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**Aar´n V. B. Arellano,1 Nora Bret´n,2 and Ricardo Garc´ o o ıa-Salcedo3
**

Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Aut´noma del Estado de M´xico, o e El Cerrillo, Piedras Blancas, 50200, Toluca, MEXICO 2 Depto. de F´ ısica, Centro de Investigaci´n y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N., o Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07000, M´xico, D.F., MEXICO e 3 Depto. de F´ ısica Educativa, CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, Del. Miguel Hidalgo, 11500, M´xico, D.F., MEXICO e In this paper we review some properties for the evolving wormhole solution of Einstein equations coupled with nonlinear electrodynamics. We integrate the geodesic equations in the eﬀective geometry obeyed by photons; we check out the weak ﬁeld limit and ﬁnd the traversability conditions. Then we analyze the case when the lagrangian depends on two electromagnetic invariants and it turns out that there is not a more general solution within the assumed geometry.

PACS numbers: 04.20.Jb, 04.40.Nr, 11.10.Lm

1

arXiv:0804.3944v1 [gr-qc] 24 Apr 2008

I.

INTRODUCTION

Recently, the interest in wormholes has increased because of the possibility of interstellar travel or future time travel to past world. Since the formulation of Einstein’s equations, several features of these solutions were addressed, such as Einstein-Rosen bridges [1]; Wheeler [2] analyzed this kind of solutions and coined the name of wormholes. The most important and popular contribution to these solutions was given by Morris and Thorne [3], they were the ﬁrst who made a complete and detailed investigation in this ﬁeld. Wormholes are solutions to Einstein’s ﬁeld equations which represent two connected universes or a connection between two distant regions of universe. For realistic models of traversable wormholes, one should address additional engineering issues such as tidal eﬀects. People is skeptic about them because they contradict some commonly accepted reasonable energy conditions, for example, their structure requires matter with negative energy density as a source, i. e. exotic matter [3]. A full revision on wormholes can be consulted in [4] and [5]. Among an enormous variety of wormhole solutions, there are some kind of spherically symmetric wormholes that evolve with time. This type of wormholes have been extensively analyzed. Roman [6] explored the possibility that inﬂation might provide a mechanism to enlarge tiny wormholes to macroscopic size and investigated the possibility of avoiding the violation of the energy conditions in the process. Further evolving dynamic wormhole geometries were analyzed, considering speciﬁc cases [7]- [9]; and also was considered the evolution of a wormhole model in an FRW background [10]. On the other hand, nonlinear electrodynamics has recently been applied in several branches in physics, namely, as eﬀective theories at diﬀerent levels of string/M-theory [11], cosmological models [12], black holes [13]- [14] and in wormhole physics [15], among others. In this context, in a recent paper it was shown that (2 + 1) and (3 + 1)-dimensional static spherically symmetric as well as stationary axisymmetric traversable wormholes cannot be supported by nonlinear electrodynamics [16]. However, it was found an evolving wormhole solution within nonlinear electrodynamics [17], where the lagrangian depends in nonlinear way on one electromagnetic invariant. In this paper we explore some properties of the evolving wormhole geometry in the context of nonlinear electrodynamics. This paper is outlined in the following manner. In section II, we describe brieﬂy (3+1)-dimensional evolving spherically symmetric wormholes coupled with nonlinear electrodynamics. Section III is devoted to the study of wormhole geometry in the aspects of: traversability conditions, linear limit and photon trajectories. In Section IV we analyze the case when the lagrangian depends on the two electromagnetic invariants, attempting to ﬁnd a more general solution. In section V some conclusions are given. We shall use geometrized units, i.e., G = c = 1, throughout this work.

II. (3 + 1)−DIMENSIONAL EVOLVING WORMHOLE SOLUTION A. Action and spacetime metric

The action of (3 + 1)-dimensional general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics is given by

