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**1. A wire of resistivity ρ is stretched to double of its length. What will be its new
**

resistivity?

Ans. The resistivity remains the same as it does not depend upon the length of the wire.

2. A student obtains resistances 3, 4, 12 and 16 ohm using only two metallic

resistors either separately or joined together. What is the value of resistance of each of the

resistors?

Ans. 4 and 12 ohm.

3. If the length of a wire conductor is doubled by stretching it, keeping the potential

difference across it constant, by what factor does the drift speed of the electrons, change.

Ans. The drift velocity is given by the expression v

d

= τ.

mL

eV

Now if the length is doubled the drift

velocity becomes half.

4. How does the electrical conductivity of an electrolyte change with decrease in

temperature?

Ans. The electrical conductivity decreases with decrease in temperature.

5. A carbon resistor is marked in red, yellow and orange bands. What is the

approximate resistance of the resistor?

Ans. 24 × 10

3

ohm t 20%

6. What is the effect of temperature on the relaxation time of electrons in a metal?

Ans. The relaxation time of electrons decreases with the rise in temperature of the metal.

7. How does the resistance of an ohmic conductor depend on the applied voltage?

Ans. It is independent of the applied voltage.

8. The figure shows the V – I graph for a parallel and series

combination of two resistors A and B. Which line represents the parallel

combination?

Ans. For the same potential the current is less in series combination than parallel combination.

Therefore from the graph it is apparent that for the same potential current is less in A.

Therefore B is the parallel combination.

9. What is the effect of heating a conductor on the drift velocity of free electrons?

Ans. Heating decreases the relaxation time, therefore the drift velocity of electrons will decrease.

10. If potential difference V applied across a conductor is increased to 2V. How will

the drift velocity of the electrons change?

Ans. The drift velocity is given by the expression.

vd =

m

Eeτ

Therefore, if potential is doubled drift velocity is also doubled.

11. A carbon resistor is marked in coloured bands of red, black, orange and silver.

What is the resistance and tolerance value of the resistor?

Ans. 20 × 10

3

t 10%

12. Which physical quantity does the voltage versus current graph for a metallic

conductor depict? Give its SI unit.

Ans. It represents resistance. It is measured in ohm.

C.B.S.E Study Material

13. What are superconductors?

Ans. These are the substances which lose their electrical resistance below a certain temperature

called critical temperature.

14. The given graph shows the variation of resistance

of mercury in the temperature range 0 < T < 4 K. Name the

phenomenon shows by the graph.

Ans. Superconductivity.

15. Two electric bulbs A and B are marked 220 V, 60 W and 220 V, 100 W

respectively. Which one of the two has greater resistance?

Ans. The resistance of a bulb is given by the expression

P

V

2

. For the same voltage the bulb having

a smaller power has more resistance. Therefore the 60 W, 220 V bulb has a greater resistance.

16. The applied potential difference across a given resistor is altered so that the heat

produced per second increases by a factor of 16. By what factor the applied potential difference

changes.

Ans. The heat produced across a resistor is given by H = t.

R

V

2

It is directly proportional to the

square of potential. Therefore is the heat becomes 16 times the voltage must have been

increased 4 times.

17. Two bulbs are marked 60 W, 220 V and 100 W, 220 V. These are connected in

parallel to 220 V mains. Which one out of the two will glow brighter?

Ans. In parallel combination, the bulb having more power glows more. Therefore the bulb marked

100 W, 220 V glows brighter.

18. A heater is joined in parallel with a 60 W bulb is connected to the mains. If the

60 W bulb is replaced by a 100 W bulb, will the rate of heat produced by the heater be more,

less or remain the same?

Ans. The rate of heat produced in the heater will be same as the two are connected in parallel.

19. What is the larger voltage you can safely put across a resistor marked 98 ohm –

0.5 W?

Ans. Using the expression

V = 7V 0.5 98 PR · × ·

20. Two conductors, one having resistance R and another 2R are connected in turn

across a dc source. If the rate of heat produced in the two conductors is Q

1

and Q

2

respectively,

what is the value of q

1

/q

2

?

Ans. We know that Q = t,

R

V

2

therefore

2

R

2R

R

R

Q

Q

1

2

2

1

· · ·

21. State the condition in which terminal voltage across a secondary cell is equal to

its emf.

Ans. When the cell is in an open circuit i.e., when no current is being drawn from the cell.

22. Under what condition can we draw maximum current from a secondary cell?

Ans. When external resistance present in the circuit is zero.

23. Define drift velocity of electrons.

Ans. The mean velocity acquired by electrons in a conductor when an external electric field is

applied on it.

2

C.B.S.E Study Material

24. Define conductance. What is its unit?

Ans. Reciprocal of resistance is called conductance. Thus, conductance is C =

R

1

. SI unit of

conductance is siemen (S).

25. Two wires A and B are of same metal, have the same area of cross-section and

have their lengths in the ratio 2 : 1.What will be the ratio of currents flowing through them

respectively, when the same potential difference is applied across length of each of them?

Ans.

2

1

l

l

R

R

I

I

A

B

A

B

B

A

· · ·

26. V – I graph for a given metallic wire at two temperatures are

shown, which of these is for a higher temperature?

Ans. At higher temperature resistance of metallic wire is more or its

conductance is low. Hence, graph (2) is at a higher temperature i.e., T

2

>

T

1

.

27. Two wires of equal lengths, one of copper and the other of manganin have the

same resistance. Which wire is thicker?

Ans. In accordance with the formula R = ρL/A, manganin wire will be thicker because its

resistivity is more.

28. Two wires of equal cross-sectional area, one of copper and the other of

manganin have the same resistance. Which one will be longer?

Ans. The copper wire will be longer because resistivity of copper is less than that of manganin.

29. Of metal and alloys, which have greater value of temperature coefficient of

resistance?

Ans. Pure metals have a greater value of temperature coefficient of resistance than their alloys.

30. Of copper and nichrome, which one has possibly larger value of temperature

coefficient of resistance.

Ans. Copper

31. How does the heat produced in a resistor depend on its resistance when (i) a

constant current is passed through it, (ii) a constant potential difference is applied across its

ends?

Ans. (i) For I = constant,

heat produced H ∝ R

(ii) For constant potential difference V.

heat produced H ∝

R

1

32. What happens to the power dissipation if the value of electric current passing

through a conductor of constant resistance is doubled?

Ans. In accordance with formula P = I

2

R, the power dissipation becomes 4 times if the current

passing through given resistance is doubled.

33. Sketch a graph showing variation of resistivity of carbon

with temperature.

Ans. Carbon is a non-conductor, therefore its resistivity decreases with

increase in temperature as shown in the figure below.

34. State kirchoff’s laws for electrical circuits. Derive the balance condition for a

Wheatstone bridge using these laws.

Ans. Kirchoff’s first rule: The algebraic sum of currents into any junction is zero. That is

3

C.B.S.E Study Material

∑I = 0

Kirchoff’s second rule: The algebraic sum of the potential differences in any loop, including

those with emfs and those of resistive elements, must equal zero.

Consider the diagram as shown below.

Let I be the total current in the circuit, then by Kirchoff’s junction rule the following current

distribution can be made. Let current I

1

flow through arm AB, such that current I – I

1

flow through

the arm AD. At junction B the current I

1

gets divided, I

g

flows through the galvanometer and

current I

1

– I

g

flows through the arm BC. At junction D currents I – I

1

and I

g

add up such that

current I – I

1

+ I

g

flows through the arm DC. At junction C the currents from arms BC and DC

combine such that the current in the circuit is again I. Now applying Kirchoff’s loop rule to the

closed loop ABDA we have

– I

1

P – I

g

G + (I – I

1

) R = 0 ….(1)

Again applying Kirchoff’s loop rule to closed loop BCDB we have

– (I

1

– I

g

)Q + (I – I

1

+ I

g

) X + I

g

G = 0 ….(2)

The value of P, Q, R and X are so adjusted that the

galvanometer gives zero deflection. This means that both B and D

will be at the same potential and hence no current will flow through

the galvanometer. i.e., I

g

= 0. In this situation the Wheatstone bridge

is said to be balanced. Putting I

g

= 0 in equations 1 and 2 we have

– I

1

P + (I – I

1

) R = 0 ….(3)

and – I

1

Q + (I – I

1

) X = 0 ….(4)

Rewriting the above two equations we have

I

1

P = (I – I

1

) R ….(5)

and I

1

Q = (I – I

1

) X ….(6)

dividing the above equations we have

X

R

Q

P

·

….(7)

The above expression gives the condition for the balance of a Wheatstone bridge.

35. How will you use a meter bridge to measure an unknown resistance? Draw the

necessary circuit diagram. Explain the principle of the experiment. Give the formula used.

Ans. The experiment is based on Wheatstone bridge principle.

The circuit diagram is as shown below.

The connections are made as shown in figure. A resistance R is introduced from the resistance

box and the key K is closed. The jockey is moved on

the wire to the point where there is no deflection in

the galvanometer. In such a case points B and D are

at the same potential. The point B is called the “null”

point.

Let in this position AB = L cm and BC = (100 – L)

cm. Therefore resistance of AB i.e. P ∝ L and

resistance of BC i.e. Q ∝ (100 – L) hence

L 100

L

Q

P

−

·

….(1)

In the balanced state by the Wheatstone bridge Principle we have

X

R

Q

P

·

….(2)

Substituting equation (1) in equation (2) we have

L 100

L

X

R

−

· ….(3)

Rewriting equation (3) we have

4

C.B.S.E Study Material

X =

,

_

¸

¸ −

L

L 100

R

36. With the help of a circuit diagram explain how the internal resistance of a cell

can be determined by using a potentiometer. Write the formula used.

Ans. The circuit shown below is used to measure the internal resistance of a cell.

The formula used is r =

,

_

¸

¸ −

2

2 1

L

L L

R

First, the key K

1

is inserted and key K

2

is not inserted.

