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ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET MATRICULATION NUMBER: 04008583
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MODULE TITLE: Professional Study and Practices Industry-based research and its role in curriculum design: reflections on concepts and contexts for learning and teaching in higher education MODULE NUMBER: EDU11101 NAME OF MODULE LEADER: Dr Karen Thomson DATE OF SUBMISSION: 16 April, 2010 DECLARATION
I agree to work within Napier University’s Academic Conduct Regulations 1 which require that any work that I submit is entirely my own2. The regulations require me to use appropriate citations and references in order to acknowledge where I have used any materials from any sources. I am providing my student Matriculation Number (above) - in place of a signed declaration – in order to comply with Napier University’s assessment procedures.
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If the assignment brief specifies this is a group assignment, the Matriculation Numbers for all group members must be included on this coversheet. The work must then be entirely the work of the group members, who agree collectively to the statement in the declaration.
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Professional study: Introduction ___ ! ! ! The breadth, variety and vocational nature of the travel industry (Ladkin, 2005) result in a need for a diversely trained workforce and the question must be asked if degrees are meeting employer knowledge and skills needs. (Major and Evans, 2008:409)

The second decade of the 21st century will present the UK with opportunities to capitalise on eventbased tourism on a scale that is unprecedented in living memory. Sporting mega events such as the Olympic Games (London, 2012), Commonwealth Games (Glasgow, 2014), Ryder Cup (Gleneagles, 2014) and Cricket World Cup (England, 2019) command considerable global media coverage, act as catalysts for economic investment and environmental transformation, and have ʻmust-seeʼ standing (Getz, 2007:25; Bowdin, et al, 2006:14-20). Business events (sometimes known as ʻMICEʼ - meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions) and cultural events (such as arts festivals) are also all too common across the country, as is the case in many parts of the modern world (Bowdin, et al, 2007:18-23). There is widespread recognition from governments as well of the importance of this sector of the economy, often promoted and regulated as an industry in its own right (Tourism Victoria, 2010). Such recognition of the the transformatory potential of events is being pursued in Scotland through the establishment of EventScotland, a government agency within the countryʼs tourism body ʻ…established in 2003 with the aim of strengthening and promoting Scotlandʼs events industryʼ (EventScotland, 2010). A number of colleges and universities are also actively pursuing the same aims, yet as Major and Evans make clear above (with regard to the wider tourism field) it is vital that such institutions reflect on the needs of employers in this field (UCAS, 2010). This paper contributes to work being done at Edinburgh Napier University to enhance and exploit links between the institution and the types of organisations it claims to be preparing its graduates for (Edinburgh Napier University, 2010a). Following an initial approach in early summer 2009 from the management of The Edinburgh Festival Theatres Trust (FCTT), Edinburgh Napier is currently co-funding a piece of research into the future development options of parts of Edinburghʼs key cultural infrastructure. The other cofunder is the Trust itself, in its capacity as manager of the Festival Theatre and the Kingʼs Theatre, both to be found in central Edinburgh. The research is being co-led by the PG Certificate candidate - alongside the universityʼs Reader in Festival and Event Management - and it will also form the basis of the study into the role of research in curriculum design below. Potential benefits from the resulting PG Certificate report include: • The research will help identify industry-relevant concepts to be included in future iterations of curriculum design, thus enhancing the student experience in a vocationally focused area of study. • The process of carrying out the research and this paper will facilitate reflections on the process of designing and managing research. • The Business Schoolʼs objectives of developing active links with industry will be well served, with the opportunity to build support for the facultyʼs work within the industry.
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• This research is also in line with the School of Marketing, Tourism and Languageʼs wider work, complementing existing links with the cityʼs festivals. The overall aim of the report is to use experiences gained in the process of carrying out a piece of industry-based research to explore concepts relevant to the future design of academic curricula. This will be done in the context of the BA (Hons.) Festival and Event Management at Edinburgh Napier, while also exploring the curricula of similar institutions within the UK. Britainʼs first event management degree was introduced by Leeds Metropolitan University in 1996, following pioneering work by The George Washington University in Washington DC (Bowdin, et al, 2006:28-29). Edinburgh Napierʼs ʻBA (Hons) Festival and Event Managementʼ has been offered since 2006, having been developed from existing programmes in tourism, festival and leisure studies. In line with the universityʼs mission this report will help the candidate and his School ʻprovide socially, culturally and economically relevant higher educationʼ, while striving to become a ʻpreferred partnerʼ of the stakeholders named above. Four key intended learning outcomes will be met in the course of this research and will guide the remainder of the paper which follows: 1. To critically assess recent literature exploring the contribution of industry-based research to the development of learning and teaching for higher education 2. To critically explore the steps taken by Edinburgh Napierʼs comparator and competitor institutions in this field to integrate industry awareness into their curricula 3. To evaluate ways in which the Festival City Theatres Trust research has been designed to contribute to the development of learning and teaching on the BA (Hons.) Festival and Event Management programmes at Edinburgh Napier University 4. To author a report that captures the output of learning outcomes 1 to 3, with recommendations for the future development and design of curriculum within the undergraduate degree programmes These learning outcomes thus equate to distinct sections of the report which follows: 1. One means by which ʻmodernʼ or ʻnewʼ post-1992 universities focus their work is through a deliberate attention to the needs of ʻindustryʼ and to ʻdevelop confident employable graduatesʼ (Edinburgh Napier University, 2009). It is instructive that as of June 2009 UK higher education government policy is led by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, who create ʻ...the policy critical to grow the economy, from higher education, skills and science to innovation, enterprise and businessʻ (BIS, 2010). This report will review and critically assess work which is being done to explore the value of industry-based research as it affects the development of higher education programmes of study. Among the key themes which play a part in this discussion are the embedding of employability in the curriculum, the expectations of employers, and the purpose and focus of specified taught academic subject areas. 2. Writing in 2003, Marion Stuart-Hoyle discussed ʻThe Purpose of Undergraduate Tourism Programmes in the United Kingdomʼ, concluding in part that the ʻ...key purpose is seen to be the preparation of graduates for a career in tourism, while there is evidence of programmes which offer a balance of vocational and academic development in order to achieve this aimʼ (2003:49). As was noted above with regard to Major and Evansʼs (2008) work there is potentially a great deal of work from the Tourism field that may be applicable to Event
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Management, including means by which institutions can be compared and benchmarked. This section of the paper will therefore provide a limited opportunity to take stock of Edinburgh Napierʼs working environment in this field. The UCAS course search for UK undergraduate programmes with ʻeventʼ in the title returns 68 institutions, although only a limited number of these will be explored in any depth (with a discussion to follow below on the methods chosen to select a sample) (UCAS, 2010). 3. As noted above, the opportunity to draw on work commissioned by the Festival City Theatres Trust has helped inspire this particular paper. The section which draws directly on that work including proposed primary research which is being carried out in order to complete the FCTT project - will therefore apply many of the ideas discussed in the literature review to this particular local example. There is also an opportunity here to discuss the practical viability of achieving the goals of both industry and academia through the same piece of work: to what extent may an industry-focused piece of research adequately serve the needs of a tuitionfocused higher education institution? 4. As noted in learning outcome 4, recommendations will be made for future curriculum development and design. It is hoped that these will be apparent throughout the paper as appropriate, although a closing section seeks to draw overall conclusions and provide a focused set of recommendations. Relatively recent academic discussion in the field of Event Management has reflected the emergent nature of the subject, within the wider and relatively more established discipline of Tourism, and sought to provide frameworks and tools by which researchers and educators in this field may profit (Robson, 2008). It is anticipated that this paper can contribute to these ongoing discussions, while at the very least proving valuable to those developing and delivering the undergraduate curriculum to Edinburgh Napierʼs students. When the Festival City Theatres Trust approached Edinburgh Napier to collaborate on an important piece of work for the Trust they presented an opportunity for the university to further diversify its research base and exploit the experience as an opportunity to achieve its own goals. This paper will have direct impacts on the undergraduate curriculum and is therefore a part of that research process, with the following section seeking to place the work in its wider research and literature contexts.