we shall consider more general electromagnetic lagrangians. The variation with respect to the electromagnetic potential Aµ . and Fθφ = −Fφθ = B. = 2 2 +3 Ω r Ω 2 b ¨ ˙ 1 Ω Ω = 2 − 3 + −2 . b(r)/r < 1. Now. as well as the fulﬁlment of the ﬂaring out condition. with the stress-energy tensor given by Tµν = gµν L(F ) − Fµα Fν α LF . takes the form dr2 + r2 (dθ2 + sin2 θdφ2 ) . We shall also assume that these functions satisfy all the conditions required for a wormhole solution. so using an orthonormal reference frame the non zero components of the Einstein tensor reduce to 2 ˙ b Ω 1 . however.ν − Aν. and Ω = Ω(t) is the conformal factor that is ﬁnite and positive deﬁnite throughout the domain of t. Ω r Ω Ω 2 b′ r − b ¨ ˙ Ω Ω 1 −2 . taking into account the metric (4) the electromagnetic tensor compatible with the assumed symmetries is given by Fµν = E(xα ) δ t µδ r ν − δr µδ t ν + B(xα ) δ θ µδ ϕ ν − δϕ µ δθ ν . (5) being the non-zero components the following: Ftr = −Frt = E. 16π (1) where R is the Ricci scalar. Note that in Einstein-Maxwell theory the lagrangian takes the form L(F ) = −F/4π.2 S= √ −g R + L(F ) d4 x . and b(r) is the shape function [3]. + = Gϕϕ = 2 − ˆˆ Ω 2r3 Ω Ω ′ Gtt ˆˆ Grr ˆˆ (7) Gθθ ˆˆ . L(F ) is the lagrangian. where Fµν is the electromagnetic tensor. b − b′2 ≥ 0. where Fµν = Aµ. The invariant F takes the form F =− 1 2Ω4 B. Φ(r) is ﬁnite everywhere in order to avoid the presence of event horizons. yields the electromagnetic ﬁeld equations (F µν LF ).µ = 0 . 1− b r e−2Φ E 2 − B2 r4 sin2 θ . depending in nonlinear form on a single invariant F given by F = F µν Fµν /4 [18]. (6) Einstein ﬁeld equations We recall that from [17]. Φ is the redshift function. (2) where LF = dL/dF . which is conformally related to the static wormhole geometry [3]. the solution requirement Φ = 0 must be imposed. namely.µ . with b(r0 ) = r0 at the throat. with b′ (r0 ) < 1 at the throat. (3) The spacetime metric representing a dynamic spherically symmetric (3 + 1)-dimensional wormhole. 1 − b(r)/r ds2 = Ω2 (t) −e2Φ(r) dt2 + (4) where Φ and b are functions of r. the electric ﬁeld. Varying the action with respect to the gravitational ﬁeld provides the Einstein ﬁeld equations Gµν = 8πTµν . the magnetic ﬁeld.

that b(r) > 0 [19].e. ˆˆ Ω r sin θ Ttt = −L − ˆˆ Tr r ˆˆ Tθ θ ˆˆ (8) (9) (10) It is clear that Ttt = −Trr and using Einstein’s ﬁeld equations. The conformal function Ω(t) → 0 as t → ∞. C1 eαt − C2 e−αt (13) where α is the separation constant. together with (∗ F µν ). Thus the magnetic ﬁeld is given by B(θ) = qm sin θ . the nonzero components of the stress energy tensor. (2). Thus. (15) that can be deduced from Bianchi identities. (8) and (10). Fθφ = −Fφθ = B(θ). r). and the prime a derivative with respect to r. so that the shape function is given by r r0 2 2 b(r) = r 1 − R0 −1 . therefore a solution is found by separating variables: 2 b(r) = r 1 − α2 (r2 − r0 ) . C1 and C2 are constants of integration. Ω4 (1 − b/r) 2 E LF .Analogously. It is important to observe that Ω(t) → ∞ as t → t0 = α−1 log(±C1 C1 C2 ) showing a time singularity that must be avoided. where qm is a constant related to magnetic charge. from Eq. therefore for α > 0 we need to impose C1 > C2 and if α < 0 it is required that C1 < C2 . (3). the following relation is obtained ˆˆ ˆˆ br−b = − 2 2r3 ′ ˙ Ω Ω 2 In Eq. t. i. Ω is singular at t = 0. (14) A fundamental condition to be a reliable wormhole solution is imposed. one may have an arbitrarily large wormhole. which reﬂects a −1 √ contracting wormhole solution.. we obtain (16) . R0 ≃ r0 /a ≪ 1. where the asterisk denotes the Hodge dual [18]. If C1 = C2 . take the form (1 − b/r) 2 E LF . we obtain the restrictions that Ftr = −Ftr = E(t. Electromagnetic ﬁeld equations Solving the electromagnetic ﬁeld Eq. LF = LF (t. If a ≫ r0 . the range of r is 2 r0 < r < a = r0 1 + 1/R0 .3 where overdot denotes a derivative with respect to the time coordinate. the latter may be arbitrarily large by taking R0 → 0. In the spirit of [17] we deﬁne the dimensionless parameter R0 = αr0 . r). ¨ Ω − . Ω (11) (12) Ω(t) = 2α .µ = 0 . (11) each side depends only on one variable. from Eqs. otherwise the conformal factor becomes singular somewhere in the domain of t. Furthermore. = L+ Ω4 1 = Tφφ = L − 4 4 2 B 2 LF . C.