In this state no current is drawn from the cell. The jockey is

moved on the wire to find the balance point. Let the

balancing length be L

1

. This length balances the emf E of the

cell. Therefore the potentiometer principle we have

E ∝ L

1

….(1)

Now key K

2

is also closed. A suitable resistance R is

introduced in the circuit with the help of the resistance box (R.B). In this state current is drawn

from the cell. The jockey is moved on the wire to find the balance point. Let the balancing length

be L

2

. This length balances the terminal potential difference (V) of the cell. Therefore by

potentiometer principle we have

V ∝ L

2

….(2)

From equations 1 and 2 we have,

2

1

L

L

V

E

·

….(3)

The internal resistance of the cell is given by the expression

R 1

V

E

r

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

….(4)

Substituting equation 3 in 4 we have

R

L

L L

r or R 1

L

L

r

2

2 1

2

1

,

_

¸

¸ −

·

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

This gives the value of the internal resistances of the cell

37. A potential difference V is applied across a conductor of length L and diameter

D. How are the resistance R and electric field E of the conductor affected, when in turn (i) v is

halved (ii) L is halved and (iii) D is doubled. Justify your answer in each case.

Ans. The table below gives the variation

V is halved L is halved D is doubled

A

ρL

R ·

No change R is halved R becomes on-fourth

L

V

E ·

E is halved E is doubled No change

38. Define resistivity of a substance. Give its unit. How does it vary with

temperature in (i) good conductor (ii) ionic conductors and (iii) semiconductors?

Ans. It is defined as the resistance of a conductor of unit length and unit cross sectional area. In SI

it is measured in ohm-m

(i) It increases with increase in temperature for conductors.

(ii) It decreases with increase in temperature for ionic conductors.

(iii) It decreases with increase in temperature for semiconductors.

39. Explain the principle on which the working of a potentiometer is based. Why is

the use of a potentiometer preferred over that of a voltmeter for the measurement of emf of a

cell?

5

C.B.S.E Study Material

Ans. It is based on the principle that if a wire of uniform area of cross section carries a constant

current the potential drop across any portion of the wire is directly proportional to the length

of that portion of the wire.

Consider a wire of uniform area of cross section A. Let I be the current through the wire.

Then by Ohm’s law

V = IR ….(1)

R =

A

ρL

….(2)

Substituting equation (2) in (1) we have

V = L

A

Iρ

….(3)

Since I, A and ρ are constant therefore we have V ∝ L

A potentiometer is preferred over a voltmeter, because it is based on the null method i.e., it

does not draw any current while measuring the potential.

40. The following circuit shows the use of

potentiometer to measure the internal resistance of a cell (i)

when the key K is open, how does the balance point change, if

the current from the driver cell decreases. (ii) When the key K

is closed, how does the balance point change if R is increased,

keeping the current from the driver cell constant.

Ans. (i) When the key K is open, a decrease in the current from the driver cell decreases the

potential drop across the potentiometer wire. Therefore to balance the same emf again more

length of the wire will be required. Thus the balance point will shift towards point B.

(ii) When key K is closed and R is increased, it increases the terminal potential difference of

the cell. Thus to balance the new terminal potential difference more length of the wire will be

required. Thus the balance point will shift towards point B.

41. A wire of 10 ohm resistance is stretched to thrice its original length. What will

be its (i) new resistivity and (ii) new resistance?

Ans. (i) There is no change in the resistivity

(ii) The new resistance will become n

2

times the old resistance. Therefore new resistance

becomes R = (3)

2

× 10 = 90 ohm.

42. With the help of a circuit diagram, explain how the emfs of two primary cells

can be compared using a potentiometer. State the formula used. How can the sensitivity of a

potentiometer be increased?

Ans. The circuit diagram for comparing the emfs of

two cells is given below.

First, the key K

1

is inserted. This brings the cell of

emf E

1

in the circuit. The jockey is moved on the

wire to obtain a balance point i.e. a point on the

wire where the galvanometer gives zero

deflection. Let the balancing length be L

1

.

Therefore by the potentiometer principle we have

E

1

∝ L

1

….(1)

Now, the key k

2

is inserted. This brings the cell of emf E

2

in the circuit. The jockey is again

moved on the wire to obtain the balance point. Let the balancing length be L

2

. Then by

potentiometer principle we have

E

2

∝ L

2

….(2)

6

C.B.S.E Study Material

dividing equation (1) by (2) we have

2

1

2

1

L

L

E

E

·

….(3)

Knowing the values of L

1

and L

2

the emf’s can be compared.

Sensitivity can be increased by increasing the length of the potentiometer wire or decreasing

the current through the wire.

43. Define the term resistivity of a conductor. Give its SI unit. Show that the

resistance R of conductor is given by ,

Aτ ne

mL

2

where the symbols have their usual meaning.

Ans. It is defined as the resistance of the material of the material of the conductor of unit length and

unit area of cross section. It is measured in ohm metre.

Let v

d

be the drift velocity of the electrons, then its relation with electric field is

v

d

= τ

m

eE

− ….(1)

Let V be the potential difference applied across the two ends of a conductor of length L and

area of cross-section A, Then

E = m

L

V

− ….(2)

substituting equation (1) in (2) we have

v

d

= τ

mL

eV

….(3)

Also I = neAv

d

….(4)

substituting equation (3) in equation (4) we have

I = neA

V

mL

Aτ ne

τ

mL

eV

2

1

]

1

¸

·

1

]

1

¸

….(5)

Comparing with Ohm’s law i.e.

I =

R

V

….(6)

We have

1

]

1

¸

·

Aτ ne

mL

R

2

….(7)

44. Are the paths of electrons straight lines between successive collisions (with

positive ions of the metals) in the (i) absence of electric field (ii) presence of electric field?

Establish a relation between drift velocity v

d

of an electron in a conductor of cross-section A

carrying current I and concentration ‘n’ of free electrons per unit volume of conductor. Hence

obtain the relation between current density and drift velocity.

Ans. (i) In the absence of electric field the path of electrons is a straight line.

(ii) In the presence of an electric field the path of the electrons is parabolic.

Suppose there are n electrons per unit volume. Here n is called the number density of

electrons. Assume that all electrons move with the same drift velocity v

d

. In a time interval dt,

each electron moves a distance v

d

dt. Now the volume of the cylinder covered by the electrons

in time dt is

V = A v

d

dt ….(1)

and the number of electrons in this volume are

N = nV = nA v

d

dt ….(2)

If e is the charge on the electron, then chare flowing through the conductor in small time dt is

dQ = e(nA v

d

dt0 ….(3)

hence the current through the conductor is

7

C.B.S.E Study Material

I =

dt

dQ

= nAev

d

Since n, e and A are constant, therefore current flowing in a conductor is directly proportional

to the drift velocity.

The current per unit cross sectional area is called current density (J). Therefore J =

A

I

= nev

d

45. Briefly explain how the drift velocity of electrons in a metallic conductor varies

when (i) the temperature of the conductor is increased, and (ii) applied potential difference is

decreased, keeping temperature constant.

Ans. The drift velocity is given by the expression v

d

= τ.

mL

eV

(i) With an increase in the temperature of the conductor, the average relaxation time

decreases. Since drift velocity is directly proportional to the average relaxation time,

therefore it decreases with increase in temperature.

(ii) Drift velocity is directly proportional to the potential difference, therefore an increase in

the value of potential difference increase the value of drift velocity.

46. The variation of potential difference with length in case

of two potentiometers A and B is shown in figure. Which of the two is

preferred to find the emf of a cell? Give reason for your answer?

Ans. A potentiometer having a small value of potential gradient is more

accurate thant the potentiometer having a large value of potential gradient

(V/L). As seen from the graph potentiometer B has a smaller value of V/L

i.e., potential gradient, therefore it will be preferred gradient, therefore it

will be preferred over potentiometer A.

47. Explain how the resistivity of a conductor depends upon (i) number density ‘n’

of free electrons, and (ii) relaxation time τ.

Ans. The resistivity of a conductor is given by the relation ρ =

.

τ ne

m

2

(i) It depends inversely on the number density of the electrons. An increase in number density

leads to a decrease in the resistivity.

(ii) It depends inversely on the average relaxation time of the electrons. An increase in average

relaxation time leads to a decrease in the resistivity.

48. Explain with the help of a graph the variation of

conductivity with temperature for a metallic conductor.

Ans. The conductivity of a metallic conductor depends inversely on its

absolute temperature. Therefore the graph of the above situation is shown

below

49. State Joule’s law of heating by electric current. Name the

materials used for making (i) standard resistors (ii) heater element.

Ans. Joule found that when current is passed through a conductor the heat produced across it is

(i) Directly proportional to the square of current through the conductor i.e.

H ∝ I

2

…..(1)

(ii) Directly proportional to the resistance of the conductor i.e.

H ∝ R …..(2)

(iii) Directly proportional to the time for which the current is passed i.e.

H ∝ t …..(3)

Combining the above three equations we have

H ∝ I

2

Rt

8

C.B.S.E Study Material

(a) For making standard resistors manganin, is used.

(b) For heater element nichrome is used.

50. Name the two factors on which the resistivity of a given material depends. A

carbon resistor has a value of 62 kΩ with a tolerance of 5%. Give the colour code of the

resistor.

Ans. Resistivity depends upon (i) The number density of electrons and (ii) The average relaxation

time.

The colour code of the cabon resistor is blue, red, orange and gold.

51. Draw a circuit diagram for a metre bridge to determine the unknown resistance

of a resistor. Obtain the balance condition for a metre bridge. Why are the connections between

the resistors of a metre bridge made of thick copper strips? Find the shift in the balance point of

a metre bridge, when the two resistors in its two gaps, are interchanged. Take the values of the

two resistors as R and S.

Ans. A metre bridge is a practical form of Wheatstone bridge and the circuit diagram is shown

in figure below.

Connections between resistors are made of thick copper strips so that the resistances of the

resistors remain unchanged.

Let initially with resistance R in left gap and S in right gap, null point is obtained at a length L

then

L 100

L

S

R

−

· ….(i)

If R and S are interchanged then null point will be obtained at L’ such that

L' 100

L'

R

S

−

· ….(ii)

A comparison of (i) and (ii) shows that L’ = 100 – L. Therefore shift in position of balance

point.

