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STEAM TURBINE

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CONTENT Chapter I II Description Purpose Steam Turbine Types 2.1. 2.2. III Impulse Turbine Reaction Turbine Page 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 5 6 7 7 7 10 10 10 10 13 15 17 17

Steam Turbine Operating Range 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. Curtis Rateau Reaction

IV. V. VI.

Symbols and Units Steam Process in Steam Turbine Exhaust Steam Conditions, Extraction and Admission 6.1. 6.2. Back Pressure and Condensing Turbine Steam Extraction and Admission of Turbine

VII.

Steam Consumption 7.1. 7.2. 7.3. 7.4. Rotor Diameter Steam Temperature Blade Size, Speed and Degrees of Admission Other Losses

VIII. IX. X.

Calculation Formula Calculation Sheet Unit Conversion

c.1 Rateau + Reaction rows . Enthalpy drop is high. -1 Curtis + Rateau rows constructed in one rotor. 2. Generally. In general.1. Power is high ( up to 30. d. Speed is relative low ( up to 6000 rpm. 1 and fig. b.2.Rateau turbine contain 1 row of nozzle for 1 row of impulse blades. Kinetic energy to be converted to blade become mechanical energy and transferred through rotor. Rateau (Multi rows) a. Compact . but works at behind impulse turbine whether constructed in one rotor or at separated rotor. Reaction turbine is just receiving steam condition from impulse blades. Moving blades work due to differential pressure of steam between front and at behind of moving blades. shaft and coupling to the load. Efficiency is higher than Curtis b. Reaction Turbine In reaction turbine. Power is relative small ( up to 2000 kW). 2. 3.Curtis turbine contain 1 row of nozzle for 2 row of impulse blades . PURPOSE This manual can be used for preliminary selection. The purpose of impulse turbine is to control speed and reduce steam enthalpy to specified level. can be 1 pair up to several pair.STEAM TURBINE 2 I. . 2. II. Typical pairs of reaction and impulse turbines are.Several rows of Rateau + Reaction rows III. 1. Enthalpy drop for each row lower than Curtis but still high. steam and cooling water planning for steam turbines in basic and detail engineering stages.1 Curtis + Several rows of Rateau + Reaction rows . This manual does not for designing steam turbine and the related parts. higher than Reaction . STEAM TURBINE TYPES Steam turbine types based on blade geometry and energy conversion process are impulse turbine and reaction turbine. See fig. except for special design up to 12000 rpm).000 kW) c. Curtis (Stand alone or Single Stage) a.1. but still connected by coupling. Enthalpy drop is high for each moving blades.2. there is no nozzle to convert steam energy to mechanical energy. and fig. Impulse blade applies in Curtis and Rateau turbines such as the following typical . reaction turbine is not stand alone. See fig. Impulse Turbine Thermal energy of steam is converted to kinetic energy in turbine nozzle. speed is higher than Curtis (up to15000 rpm) d. 2. STEAM TURBINE OPERATING RANGE The following criteria are used for selection steam turbine type 3.

STEAM TURBINE 3 Figure 1. Steam turbine blades arrangement of Impulse and Reaction blades. .

Enthalpy drop each row is low e. More efficient b.3 Reaction (Multi row reaction + 1 row impulse for control stage) a. Pressure and velocity of steam across nozzle and blades in impulse and reaction blades 3.STEAM TURBINE 4 Figure 2. . Speed is high (up to15000 rpm) d. Power is high c. For low steam pressure.

Symbol Description Unit Power and speed P N Power Speed kW (kilowatt) RPM (rotary per minute) Blade and rotor geometry D U I S λ D/I Z Rotor diameter Peripheral velocity Blade height Blade length S/I ratio D/I ratio Number of row or number of stage mm m/s mm mm Factors.7 √ Δh m/s Head coefficient ( = 1000 Δh / U2 ) Degrees of admission Efficiency factor due to blade height Efficiency factor due to degrees of admission Efficiency non percent for calculation ε . SYMBOLS AND UNITS Unless otherwise noted. the following symbols and units are used in this manual. Operating Range of Steam Turbines IV.STEAM TURBINE 5 Operating range of steam turbines can be shown in Speed – Power chart such as the following figure (Fig. 3) Figure 3. coefficient and efficiency Vrat C μs FI Fε η Velocity ratio ( = U / C) Steam velocity = 44.