A. r4 (17) The regular solution appears when we set E = 0. Using Eqs. Flaring Out Condition and Embedded diagram As can be found in [3]. the weak energy condition is satisﬁed. (14) and (13) the ﬂare out condition can be casted as d2 r (z) r α(C1 eαt − C2 e−αt ) > 0. this function can be obtained integrating the relationship dz (r) r dz (r) = =± −1 dr dr b This equation can be rewritten using equation (14) to obtain −1/2 . ds2 = dz 2 + dr 2 + r 2 dφ2 . fact that forbids the possibility of wormholes. and if α < 0 and C1 eαt < C2 e−αt . This result is in close relationship to the regular magnetic black holes coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics found in [14]. So in general the ﬂare out condition is fulﬁlled by the solutions (14) and (13). Using Eq. In our case the ﬂare out condition requires ([17]) that d2 r (z) 1 d2 r (z) 1 b − b′ r = = >0 2 2 Ω (t) dz Ω (t) 2b2 dz at or near the throat. = 2 2 2 2 [1 − R0 (r2 − r0 )]2 dz (21) (20) If α > 0. the null energy condition is not violated. We remind that for static solutions with nonlinear electrodynamics. however for the evolving wormhole under study this does not apply and moreover. the weak ﬁeld limit and photon trajectories. traversability conditions. together with B = qm sin θ. 2 16πqm LF = (18) and taking into account Eqs. F = qm /(2Ω4 r4 ) and functions (12) and (13) give a wormhole solution well behaved at the throat. Another feature that must be explored for a wormhole solution is the one related to the form of the function z (r) from the embedded diagram [3]. embedding then in a ﬂat three dimensional Euclidean space. then we need to impose C1 eαt > C2 e−αt . (22) . an imperative feature to appear in any wormhole solution is the so called ﬂare out condition once the embedded diagram is given. namely: ﬂaring out condition and embedded diagram. (19) III. E = 0. [4]. ANALYSIS OF THE E = 0 SOLUTION In what follows we address mainly four aspects of the solution. [4]. . The embedding is obtained when one considers the wormhole metric for an equatorial slice θ = π/2 and in a ﬁxed time t. violating the condition Ω (t) > 0. (17) we obtain 1 Ω2 r(b′ r − 3b) .4 Ω2 8π b′ r − 3b 2r3 = 1− b r E 2 LF + 2 qm LF . (7) and (8). the lagrangian is given by 1 b′ L=− +3 8πΩ2 r2 ˙ Ω Ω 2 2 These equations. with ﬁnite ﬁelds. otherwise the conformal factor becomes negative somewhere along the domain of t.

(24) In Fig. This behavior grant us a shape for the throat very similar to the typical behavior expected for a wormhole solution [3]. ˆ ˆ 0 where γ = √ stated as |Rˆˆˆˆ | = |C1 C2 | ≤ 0101 g⊕ 1 . 1: The embedded wormhole z(r) for an arbitrary constant time is shown for distinct values of the parameter α. ˆ 3 (25) and β = v/c. We take as our traversability criteria the magnitude of the tidal forces that an observer can stand during the trip: it must not exceed the forces due to Earth gravity. ≈ 2m (1010 cm)2 (26) 1 1−β 2 eˆ = ∓γer + γβet .5 dz (r) dz (r) = =± dr dr 1 2 −1 α2 (r2 − r0 ) 1/2 . [4]. ≈ 10 cm)2 2m (10 1 g⊕ . To simplify our calculations we shall work in a proper reference frame given by eˆ = γet ∓ γβer . v is the velocity of the radial motion [9]. (23) from which we would be able to obtain the solution for z (r) as z (r) = ±Ω (t) z (r) = ±Ω (t) 1 2 2 −1 R0 (r2 − r0 ) 1/2 dr. and as r grows far from the throat. Traversability Conditions We explore now the possibility that a human traveler traverses an evolving wormhole like the one presented here. we delve into the analysis of the tidal gravitational forces that an infalling radial observer must bear while traversing. Leaving aside the study of the stability of the solution. 1. [20] it is shown the embedded wormhole z(r) for an arbitrary constant time. as was expected for a wormhole solution. the value of the derivative dz becomes smaller but positive. ˆ ˆ 1 eˆ = eθ . much on the spirit of [21]. indicating that the tangent dr lines for z(r) become nearly horizontal.3 B. We can observe that the behavior of the derivative is highly positive near the throat r0 .2 while the dotted one is for α = 0. ˆ 2 eˆ = eφ . The continuous curve corresponds to α = 0. Then the traversability criteria can be |Rˆˆˆˆ | = |Rˆˆˆˆ | = γ 2 |Rθtθt | + γ 2 β 2 |Rθˆθˆ| = |C1 C2 | ≤ ˆˆˆˆ ˆr ˆr 0303 0202 (27) . Þ ½¾ ¿ ¼¾ Ö ½ ½ ¾ FIG.