L’ – L = (100 – L) – L = (100 – 2L)cm

52. A potentiometer wire has a length L and

resistance R

0

. It is connected to a battery and a resistance

combination as shown. obtain an expression for the potential

drop per unit length of the potentiometer wire. What is the

maximum emf of a ‘test cell’ for which one can get a

‘balance point’ on this potentiometer wire? What

precautions should one take, while connecting this ‘test cell’

in the circuit?

Ans. Here total resistance of potentiometer circuit

R = R

0

+

S R

RS

+

Therefore current in the circuit

I =

S R

RS

R

E

0

+

+

9

C.B.S.E Study Material

Therefore, total potential difference across the ends of potentiometer wire AB

V = I R

0

= I =

S R

RS

R

ER

0

0

+

+

Therefore, potential drop per unit length of the potentiometer wire

k =

,

_

¸

¸

+

+

·

S R

RS

R L

ER

L

V

0

0

Maximum emf of a test cell, for which one can get a balance point on this potentiometer wire,

should be less than V.

Precaution: Positive terminal of the test cell must be connected to end A of the potentiometer

i.e., +ve terminals of battery and test cell must be connected at the same end.

53. A carbon resistor has the following colour

bands drawn on it. Find it value. Define the term resistivity

of a material. Give its SI unit.

Ans. 64 × 10

1

t 5%

Resistivity is defined as the resistance of a conductor per unit length per unit area of cross

section. It is measured in ohm-m.

54. How does the resistivity of (i) conductor and (ii) semiconductor vary with

temperature? Give reason for each case.

Ans. The resistivity of conductor is given by the expression ρ =

.

τ ne

m

2

The resistivity of

conductors increases with the increase in the temperature. This is because increase in

temperature increases the amplitude of vibration of lattice ions, which in turn increases the

number of collisions. This decreases the average relaxation time. Since resistance of a

conductor is inversely proportional to the average relaxation time, therefore the resistance

increases.

(ii) Semiconductors: In case of semiconductors, resistance decreases with the increases in the

temperature. An increase in temperature breaks a large number of covalent bonds. This results

in a large number of majority carriers, which in turn increase the current.

55. When two known resistances R and S are connected in the left and right gaps of

a metre bridge, the balance point in found of a distance L

1

from the zero end of the metre bridge

wire. An unknown resistance X is now connected in parallel to the resistance S and the balance

point is now found at a distance L

2

from the zero end of the metre bridge wire. Obtain a formula

for X in terms of L

1

, L

2

and S.

Ans. The arrangement is as shown.

Applying the formula for balanced metre bridge in first

case, we have

1

1

L 100

L

S

R

−

·

….(i)

In second case in right gap S and X are arranged in parallel and have a net resistance of

,

X S

SX

+

hence, now, we have

2

2

L 100

L

X S

SX

R

−

·

,

_

¸

¸

+

….(ii)

10

C.B.S.E Study Material

Dividing (i) by (ii) we have

( )

( )

2

1

2

1

L 100

L 100

L

L

X

X S

−

−

× ·

+

On simplification we get

X =

( )

( )

1

L 100

L 100

L

L

S

2

1

2

1

−

−

−

×

56. Define the term temperature coefficient of resistivity. Show graphically the

variation of resistivity with temperature for nichrome/copper.

Ans. The temperature coefficient of resistance of a conductor is defined as the ratio of the increase

in resistance per unit original resistance per unit rise in temperature.

Variation of resistivity of nichrome with temperature.

Variation of resistivity of copper with temperature.

57. You are given ‘n’ resistors each of resistance ‘r’. These are first connected to get

minimum possible resistance. In the second case it is connected to get maximum possible

resistance. Compute the ratio between the minimum and the maximum values of resistance so

obtained.

Ans. For obtaining minimum possible resistance the resistors are connected in parallel. Therefore,

in parallel combination the total resistance is

...n times

r

1

r

1

R

1

P

+ + ·

or R

P

=

n

r

For obtaining maximum possible resistance the resistors are connected in series. Therefore, in

series combination the total resistance is

R

S

= r + r + … n times = n r

Therefore ratio of minimum to maximum resistance is

2

S

P

n

1

nr

1

n

r

R

R

· × ·

58. Draw a circuit diagram using a metre bridge and write the necessary

mathematical relation used to determine the value of an unknown resistance. Why cannot such

an arrangement be used for measuring very low resistances?

Ans. The circuit diagram is a shown below.

11

C.B.S.E Study Material

The necessary formula is X =

,

_

¸

¸ −

L

L 100

The bridge is also unsuitable to measure very small resistances, this is because in this case all

the other resistances should also be small to ensure the sensitivity of the bridge which would

require a galvanometer of very low resistance which itself would be very insensitive. In

addition to this, the contract and the lead resistance will also be comparable with the

resistance to be measured.

59. A resistance of RΩ draws current from a potentiometer. The potentiometer has a

total resistance R

0

Ω as shown in fig below. A voltage V is

supplied to the potentiometer. Derive an expression for the

voltage across R when the sliding contact is in the middle

of the potentiometer.

Ans. While the slide is in the middle of the potentiometer only

half of its resistance (R/2) will be between the points A

and B. Hence, the total resistance between A and B, say,

R

1

will be given by the following expression;

0 1

R

2

R

1

R

1

+ ·

or

2R R

R R

R

0

0

1

+

·

The total resistance between A and C will be sum of resistance between A and B and B and

C. i.e., R

1

+ R

0

/2

Therefore, the current flowing through the potentiometer will be

I =

0 1 0 1

R 2R

2V

/2 R R

V

+

·

+

The voltage V taken form the potentiometer will be the product of current I and resistance R

1

,

V

1

= IR

1

= 1

0 1

R

R 2R

2V

×

+

Substituting for R

1

and solving, we have

V

1

=

4R R

2VR

0

+

60. Explain how electron mobility changes for a good conductor when (i) the

temperature of the conductor is decreased at constant potential difference and (ii) applied

potential difference is doubled at constant temperature.

Ans. The mobility of a conductor is given by the expression µ =

AneV

IL

m

eτ

E

v

d

· − · where L is the

length of the conductor.

(i) When temperature of a conductor is decreased at constant potential difference the average

relaxation time increases. Since mobility is directly proportional to the average relaxation

time, therefore mobility increases.

(ii) When the potential difference across the conductor is doubled at constant temperature, the

mobility becomes half.

61. A parallel combination of 4 cells of identical emf E,

internal resistance r, are connected in series to a variable resistor. The

following graph shows the variation of terminal voltage of the

combination with the current output:

(i) What is the emf of each cell used?

(ii) For what current from the cells, does maximum power

dissipation occur in the circuit?

12

C.B.S.E Study Material

Ans. (i) From the graph we find that when I = 0, V = 5.6 V, therefore emf of each cell is ε = 5.6 V

(ii) Now slope of the graph gives the total resistance of the combination, therefore

R + 2.8

2.0

5.6

I

V

4

r

· · ·

or 4R + r = 11.2

Power dissipated is maximum when internal resistance is equal to the external resistance i.e.,

R = r/4 or 4R = r

Therefore,

we have r + r = 11.2 or r = 5.6 Ω

Hence current in the circuit for maximum power dissipation is

I =

1A

5.6

5.6

R

V

T

· ·

62. For the potentiometer circuit shown in the given figure, points X and Y represent

the two terminals of an unknown emf E’. A student observed that when the jockey is moved

from the end A to the end B of the potentiometer wire, the

deflection in the galvanometer remains in the same direction.

What may be the two possible faults in the circuit that could

result in this observation?

If the galvanometer deflection at the end B is (i) more, (ii) less,

than that at the end A, which of the two faults, listed above,

would be there in the circuit?

Give reasons in support of your answer in each case.

Ans. (a) The two possible faults are

(i) The negative terminal of E’ is connected to point X. In other words the positive

terminals of E and E’ are not connected to the same point.

(ii) The emf of the auxiliary battery E is less than the emf of the cell E’ i.e., E’ > E

(b) If galvanometer shows more deflection at B

Cause: Negative terminal of E’ is connected to point X.

Reason: Potential difference across wire and the cell E’ sends current through the

galvanometer in the same sense and the galvanometer deflection increases with increase in the

length of the wire.

(c) If galvanometer shows less deflection at B

Cause: The emf of the auxiliary battery E is less than the emf of the cell E’ i.e., E’ > E

Reason: Potential difference across the potentiometer wire opposes E’ and the current in the

galvanometer decreases with an increase in the length of the wire.

63. What is drift velocity? Derive an expression for it.

Ans. In an ordinary metal such as copper or aluminium, some of the electrons move randomly in all

directions with speeds of the order of 10

6

ms

–1

. The electrons nonetheless, do not escape from

the conducting material, because they are attracted to the +ve ions of the material. The motion

of the electrons is random so there is no net flow of charge in any direction and hence no

current. Consequently the average thermal velocity of the electrons is zero. If there are n

electrons in a conductor having thermal velocities u

1

, u

2

, u

3

, ……u

n

then the average thermal

velocity of the electrons is

0

n

u . .......... u u u

u

n 3 2 1

·

+ + + +

· …..(1)

Suppose a steady electric field E is established across the ends of the conductor. This subjects

the electrons inside the conductor, to an electric force given by F = –eE …..(2)

This force causes a steady acceleration of the electrons opposite to the direction of the electric

field. The acceleration being given by

13

C.B.S.E Study Material

a =

m

eE

m

F −

· ….(3)

where m is the mass of the electron. Due to this acceleration the electron, in addition to the

random motion within a conductor, acquired a very slow net motion or drift opposite to the

direction of the electric field. This motion of the electrons is described in terms of the drift

velocity (v

d

) of the electrons. This additional acquired velocity is lost in the next collision.

Suppose that the electron remains accelerated for a time t called the relaxation time of the

electron. Let v

1

, v

2

, v

3

,…… v

n

be the velocities acquired by the electrons due to this

acceleration. Therefore,

v

1

= u

1

+ at

1

. v

2

= u

2

+ at

2

, v

3

= u

3

+ at

3

………… and v

n

= u

n

+ at

n

respectively ….(4)

Now drift velocity (vd) is defined as the average velocity with which the free electrons get

drifted inside a conductor under the effect of the electric field, opposite to the direction of the

field.