exit bar A bar A bar A 0C 0C m3 / kg m3 / kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg ton/hr V.25 of degrees of admission for impulse turbine At equal or more than 80 mm of nozzle height and more than 0. exhaust. Figure 4 shows steam process in enthalpy against entropy diagram of Curtis and single row Rateau turbine. STEAM PROCESS IN STEAM TURBINE Steam entrance to turbine through governor valve to control steam capacity and therefore to control turbine speed. There is enthalpy loss at this valve. valve exhaust specific volume Specific volume leaving last blade Inlet enthalpy Enthalpy in isentropic process from pi condition to po condition hos’ Enthalpy in isentropic process from pi’ (leaving governor valve) condition to po condition he Turbine diff. o Impulse or control stage Reaction Rateau Curtis Average of stages or each row Losses Mechanical Tip (for tip speed of blade) At 25 mm of nozzle height and 0.5 of degrees of admission for impulse turbine At D/I = 10 and S/I = 0.. valve exhaust temperature Gov. And figure 6 shows steam process of impulse as control stage and reaction turbine. enthalpy of row Δhstg Average Isentropic diff. enthalpy from pi’ to po ( = hi – hes’ ) Δhs1-etc. etc. Figure 5 shows steam process of multi row of Rateau turbine.STEAM TURBINE 6 Steam condition pi pi ‘ po ti ti ‘ vi ‘ vo hi hos Steam inlet pressure to turbine Governor valve exhaust pressure Steam exhaust pressure Steam inlet temperature Gov. Following figures show steam process in steam turbine. meaning as IMP R RAT CUR STG Loss m tip 25 05 10 1. . Isentropic diff. II. enthalpy Δhs Isentropic diff.4 for reaction turbine At first to n of stage or row At last stage or last row Alternative number Output. enthalpy ( = hi – hes ) Δhs’ Isentropic diff. enthalpy of stages Δhe Turbine head (turbine enthalpy) Δhe’ Effective turbine head x Wetness of steam m Mass flow Subscript If there is subscript follows the symbol.n z I.

1 Curtis atau Rateau rows + Extraction/Admission + Reaction rows . steam can be extracted from turbine before steam flowing through the last stage. Back Pressure and Condensing Turbine. see figure 8. If steam condition exit the turbine in wet steam or where steam condition at bellow saturated line of Mollier diagram. named admission turbine.2.1 Curtis + Extraction/Admission + 1 Rateau + Reaction rows . 6. Steam Extraction and Admission of Turbine In applications. Figure 4 Steam Process in Curtis and Single Row Rateau Turbine Typical steam admission and extraction arrangement . In the other case. EXTRACTION AND ADMISSION 6. steam also can be admitted to turbine before last stage. named back pressure turbine. If steam condition exit the turbine in dry or still in superheated condition or at upper of saturated line of Mollier diagram. when required. The name "Condensing turbine" and "Back pressure turbine" expressed about steam condition exit the turbines. named condensing turbine. EXHAUST STEAM CONDITIONS.1.1 Curtis + Extraction/Admission + Rateau rows .STEAM TURBINE 7 VI. named extraction turbine. if required. see figure 7.

Steam Process in Impulse as Control Stage and Reaction Turbine . Steam Process in Multi Row of Rateau Turbine Figure 6.STEAM TURBINE 8 Figure 5.

Extraction and Admission Steam Turbine . Back Pressure and Condensing Turbine Turbine Turbine Inlet Steam Exhaust Steam Inlet Steam Admitted steam Exhaust Steam Extracted Steam Figure 8.STEAM TURBINE 9 Back pressure turbine Condensing turbine Figure 7.

see figure 13 for impulse turbine and figure 14 for reaction turbine. speed and degrees of admission.STEAM TURBINE 10 VII. Lower speed and high enthalpy differential will reduce efficiency of turbine. Figure 9. 7. speed. Typical model and size are shown in figure 9. 7. Steam Temperature. Blade size. speed and enthalpy range for several design of Curtis Turbine . size. blade geometries.2. 10 and 11. see red dot line at figure 9. degrees of admission and speed are influence to turbine efficiency. Efficiency will depend on turbine size or rotor diameter. Blade type. Each size has specific operating range even sometimes operating point required by Customer does not at highest efficiency. extreme condition of steam and other losses. Very high steam temperature will decrease strength of material of turbine blades and cause limitation of design speed. 10 and 11. STEAM CONSUMPTION Steam consumption of steam turbine is depending to required output power and efficiency of the turbine.1. Nominal size is required by Manufacturer because of competitive cost reasons. Output power. 7. Rotor diameter Turbine Manufacturers have nominal rotor diameter for their products.3.

Output power. 15. speed and enthalpy range for several design of Reaction Turbine . speed and enthalpy range for several design of Rateau Turbine Example 6.STEAM TURBINE 11 Typical III.000 kW Figure 10. Output power. Figure 11.