related to the dependence of tidal forces on the traveler velocity. it is useful to rewrite the main functions F . (29) In the case we are analyzing. nonlinear electrodynamics is not an exception [18].1. ˆˆˆˆ ˆˆˆˆ Q22 = −γ 2 (Rtrtr sin2 ψ + Rtφtφ cos2 ψ + β 2 Rrφˆφ ) = C1 C2 . it take us to equation (11) from which the solution is obtained. the radial tides are zero. 2. rendering this solution in a traversable one. instead. α2 r2 Q12 = −γ(Rtrtr − Rtφtφ ) sin ψ cos ψ = 0 . Maxwellian Limit. there is no presence of tidally induced shear. this means that the traveler will pass safe through the wormhole as far as tidal forces concern. It is important that any nonlinear theory recovers the form and results of the corresponding linear theory. L and LF in terms of the coordinates r and t.. 2 qm 32α4 F = C1 eαt − C2 e−αt r 4 . We point out the fact that Eq. C. (34) (33) (30) (31) (32) β 2 sin2 ψ [(C1 eαt + C2 e−αt )2 ] 4 Therefore. furthermore. 13. (27) does not depend on the traverse velocity v. (28) where ηJ . (36) . To carry on the analysis of the Maxwell limit. ˆˆˆˆ ˆˆˆˆ ˆ ˆr ˆ Q33 = −γ 2 (Rtφtφ + β 2 Rrφˆφ cos2 ψ + β 2 Rθφθφ sin2 ψ) ˆˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆˆˆ ˆ ˆr ˆ = −γ 2 [−C1 C2 + C1 C2 β 2 cos2 ψ + + 1 2 (1 − α2 (r2 − r0 ))(C1 eαt − C2 e−αt )2 ]} . then if some danger exists for the traveler it is in the nonzero accelerations while traversing the wormhole. ˆˆˆˆ ˆˆˆˆ and Q13 = Q23 = 0 . (35) L=− 1 32πα2 2 [1 − α2 (3r2 − r0 )][ C1 eαt − C2 e−αt 2 ] + 3α2 (C1 eαt + C2 e−αt )2 r . γβ sin ψ).1. 0. J = 1. Chap. the tidal forces are described with the entrances Q11 = −Rtrtr cos2 ψ − Rtφtφ sin2 ψ = C1 C2 . However there are cases where the Maxwellian limit is not recovered [22]. however it is not in contradiction with the results given in [4]. the tidal forces do not diverge. γβ cos ψ. Let us consider the traveler’s motion is non radial with a velocity vector given by ˆ V µ = (γ.81m/s2 is Earth gravity. 3 is an orthonormal triad orthogonal to the four-velocity V α . Since in the studied case the redshift has been set equal to zero. The QIJ matrix that describes tidal forces is deﬁned by QIJ = −Rµανβ (ηI )µ V α (ηJ )ν V β . these conditions can be fulﬁlled with the appropriate selection of the values for C1 and C2 . since Q12 = 0.6 where g⊕ = 9. due to the fact that the condition Rθtθt = −Rθˆθˆ does not lead to ˆr ˆr ˆˆˆˆ the presence of a horizon. In what follows we show that there is not tidally induced shear.