Therefore

v

d

=

n

v .......... v v v

n 3 2 1

+ + + +

….(5)

or v

d

=

( ) ( )

n

at u ..... at u

n n 1 1

+ + + +

….(6)

or v

d

=

( ) ( )

n

t ..... t a

n

u ..... u

n 1 n 1

+ +

+

+ +

….(7)

using equation (1) we have v

d

= aτ ….(8)

here τ =

( )

n

t .... t t t

n 3 2 1

+ + + +

is called average relaxation time. Substituting equation (3) in

equation (8) we have

v

d

= τ

m

eE

−

Since E = –V/L, therefore we have

V

d

= τ

mL

eE

….(9)

This gives a relation between drift velocity and electric field and drift velocity and electric

potential.

64. Define the term ‘resistivity’ and write its S.I. unit. Derive the expression for the

resistivity of a conductor in terms of number density of free electrons and relaxation time.

Ans. It is defined as the resistance of a conductor of unit length and unit cross sectional area. In SI

it is measured in ohm-m. Let v

d

be the drift velocity of the electrons, then its relation with

electric field is

v

d

= τ

m

eE

− ….(1)

Let V be the potential difference applied across the two ends of a conductor of length L and

area of cross-section A, then

E =

L

V

− ….(2)

substituting equation 1 in 2 we have

v

d

= τ

mL

eV

….(3)

Also I = neAv

d

….(4)

Substituting equation (3) in equation (4) we have

14

C.B.S.E Study Material

I = neA

V

mL

Aτ ne

τ

mL

eV

2

1

]

1

¸

·

1

]

1

¸

….(5)

Comparing with Ohm’s “law” i.e.

I =

R

V

….(6)

We have R =

1

]

1

¸

·

1

]

1

¸

Aτ ne

mL

Aτ ne

mL

2 2

….(7)

Comparing with the equation R =

A

ρL

we have ρ =

τ ne

m

2

65. Draw V – I graph for ohmic and non-ohmic materials. Give one example for

each.

Ans. Ohmic materials: Those materials in which Ohm’s law is followed are called ohmic materials.

For such circuits the V – I graph is a straight line passing through the origin. The reciprocal of

the slope of the graph gives the resistance of the circuit e.g., metallic conductors.

None-ohmic materials: Those materials in which Ohm’s “law” is not obeyed are called non-

ohmic matierals. The V–I graph is a curve. e.g. electrolytes, semiconductors, thermionic

values etc.

66. Write the mathematical relation between mobility and drift velocity of charge

carriers in a conductor. Name the mobile charge carriers responsible for conduction of electric

current in (i) an electrolyte (ii) and ionized gas.

Ans. Drift velocity v

d

= Mobility/Electric field or µ =

E

v

d

(i) The mobile charge carriers in an electrolyte are positive and negative ions called

cations and anions.

(ii) In ionized gas the mobile charge carriers are electrons are positively charged ions.

67. Define the term “mobility” for a charge carrier and state its SI unit.

Name the mobile charge carriers in

(i) an electrolyte (ii) a semiconductor (iii) an ionized gas.

Ans. Mobility is defined as the ratio of drift velocity of the charge to the applied electric field.

(i) Anions and cations

(ii) Electrons and holes

(iii) Free electrons

68. State the principle of the device used for comparing the emf of two cells. Draw

the relevant circuit diagram and explain how the emf’s of the two cells are compared. How can

sensitivity of such a device be increased? In what way is this method different from the one

using voltmeter for comparing the emf’s?

Ans. Principle: It is based on the principle that the potential across any section of the wire is

directly proportional to the length of that section of the wire.

The circuit diagram for comparing the emf’s of two cells is given below:

15

C.B.S.E Study Material

First, the key K

1

is inserted. This brings the cell of emf E

1

in the circuit. The jockey is moved

on the wire to obtain a balance point i.e. a point on the wire where the galvanometer givens

zero deflection. Let the balancing length be L

1

. Therefore by the potentiometer principle we

have

E

1

∝ L

1

….(1)

Now, the key K

2

is inserted. This bridges the cell of emf E

2

in the circuit. The jockey is again

moved on the wire to obtain the balance point. Let the balancing length be L

2

. Then by

potentiometer principle we have

E

2

∝ L

2

….(2)

Dividing equation (1) by (2) we have

2

1

2

1

L

L

E

E

·

…(3)

Knowing the values of L

1

and L

2

the emf’s can be compared.

The sensitivity of the potentiometer can be increased by increasing the length of the

potentiometer wire.

The potentiometer method is a null method i.e. no current is drawn form the cell when its emf

is being measured. It measures emf more accurately than a voltmeter.

69. State Kirchoff’s rules for an electrical network.

Explain their use by drawing a simple circuit diagram. Find the

total current I, supplied to an external resistor R, connected as

shown, across a parallel combination of three cells of equal emf E

and same internal resistance r.

Ans. Kirchoff’s first rule: The algebraic sum of currents into any

junction is zero.

Kirchoff’s second rule: The algebraic sum of the potential

differences in any loop, including those with emfs and those of

resistive elements, must equal zero.

A simple circuit diagram shows the distribution of current in

accordance with the first rule.

In accordance with the second law the equations for two loops is

as written below.

–I

1

P + (I – I

1

) R = 0 ….(3)

and –I

1

Q + (I – I

1

) X = 0 ….(4)

These tow equations will be solved fro the unknown.

16

C.B.S.E Study Material

Since the cells are in parallel, therefore net emf of the circuit is E.

Total internal resistance of the circuit is r/3. Hence total resistance of the circuit is

R

T

= R + r/3

Hence current in the circuit is

I =

r/3 R

E

R

E

T

+

·

70. The given figure shows a network of resistances

R

1

, R

2

, R

3

and R

4

.

Using Kirchoff’s laws, establish the balance condition for the

network.

Ans. Consider the diagram as shown below.

Now applying Kirchoff’s loop rule to the closed loop ABDA

we have

–I

1

R

1

– I

g

G + (I – I

1

) R

3

= 0 ….(1)

Again applying Kirchoff’s loop rule to closed loop BCDA we have

–(I

1

– I

g

) R

2

+ (I – I

1

+ I

g

) R

4

+ I

g

G = 0 ….(2)

The value of R

1

, R

2

, R

3

and R

4

are so adjusted that the

galvanometer gives zero deflection. This means that both B and

D will be at the same potential and hence no current will flow

through the galvanometer. i.e., I

g

= 0. In this situation the

Wheatstone bridge is said to be balanced. Putting I

g

= 0 in

equations 1 and 2 we have

–I

1

R

1

+ (I – I

1

) R

3

= 0 ….(3)

and –I

1

R

2

+ (I – I

1

) R

4

= 0 ….(4)

Rewriting the above two equations we have

I

1

R

1

= (I – I

1

) R

3

….(5)

and I

1

R

2

= (I – I

1

) R

4

….(6)

dividing the above equation we have

4

3

2

1

R

R

R

R

·

….(7)

The above expression gives the condition for the balance of a Wheatstone bridge.

71. Define the term current density of a metallic conductor. Deduce the relation

connecting current density (J) and the conductivity (σ) of the conductor, when an electric field

E, is applied to it.

Ans. Current density is defined as the current flowing per unit area of the conductor.

Mathematically, current density is given by the expression J =

A

I

But I = V/R and R = .

σA

L

A

ρL

·

Substituting in the above relation we have

J = Eσ σ

L

V

σA

AL

V

A

I

· × · × ·

72. Under what condition is the heat produced in an electric circuit (i) directly

proportional, (ii) inversely proportional to the resistance of the circuit?

17

C.B.S.E Study Material

Ans. (i) Heat produced in an electric circuit is directly proportional to resistance of the circuit when

current flowing through it is kept constant, as

H = I

2

Rt, and when I is constant H ∝ R.

(ii) Heat produced in electrical circuit is inversely proportional to the resistance of the circuit,

when potential difference across it is kept constant as

H =

R

t V

2

and when V is constant H ∝

R

1

ELECTROSTATICS

1. Define the term electric dipole moment. Is it a scalar or vector quantity?

Ans. It is defined as the product of either charge and the distance between them. It is a vector

quantity.

2. Two field lines never cross each other. Why?

Ans. It is because at the point of intersection two tangents can be drawn. Thus there will be two

direction of electric field at that point which is not possible.

3. How does the Coulomb force between two point charges depend upon the

dielectric constant of the intervening medium?

Ans. It decreases with the introduction of dielectric. It becomes 1/K times the original value.

4. Name the physical quantity which has joule per coulomb as its unit. Is it a scalar

or a vector quantity?

Ans. The quantity is electric potential. It is a scalar quantity.

5. Sketch a graph to show how a charge Q acquired by a capacitor of capacitance

C, varies with the increase in potential difference between the plates.

Ans.

6. Write the SI unit of (i) Electric field intensity and (ii) Electric dipole moment.

Ans. (i) volt per metre (ii) coulomb metre

7. Define one coulomb charge.

Ans. It is that much charge which when placed at a distance of 1 m in a vacuum from an identical

charge applies a force of 9 × 10

9

N.

8. How much work is done in moving a 500 µC charge between two points on an

equipotential surface?

Ans. Zero

9. What does q

1

+ q

2

= 0 signify in electrostatics?

Ans. It signifies an electric dipole.

10. What orientation of an electric dipole in a uniform electric field corresponds to

its stable equilibrium?

Ans. When the dipole is aligned, parallel to the direction of the electric field.

11. What is the work done in moving a 100 nC charge between two points 5 cm

apart on an equipotential surface?

Ans. Zero

12. Name the physical quantity, which has, as its units, Nm

2

C

–1

. Is it a scalar or

vector quantity?

18

C.B.S.E Study Material

Ans. Electric flux; It is a scalar quantity.

13. Name the physical quantity which has as its units, coulomb-metre. It is a scalar

or vector quantity?

Ans. Electric dipole moments. It is a vector quantity.