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Professional study: Literature Review ___ ! ! ! ! The goal of event management education is to educate and train future generations of industry professionals. In order to achieve this goal, attention should be placed on the development of event management curriculum that not only meets the desire of potential students, but also satisfies the needs of the event industry. (Lee, Lee and Kim, 2008:68)

This section opens with a Korean perspective on event management education, stating quite categorically that in the authorsʼ analysis industry preparation is the primary driver behind such curricula. Meanwhile Stuart-Hoyleʼs identification of an apparent dichotomy between those courses which provided an education ʻforʼ or ʻaboutʼ tourism is more nuanced in its appreciation of the motives and goals of programmes in this related field (2003:50-51). The following literature review will draw on such extant material in responding to the paperʼs first learning outcome: ʻTo critically assess recent literature exploring the contribution of industry-based research to the development of learning and teaching for higher educationʼ. In order to do so three relatively discrete themes will be pursued: • The embedding of employability within the curriculum • The identification of employersʼ expectations towards higher education and HEIsʼ responses to those expectations • The purpose of event management programmes, including an initial review of Edinburgh Napierʼs provision and its links to the local industry As such the section will provide a considered response to the learning outcome and the context in which to place the primary research discussed in the next section. A large proportion of the literature introduced here is derived from British research and UK higher education institutions. The differing contexts of overseas contributions are also recognised, and their relevance to this paper is highlighted below - particularly where work such as Lee, et alʼs appears in an international journal. This allows for a degree of comparison and discussion in this nascent subject. ___ Employability In 2007, ten years after the publication of the ʻNational Committee of Inquiry into Higher Educationʼ, The Guardian reviewed the sectorʼs progress towards achieving its recommendations, including speaking to its principal author, Lord Ron Dearing (Crace and Shepherd, 2007). Dearing ultimately cites three regrets, concluding that ʻ...we might have done more to develop a relationship between parents, employers, students and government at local, regional and national level; between universities and societyʼ (ibid.). While the headlines may have focused on the changes to student funding which the Dearing Report ushered in, such as the introduction of tuition fees, Harvey feels it also ʻgave further impetus to the development of employabilityʼ (Harvey, 2005:13). As such this topic has relevance across the sector, ʻemployability is not just about getting a job; it is about developing attributes, techniques, or experiences for life… Employment is a by-product of
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this enabling processʼ (Harvey, 2005:13). It is instructive that, over a decade after the Dearing Report, university strategies, such as Edinburgh Napierʼs, still espouse his priorities and seek to support students in developing ʻthe self-confidence, ability and attributes which will make them highly employableʼ (Edinburgh Napier University, 2009a). The means by which ʻemployabilityʼ can be fostered are somewhat diverse - this section will explore key contributions to the debate as they prove relevant and valuable to this paperʼs main aims. The Higher Education Academy has devoted a great deal of energy towards employability, ʻa topic currently at the forefront of higher education (HE) policyʼ; as their resource guide on this topic has been produced by the Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network it is particularly relevant to this paper (HEA, 2004:1). They quote a list of skills and attributes identified by the Association of Graduate Careers Advisory Services (AGCAS): • Motivation and enthusiasm • Interpersonal skills • Team working • Oral communication • Flexibility and adaptability • Initiative • Productivity • Problem solving • Planning and organisation • Managing own development • Written communication (HEA, 2004:1) Universities are therefore challenged with developing these abilities among the student body, or perhaps more importantly giving students the opportunity to manage their own development while still in education. To this end there is a place in this discussion for the ʻfunctioning knowledgeʼ which Biggs and Tang advocate: putting knowledge to work as part of an education that prepares students for their future professional careers (2007:135). Edinburgh Napier states on its website that its enviable record in producing employable graduates (ranked 8th of 156 UK institutions in 2009) is based on ʻoffering creatively designed courses, flexible study methods and accessible routes to higher educationʼ, fully in line with AGCAS guidelines (Edinburgh Napier University, 2010b). While the above list is perhaps relatively uncontroversial, even laudable in its diversity of attributes, a return to Harvey introduces some important caveats (Harvey, 2005:14). The first is the ʻprobabilisticʼ nature of such approaches, whereby evidence of employability is actually no guarantee of employment in the face of ʻmany extraneous socioeconomic variablesʼ (ibid.). In the field of festival and event management for example a successful academic career may initially count for little in an industry where work experience is highly valued, and there is considerable competition for a limited number of permanent ʻgraduate levelʼ vacancies. Harveyʼs second point relates to the constrained choices of occupation that students may be presented with, so they ʻmay have to accept that their first occupational choice will not be realistic in the prevailing circumstancesʼ and considerable flexibility may be required in order to find an opportunity to apply their employability skills (ibid.). Fortunately, perhaps, the event management literature tends to fall back on similar skills and knowledge requirements as noted above, within the context of an
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industry with ʻmany different ways of categorizing or grouping events, including by size, form and contentʼ - if able graduates are prepared to explore the full breadth of the market it is hoped that they will find suitable employment (Bowdin, et al, 2006:15, 26-29). Harveyʼs final contention is that the ʻgaining of a “graduate job” and success in it should not be conflatedʼ, suggesting that academic achievement is just that - universities are not always able to measure key professional characteristics (ʻsuch as drive, cooperative working, and leadershipʼ) and do not therefore turn out their graduates with any guarantees in these areas (Harvey, 2005:14). Turning back to Bowdin, et al, they are quick to note that employers ʻoften look for a mix of qualifications and experienceʼ in the events field - if students are motivated to embark on an event management degree, hopefully they will rise to the challenge of gaining related entry-level work experience and beyond where they can (Bowdin, et al, 2006:29). As noted Lee Harvey explores a range of issues relating to ʻissues relating to the employability of graduatesʼ, including work experience and other means of embedding skills development within the curriculum (Harvey, 2005:13). As such the remainder of this section is structured according to two selected themes discussed in that 2005 article with steps taken to apply the ideas as appropriate to the current paper. • Subject benchmarks (Harvey, 2005:17-18) The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA) has helped set out subject benchmark statements across higher education, including event management (QAA, 2008). The statement reflects the state of provision across the sector, noting that ʻthe opportunity to participate in a period of industrial placement or work-related learning is a feature of most events programmes, which enables students to gain structured and relevant events industry experienceʼ (QAA, 2008:9). As such it is important that honours graduates are exposed to the industry ʻfor example through field work and other activities in the internal/external environment, visits, visiting speakers and other professionals in the field, “live” case-studies and events/productionsʼ (QAA, 2008:15). The event management benchmarks encourage institutions to embed industrial awareness and experience within the formal academic programmes. While the anecdotal statements above may cast something of a cloud over the current efficacy of work placements to fulfil every studentsʼ desire in this regard there are clearly other means of achieving some of the same results. The transient temporal nature of the industry which limits long-term contracts ultimately results in myriad case study examples, keen guest speakers and opportunities to monitor developments, trends and new ideas in the various sub-sectors under the ʻevent managementʼ and ʻevent studiesʼ umbrella terms (Getz, 2005:2-5). Efforts to generate a common benchmark on an international scale are being led by the use and development of the ʻEvent Management Body of Knowledgeʼ (EMBOK), as explored in the academic literature and on a dedicated website (Robson, 2008; Silver and Nelson, 2009; EMBOK, 2005). As Robson notes, citing the 2008 meeting, EMBOKʼs aim is ʻto create a framework of the knowledge and processes used in event management that may be customized to meet the needs of various cultures, governments, education programs, and organizationsʼ (Robson, 2008:21-22). As such, this is the event industryʼs opportunity to standardise many of its working practises, job roles and knowledge transfer methods, and it is being led by academia which can then embed these same ideas into undergraduate and postgraduate programmes.