T θθ . LF (40) ˆˆ given in orthonormal coordinates µν . and instead goes to a 8π constant value shows that in this limit the spacetime is not asymptotically ﬂat due to a constant remanent energy. i. a fact that is contrary to the existence of wormholes. it does make sense the absence of such a limit since for weak ﬁelds the energy conditions are always fulﬁlled.. and the Maxwellian limit would be attained as r → ∞. as the solution is only valid for the region r0 < r < a = r0 1 + 1/β 2 . 1]. 1.µ k. T φφ ) ˆˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ with ˆˆ T tt = −L = −T rr . Another impressive result is the corresponding to LF which goes to inﬁnity. showing a similar behavior to an ideal conductor [23]. f LF where we have taken into account the energy-momentum tensor given by ˆˆ diag(T tt . T rr . L → − 3C1 C2 and LF → ∞. 2 2πqm C1 eαt − C2 e−αt (37) The result of the analysis of the solution is the absence of a complete Maxwellian limit. with η µν = diag[−1. instead they propagate along null geodesics of an eﬀective geometry which depends on the nonlinear theory [18]. Moreover.µ S.e. For a curved spacetime the equation for the characteristic surfaces is g µν S. Alternatively. The discontinuities of the ﬁeld propagate obeying the equation for the characteristic surfaces S. ˆˆ (43) ˆˆ φφ T ˆˆ θθ = L − 2F LF = T . D. the eﬀective geometry is given by tt gef f = − LF + 2L θθ gef f = LF + 2L ˆˆ ˆˆ LF F LF rr ˆˆ = −gef f . the corresponding “eikonal” equation for the propagation vectors k µ is µν ν (LF g µν − 4LF F F µα Fα ) k. For the case of the evolving wormhole with nonlinear ˆˆ electrodynamics (4) with (12) and (13). the expression of gef f in terms of the electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor T µν also shows clearly that the modiﬁcation in the trajectories is due to nonlinear electromagnetic ﬁeld: µν ˆˆ gef f = LF + LLF F LF ˆˆ η µν + LF F µν T ˆˆ. Furthermore.ν = 0 (38) And when nonlinear electrodynamics is involved. when r → ∞ we get that F → 0. (18)-(20) in [17]. 1.ν = 0 (39) µν ˆˆ ˆˆ In the orthonormal tetrad.µ k. Light rays in the NLED eﬀective geometry In nonlinear electrodynamics photons do not propagate along null geodesics of the background geometry.ν = gef f k. (41) (42) LF F ϕϕ ˆ − 2F LF F = gefˆ . the requirement of the presence of a region with Maxwellian limit losses strength. [24]. (44) that are Eqs. the expression for the invariant F .7 LF = − 2 r α2 (1 + α2 r0 ) [ ]2 . The fact that the L lagrangian L does not go as F . if E = 0 is .

−1 2 2 (1 + α r0 ) − α2 + 4r2 ˙ Ω Ω 2 . F in terms of r and t. (49) and (50). + dτ 2 (F LF − 2L)2 (53) (54) The constant of motion A makes easier the integration of the geodesic equations. (47) (48) L ϕϕ ˆ = gefˆ . t(τ ). where τ is the aﬃne parameter that generates the geodesic trajectories r(τ ). ϕ(τ ). 0. θ(τ ). −1 for timelike. in the particular case that b(r) = r 1 − α2 r2 − r0 . (51) is derived from the line element and δ = 1. 2 Ω4 r 4 (45) 2 Now.(51) in Eqs. t) = 3 ˙ Ω Ω 2 ˙ Ω Ω −1 . LF F therefore Eqs. (56) . straightforward algebra leads to the expressions 0 = d2 t A2 df (r. (41)-(42) amount to tt gef f = − LF − 2 θθ gef f = 3LF − 2 ˆˆ ˆˆ L F rr ˆˆ = −gef f . The Eq. Considering the expressions for LF . A is a conserved quantity related to the existence of Killing vectors. t) d2 r + . L. respectively.8 F = 2 1 qm . for δ = 0 it is obtained ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 LLF F + LLF F − LF LF d2 t + A2 = 0. 2 dτ 2 (F LF − 2L) 2 (LLF F ′ + LL′ F − LF L′ F ) 2 d2 r F A = 0. null and spacelike geodesics. dτ 2 2 dt A2 dg(r. 0 = 2 dτ 2 dr 2 (55) with 2 2 (1 + α2 r0 ) (1 + α2 r0 ) − α2 + f (r. f F In the eﬀective metric the geodesic equations are d2 t + dτ 2 d2 r − dτ 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ LF F 2 − 2LF + 2LF 2F (F LF − 2L) L′2 − 2L′ F + 2LF ′ F 2F (F LF − 2L) dt dτ LF − dt dτ 2 2 − − dr dτ − dr dτ 2 2 + + ˙ ˙ ˙ 2LF − 2LF − 3LF F 2 2F (F LF − 2L) A2 = 0 A2 = 0 A2 = δ 2 (49) (50) (51) (52) −2L′ F + 2LF ′ + 3L′ F 2 F 2F (F LF − 2L) + dr dτ 2 2L F dt dτ 2 + 3LF − 2 dθ dτ 2 L F + dϕ dτ = A2 . t) + . dr dt Substituting ( dτ )2 − ( dτ )2 from Eq. we have the relationship (46) LF F 1 =− . t) = − 6r2 4r2 2 2 α − g(r.