14. Name the physical quantity, which has, as its unit newton per coulomb. Is it a

scalar or a vector quantity?

Ans. Electric field; it is a vector quantity.

15. How does the force between two point charges change, if the dielectric constant

of the medium in which they are kept, increases.

Ans. The force decreases.

16. Two point charges +10 µC and +20 µC are separated by a distance ‘r’ in air. If

an additional charge of –8 µC is given to each, by what factor does the force between the

charges, change.

Ans. Initial force is given by

2 2

i

r

200k

r

20 10

k F ·

×

·

Final force is given by

F

f

=

2 2

r

24k

r

12 2

k ·

×

Change in force

0.12

200

24

F

F

i

f

· ·

17. In a medium the force of attraction between two point electric charges, distance

‘d’ apart is F. what distance apart should these be kept in the same medium so that the force

between them becomes 3F?

Ans. Let the new distance be d, since F ∝

,

r

1

2

therefore

2

2

r

d

3F

F

· or d =

3

r

or r = 3 d

18. Sketch two equipotential surfaces for a uniform electric field.

Ans.

The dotted lines show the equipotential surfaces.

19. Sketch three equipotential surfaces for a point charge.

Ans.

20. In a parallel plate capacitor the capacitance increases from 4µF to 80µF, on

introducing a dielectric medium between the plates. What is the dielectric constant of the

medium?

Ans. The dielectric constant is given by K = 80/4 = 20

21. What is the dielectric constant of the medium?

19

C.B.S.E Study Material

Ans. It is the ratio of the force between two charges placed a certain distance apart in vacuum to

that placed same distance apart in the medium.

22. Draw lines of force to represent a uniform electric field.

Ans.

23. Sketch the electric lines of force due to point charges (i) q > 0 and (ii) q < 0.

Ans.

24. What kind of charges are produced on each when (i) a glass rod is rubbed with

silk and (ii) an ebonite rod is rubbed with wood?

Ans. (i) Glass rod: positive charge, silk: negative charge

(ii) Ebonite rod: negative charge, wool: positive charge

25. What is a conservative field?

Ans. A field is said to be conservative if work done in the field does not depend upon the path

followed but depends only upon the initial and final positions.

26. Find the value of electric field that would completely balance the weight of an

electron.

Ans. mg = eE

⇒

19

31

10 1.6

9.8 10 9.1

e

mg

E

−

−

×

× ×

· ·

= 5.57 × 10

–11

Vm

–1

27. Define electric field at a point.

Ans. Electric field at a point is defined as the force experienced by a unit positive charge placed at

that point. Mathematically we have

δq

F

Lim E

0 δq

→

·

28. Is the electric potential necessarily zero at a place where the electric field is

zero?

Ans. No, it is not necessary. The electric field inside a hollow metallic conductor is zero but the

electric potential is not zero.

29. Express dielectric constant in terms of capacitance of a capacitor.

Ans. It is given by the expression K =

0

C

C

where C is the capacitance of the capacitor with

dielectric and C

0

is the capacitance without dielectric.

30. Find the electric field between two metal plates placed 3 mm apart and

connected to a battery of 12V.

Ans. The electric field between the plates is given by E =

3

10 3

12

d

V

−

×

· = 4 × 10

3

Vm

–1

31. Define electric potential at a point. Is it a vector or a scalar quantity?

Ans. It is defined as the work done in moving a unit charge from infinity to that point without

acceleration or without change in kinetic energy.

20

C.B.S.E Study Material

32. How much energy will be stored by a capacitor of 470µF when charged with a

battery of 20V?

Ans. U =

2

1

CV

2

=

2

1

× 470 × 10

–6

× (20)

2

= 9.4 × 10

–2

J

33. Two charges, one +5µC and the other –5µC are placed 1mm apart. Calculate the

electric dipole moment of the system?

Ans. p = q × 2a = 5 × 10

–6

× 10

–3

= 5 × 10

–9

Cm

34. Write down the relation between field and electric potential at a point.

Abs. Electric field and electric potential are related as E = .

dr

dV

−

35. Define capacitance of a capacitor.

Ans. It is defined as the ability of a capacitor to store charge.

36. Name any two basic properties of electric charge.

Ans. (i) Quantisation of charge and (ii) Conservation of charge.

37. Can electric potential at a point in space be zero while intensity of electric field

at that point is not zero?

Ans. Yes, at a point on the equatorial line of a dipole, electric potential is zero but electric field is

not zero.

38. In a parallel plate capacitor the potential difference of 10

2

V is maintained

between the plates. What will be the electric field at points A and B as shown in the figure

below?

Ans. The electric field between the plates of a capacitor is uniform; therefore the electric field at

points A and B will be same.

39. Two protons A and B are placed between the two plates of a parallel plate

capacitor having a potential difference V as shown. Will these protons experience equal or

unequal forces?

Ans. Both protons will experience the same force as electric field between the plates of the

capacitor is same.

40. Sketch the field lines around a system of two equal and opposite point charges.

Ans. The sketch is as shown below.

41. In an electric field an electron is kept freely. If the electron is replaced by a

proton, what will be the relationship between the forces experience by them?

Ans. Magnitude of force will be same but direction will be reversed.

42. Give the SI unit of electric field intensity. Is electric field intensity a scalar or a

vector quantity?

21

A

B

+σ

–σ

Fig. for Q.38, Q.39

C.B.S.E Study Material

Ans. NC

–1

, vector quantity.

43. Which physical quantity has unit newton (coulomb)

–1

? Is it a vector or scalar

quantity?

Ans. Electric field intensity, vector quantity.

44. Two point charges of +3µC each are 100cm apart. At what point on the line

joining the charges will the electric intensity be zero?

Ans. At the mid-point of the line joining the two point charges.

45. What is nature of symmetry of electric field due to a point charge?

Ans. Spherical symmetry as E ∝

2

r

1

.

46. Consider the situation shown in the fig given below. What are the signs of q

1

and

q

2

?

Ans. q

1

is negative and q

2

is positive.

47. What orientation of an electric dipole in a uniform electric field corresponds to

its stable equilibrium?

Ans. When dipole has its dipole moment along the direction of electric field.

48. Four charges of same magnitude and same sign are placed at the corners of a

square, of each side 0.1m. What is electric field intensity at the centre of the square?

Ans. Zero.

49. What is the net force on a dipole in a uniform electric field?

Ans. Zero

50. In figure given below, at which point electric field is maximum?

Ans. Electric filed is maximum at point C.

51. Force between two point electric charges kept at a distance d apart in air is F. If

these charges are kept at the same distance in water, how does the force between them change?

Ans. New force will become F/K, where K is the dielectric constant of water.

52. What would be the work done if a point charge +q, is taken from

a point A to the point B on the circumference of a circle drawn with another

point charge +q at the centre?

Ans. Zero.

22

C.B.S.E Study Material

53. If a point charge +q is taken first from A to C and then from C to B of a circle

drawn with another point charge +q at centre, then along which path more work will be done?

Ans. As V

A

= V

B

hence work done W

AC

(=V

C

– V

A

) = W

BC

(V

C

– V

B

).

Therefore W

AC

= –W

CB

54. A uniform electric field E exists between two charged plates as shown in Fig.

What would be the work done in moving a charge q along the closed rectangular path ABCDA?

Ans. Work done is zero because electric field is a conservative field and work done for describing a

closed path in the conservative field is always zero.

55. Draw four equipotential surfaces for a point charge q > 0.

Ans. The figure is as shown.

56. An uncharged insulated conductor A is brought near a

charged insulated conductor B. What happens to charge and potential of

B?

Ans. On bringing in uncharged conductor a near a charged conductor B,

charges are induced on A as shown in fig. below. As a result of it, the

potential of conductor B is slightly lowered by charge on it remains

unchanged.

57. In a parallel plate capacitor the potential difference of 100 V is

maintained between the plates. If distance between the plates be 5mm, what

will be the electric field at points A and B?

Ans. Electric field at both points A and B is same having a value

E = ·

×

·

−3

10 5

100

d

V

2 × 10

4

NC

–1

58. On what factors does the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor

depend?

(i) Area of plates, (ii) Separation between the plates, and

(iii) Nature of dielectric medium between the plates.

59. Define the term ‘dielectric constant’ of a medium in terms of capacitance.

Ans. Dielectric constant of a medium may be defined as the ratio of the capacitance of a given

parallel plate capacitor in the presence of dielectric to its capacitance in the absence of

dielectric medium.

60. Why does the electric field inside a dielectric decrease when it is placed in an

external electric field?

Ans. On account of polarisation of dielectric.

23

C.B.S.E Study Material

61. Why does a given capacitor store more charge at a given potential difference

when a dielectric is filled in between the plates?

Ans. Because capacitance of capacitor increases on filling the dielectric medium in between the

plates.

62. For the same quantity of charge will the potential difference across the plates of

a capacitor increase or decrease on inserting a dielectric in between?

Ans. The potential difference decreases.

63. If the plates of a charged capacitor be suddenly connected to each other by a

wire, what will happen?

Ans. The capacitor is discharged immediately.

64. Can you place a parallel plate capacitor of one farad capacity in your house?

Ans. Ordinarily, it is not possible because surface area of such a capacitor will be extra large.

65. Is there any conductor which can be given almost unlimited charge?

Ans. The earth.

66. The dielectric constant of a media is unity, what is its permittivity?

Ans. We know that K = ε/ε

0

Here K = 1,

therefore ε = ε

0

= 8.854 × 10

–12

C

2

N

–1

m

–2

67. Force of attraction between two point charges placed at a distance ed apart in a

medium is F. What would be the distance apart in the same medium so that the force of

attraction between them becomes one fourth its previous value?

Ans. 2d.

68. Sketch the lines of force due to two equal positive point charges placed near

each other.

Ans. The field lines are as shown below

69. What is the ratio of electric field intensities at any two points between the plates

of a capacitor?

Ans. The ratio is one, as the electric field is same at all points between the plates of a capacitor.

70. An electric dipole of dipole moment 20 × 10

–6

Cm is enclosed by a closed

surface. What is the net flux coming out of the surface?