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Harvey concludes his discussion on QAA benchmarking with reference to the need to audit the results of following such guidelines (Harvey, 2005:18). This would appear to be an iterative process at present: event management and event studies remain nascent disciplines within academia, there is scope to contribute to this discussion from all sides. • Work experience (Harvey, 2005:19-22) Academic organisations and associations often prove a valuable resource when reflecting on the development of related programmes. The ʻAssociation of Event Management Educatorsʼ (AEME) is a relatively new example of this ʻestablished on April 21st 2004, in order to advance the education of the public in the subject of events and events managementʼ (AEME, 2008). Links between industry and education are common in their aims and objectives, yet more can be gleaned from the work of the ʻAssociation for Tourism in Higher Educationʼ (ATHE) (AEME, 2008; ATHE, 2010). This latter organisation is older, having hosted annual conferences since 1999 for example, and is ultimately of relevance to a larger community within UK HEIs. On the subject of student work experience the ATHE publications archive provides a useful means of tracing recent thought in this area, highlighting questions related to ʻinevitable concerns expressed by students that they cannot find a job in the industry without suitable experience and where do they find the experience?ʼ (Cave, 1999). Caveʼs intention in the booklet is to draw on best practice from three case studies, ultimately reflecting that ʻmore employers are now actively recruiting tourism students during their sandwich placement year. These students have a good general knowledge of the industry and a keen commitment to hard workʼ (1999:8). As has been noted above, the discipline of event management is in a position to learn a great deal from the experiences of tourism educators, so conclusions such as Caveʼs are certainly encouraging if they can be replicated a decade hence. Anecdotal evidence from students and staff at Edinburgh Napier suggests two key responses to this proposition: • It has proved difficult to find and match the required number of Festival and Event Management students to event-related placements for the standard 24-week Supervised Work Experience module. It must be remembered that this cohort of students has grown considerably over the past decade, from nothing to around 300 undergraduates (across all years), and an industry which is by nature partly built on short term contracts is not the most fertile hunting ground whether in a recession or not. • Edinburgh Napierʼs students are therefore often required to take placements in other fields, which they do not always relish. Cave reported similar findings as ʻMany tourism students have had to accept placements in the hospitality sectorʼ (1999:1). Some industries have a greater capacity (and perhaps willingness) to take on student placements than others. Returning again to Harvey, he maintains a focus on the true benefits of work experience whereby ʻit is the learning that comes from the experience that is importantʼ (2005:22). This learning is valuable if it conforms to certain practices, such as having been ʻplanned and intentional from the outsetʼ, ʻis assessed or accredited and integrated into undergraduate programsʼ and ʻadds to a work-experience portfolioʼ (ibid.). To this end the experiences of Edinburgh Napier students in this subject area are well designed and aligned with the overall objectives of the university as quoted above (Edinburgh Napier University, 2009a).
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This sub-section has responded to the first learning outcome by showing that industry-based research, alongside research and analysis of the links between academia and industry, have an important part to play in both identifying various components of the term ʻemployabilityʼ and showing that they must be adequately understood before being applied. Only through this process can the true value of initiatives such as work experience be realised - without which the lack of glamourous festival and event placement opportunities could obscure the many alternative routes to achieving many of the same ends. ___ Employersʼ expectations This sub-section of the literature review, relatively short in length, is designed to introduce a framework of themes by which employersʼ expectations of graduates may be identified and HEIsʼ responses analysed. The lead article being used is Major and Evansʼs 2008 work on ʻReassessing Employer Expectations of Graduates in UK Travel Servicesʼ, once again enabling this paper to draw on work carried out in a related field (Major and Evans, 2008). The article reported on primary research into industry views on graduate recruitment and training, and the ability of universities to meet employer needs (ibid., 2008:410). It is hoped that in the following discussion the value of using this piece of research will be apparent through its application to the requirements of the current paper. Ultimately these themes have a direct relevance to the contact Edinburgh Napier has with its key industry stakeholders, such as those involved in the Festival City Theatres Trust research - they represent the future employers of tomorrowʼs graduates. An important conclusion drawn by Major and Evans is that ʻthe industry views experience of the industry to be of greater importance that academic achievement… [over 30%] of [industry] respondents view the apprenticeship routes as the favoured mechanism for providing the best employeesʼ (Major and Evans, 2008:419-420). If this is currently the case for tourism overall it is arguable that event management graduates are likely to face the same ambivalence for a good while yet. When asking whether this matters a cursory review of festival and venue based job vacancies is instructive, where essential and desired skills include: data collection and analysis; verbal and written communication skills; interpersonal and team working skills; self-motivation; effective and efficient IT skills; and budget management (Starcatchers, 2010; The Arches, 2010). There will always be a requirement for students to sell themselves to potential employers when seeking work, but there is also a role for institutions to publicise the part they are playing in developing these skills in their graduates already. Major and Evans found evidence that ʻmany employers may be unaware of the provision of placement opportunitiesʼ within undergraduate programmes, reinforcing the notion that the strengths of such courses are not being exploited, and employers may not realise that their expectations are being met in a growing number of universities across the country (2008:420). A comprehensive review of graduate entry level job advertisements forms part of David Hindʼs paper describing the integration of ʻ...Employability and Management Skills into the Tourism Curriculum at Leeds Metropolitan Universityʼ (2006:1-2). A similar list of desired skills was identified, leading Hind to note that ʻmany university courses now include employability skills training and development as part of their curriculaʼ, which leads this discussion towards the