Ø « ¼ « ¼ « ¼ ¾ Ö ¼ ¾½ ¿ FIG. It can be observed in both plots the nonvanishing throat. 2 (1 + α2 r0 )(K1 − 2/3)(Be2αt − 1)2 + 16α2 r2 BK1 e2αt (60) where B = C1 /C2 . On the search for a more general solution we explore in this section the case of a lagrangian depending in nonlinear way on both invariants. (55) can be integrated by multiplying the ﬁrst equation by 2(dt)/(dτ ) and the second by 2(dr)/(dτ ). C1 and C2 can be adjusted to fulﬁl the traversability conditions as well. (57) (58) + A2 g(r. as the geodesics do not tend to inﬁnity for large times IV. Substituting f (r. t) . t) and g(r. In these plots K1 = K2 = 0 and the static case is for α = 0. Fig.9 Eqs. K1 − f (r. as well as the non-ﬂatness of the spacetime (associated to the non-Maxwellian limit). The graphics [20] of the trajectories r(t) are shown in Fig. The non-ﬂatness of the spacetime is apparent. The eﬀective spacetime as “seen” by photons does not carry as much restrictions as the mere existence of the wormhole. EVOLVING WORMHOLE SOLUTION WITH TWO INVARIANTS F AND G The previous analyzed wormhole corresponds to a lagrangian that depends only on one of the two electromagnetic invariants.2 for diﬀerent values of α. 2: Null geodesics r(t) in the eﬀective geometry of the nonlinear electromagnetic ﬁeld. t) from (56) and simplifying we get dr = dt 2 (1 + α2 r0 )K2 (Be2αt − 1)2 + 16α2 r2 B(K2 + 2/3)e2αt . showing the inﬂuence of the magnetic ﬁeld variation.3 shows r(t) when K1 and K2 are not zero. t) that allows one to obtain the trajectories r(t) of photons as dr = dt K2 − g(r. with K1 = K2 = 0. t) (59) where K1 and K2 are constants. . B < 1 for the square root be well deﬁned. so they acquire the form of d dτ d dτ dt dτ dr dτ 2 + A2 f (r. t) 2 = 0. = 0. F = F µν Fµν /4.

5. in the same form L = L(t. The non-zero Einstein tensor components are the same that in Eq. G) is a gauge-invariant electromagnetic lagrangian depending on the invariants 1 1 ˇ ˇ F = 4 F µν Fµν and G = 1 F µν Fµν where Fµν is the electromagnetic tensor and Fµν = 2 ǫµναβ F αβ its dual. (63) We shall consider a spacetime metric representing a dynamic spherically symmetric (3 + 1)−dimensional wormhole given by (4). (6) while the invariant G is 1− b(r) r EB G= Ω4 r2 sin(θ) . .ν ≡ F µν LF + F µν LG .8. K2 = −0. K2 = 0. with the stress-energy tensor given by Tµν = gµν L − Fµδ Fν δ ˇ LF − Fµδ Fν δ LG .5.8. L(F. (62) ∂L ∂L where LF = ∂F and LG = ∂G are functions of r and t only. (62). The variation with respect to the electromagnetic potential Aµ . while the dotted one is for K1 = 0.10 Ø ¾ Ö ¼ ¾½ ¿ FIG. yields the electromagnetic ﬁeld equations ˇ pµν . in both α = 0. G) d4 x. The components of the stress-energy tensor.66. is given by (5). in the orthonormal frame take the following form b r Ttt = −Trr = −L − ˆˆ ˆˆ = −L − E 2 LF 1 − Ω4 b r b r + EBLG Ω4 r2 sin(θ) 1− E 2 LF 1 − Ω4 + GLG . compatible with the symmetries of the geometry. 16π S= −g (61) where R is the Ricci scalar. 4 Varying the action with respect to the gravitational ﬁeld provides the Einstein ﬁeld equations Gµν = 8πTµν . The F invariant is given by Eq. r). Eq. (7).ν = 0. The electromagnetic tensor. The continuous curve corresponds to K1 = 1. The nonvanishing of the constants of movement enhances the action of the magnetic ﬁeld and smooths the non-ﬂatness of the spacetime Let us consider the action of (3 + 1)−dimensional general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics given by √ R + L(F. 3: Trajectories of photons r(t) in the eﬀective geometry.