Ans. The net charge of a dipole is zero as it consists of two equal and opposite charges. Hence, the

net flux coming out of the surface is zero as the net charge enclosed is zero.

71. Define the term ‘dielectric constant’ of a medium in terms of capacitance of a

capacitor.

Ans. Dielectric constant (K) of a medium is defined as the ratio of the capacitance with the

dielectric as the medium between the two plates (C) of a capacitor to its capacitance with free space

(or vacuum) as the medium between its plates (C

0

). That is, K =

.

C

C

0

24

C.B.S.E Study Material

72. Two point electric charges of unknown magnitude and sign are place a

distance’d apart. The electric field intensity is zero at a point, not between the charges but on

the line joining them. Write two essential conditions for this to happen.

Ans. The electric field intensity may be zero at a point on the axial line of charges, if

(i) The two charges are of opposite signs i.e., one charge is positive and the other is

negative.

(ii) The magnitude of charge nearer the null-point under consideration should be smaller

than the magnitude of the other charge.

73. What do you understand by conservation of charge? Give one example to

illustrate.

Ans. According to the law of conservation of electric charge we can neither create nor destroy the

electric charge and total electric charge of an isolated system must remain conserved. To

illustrate the principle consider a glass rod and silk cloth. Initially both are uncharged and

total charge of the system is zero. On rubbing glass rod with silk some positive charge is

developed on glass rod and an equal amount of negative charge is developed on silk, so that

net charge of the system is still zero.

74. An electric dipole is free to move in a uniform electric field (i) parallel to the

field, and (ii) perpendicular to the field. Explain what happens?

Ans. (i) When an electric dipole is placed parallel to a uniform electric field, net force as well as

net torque acting on the dipole is zero and, thus, the dipole remains in equilibrium.

(ii) When dipole is placed perpendicular to the field, a torque acts on it. Under its influence

the dipole executes SHM about the direction of electric field and finally aligns itself along

the direction of electric field.

75. A point charge ‘q’ is placed at O as shown in fig. Is V

A

– V

B

positive, negative

or zero, if ‘q’ is a (i) positive, (ii) negative charge?

Ans. (i) If q is positive then V

A

– V

B

= W

BA

for unit positive test charge is positive. This is bcause

work will have to be done against the fore of repulsion.

(ii) If q is negative then electric field is directed towards O and test charge will move itself

under the attractive force and hence V

A

– V

B

= –ve.

76. What is an equipotential surface? Show that the electric field at a point on the

surface of a charged conductor or just outside it is perpendicular to the surface?

Ans. An equipotential surface is that at every point of which electric potential is the same. By

definition potential difference between two points is equal to the work done in carrying unit

positive test charge from one point to another. As for an equipotential surface potential

difference is zero hence no work is to be done in moving a test charge from one point to

another of an equipotential surface. Thus, dW =

r d . E

= E dr cos θ = 0. Therefore cos θ = 0 if

θ = 90

o

.

Thus, electric field intensity E on the surface of a conductor is always perpendicular to the

surface.

77. Two insulated identical sized spheres A and B carrying charges +30 µC and –10

µC are separated by a distance of 1 metre in air, are made to touch each other. They are then

again separated by the same distance. Compare the force between them in the two cases.

Ans. When the two spheres are touched, they share charge. The net charge on each after touching

becomes + 30 – 10 = 20 µC. This is shared equally between the two spheres, therefore charge

on each after touching

Q = 10 µC

Initial force is given by

25

O A B

C.B.S.E Study Material

F

i

= k

2

12

1

10 30

−

×

= 300k,

Final force is given by

F

f

= k

2

12

1

10 10

−

×

= 100k

Change in force

3

1

300

100

F

F

i

f

· ·

78. A parallel plate capacitor with air between the plates is charged. A dielectric is

inserted between the plates. What will happen to its electrostatic potential? Give reasons for

your answer.

Ans. When the capacitor is charged the charge on it remains the same. Let this charge be Q. On the

insertion of a dielectric of dielectric constant K, the capacitance becomes C = K C

0

. Now we

know that C = Q/V or V = Q/C. Since charge remains constant therefore, V ∝

.

C

1

As C

increases therefore there is a decrease in the potential between the plates.

79. Define electric field intensity at a point. Derive an expression for the dipole field

intensity at a point on the axial line of a short dipole.

Ans. Electric field intensity at a point is defined as the force experienced by a unit positive charge

placed at that point.

Consider an electric dipole consisting of –q and +q charges separated by a distance 2a as

shown in figure below. Let P be the point of observation on the axial line where the electric

field has to be found. Let it be at a distance r from the centre O of the dipole. Let us suppose

that the dipole is placed in vacuum.

Let E

A

and E

B

be the electric fields at point P due to the charges at A and B respectively.

Therefore

E

A

=

( )

2

0

a r

q

ε 4π

1

+

….(1)

and E

B

=

( )

2

0

a - r

q

ε 4π

1

….(2)

The two fields at P are in opposite directions. Thus, the resultant electric field at P is given by

E = θ cos E 2E E E

B A

2

B

2

A

+ +

=

( )

2

A B

E E −

or E = E

B

– E

A

since θ = 180

o

, Therefore the resultant electric field is

E =

( ) ( )

1

]

1

¸

+

−

−

2

0

2

0

a r

q

ε 4π

1

a r

q

ε 4π

1

=

( ) ( )

1

]

1

¸

+

−

−

2 2

0

a r

1

a r

1

ε 4π

q

26

C.B.S.E Study Material

=

( ) ( )

( ) 1

1

]

1

¸

−

− − +

2

2 2

0 a r

ε 4π

q

2 2

a r a r

E =

( )

2

2 2

0 a r

4ra

ε 4π

q

−

=

( )

( )

2

2 2

0

a r ε 4π

r 2a q 2

−

×

=

( )

2

2 2

0 a r

2pr

ε 4π

1

−

….(3)

where p = q × 2a

For a short dipole r >> a, therefore we have

E =

3

0

3

0

2p

ε 4π

1 2pr

ε 4π

1

r r

·

80. Define the term ‘electric field intensity’. Electric field inside a conductor is zero.

Explain

Ans. Electric field intensity at a point is defined as the force experienced by a unit positive charge

placed at that point.

By Gauss theorem

.

∫

·

0

ε

q

E.dS

Since there is no charge inside a conductor, therefore in

accordance with the above equation the electric field inside the conductor is zero.

81. Sketch a graph to show how charge Q given to a capacitor of capacity C varies

with potential difference V. Prove that the total energy stored in a parallel plate capacitor is ½

CV

2

.

Ans. The sketch between Q and V for a capacitor is as shown below.

Suppose the capacitor is charged fully, its final charge is Q and final potential difference is V.

These are related as

Q = CV ….(1)

Let q and v be the charge and potential difference, respectively, at an intermediate stage

during charging process then q = Cv. At this stage that small work done dW required to

transfer an additional charge dq is

dW = vdq =

C

qdq

….(2)

The total work W needed to increase the capacitor’s charge q from zero to its final value Q is

given by

W =

∫ ∫ ∫

· ·

Q

0

Q

0

W

0

qdq

C

1

C

qdq

dW

….(3)

or W =

2C

Q

2

q

C

1

2

Q

0

2

· ….(4)

This work is stored in the capacitor in the form of its electric potential energy. Hence,

2C

Q

U

2

· ….(5)

27

Q

V

C.B.S.E Study Material

Substituting Q = CV in equation 5 we have

U =

2

1

CV

2

....(6)

Which is the required expression

82. Derive an expression for potential at any point due to an electric dipole and

hence show that the potential on the equatorial line of an electric dipole is zero.

Ans. Consider an electric dipole consisting of –q and +q charges separated by a distance 2a as

shown in figure below. Let P be the point of observation where the

electric potential has to be found. Let it be at a distance r from the

centre O of the dipole. Let us suppose that the dipole is placed in

vacuum. Let angle ∠ BOP = θ. Let AP = r

1

and BP = r

2

. Draw AC

⊥ PO produced and BD PW. In ∆ AOC

cos θ =

a

OC

OA

OC

·

⇒ OC = a cos θ,

similarly OD = a cos θ

Net potential at P due to the dipole is

V =

1

]

1

¸

− · −

1 2 0 1 0 2 0

r

q

r

q

ε 4π

q

r

q

ε 4π

1

r

q

ε 4π

1

….(1)

Now r

1

= AP ≈ CP = OP + OC

= r + a cos θ

and r

1

= BP ≈ DP = OP – OD

= r – a cos θ,

Substituting in equation 1 we have

V =

1

]

1

¸

+

−

− θ cos a r

1

θ cos a r

1

ε 4π

q

0

V =

1

]

1

¸

−

+ +

θ cos a r

θ cos a r - θ cos a r

ε 4π

q

2 2 2

0

=

1

]

1

¸

−

θ

θ cos a r

cos a 2

ε 4π

q

2 2 2

0

V =

1

]

1

¸

− θ cos a r

θ cos p

ε 4π

1

2 2 2

0

….(2)

This gives an expression for the potential at point P due to an electric dipole. Here p = q × 2a

is the dipole moment of the dipole. When the point lies on the equatorial line of the electric

dipole, in this situation θ = 90

o

and cos 90

o

= 0, thus equation (2) becomes V = 0

83. Define capacitance of a capacitor. Give its SI unit. Prove that the total

electrostatic energy stored in a parallel plate capacitor is ½ CV

2

.

Ans. (i) It is the ability of a conductor to store charge. In SI units it is measured in farad.

(ii) See question 81 above.

84. S

1

and S

2

are two hollow concentric spheres enclosing

charges Q and 2Qas shown in the figure (i) what is the ratio of the electric

flux through S

1

and S

2

? (ii) How will the electric flux through sphere S

1

change, if a medium of dielectric constant 5 is introduced in the space inside

S

1

in place of air?

Ans. (i) According to Gauss theorem electric flux through S

1

φ

1

=

0

ε

Q

and through S

2

28

C.B.S.E Study Material

φ

2

=

,

0

ε

3Q

therefore ratio of flux

.

3

1

2

1

·

φ

φ

(ii) The electric flux through S

1

becomes 1/5 times the flux in air.