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employability review above (2006:2). However, in order to hold a focus on employersʼ expectations it is instructive to look at the advice offered by EventScotland, Scotlandʼs national events agency as noted above. Their ʻpractical guideʼ emphasises recruiting ʻthe right team with the relevant skills to take the event forwardʼ, adopting a professional approach and attitude to the process and maintaining clear internal communications regarding pay and conditions (EventScotland, 2006:30-39). The emphasis is not on graduate recruitment, nor is it necessarily on the generic skills listed above from the HEA/AGCAS document - the advice here is to identify the specific requirements of the event in question and hire people accordingly. With this in mind it is perhaps unsurprising that an apprenticeship approach is often favoured, with vacancy notices making a point of valuing comparable experience. A January 2010 entry-level vacancy notice for the Edinburgh Festival Fringe Society highlighted the following in its ʻPersonal specificationʼ: ʻExperience in a busy office environment… Proactive and exceptionally well organised… Knowledge of and interest in the Artsʼ (Festival Fringe Society, 2010). There is a correlation between their requirements and the employability traits identified by AGCAS above, reinforcing the need for educators to know take on board the needs of their particular sector, in order that they may successfully integrate those attributes into their courses. Major and Evans draw on the work of ʻPeople 1stʼ, ʻthe sector skills council for hospitality, leisure, travel and tourismʼ (People 1st, 2010). Their 2009 ʻState of the Nation Reportʼ identifies the current economic downturn as a ʻchallenge to higher education institutions to ensure that courses are relevant and that more students can see the career opportunities available in the sectorʼ (People 1st, 2009:5). There is therefore pressure, and expectations, on the higher education sector to deliver the needs of both students and employers. The evidence reviewed here would seem to suggest that the majority of this pressure is likely to come from students, the fee-paying customers of HEIs, if for no other reason than that they are in almost constant contact with their university, and are reliant on it in ways that employers do not seem to share in the fields of event and tourism management at least. Major and Evans draw their readersʼ attention to a possible consequence if this continues: ʻthe industry could find itself squeezed out in the increased competition for the “brightest and best” in modern markets, if it does not find suitable ways of valuing and employing graduates and providing suitable and sustainable career pathsʼ (Major and Evans, 2008:420). The remainder of this section will therefore examine whether it is the role of higher education event management programmes to identify and meet the requirements of employers, whether the employers realise this is happening or not. ___ The purpose of event management programmes The third and final substantive part of this literature review responds to the accompanying learning outcome by examining the purpose of festival and event management programmes, specifically the debate between ʻacademicʼ focused and ʻoperationalʼ focused courses. It draws on the work of Marion Stuart-Hoyle into the purpose of tourism programmes, as well as more recent work on event management curricula in Korea (Stuart-Hoyle, 2003; Lee, Lee and Kim, 2008). An important starting point is however Getz, who contributed a short editorial piece to Event Management in 2002: ʻ...I want to encourage educators and students of event management to think more philosophically, theoretically, and broadly about what they are studying. This field goes way
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beyond how to produce and market a special eventʼ (Getz, 2002:141). As one of the most prolific and widely respected academic event management commentators he was better placed than most to assess the state of event management education, although perhaps he saw the future for this subject in the debates already underway in tourism circles. In promoting the views of Jafari, Stuart-Hoyle declares that ʻit is apparent that the student following an undergraduate tourism programme should be allowed the opportunity to study the whole system, or the macro environment of tourismʼ, rather than be pigeonholed too soon into one of its component parts (namely hotels, hospitality and tourism) (Stuart-Hoyle, 2003:50-51). The discussion which follows centres on education ʻaboutʼ tourism (which takes a step back to view the bigger picture) and education ʻforʼ tourism (which concentrates on practical topics) (ibid.). This is the split between academic and operational focuses identified above and as such gets to the heart of questions regarding employability, employersʼ expectations of graduates and the value of industry-based research as a means of determining the most appropriate components of university programmes. Getz hopes for a balanced approach on event management courses and Stuart-Hoyleʼs research seeks to find out just where the balance lies across the UK tourism management field. A postal questionnaire was sent to all fifty UK HEIs offering tourism related undergraduate programmes in spring 1998, requesting information on their aims, objectives, module titles and other information from each (Stuart-Hoyle, 2003:51-52). # ! ! ! ! ! This analysis revealed a predominance of vocational or business management programmes which were much more likely to include ʻemploymentʼ, ʻcareer opportunitiesʼ and provision of ʻreality skillsʼ in their stated aims than the more academic aims of ʻsound education / academic understanding… What becomes apparent is that the most common purpose of tourism undergraduate programmes is to prepare students for work in the tourism industry (two-thirds of all programmes). (Stuart-Hoyle, 2003:53)

Thus the majority of programmes intend to produce graduates fit for the workplace, according to their stated aims. This evidence-based research helps confirm what might otherwise appear straightforward, yet it has implications for the event management field which has been shown to be ʻemerging to create a newly defined subject area within the broader services contextʼ (QAA, 2008:8). In line with a successfully implemented ʻoutcomes-based teaching and learning (OBTL)ʼ approach, a programmeʼs aims and objectives will necessarily inform its learning, teaching and assessment approach - both overall and within specific modules (Biggs and Tang, 2007:6-7). The purpose of a programme is the foundation on which each aspect of the programme should be built. What Stuart-Hoyle found was: ! ! ! ! ! …a possible “drift” away from intended programme aims which could be a reflection of changing staff research interests, or movement of staff away from, and into tourism programmes… [or] the belief that a studentʼs academic and knowledge development can be served as well by vocational or functionally specific courses as by those courses which are conceptually based. (Stuart-Hoyle, 2003:58-59)

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The lesson for those involved in programme management and design is to be clear about the aims of your programme, consistent in the steps taken to meet those aims, and careful that any ʻdriftʼ is identified in good time - either to be reversed, or else managed in an appropriate manner to the overall benefit of the programme. What is not acceptable is to pay ʻ“lip service” to certain aims and objectives in order to gain approval / validationʼ - the benefits of constructive alignment as a framework on which to build a consistent approach to learning and teaching can only be realised if it is carried out effectively and comprehensively (Stuart-Hoyle, 2003:62). Lee, Lee and Kim state quite categorically that in Korea ʻConsensus among stakeholders in the event industry is that higher education in event management is vital to the industryʼ, predominantly ʻto equip students with a detailed knowledge understanding of day-to-day operationsʼ (2008:67-68). This appears to contradict some of the sources used thus far, including the employment trends which favour experience over qualifications, and the apparent lack of debate regarding education ʻaboutʼ and/or ʻforʼ event management. Their paper develops an important methodology however, reflecting ʻthe importance of event management curriculum for different stakeholdersʼ - principally industry, students and educators (Lee, Lee and Kim, 2008:78). With the Festival City Theatres Trust research in mind, there were some interesting outcomes from the industry questionnaires which were returned to the researchers: • • • • The introduction of ʻsector-specificʼ curricula has been important to the events industry That curricula must reflect changes in the industryʼs operating environment Industry contribution to academic programmes is limited, ʻad hocʼ guest lectures for example Such links should be strengthened, ʻit has become critical that educators and industry professionals sit together and evaluate the whole event management curriculumʼ (Lee, Lee and Kim, 2008:68-69)