We presented the integration of the geodesic equations for light rays and the . sin2 (θ) = Tˆ = 0 (with i = j). ELF = BLG + CE . There is open still the question if assuming a less symmetrical spacetime it would admit such kind of matter. C1 eαt − C2 e−αt . (70) give us the expression for F1 (r) F1 (r) = r2 Then (70) takes the form 1 r2 1− b r CE 1− b r .11 EBLG 1− b r Tθθ = Tϕϕ = L − ˆˆ ˆˆ = L − GLG − Ttˆ ˆı Ω4 r2 sin(θ) Ω4 r 4 − B 2 LF Ω4 r4 sin2 (θ) B 2 LF . Of course when LG = 0. sin(θ) (71) From this last relation we verify that ELF is singular at the throat. and C1 and C2 are constants of integration. we obtain B = qm sin(θ). (65) (66) where α is a constant. V. G). when we take into account Eq. (67) can be solved for ELF : ELF = r2 BLG 1− b r + F1 (r). r4 Ω(t)4 sin(θ)3 Eq. Eq. (70) sin(θ) Now. ıˆ (64) As in [17]. Integrating Eq. FINAL REMARKS In this article we have analyzed the solution representing an evolving wormhole coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics given by Arellano and Lobo in [17]. we recover the solution in [17]. Therefore. F and G. r r sin(θ) ∂r b 1 − r2 ELF r − B (∂r LG ) = 0. (63) take the form b B (∂t LG ) 1 − ∂t (ELF ) − 2 = 0. we recover the expression obtained in [17] for ELF . CE = cte. present for instance in nonlinear electrodynamics of the Born-Infeld type. (69). We conclude that geometry (4) does not allow nonlinear electromagnetic matter related to a lagrangian L(F. so the solution to Gtt = −Grr can be solved separating variables like in (11): ˆˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ 2 b(r) = r 1 − α2 r2 − r0 2α Ω(t) = . sin(θ) (67) (68) (69) [B cos(θ) − ∂θ B sin(θ)] LF = 0. L = L(F ) + κG This term breaks the duality rotation symmetry of the electromagnetic ﬁeld. except for an additional term κG. when there is dependence on both electromagnetic invariants. The electromagnetic ﬁeld Eqs. Ttt = −Trr . (68).