85. What is an equipotential surface? Show that no work is done in moving a test

charge from one point to another over an equipotential surface.

Ans. (i) It is a surface at every point of which the electric potential is same.

(ii) No work is done in moving a test charge over an equipotential surface. This cane be

understood as follows. By definition of electric potential we have V

B

– V

A

=

.

δq

W

AB

Since the

surface is equipotential therefore potential at A and B are equal, therefore we have

δq

W

AB

= 0

or W

AB

= 0

86. What is an electric dipole? Derive an expression for the torque acting on an

electric dipole, when held in a uniform electric field. Hence define the dipole moment.

Ans. An electric dipole is a pair of point charges with equal magnitude and opposite sign separated

by a small distance.

Consider an electric dipole consisting of charges –q and +q and dipole length d placed in a

uniform electric field as shown figure below. Let the dipole

moment make an angle φ with the direction of the electric

field.

The two charges experience force qE each. These forces are

equal, parallel and opposite. Therefore the net force is zero.

But these two forces constitute a couple. This applies a

torque on the dipole given by

τ = Either force × arm of the couple.

τ = qE × d sin φ

where d sin φ is the arm of the couple.

τ = q

dE sin φ where p = qd, dipole moment τ = pE sin φ .

In vector from . E p τ

× · The direction of torque is perpendicular to both

p

and

. E

If E = 1 and φ = 90

o

, then τ = p, thus electric dipole moment is defined as numerically equal

to the torque experienced by an electric dipole placed perpendicular to a unit electric field.

87. State Gauss theorem in electrostatics. Using this theorem, derive an expression

for the electric field intensity due to an infinite plane sheet of charge of charge density σ Cm

–2

.

Ans. It states that “The net electric flux through any Gaussian surface is equal to 1/ε

0

times net

electric charge enclosed by the surface”.

Consider an infinite plane sheet of charge. Let σ be the uniform surface charge density i.e. the

charge per unit surface area. From symmetry we find that the electric field must be

perpendicular to the plane of the sheet, and that the direction of

E

on one side of the plane

must be opposite to its direction on the other side as shown in figure below. In such a case let

us choose a Gaussian surface in the form of a cylinder with

its axis perpendicular to the sheet of charge, with ends of

area A. The charged sheet passes through the middle of the

cylinder’s length, so that the cylinder’s ends are equidistant

from the sheet.

The electric field has a normal component along the curved

surface of the cylinder. As a result the electric flux is

linked with only the ends and not the curved surface.

29

C.B.S.E Study Material

Therefore by the definition of electric flux, the flux linked with the Gaussian surface is given

by

φ = EA + EA = 2EA ….(1)

But by Gauss’s law

0 0

ε

σA

ε

q

· · φ

….(2)

From equations 1 and 2 we have

2EA =

0

ε

σA

….(3)

E =

0

2ε

σ

….(4)

This gives the electric field due to an infinite plane sheet of charge.

88. State Gauss theorem. Using Gauss’s theorem, show mathematically that for any

point outside the shell, the field due to a uniformly charged thin spherical shell is the same as if

the entire charged thin spherical shell is the same as if the entire charge of the shell is

concentrated at the centre. Why do you expect the electric field inside the shell to be zero

according to the theorem?

Ans. It states that “The net electric flux through any Gaussian surface is equal to 1/ε

0

times net

electric charge enclosed by the surface”.

Consider a thin spherical shell of radius R and centre at O. Let Q be the total charge on it. The

charge distribution is spherically symmetric. In order to find the electric field at a point

outside the sell let us consider a Gaussian surface in the form of a sphere of radius r (r >> R).

By symmetry we find that the electric field acts radically outwards and has a normal

component at all points on the Gaussian sphere. Therefore by definition of electric flux we

have

φ = E × A where A is the surface area of the Gaussian sphere therefore

φ = E × 4πr

2

….(1)

But by Gauss’s law

φ =

o

ε

Q

….(2)

from equations (1) and (2) it follows that

E × 4πr

2

=

2

0 0

r

Q

ε 4π

1

E or

ε

Q

·

This is the same as for a point charge.

(ii) Since there is no charge inside the shell then in accordance with Gauss theorem φ =

0.

ε

q

0

·

Hence electric field inside is zero.

89. Name the dielectric whose molecules have (i) Non-zero (ii) Zero dipole moment.

Define the term ‘dielectric constant’ for a medium.

Ans. (i) HCl and H

2

O (ii) Oxygen and hydrogen

Dielectric constant is defined as the ratio of the capacitance of a capacitor with dielectric

between plates to the capacitance without dielectric between plates.

90. Write the ratio of the

(i) Charges on the plates, when two capacitors, of capacitance C

1

and C

2

, are put in

series,

30

C.B.S.E Study Material

(ii) Potential differences, between the plates, when two capacitors of capacitances C

1

and C

2

, are put in parallel. Give also the ratio of the equivalent capacitances of the series

and parallel combinations of these two capacitors.

Ans. (i) In series both capacitors have the same charge. Therefore the ratio of the charges are 1 : 1.

(ii) In parallel the potential across each capacitor is same. Therefore the ratio of the potentials

is 1 : 1.

(iii) In series we have C

S

=

2 1

2 1

C C

C C

+

and in parallel C

P

= C

1

+ C

2

. Therefore the ratio of

capacitance in series and parallel is

( )

2

2 1

2 1

P

S

C C

C C

C

C

+

·

91. Define electric field intensity. Write its SI unit. Write the magnitude and

direction of electric field intensity due to an electric dipole of length 2a at the mid-point of the

line joining the two charges.

Ans. Electric field at a point is defined as the force experienced by a unit charge placed at that

point. The expression for the electric field due to an electric dipole at the midpoint of the line

joining the two charges is

.

a

2q

ε 4π

1

E

2

0

·

This is towards the negative charge.

92. State Gauss’ theorem. Apply this theorem to obtain the expression for the

electric field intensity at a point due to an infinitely long, thin, uniformly charged straight wire.

Ans. It states that “The net electric flux through any Gaussian surface is equal to 1/ε

0

times net

electric charge enclosed by the surface”.

Consider an infinitely long, thin wire charged +vely and having uniform linear charge density

λ. The symmetry of the charge distribution shows that

E

must be perpendicular to the line

charge and directed outwards. As a result of this symmetry we consider a Gaussian surface in

the form of a cylinder with arbitrary radius r and arbitrary length L with its ends

perpendicular to the wire as shown in figure below.

For the cylindrical part of this Gaussian surface,

E

is

constant in magnitude and perpendicular to the surface at

each point. Furthermore, the flux through the ends of the

Gaussian cylinder is zero since

E

is parallel to these

surfaces. i.e., there is no normal component of the electric

field at these faces. Therefore by the definition of electric

flux we have

φ = E × A ….(1)

where A is the curved surface area of the cylincer

or φ = E × 2πrL ….(2)

By Gauss’s law the electric flux is given by

φ =

0 0

ε

λL

ε

q

·

….(3)

from equation 2 and 3 we have

E × 2πrL =

0

ε

λL

….(4)

or E =

r

λ

2k

r ε 2π

λ

0

·

….(5)

This is the expression for the electric field due to an infinitely long thin wire.

31

C.B.S.E Study Material

93. A parallel plate capacitor with air between the plates has a capacitance of 8 pF.

The separation between the plates is now reduced by half and the space between them is filled

with a medium of dielectric constant 5. Calculate the value of capacitance of the capacitor in

the second case.

Ans. Given C = 8pF. We know that C = 8

d

A ε

0

· . When the distance between the plates is reduced

to half and a dielectric is inserted then the new capacitance becomes

C’ =

d

A 10ε

d/2

A Kε

0 0

· = 10 × 8 = 80 pF.

94. A point charge ‘q’ is placed at O as shown in the figure. Is V

P

– V

Q

positive or

negative when (i) q > 0 and (ii) q < 0? Justify your answer.

Ans. (i) If q > 0, then the potential at point P will be greater than that at point Q, since the distance

of P is lesser than that of Q from point O. Hence V

P

> V

Q

or V

P

– V

Q

is positive.

(ii) If q < 0, then the potential at point P will be less than that a point Q, since the distance of

P is lesser than that of Q from point O. Hence V

P

< V

Q

or V

P

– V

Q

is negative.

95. On what factors does the capacitance of a capacitor depend? Give the formula

used.

Ans. The capacitance of a capacitor depends upon (i) shape (ii) size and (iii) nature of medium

between the plates. The required formula is C = .

d

A ε

0

96. Two point electric charges of unknown magnitude and sign are placed a distance

‘d’ apart. The electric field intensity is zero at a point, not between the charges but on the line

joining them Write two essential conditions for this to happen.

Ans. The electric field intensity may be zero at a point on the axial line of charges, if

(i) The two charges are of opposite signs i.e., one charge is positive and the other is negative.

(ii) The magnitude of charge nearer the null-point under consideration should be smaller than

the magnitude of the other charge.

97. The graph shows the variation of voltage V across the plates of two capacitors A

and B versus increase of charge Q stored on them. Which of the two capacitors has higher

capacitance? Given reason for your answer.

Ans. The capacitor A has higher capacitance. We know that capacitance C = Q/V and in the graph

shown here slope of the graph gives the value of V/Q (i.e. 1/C). Thus, capacitance is obtained by

reciprocal of the slope of V – Q graph. As slope of graph for capacitor A is less, it means that

capacitance of A is higher.

98. An isolated air capacitor of capacitance C

0

is charged to a potential V

0

. Now if a

dielectric slab of dielectric constant K is inserted between its plates, completely filling the space

between the plates, then how do the following change, when the battery is disconnected (i)

capacitance, (ii) potential difference, (iii) field between the plates, (iv) energy stored by the

capacitor.

Ans. When the battery is disconnected, the charge on the capacitor does not change.