Cultural differences between nations must be borne in mind when drawing on foreign research. When discussing cultural behaviour and tourism Reisinger and Turner identify characteristics among Americans (ʻoutspoken and informal, truthful in interpersonal relationsʼ) that are not admired ʻin Asian societies that view Americans as aggressive, lacking grace, manners and clevernessʼ (2003:28-29). Nonetheless, it is hoped that valuable lessons may still be drawn from Lee, et alʼs work for this paper. Event management programmes have a great deal to offer their students, many of whom are extremely talented and have the motivation and ability to do very well in this field. Such programmes have been shown to share a duty to reflect the needs of the event industry, which the discussion above has suggested is best achieved through close co-operation with practitioners at various stages in the curriculum design and management process. The evidence from Korea suggests that such practitioners, as representatives of their industry, are willing to play a part in enhancing the relevance of such courses. What Stuart-Hoyle teaches us is that there is a balance to be found between the needs of industry and the opportunities which university life offers students to explore the ʻbigger pictureʼ surrounding those key operational considerations. ___ This literature review has responded to the first learning outcome listed above as a means of establishing a theoretical context for the rest of this paper, helping to justify an analysis of the
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Festival City Theatres Trust research as a valuable contribution to the development of learning and teaching on the festival and event management programmes at Edinburgh Napier University. There is ample opportunity to influence the design of that research such that some of the points raised above may be covered, yet as Lee, Lee and Kim make clear the objectives of all stakeholders must be borne in mind, regardless of where the researchers (or indeed the festivals and events) may find themselves. As a closing contribution to important literature already introduced, these are the stated objectives for the single honours BA (Hons.) Festival and Event Management: • To provide students with a coherent and vocationally relevant academic curriculum designed to equip them for a career in festivals and events and related sectors • To develop studentsʼ competence in applying appropriate theories and concepts of festival and event management, and associated management disciplines, to practical situations • To provide a challenging learning environment that develops studentsʼ critical, analytical, evaluative and reflective approaches to festival and event management • To develop key employability skills in students (Edinburgh Napier University, 2009b:10) The objectives show a balance between academic and operational priorities, they emphasise the importance of employability skills and they place the student at the heart of a learning environment that can see them thrive. The chosen institution will surely not be alone in these respects, which is a theme to which this paper returns below. In a wider pedagogical sense Getz introduces one of his books with a note to teachers, that they should ʻdraw on their own backgrounds and interests to bring in additional theoretical perspectives, methods or research examplesʼ (2007:xv). The nature of event studies is such that case studies can easily be used to illustrate lectures, focus seminars and assessments, in the pursuit of such learning outcomes as listed above. Of immediate concern in the next section is the means by which a small sample of institutions are seeking to meet such challenges.

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Professional study: Benchmark study of comparator and competitor institutions ___ ! ! ! ! 6) We will bring together universities, employers, HEFCE and the UK Commission for Employment and Skills (UKCES) to identify and tackle specific areas where university supply is not meeting demand for key skills, and will expect all universities to describe how they enhance studentsʼ employability . (Department for Business, Innovation & Skills, 2009:8)

In November 2009 the UK government made clear its objectives for the Higher Education sector in the Higher Ambitions report, describing a series of changes it wishes to see in the sector - such as the one which opens this section. The emphasis on using universities to produce graduates well suited to enter Britainʼs economy, by ʻenhanc[ing] studentsʼ employabilityʼ, is shared by The Scottish Governmentʼs own review, published 12 months earlier (ibid, 2009:8; Joint Future Thinking Taskforce on Universities, 2008:3). Universities Scotland used that latter document to set a challenge that ʻin order to meet the future labour market needs of an advanced knowledge-based economy, as a minimum Scotland must aim to be in the top quartile internationally for its higher education participation rateʼ (ibid, 2008:3). The participation rate for the sector is of limited interest for this paper, although the quotation demonstrates the steps that are deemed necessary to meet the needs of industry - on this evidence it is a priority across Great Britain. As an illustration of this and as a means of applying the themes discussed in the earlier sections to events management education, this paper now seeks to ʻexplore the steps taken by Edinburgh Napierʼs comparator and competitor institutions in this field to integrate industry awareness into their curriculaʼ. In line with the literature review above the discussion will be thematic, drawing on publicly available course descriptions from four relevant universities - albeit in a limited and preliminary manner. (Full details of these sources are highlighted at the beginning of the references section below.) • Queen Margaret University offers a BA (Hons) in Events Management and is Edinburgh Napierʼs closest rival in this subject, being based in the same city. Their undergraduate entrance requirements are lower, although the structure of the programmes is similar - both institutions offer credit-bearing work experience for example. • Glasgow Caledonian University holds a natural appeal for potential students who are based on the west coast of Scotland, particularly given the cityʼs strong events portfolio. They offer a BA (Hons) in Entertainment and Events Management with comparable entrance requirements. • Robert Gordon University, in Aberdeen, has also been researched: this was the only Scottish institution to rank higher than Edinburgh Napier in the Guardianʼs University guide 2010: Tourism, transport and travel (the universities were 4th and 5th respectively within the UK) (Guardian, 2009). • Leeds Metropolitan University has been identified above as having hosted the UKʼs first BA (Hons) in Events Management since 1996. The Honours degree can be achieved in three years, with a sandwich option available between years one and two that extends the course by a year to include a 48 week industry placement.