Rateau turbine. efficiency ηR= 87.200 RPM is the best choice.5. From figure 13 at I = 30 mm. Gear is necessary for reducing speed from 7. This typical is sufficient even if the size is bigger than required. Δh=200 kJ/kg. in this example. Figure 9 shows that at 750 kW .000 kW and at any speed. Number of stages is = 400/100 = 4 for low temperature and = 400/70 = 6 for high temperature.96. typical no. Available steam is Δh = 150 kJ/kg for turbine that shall give 400 kW of power and 2975 RPM for centrifugal pump. Turbine has number of stages for approximately of 600/100 = 6 stages. III is the nearest to requirement point. Available steam is equal to example 3 above but for 5.2 and then from figure 12 can be read efficiency for I ≥ 80 mm and ε ≥ 0. 100 bar A and 650 oC for Curtis turbine. 2975 RPM and Δh = 100 kJ/kg the nearest size is typical I and II where designed for 1000 kW.5 %. Available steam is Δh = 650 kJ/kg. Typical no. To provide best efficiency. Interpretation examples of figure 12. Turbine shall operate at 900 kW and at any speed. Curtis turbine.000 RPM of operating speed. Rateau turbine has blade height. I may be acceptable but does not at best efficiency. U=250 m/s and ε = 0.4 and D/I = 8. Example 5. Given Δh = 100 kJ/kg for Curtis turbine that shall operate for pump at 750 kW and 2975 RPM without reducing gear.000 kW. determine μS=1. Reducing gear is acceptable.65. Turbine can be operated at 8. V is the nearest to requirement point.5 x 0. figure 10 and figure 11. Therefore. Example 8.200 RPM to 2975 RPM.872 .000 RPM and ΔhSTG = 135 kJ/kg. Steam available for reaction turbine is ΔhR = 400 kJ/kg and inlet temperature at 250 C. Turbine can be operated at 8. From figure 10 shows that for 5. The diameter of 500 mm listed in this area is rotor base diameter.955 x 0.000xΔh/U2 = 3. Figure 9 shows that typical no. Example 1. 110 bar A. Reaction turbine.STEAM TURBINE 12 Interpretation examples of figure 9. Efficiency of turbine can be determined from figure 14. Example 3. 700 oC for 15.000 RPM and ΔhSTG = 100 kJ/kg. I = 30 mm. Example 4. Example 6. Number of stage is approximately = 650/135 = 5 stages.2. Following the red lines.955 and by equation. Turbine efficiency than become ηIMP = 77. Reaction turbine has Vrat = 0.71. Example 2. Available steam is Δh = 600 kJ/kg. Figure 10 shows that typical no. η05 = 77.000 RPM vertical line will cross blue dot line and red dot line at diameter of rotor is at 500 mm area. Figure 9 shows that no typical design is available for this requirement. factor due to nozzle height FI is 0.96 = 71 % or 0. 13 and 14 Example 7. Fε = 0. turbine shall be operated at speed higher than limited speed indicated by red dot line for high temperature. From equation (4) in chapter VIII.000 kW of Rateau turbine. This line cross with red dot line (ΔhSTG = 70 kJ/kg) at 600 mm pitch diameter and cross with blue dot line (ΔhSTG = 100 kJ/kg) at 700 mm of pitch diameter. Reaction turbine shall be used in the downstream of control stage that has been designed at 8. Figure 11 shows that at 8. V at 7. approximately average base diameter is 500 mm and approximately average pitch diameter is 600 mm for high temperature or 700 mm for low temperature. S/I = 0.2 % or 0.

. .STEAM TURBINE 13 Figure 12. Other Losses Other losses which reduce total turbine efficiency are: .Wetness loss at reaction blades.Peripheral losses at impulse blades. Efficiency of Impulse Turbine (η05)at I ≥ 80 mm and ε ≥ 0. see figure 15.5 Figure 13.Mechanical losses.Enthalpy drop at governor valve. Efficiency Factor Due To Nozzle Height and Due To Degrees of admission 7. . .4.

Mechanical Efficiency . Efficiency of Reaction Turbine Figure 15.STEAM TURBINE 14 Figure 14.