D66. D53.“Anisotropic Born-Infeld Cosmologies. D65. S. project 49182-F. M. 31. “Evolving Lorentzian wormholes. [14] Bronnikov. Rev.” Phys. 48.. “Born-Infeld Cosmologies. 722 (1996) [arXiv:gr-qc/9506094]. was partially ﬁnanced by Conacyt-Mexico. Moniz. L. Torres. Nove Science Publishers [arXiv:gr-qc/0710. V. S. and Bret´n. Rev. J. Rev. We must stress that the wormhole solution is only valid in a certain region that. 6889 (1996). 75-81 (2006) [arXiv:gr-qc/0509062]. Bergliaﬀa. N. and Thorne. E. [4] Visser. [5] Lobo. K.. R.” Gen. N. Centro de Astronomia e Astrof´ ısolutions in General Relativity: Traversable wormholes and ’warp drive’ spacetimes”. 862 (1994).. and Bret´n. M. Rev. the allowed trajectories for photons show that the NLED eﬀective geometry is less restrictive than the one for the wormhole.” JHEP 9909. Garc´ ıa-Salcedo. 11. Bronnikov..” Phys. Rev. New York. A.“Nonlinear electrodynamics in Bianchi spacetimes. F. 044015 (2005) [arXiv:hep-th/0502217]. “Quintessence and Born-Infeld cosmology. D. D. Quantum Grav. Rev. and Garc´ A. J. J. thesis. [7] Kar. P. “Electrically charged and neutral wormhole instability in scalar-tensor gravity”.” Phys.” Phys.” Phys. Lorentzian Wormholes (American Institute of Physics. and Rosen. [8] Kar. 35. D57. Perez Bergliaﬀa. “Nonlinear electrodynamics and the acceleration of the universe. A. “Non-singular charged black hole solutions for non-linear source. J. V. acknowledges a Ph. Quantum Grav. a possible interpretation can be the presence of a magnetic perfect ﬂuid that can be obtained from the stress energy tensor taking that limit. “Wormholes in spacetime and their use for interstellar travel: A tool for teaching General Relativity”. 044005 (2001) [arXiv:gr-qc/0006014]. E.” Phys. Rev. o 22. 73 (1935). Dyadichev. we obtained that the tidal gravitational forces are constant in the radial movement. 629-633 (1999) [arXiv:gr-gc/9911084]. Garc´ ıa-Salcedo. M. and Witten. D63.” Phys. 084007 (2002) [arXiv:hep-th/0111099]. Relativ. “Evolving wormhole geometries. . Rev. Novello. 20. N. D65. “Stability of nonlinear magnetic black holes. In the conclusions about traversability. S.M. M. “String theory and noncommutative geometry. 104017 (2002) [arXiv:hep-th/0202066]. A. N. 1511-1516 (2003) [arXiv:hep-th/0102187]. V. [15] Baldovin.” Class. 103501 (2002). it turns out that the electric-magnetic duality symmetry is lost. the traversability conditions as well as the weak ﬁeld limit were analyzed. Rev. T. F. B. M. Phys. R. 97. 829 (1998) [arXiv:gr-qc/9710026]. A. Grav. G-S. “New type of regular black holes and particlelike solutions from nonlinear electrodynamics. R. “The particle problem in the General Theory of Relativity”. D. G. [3] Morris. leaves outside the limit r → ∞. 56. N. When the dependence on both invariants for the lagrangian is considered. Quantum Grav. V. Rev. P. However. D69 127301 (2004) [arXiv:astro-ph/0312093]. Zorin. and Salim. Relativ. Acknowledgments A. S. [1] Einstein. grant by Conacyt-Mexico. N.” Int. D. 4341-4354 (2000) o [arXiv:gr-qc/0004017]. K. “Cosmological model with a traversable wormhole. K... “Inﬂating Lorentzian wormholes. S.” Phys. 5425o 5437 (2003) [arXiv:hep-th/0212130]. A. D47. [13] Cataldo. “Evolving wormholes and the energy conditions. Class. Gal’tsov. acknowledges partial support by ConacytMexico.. A. [2] Wheeler. A. Phys. L. S. V.12 corresponding graphics that show the inﬂuence of the nonlinear ﬁeld. Phys. and Hildebrandt. E. Vollick. 511 (1955). A15. D. D49. S. “Non-Abelian Born–Infeld cosmology.” Class. N. A. 032 (1999) [arXiv:hep-th/9908142]. M. W. S. N. Phys. Garc´ ıa-Salcedo. [10] Kim. N.” Gen. 1370 (1993) [arXiv:gr-qc/9211012]. and Sahdev. B. Rev.4474v1]. invited chapter to appear as edited collection “Classical and Quantum Gravity Research Progress”. 3265-3276 (2000) [arXiv:gr-qc/0003075]. ıa. and they can be adjusted to allow a safe human passage..” Phys. Cosmol. Rev. and Trobo M. 17. and Zotov. 4783-4802 (2005) [arXiv:gr-qc/0410142]. Grav.” Phys. “Regular magnetic black holes and monopoles from nonlinear electrodynamics. [11] Seiberg. Am. For the Maxwellian limit we have found that when r → ∞ the spacetime is asymptotically ﬂat except for a remanent energy. F. project 49924-J. D72. Burinskii. “A nongravitational wormhole”. Grav. [6] Roman.“Singularity-free Bianchi spaces with nonlinear electrodynamics.” Phys. A. 395 (1988).. V.. D53. Rev. Mod. 1995). even if it can be extended to be large.. Ph. [12] Novello. and Bret´n. J. and Salim. R. Yu. and Grinyok. S. R. D. [9] Anchordoqui. “Geons”. Breton..

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