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___ Employability This paper has discussed employability by seeking to define it, to identify how it can be embedded in the event management curriculum and to explore the benefits and potential drawbacks of formal work experience. Of the four universities studied only Glasgow Caledonian does not mention a work placement in its course description, the others range from 16 weeks (Queen Margaret) to the sandwich year at Leeds Metropolitan. Perhaps the most comprehensive example of embedding is at Robert Gordon however, where studentsʼ ʻexposure to the events industry and the opportunity to gain real experience during the degree is a priority for the course management teamʼ: from the first year onwards students ʻbuild a portfolio of experienceʼ that is integrated into specialist modules through the degree. The three aims of this approach are to gain industry exposure, to apply learning practically and to build networks - comprehensively in line with the evidence discussed above which advocates a mix of qualifications and experience. Leeds Metropolitan goes into the greatest depth to advertise its understanding of employability, promising that successful graduates ʻwill possess a range of personal and transferable skills and attributes - such as creativity, innovation and problem solving - all of which are identified as essential prerequisites for a successful career in the events sectorʼ. No evidence is presented to explain who has identified these attributes as such, although they sit comfortably among the list of skills identified by AGCAS and the HEA above. There is a recognition across the sample of the breadth of the festival and events industry, and the commensurate need to develop skills which can be applied in a range of situations - a limited or blinkered approach is not an option. ___ Employersʼ expectations In discussing employersʼ expectations above, this paper looked at a small sample of vacancy notices, and academic articles which had investigated this theme in the tourism sector. With access to programme details from the chosen four universities, it is possible to reflect on whether their mix of modules and intended learning outcomes appear relevant to the needs of industry (beyond the apparent bias towards work experience). All three of the Scottish institutions feature an ʻoperationalʼ focus to their modules in the first half of the four year degree programme. Titles such as ʻThe Events Industryʼ, ʻEvent Operationsʼ, ʻEvents Project Managementʼ and ʻPractical Events Managementʼ are common, setting out an initial foundation to introduce new students to the sector. Queen Margaretʼs course description emphasises the need for ʻan increasingly professional approachʼ, so that while these early years modules might prioritise operational themes they are unlikely to preach a narrowly defined model for event management; as the Queen Margaret student case study states, there is a ʻreally good balance between practical and theoryʼ. As quoted above, Major and Evans are concerned that the tourism sector risks missing out on attracting the ʻbrightest and bestʼ students if it fails to recognise and reward their efforts in related courses (Major and Evans, 2008:420). The event management programmes being analysed here
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appear to emphasise more generic business and management skills, those which will hopefully stand their graduates in good stead when they seek to enter the industry and attract the recognition due to them. As such modules such as ʻBusiness Researchʼ, ʻStrategic Directions: Consumption and Cultureʼ, ʻComparative Policy in the Cultural Sectorsʼ and ʻEntertainment and the Experience Economyʼ can be found, alongside a substantial piece of research such as an Honours dissertation. This sample suggests that the Higher Education sector is relatively united in providing practical, relevant and somewhat demanding programmes of study that have relevance across different levels of management in the events industry. The degree to which the industry is aware of this is something for each graduate to discover in the early stages of their career, marketing themselves on the basis of enthusiasm, ability, experience and qualifications. ___ The purpose of event management programmes Stuart-Hoyleʼs work is used above to frame the debate on a programmeʼs purpose as between being ʻforʼ the industry (vocationally focused), or ʻaboutʼ it (an academic approach) (Stuart-Hoyle, 2003:50-51). All four contributors to the sample discuss the career opportunities open to graduates, confirming their understanding that this is of paramount importance to potential applicants (and perhaps their parents). Breadth of opportunity is a universal theme, from sports events to cultural festivals, across public, private and voluntary sectors. The institutions recognise the need to provide a saleable commodity, characterised by Queen Margaret as ʻthe necessary skills, knowledge and experience to seek management trainee, junior management or supervisory positions in a full range of events organisationsʼ. The evidence so far suggests that these are courses for the industry, tailored to the local environment through industry contact, guest speakers and work placements. Nevertheless, there is a place for modules about the industry - those such as ʻEvent Impactsʼ and ʻDevelopment and Issues in Global Eventsʼ, as well as the dissertation. It is for each institution to establish a balance between these strands of thought, ideally offering students themselves a degree of autonomy through the range of option modules that they may choose from. Each of these universities is in a competitive relationship to others in the sector, striving to ensure the relevance and individuality of its offering in order to maintain its ongoing sustainability and viability. It is instructive that the programmes being analysed also make clear their willingness to welcome college graduates directly into 2nd or 3rd year from related courses: one purpose of these event management degrees is simply to try and meet the demand for such courses. ___ A multitude of event management programmes are now offered in the UK and several other Higher Education markets around the world. There is a demand for these courses and hopefully a demand for their graduates, some of the best of whom combine academic study and application with a willingness to gain experience in the industry. The sample of course descriptions analysed for this section are all quick to emphasise the links between the institution and the local events sector, enhancing the academic offering through a variety of means as discussed above. As such there is an understanding that such links are vital for the ongoing development and relevance of
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these courses, and that these connections may take many forms. This paper now turns its attention to the work being carried out by Edinburgh Napier in 2009-2010 to enhance its understanding of the cityʼs festival infrastructure by working with a key venue-based contributor. The universityʼs programmes contain many of the elements and modules as described above, and it is hoped that lessons learned through industry research can be applied to the benefit of those modules, and thus to the programmes as a whole and their students.

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Professional study: Analysis of Festival City Theatres Trust research ___ ! ! Goal 5: Establish an industry leadership role for the Trust and its venues as Scotlandʼs National Performing Arts Centre, empowered by public investment (FCTT, 2009:18-32) This report opened with an introduction to a piece of research being conducted by Edinburgh Napier University into the development options of the Festival City Theatres Trust - the organisation which manages two of Edinburghʼs foremost cultural venues. In analysing what the HE sector is doing to prepare graduates for work and meet employerʼs expectations, this section of the report focuses on the efforts of the university, specifically in response to the learning outcome introduced above: ʻTo evaluate ways in which the FCTT research has been designed to contribute to the development of learning and teaching on the BA (Hons.) Festival and Event Management programmes at Edinburgh Napier University.ʼ The importance of employability to the university as a whole has been discussed, including the ways it pervades each module and programme it delivers, therefore close contact with practitioners is likely to benefit any course with a vocational motivation behind it. The degree to which this sort of ʻjoined-upʼ thinking can be put into practise and then exploited is fundamental to much of the work of modern higher education institutions in the UK. In late February 2010 a draft, unpublished methodology proposal was sent to the Trust by researchers at the Edinburgh Institute for Festival and Event Management. (The EIFEM is the universityʼs division for organising and marketing its activities in this area.) The proposal sets out to address factors that may facilitate or endanger the Trustʼs attempts to reach ʻGoal 5ʼ as stated in their current Business Plan, also replicated at the top of this section (FCTT, 2009:18-32). Among the primary research activities suggested by the university are focus groups with Trust staff and interviews with key stakeholders and comparator organisations of the Trust and its venues. At the heart of the research is a desire to gain an understanding of how the strategic goals, risks and environmental factors affecting the FCTT interact. The research was therefore not explicitly designed to further learning and teaching at Edinburgh Napier. The research sets out to meet the objectives laid down in meetings with the Trust, in funding applications and in its own set of objectives, and in this it shares a great deal with the growing body of academic work being carried into festivals, events and venues around the world. What can be stated with absolute conviction however is that the interests of Edinburgh Napier have played a part in the design of the FCTT research from the start. The earliest planning document following an initial meeting in August 2009 (also unpublished), notes ʻOutputs for Edinburgh Napierʼ as including the involvement of students in the research and its incorporation into their own dissertation work as potential opportunities. The university has joint ownership of the research process and its interests have been promoted throughout the process. The following discussion identifies three stages in the use of this research to develop learning and teaching at Edinburgh Napier:
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1. Identify what the research has to offer 2. Establish the needs of the chosen programme: areas that are perceived to be missing or in development 3. Seek to satisfy the needs of the programme against the opportunities afforded by the research ___ One of the most straightforward opportunities made possible by the FCTT research is the access to people and information gained through the planning and operation of the research. The initial stages of the research were characterised by close cooperation between the senior management of the Trust and the research team, helping to develop familiarity between individuals and also the objectives of each institution. The Trustʼs Business Plan was among the documents provided at an early stage, information which would otherwise have been hard to acquire and potentially subject to greater controls regarding its use. As noted above, at the time of writing the FCTT research is scheduled to include interviews with industry stakeholders of the Trust, facilitating the development of links between Edinburgh Napier and a host of organisations that have relevance for the universityʼs work. It is also clear from discussions and research proposals that the Trust hope to make use of the findings and recommendations of the finished research, thus helping to justify and corroborate the work of the EIFEM. It is hoped that a successful research project will lead to further collaborations and outputs in the future. A conference paper has been secured for July 2010 in addition to the final report for the Trust, with the prospect of future publications already planned as the work develops. ___ This paper has maintained three consistent strands with regard to the needs of the programme, and thus an identification of ways its learning and teaching can be improved; this sub-section will therefore conform to those strands. • Employability The QAA benchmark statement is among the documents discussed above that emphasise employability as a key attribute of graduates from event and tourism management courses. In order to maintain a contemporary understanding of the needs of industry it is therefore vitally important that tutors and course leaders are exposed to those operating in their local environment, this is the world their graduates are likely to enter after all. ʻLiveʼ case studies, industry visits and guest speakers can all contribute to this, an area which is unlikely to be ʻmissingʼ from modern university courses yet is certainly one which should be under constant review and development. • Employersʼ expectations The discussion in the literature review above identified work experience, a professional approach to work and relevant skills among employersʼ expectations of graduates. With regard to Edinburgh Napierʼs BA (Hons.) Festival and Event Management programme there has recently been an opportunity to address these themes with the revision of the teaching programmes across the university, carried out in time for September 2008. The 2009-2010 academic session is therefore a time for reflection and development - an ideal opportunity to introduce new materials that improve the inaugural teaching materials. In the areas of skills and professional approach, for example,
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applying models of strategic management to relevant cases and examples in Honours year modules is appropriate and timely - yet has only been introduced in the second running of the module in question. • The purpose of event management programmes The process of reconsidering and reconfirming the purpose(s) of the Festival and Event Management programme is one that addresses the ʻacademicʼ and ʻoperationalʼ alternatives identified above. These themes are intertwined with the embedding of employability skills into the curriculum and ambitions to meet the needs of employers, while also addressing the need for sufficient academic rigour in the programme. When this is seen in the light of rising student numbers and competition for jobs (both of which may be symptoms of wider economic conditions) there is a commensurate increase in the need to provide an appropriate mix of modules that is fit for purpose. ___ It is appropriate to draw positive conclusions from the passages above as to the potential value of the FCTT research to the universityʼs Festival and Event Management programme. Documents gathered in the research can form relevant and contemporary case study materials for student use, while the additional opportunities to forge new links between town and gown can open doors to guest lectures, student research projects and potentially credit-bearing work experience. When transposed onto the undergraduate programme at the university, the FCTT research makes real the ʻsimulationʼ of industry activities which is common in many modules. In this particular case - and others if the current report serves to illuminate a wider trend - the academic is key to making the links between research and curriculum. It is the same people who are charged with carrying out the research and delivering modules to students, academic members of staff who must therefore be aware of the responsibilities placed on them. Mention has been made of the need to appraise the effectiveness of university modules, ostensibly in the pursuit of helping students meet their learning outcomes. Those outcomes are merely symbolic of the wider objectives at hand, such as the development of employability skills, and they too must be reviewed if modules and programmes are to retain their relevance. One potential outcome from the FCTT research should be a review of learning outcomes, assessment methods and programme structures in light of the increased contact with industry. New modules may be called for in order to meet the needs of industry and therefore ensure that what the university is able to offer is suitable - both to meet its own objectives and the studentsʼ expectations. It was noted above that the EIFEM and the Trust did not design the proposed research in order to develop learning and teaching at the university, although in response to the learning outcome noted above it has been shown that there is much to be gained from the research in these areas. Teaching is enhanced through academics reflecting on the knowledge gained during their research and seeking to apply it through teaching materials, the dissemination of secondary analysis brought to light during the research, and an assessment of what the programme offers across all four years of the undergraduate degree. Meanwhile the learning experience is made more relevant through industry case studies, the exploration of appropriate concepts, and both formative and summative assessments which can draw on these themes.
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Professional study: Conclusion ___ ! ! ! Events Management, and associated degrees, remains a buoyant subject area for many education providers, particularly as potential applicants see that the world of events is around them all the time, every day, both in their personal and working lives. (OʼDonnell, 2009:8-9) This professional study set out ʻto use experiences gained in the process of carrying out a piece of industry-based research to explore concepts relevant to the future design of academic curriculumʼ, which has led to a range of topics being explored that have relevance for the development of Edinburgh Napierʼs BA (Hons.) Festival and Event Management programme. In the course of responding to the first three stated learning outcomes it has been shown that while the event management literature available is become more comprehensive in its scope, there is still a great deal that can be learned from other fields such as tourism management. The value of conducting benchmarking analysis has also been demonstrated, albeit on a small scale; the results of that research helped illustrate an apparent emphasis on programmes that train graduates ʻforʼ event management rather than educating them ʻaboutʼ the industry. Meanwhile the preceding section sought to examine the potential benefits that could be applied to curriculum design through the process of conducting industry-based research, focusing the discussion on topics and themes which had come to light in earlier sections. The quotation which opened this section is from the most recent edition of EventScotlandʼs newsletter, demonstrating with prescient timing that the links between industry and academia are valuable to both sides of the relationship - it is therefore more important than ever that the programmes on offer to undergraduates are appropriate. As part of the conclusion to this report there is an opportunity to reflect on the current offering from Edinburgh Napier. As the university programme is built on a modular structure it is often possible for students to select modules that appeal to them, yet the spine of compulsory modules that make up the programme are valid and in line with the sector. It is noticeable however that those modules which give the students greatest exposure to topics ʻforʼ the industry tend to be either noncompulsory or not delivered through standard face to face means. These include the optional ʻEvent Managementʼ (partly assessed through production of an event) and the work experience, live project and dissertation elements of the third and fourth years. There is therefore scope to increase the applied and operational elements of the universityʼs curriculum, helping satisfy the expectations of industry and those students who otherwise seek out optional modules from the tourism curriculum. Two such modules which could be introduced are the Level 7 Festival and Event Design and Delivery and Level 8 Music Event Management, designed to cater for first and second year interests respectively. Each of these modules adopts an applied approach to the subject matter, reflected in the latter module being assessed through the delivering of an event the modules have been approved and could be delivered if the resources were available to do so. The field of events management is certainly broad and there is a place for each of these modules, which would also allow existing modules to focus more intently on their particular specialism, rather than seeking to cover too broad a scope of work.

