. k2 . It has been proven that resonances occurs under the conditions given below [10]. θ = tan−1 θT = 6 tan−1 K1 K2 K 1 + K2 + 1 K1 K2 K 1 + K2 + 1 (1) (2) the first spurious “fs1 ” occurs at fs1 = where θs1 = tan−1 2 (K1 + 1)2 (K2 + 1) + K2 K1 2+K K +K K2 1 2 2 θs1 f0 θ0 (3) (4) It implies that by properly determining the impedance ratio k1 . the relative resonance frequency ratio can be easily attained. and parasitic coupling among non-adjacent microstrip lines. were optimized by a 2. The initial circuit dimensions calculated from the formulae (1)–(4) which are k1 = 0.295.5. to include the effects of layout discontinuities.2 Ω. θ = 25. Z2 = 28. The optimized circuit parameters are Z3 = 13. ADS Momentum. 2007 95 K1 = Z3 /Z2 .9◦ . Equivalent circuit model of electrical coupling for a skewsymmetric feed structure.Progress In Electromagnetics Research. k2 = 0. PIER 69.and even-mode velocities.

4 shows the configuration of a skew-symmetric feeding openloop resonator bandpass filter with electrical coupling. The centre frequency is 0. The value of C1 is usually small and neglected in the analysis. Clearly.08 mm.3 mm2 . Layout of open-loop resonator bandpass filter. an open-loop resonator bandpass filter and a proposed one with a Tri-Section SIR are both designed and fabricated on the substrate of εr = 2.3◦ . SIMULATED AND MEASURED RESULT For comparison. Fig. the optimized circuit parameters k1 . 1 shows the layout of the proposed filter. The S-parameters were measured using an Agilent E8358A PNA including two SMA connectors. G2 = 0. k2 . where L1 = 20.9 GHz. total size is 1939. The 2nd harmonic suppression is as bad as 3.08 mm.5 mm. Fig.55 mm. where L1 = 40. while θ3 deflects quite a lot. θ1 .47.7 mm. 3.3 mm. L3 = 6. θ3 = 13◦ .6 mm (G1 and G2 can be deduced by calculating the coupling coefficient of the coupling microstrip). W 2 = 1 mm. G1 = 0.5◦ .6 dB only. 5 illustrates the measured and simulated S-parameters of the skew-symmetric feeding open-loop resonator bandpass filter.1 dB. G2 = 0.3 mm. W 1 = 2.65.4 dB and 10. θ1 = 49. W 1 = 2. L2 = 30. G1 = 0. The coupling gap between the two Z3 stubs are modeled as a π-network with C1 and C2 shown in Figure 3. W 3 = 15 mm. total size is 926. θ2 = 26. L1 1 G1 G2 W1 Figure 4. but its value increases in the proposed structure. θ2 agree with the theoretical calculation result well.96 Zhang et al.7 mm. .316).25 mm. thickness h = 1000 µm and loss tangent of 0.3 mm. Z1 = 89 Ω (k1 = 0. respectively. Fig.003. The deflection is due to the inner coupling [9]. W 4 = 6 mm. The figure shows that the insertion and return loss are better than 1. L2 = 67.1 mm2 . k2 = 0.

7 0. 2007 0 97 -10 -20 Mag(dB) -30 -40 -50 -60 0 1 2 Simulated S(2.0 1.8 0.8dB 3.8dB .1 1.1dB 11 dB Stopband (Lowe r) Stopband (Upp e r ) 21.6 0.2dB 24.6 dB 30.9 1.4dB 2. Simulated and measured S parameter of conventional open-loop resonator bandpass filter (a) whole frequency range (b) near passband frequency.2 Frequence(GHz) (b) Near passband frequency Figure 5. PIER 69. Comparison of two filters transmission performance.1) Measured S(2. F ilte r Type Conve nti onal Pr opos e d Insert Loss 1.1) 3 4 Frequency(GHz) (a) Whole frequency range 0 -10 -20 Mag (dB) -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 Measured Simulated 0.Progress In Electromagnetics Research.5dB Re turn Loss 10. Table 1.

1) 2 3 4 Frequency(GHz) (a) Whole frequency range 0 -10 -20 Mag(dB) -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 0. Fig. The suppression of stopband rejection below 3 GHz is as high as 30 dB.7 0.1) Measured S(2. there is more than 26 dB improvement from 3. it can be clearly found that the proposed filter shows a much better stopband rejection performance than the one above. Table 1 shows the details transmission performance comparison of two filters.8 0.98 0 -10 -20 Zhang et al.9 1. .1 1.1) Measured S(2. For comparison.2 Simulated S(2. the centre frequency is set in 0.0 1. From the figure.1) Frequence(dB) (b) Near passband frequency Figure 6. Mag (dB) -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 0 1 Simulated S(2. 6 shows the measured and simulated S-parameters of the proposed open-loop resonator bandpass filter with Tri-section SIR.6 0. Simulated and measured S parameter of proposed openloop resonator bandpass filter with Tri-section Sir (a) whole frequency range (b) near passband frequency.6 dB to 30 dB in 2nd harmonic suppression due to the Tri-section SIR.9 GHz too.

No. Vol. but also saves as much as 60% circuit size compared with the conventional one. and Q. Nov. and M. 9.. 45. De Sario. Makimoto. CONCLUSION A novel open-loop resonator bandpass filter with Tri-section SIR has been presented in the paper. S. “Theory and experiment of novel microstrip slow-wave open-loop resonator filters. Dec. Dec. W. The filter proposed in the paper not only shows a superior harmonic suppression in stop-band. and S. MTT-28. “Reflection phase and frequency bandgap characteristics of EBG structures with anisotropic periodicity. Microwave Theory Tech.” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications. L. 3. Wu.” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications. Prudenzano. Vol. J. 1407– 1421. 1980. Vol. D’Orazio. 2001. Y. 13–25. No. Berlin. “Canonical microstrip filter using square open-loop resonators. Lancaster. 1995. No. T. 1. J..” IEE Electron. and N. Lett. Vol.” IEEE Trans. J. “Extraction of constitutive relation tensor parameters of SRR structures using transmission line theory. 7. In order to demonstrate its potential. 14. No.” IEEE Trans. Yamashita. REFERENCES 1.Progress In Electromagnetics Research. 19. Heidelberg. No. Lancaster. 8. 2. 1145– 1156. No. S. and F. Vol. 2358–2365. 4. Y. a conventional open-loop resonator filter and the proposed one with Trisection SIR have both been designed and fabricated for comparison.. Hong. Yeo. 2005. 2007 99 4. W. “Bandpass filters using parallel coupled stripline stepped impedance resonators. 2005. S. M. Toutain. Vol. L. Alfano. 2006. M. 23. 20. Li. “Analysis and design of waveguides loaded with split-ring resonators.” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications. Makimoto.” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications. 1997. 12... Microwave Resonators and Filters for Wireless Communication. 6. 19. . Hong. S. A. J. PIER 69. Theory Tech. and S. Springer-Verlag.. 2005. 2020–2022. Burokur. 5. M. Latrach. V. 12. Yuan. 1897–1905. C. Yamashita. H. 31. and M. Petruzzelli. “A continuous varying impedance passband microstrip filter exploiting a butterfly wing shape. 11. Q. M. 19. Fu. Xu. and S. N. Yao. Vol. No. 1413–1417. Microw.

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