If there is following calculation symbols. ZI = 1. “=” : equal to. CALCULATION FORMULA All following formulas shall be used with unit where presented in chapter IV to minimize an error during calculation caused by inconsistence units. U= 3.05 x I x (1-ε)} x (D x U3 x 10-9) / vo (kW) Total efficiency.7 x (Δh)0. subscript : power. see figure 15 Turbine efficiency. Velocity ratio. Δhs’ = 0. Steam mass flow. C = 44. Δhe = CO2 / 2000 (kJ/kg) (10) (11) Losses at governor valve. “-“ : minus.000 xΔh U2 PLOSS = {25 x D x 10-5 + 0.000 (m/s) (1) Steam velocity. Peripheral power losses. pressure ratio shall ≥ 0.97 x Δhs for multi gov. Head coefficient.147 xDxN 60. (5) (6) (7) ηTOTAL = ηTUR x ηWET x ηm ηWET = 1 – 0. mening: “+” : plus.6 x ( P + PLOSS ) m= η TOTAL x Δhs ' (8) (ton/hr) (9) Outlet losses for reaction turbine. ηTUR = 3. valve (kJ/kg) = 0.3 for each row) .5 Vrat = U / C (m/s) (2) (3) (4) μS = 1. Wetness efficiency.STEAM TURBINE 15 VIII.5 x (1-XO) x ΔhWET / Δhs’ = 1 when at superheated Mechanical efficiency (ηm).55 x Δhs' RAT x 1011 D2 x N 2 (integer value) (12) zII ≥ 2 x [ log (po / pi’)]ABS (integer value) (for convergen nozzle. Peripheral velocity.6 xP m x Δhs' 3.93 x Δhs for single gov. “x” multiply. “/” divided by. valve Number of stages of Impulse or Rateau stages.

Welded Nozzle Degree of Admission of Rateau Turbine .5 (mm) (15) For single stage.007 for reaming nozzle ε = 1 for reaction turbine A is nozzle area factor or entrance area factor = 3.45 for welded nozzle εMAX is about 0. Ixε= PSTG x vi' x 10 6 D x A xη xΔhstg 1. ΔhSTG = Δhs’RAT / z for Rateau turbine (kJ/kg) ΔhSTG = Δhs’R / z for reaction turbine Turbine power of each stage.9 εΜΙΝ = 0. ε = 0.147 x 44.7 x sin α A = 34 if vi’ < 0.8 x Δhs ' R x 1011 D2 x N 2 (integer value) (12a) Differential enthalpy of each stage.1 m3 / kg = 39 if 0. (16) Figure 16.ηIMP = η05 x FI x Fε See figure 12 for η05 and figure 13 for FI and Fε Reaction blades efficiency (ηR ) can be determined with figure 14. PSTG = P / z (13) (14) Nozzle height x degrees of admission.STEAM TURBINE 16 Number of stages of reaction turbine.015 up to 0. ZR = 3. PSTG = P and ΔhSTG = Δhs’ For impulse turbine.1 ≤ vi’ ≤ 1 m3/kg = 43 if vi’ > 1 m3/kg Impulse blades efficiency.

In volume. Pa (Pascal) F (Fahrenheit) K (Kelvin) R (Rankin) ft/s ft/min (fpm) GPM (US) CFM lb HP ft kcal/kg BTU/lb kcal/kg.5 C. In volume. a.06243 1000 47880.3 Note : American Standard State condition is condition where pressure at 1. Calculation sheets are presented in attachment B for stand alone impulse turbines.1868 2.0185 0.s/ft2 16.3048 0.8 25. admission steam turbine.981 1.00508 0.1868 4.699 0.K kJ/kg. X.326 4.013 bar A and temperature at 15. To calculate steam flow where power and/or speed is as required condition b. To calculate power output where quantity and condition of steam is known All required variables for calculation are taken from formulas and charts presented in this manual and the attachments. Typical calculation sheets presented in attachments of this manual are divided into two categories where is depending on the requirements.227 1.7457 0.273 (5/9) 0.3048 4. Normal condition is at 1. is common written as Nm3 . impulse and reaction turbines.1868 Unit to be used mm mm bar bar bar bar C C K m/s m/s m3/hr m3/hr kg kW m kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg.R Factor 304.STEAM TURBINE 17 IX.0132 bar A and 0 C.06897 0.013 10-5 (t-32) x (5/9) T . extraction.4536 0.4 0. is common written as SCF. admitted and extracted turbine. Attachment A presents steam data in tables and charts for saturated and superheated conditions where taken from internet with some little modification on appearance. CALCULATION SHEET Calculation sheet is necessary to make a simple. UNIT CONVERSION Designation Length Pressure Unit to be converted ft inch psi kg/cm2 (at. structured and documented of the calculation.K kg/m3 m3/kg cP cP Temperature Velocity Volume flow Mass Power Head Enthalpy Gas constant Specific heat & Entropy Specific mass lb/ft3 or density Specific volume ft3 /lb Viscosity N.K BTU/lb.s/m2 lbf.) atm.

STEAM TURBINE 18 .