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September 2010 promises to deliver as great an intake as has been seen in recent years, with applications continuing to rise according to internal university statistics. The Festival City Theatres Trust research is therefore timely as it contributes to the efforts of the university to provide a relevant programme to new and existing students. It is enabling key academics within the institution to develop their understanding of the local industry and build links with it. Information gathered during the research has already been used as case study material in both lectures and seminars at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. Likewise, some of the background research which has helped structure the project has also found its way into module materials, contributing strategic structural underpinnings for other work carried out in the module. Employability has been enhanced within the learning and teaching approach as the key themes of the programme are explored in a ʻliveʼ working environment, while the expectations of employers are clearly being addressed where the same work is being carried out as part of the research as is taking place in the classroom. The point is raised above that potential employers are not always aware of the degree to which graduates pick up work experience and applied analysis of the industry in the course of their degrees. The FCTT research is certainly a demonstration of the valuable links that can, indeed must, exist between academia and practitioners if they are both to thrive in a modern events industry that increasingly values professionalism, considered analysis and awareness of the broad scope of the sector. Events Management is a young area of academic interest but it has established itself quickly as an important ally to the industry: generating knowledge and understanding; identifying a strong and committed student body; while selecting and applying relevant theoretical work from other disciplines. Edinburgh is festival city of global standing which will continue to attract students keen to gain skills and knowledge in the field of festival and event management. Ongoing research is important to continue this work and promote the interests of both specific institutions in the local environment, and the HE sector in general.

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Professional study: References ___ University programme descriptions analysed: Glasgow Caledonian University (2009). Programme description: BA (Hons) Entertainment and Events Management. Available from www.gcal.ac.uk [accessed 12.02.2010] Leeds Metropolitan University (2009). Programme description: BA (Hons) Events Management. Available from www.leedsmet.ac.uk [accessed 12.02.2010] Queen Margaret University (2009). Programme description: BA (Hons) Events Management. Available from www.qmu.ac.uk [accessed 12.02.2010] Robert Gordon University (2009). Programme description: BA (Hons) Events Management. Available from www.rgu.ac.uk [accessed 12.02.2010] ___ AEME (2008). About us. Available from www.aeme.org/about-us.html [accessed 04.01.2010] ATHE (2010). Objectives. Available from www.athe.org.uk/objectives.aspx [accessed 04.01.2010] Biggs, J. and Tang, C. (2007) Teaching for Quality Learning at University (3rd ed.), Maidenhead, Open University Press BIS (2010). Department for Business Innovation and Skills: About. Available from www.bis.gov.uk/ about [accessed 01.01.2010] Bowdin, G., Allen, J., OʼToole, W., Harris, R. and McDonnell, I. (2006) Events Management (2nd ed.) Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Cave, P.J. (1999) ʻGuidelines booklet 8: Best Practice in Tourism Placementsʼ. Available from www.athe.org.uk/publications [accessed 04.01.2010] Crace, J. and Shepherd, J. (2007) The Right Prescription? Available from www.guardian.co.uk/ education/2007/jul/24/highereducation.tuitionfees [accessed 03.01.2010] Department for Business, Innovation & Skills (2009) Higher Ambitions: The future of universities in a knowledge economy - Executive Summary London: Department for Business, Innovation & Skills Edinburgh Napier University (2009a) Our Strategy (synopsis). Edinburgh: Edinburgh Napier University Edinburgh Napier University (2009b) Programme Handbook (2009-2010): Festival and Event Management Edinburgh: Edinburgh Napier University Edinburgh Napier University (2010a). Festival and Event Management programme details. Available from www.courses.napier.ac.uk/U34301.htm [accessed 01.01.2010] Edinburgh Napier University (2010b). Graduate Employability. Available from www.napier.ac.uk/ prospectivestudents/undergraduate/Pages/Graduateemployability.aspx [accessed 16.01.2010] EMBOK (2005 - EMBOK Model introduced). Event Management Body of Knowledge: An Introduction. Available from www.embok.org [accessed 04.01.2010] EventScotland (2006) Events Management: a practical guide Edinburgh: EventScotland
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EventScotland (2010). Welcome to Scotland: The Perfect Stage for Events. Available from www.eventscotland.org [accessed 01.01.2010] FCTT (2009) Festival City Theatres Trust 2009-2013 Business Plan Edinburgh: Festival City Theatres Trust Festival Fringe Society (2010) Job Description: Administrative Assistant Edinburgh: Festival Fringe Society Guardian (2009). University guide 2010: Tourism, transport and travel. Available from www.guardian.co.uk/education/table/2009/may/12/university-guide-tourism-transport-travel [accessed 13.02.2010] Getz, D. (2002) ʻEditorial: On the nature and significance of event studiesʼ in Event Management 7 (3), pp141-142 Getz, D. (2005) Event Management and Event Tourism (2nd ed.) New York: Cognizant Communication Corporation Getz, D. (2007) Event Studies: Theory, research and policy for planned events Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Harvey, L. (2005) ʻEmbedding and Integrating Employabilityʼ in New Directions for Institutional Research 128, pp13-28 HEA (2004). Resource Guide: Employability. Available from www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/hlst/ documents/resource_guides/employability.pdf [accessed 04.01.2010] Hind, D. (2006). Employability Case Study: Integrating Employability and Management Skills into the Tourism Curriculum at Leeds Metropolitan University. Available from www.heacademy.ac.uk/ assets/hlst/documents/projects/Employability/employ_hind.pdf [accessed 04.01.2010] Joint Future Thinking Taskforce on Universities (2008) New Horizons: responding to the challenges of the 21st century Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Lee, K.M., Lee, M.J. and Kim, H.J. (2008) ʻComparing Perceptions of Event Management Curriculum: A Factor-Correspondence Analysisʼ in Event Management 12 (2), pp67-79 Major, B. and Evans, N. (2008) ʻReassessing Employer Expectations of Graduates in UK Travel Servicesʼ in International Journal of Tourism Research 10, pp409-422 OʼDonnell, D. (2009) ʻDeveloping Scotlandʼs events professionalsʼ in EventScotland News 22, pp8-9 People 1st (2009) State of the Nation Report Executive Summary - 2009 Uxbridge: People 1st People 1st (2010). People 1st: About Us. Available from www.people1st.co.uk/about-us [accessed on 04.01.2010] QAA (2008). Benchmark Statement: Hospitality, leisure, sport and tourism. Available from www.qaa.ac.uk [accessed on 04.01.2010] Reisinger, Y. and Turner, L. (2003) Cross-cultural Behaviour in Tourism: Concepts and Analysis Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann
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Robson, L. (2008) ʻEvent Management Body of Knowledge (EMBOK): The Future of Event Industry Researchʼ in Event Management 12 (1), pp19-25 Silvers, J.R. and Nelson, K.B. (2009) ʻAn Application Illustration of the Event Management Body of Knowledge (EMBOK) as a Framework for Analysis Using the Design of the 2006 Winter Olympics Opening Ceremoniesʼ in Event Management 13 (2), pp117-131 Starcatchers (2010). Job description: Audience Development and Evaluation Co-ordinator. Available from http://starcatchers.org.uk/training/opportunities/ [accessed 04.01.2010] Stuart-Hoyle, M. (2003) ʻThe Purpose of Undergraduate Tourism Programmes in the United Kingdomʼ in Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education 2 (1), pp49-74 The Arches (2010). Job description: Creative Learning Programmer. Available from www.thearches.co.uk/CREATIVE-LEARNING-PROGRAMMER.htm [accessed 04.01.2010] Tourism Victoria (2010). Experience Victoriaʼs Events. Available from www.visitvictoria.com/events [accessed 01.01.2010] UCAS (2010). Universities and Colleges Admissions Service: course search. Available from www.ucas.com/students/coursesearch [accessed 01.01.2010]

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