(i) The capacitance of the capacitor becomes K times the original value i.e., C = K C

0

32

+q

O P Q

V

Q

A

B

• A

• B

C.B.S.E Study Material

(ii) Now new potential difference is

V =

K

V

KC

Q

C

Q

0

0

· ·

(iii) The field between the plates becomes

E =

K

E

Kd

V

d

V

0 0

· ·

(iv)The energy stored becomes

U =

K

U

KC

Q

2

1

C

Q

2

1

0

0

2 2

· ·

99. An isolated air capacitor of capacitance C

0

is charged to a potential V

0

. Now if a

dielectric slab of dielectric constant K is inserted between its plates, completely filling the space

between the plates, then now do the following change, when the battery remains connected (i)

capacitance, (ii) charge, (iii) field between the plates, (iv) energy stored by the capacitor.

Ans. When the battery remains connected, the potential on the capacitor does not change.

(i) The capacitance of the capacitor becomes K times the original value i.e., C = KC

0

(ii) Now new charge is

Q = CV = KC

0

V = KQ

0

(iii) The field between the plates becomes

E =

0

0

E

d

V

d

V

· · i.e., no change.

(iv) The energy stored becomes

U =

2

1

CV

2

1

2

· KC

0

V

2

= KU

0

100. Explain the underlying principle of working of a parallel plate capacitor. If two

similar plates, each of area A having surface charge densities +σ and –σ are separated by a

distance d in air, write expression for (i) the electric field at points between the two plates. (ii)

the potential difference between the plates and (iii) the capacitance of the capacitor so formed.

Ans. Consider an insulated plate A. Let it be given a charge such that its potential becomes a

maximum i.e., it can no more hold additional charge. Now, place another uncharged

conductor B in its vicinity. Due to electrostatic induction –ve charge is induced on the inner

face and +ve charge on the outer face. The –ve charge tends to decrease and the +ve charge

tends to increase the potential of plate A. Since the –ve charge is close to plate A than the +ve

charge therefore, there is an overall decrease in the potential on plate A. To bring the plate

back to the same potential it must be given more charge. This means that the charge holding

capacity of plate A has increased i.e., its capacitance increases. Now let us connected the

conductor B to the earth i.e., ground it. Due to this the +ve charge on it “flows” to the ground,

but the –ve charge is bound to the plate B due to the +ve charge on plate A. now, the potential

of plate A decreases by a large value. Thus more charge will be required by it to come back to

the same potential.

33

• A

• B

C.B.S.E Study Material

Therefore to store a large charge in a small space an uncharged earth connected conductor

should be placed in the vicinity of a charged conductor. This forms the principle of a

capacitor.

(i) The electric field between the two plates is given by E =

0

ε

σ

(ii) The potential difference between the plates is given by V = Ed =

0

ε

σd

(iii) The capacitance of the capacitor is given by C =

d

A ε

0

101. Using Gauss’s law show that no electric field intensity exists inside a hollow

charged conductor.

Ans. Consider a hollow charged conductor (say a thin conducting shell) having charge +Q, which

spreads on its outer surface. Consider a Gaussian surface for calculating the electric field

intensity E at a point P inside the hollow conductor. Then, total flux over this Gaussian

surface is

φ =

0

in

ε

q

dA . E ·

∫

→

= 0 as q

in

= 0 or E = 0.

Thus, electric field intensity at all points inside a hollow charged conductor is zero.

102. Two plane sheets of charge densities +σ and –σ are kept in air as shown in the

Fig. What are the electric field intensities at points A and B?

Ans. (i) At point A the electric field intensities due to either sheet has magnitude E = σ / 2ε

0

but

have a direction opposite to each other. Hence, net electric field at A.

E = E

1

+ E

2

= 0

(ii) At point B the two fields are in the same direction. Also between the plates the electric

field is uniform and has a value E = σ / 2ε

0

. Therefore the total electric field between the

plates at point B is

E = E

1

+ E

2

=

0 0 0

ε

σ

2ε

σ

2ε

σ

· +

towards the second plate as shown.

103. Capacitors P, Q and R have each a capacity C, A battery can charge the

capacitor P to a potential difference V. if after charging P the battery is disconnected from it

and the charged capacitor P is connected in the following separate instances to Q and in the

following separate instances to Q and R (i) to Q in parallel and (ii) to R in series, then, what

will be the potential differences between the plates of P in the two instances.

Ans. (i) When the capacitor P is connected to Q in parallel, the two will share charge till they attain

a common potential. Since the two capacitors have the same capacity, therefore both will

have half the original charge. Hence their potential will also become half.

Thus V’ = V/2

34

• A

• B

+ σ

– σ

A

+ σ

– σ

E

1

E

2

1

E

2

E

1

+

2

C.B.S.E Study Material

(ii) When capacitor P is connected in series to capacitor R, R will also be charged with the

same charge as that on capacitor P. Thus there is no loss of charge of capacitor P, hence its

potential does not change and remains V.

104. Define electric line of force and give its two important properties.

Ans. It is defined as a path straight or curved, a tangent to which at any point gives the direction of

the electric field at that point.

(i) No two field lines can cross, because at the point of intersection two tangents can be

drawn giving two directions of electric field which is not possible.

(ii) The field lines are always perpendicular to the surface of a charged conductor.

105. (a) Why does the electric field inside a dielectric decrease when it is placed in an

external electric field?

(b) A parallel plate capacitor with air between the plates has a capacitance of a pF. What will be

the capacitance if the distance between the plates be reduced by half and the space between

them is filled with a substance of dielectric constant K = 6?

Ans. (a) When a dielectric is placed in an electric field (E

0

), it gets polarize, i.e., within the

dielectric an electric field (E) is induced in a direction opposite to that of the external field.

Therefore the net field within the dielectric decreases to E E

0

−

(b) The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor of plate area A and separation d is given by

C

0

=

d

A ε

0

Now C

0

= 8 pF, When filled with a dielectric of constant K and distance reduced by half,

the capacitance C is given by

C =

d

A 2Kε

0

= 2 × 6 × 8 = 96 pF

106. The given graph shows the variation of charge Q versus potential difference V

for two capacitors C

1

and C

2

. The two capacitors have same plat separation but the plate area of

C

2

is double than that of C

1

. Which of the lines in the graph correspond to C

1

and C

2

and why?

Ans. The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is given by the expression C = .

d

A ε

0

In other

words C ∝ A that is, for the separation being the same, the capacitance is directly proportional

to the plate area. Since the plate area of capacitor C

2

is double than that of C

1

, therefore its

capacitance will also be double than that of C

1

, therefore its capacitance will also be double

compared as compared to that of C

1

. The slope of the Q-V graph gives the value of

capacitance. The slope is greater for A than for B. Therefore graph A corresponds to C

2

and

graph B correspond to C

1

.

107. Define electric field E at a point in space due to a distribution of charges. Draw

electric field lines due to (i) two similar charges, (ii) two opposite charges, separated by a small

distance.

Ans. Electric field at a point is defined as the net force experienced by a unit charge placed at that

point.

(i) Electric field due to two similar charges.

35

Q

A

B

V

O

C.B.S.E Study Material

(ii) Electric field due to two opposite charges

108. Define electric flux. Write its SI unit. Using Gauss’ theorem, derive an

expression for the electric field intensity at any point outside a charged spherical shell.

Ans. Electric flux is defined as the scalar product of the electric field and the area vector.

Mathematically it is represented by the equation =

s. d . E

S

∫

In SI it is measured in Nm

2

C

–1

.

Consider a thin spherical shell of radius R and centre at O. Let Q be the total charge on it. The

charge distribution is spherically symmetric. In order to find the electric field at a point

outside the shell let us consider a Gaussian surface in the form of a sphere of radius r (r >> R).

By symmetry we find that the electric field acts radially outwards and has a normal

component at all points on the Gaussian sphere. Therefore by definition of electric flux we

have

φ = E × 4πr

2

….(1)

But by Gauss’s law

φ =

0

ε

Q

….(2)

from equations (1) and (2) it follows that

E × 4πr

2

=

0

ε

Q

or E =

2

0

r

Q

ε 4π

1

This is the same as for a point charge.

109. Define dielectric constant of a medium. Briefly explain why the capacitance of a

parallel plate capacitor increases, on introducing a dielectric medium between the plates.

Ans. It is defined as the ratio of the force acting between two charges placed a certain distance

apart in vacuum to the force acting between the same two charges placed the same distance

apart in the medium.

Introduction of the dielectric between the plates of the capacitor reduces the electric field

difference between the plates and hence the potential between the plates. As C = Q/V,

therefore a decrease in V means an increase in C.

110. Two identical plane metallic surfaces A

and B are kept parallel to each other in air, separated by

a distance of 1 cm as shown in the figure.

A is given a positive potential of 10V and the outer

surface of B is earthed.

36

C.B.S.E Study Material

(i) What is the magnitude and direction of the uniform electric field between Y and Z?

(ii) What is the work done in moving charge of 20 µC from X to Y?

Ans. (i) Electric field between the plates is

E =

2

10

10

d

V

−

· = 10

3

V m

–1

directed from plate A at higher potential to plate B at lower potential i.e., from Y to Z

(ii) Since X and Y are on the same plate A, which as an equipotential surface, so work done in

moving a charge of 20 µC from X to Y on equipotential surface is zero.

111. An electric dipole with moment

p

is placed in a uniform electric field of

intensity

. E

Write an expression for one torque τ

experienced by the dipole. Identify two pairs

of perpendicular vectors in the expression. Show diagrammatically the orientation of the dipole

in the field for which the torque is (i) maximum, (ii) half the maximum value, (iii) zero.

Ans. Expression for torque on dipole in uniform electric field is τ = pE sin θ

In vector form this is written as . E p τ

× ·

So, two pairs of perpendicular vectors are:

(a) torque and dipole moments (b) torque and electric field intensity.

(i) For maximum torque θ = 90

o

. The orientation is as shown below.

(ii) Half the maximum value. For this the angle is 30

o

or 150

o

. The orientations are as shown

below.

(iii) When torque is zero: Torque is zero when θ = 0

o

or 180

o

. The orientation are as shown

below.

112. Define capacitance of a capacitor. Give its S.I. unit. For a parallel plate

capacitor, prove that the total energy stored in a capacitor is ½ CV

2

and hence derive expression

for the energy density of the capacitor.

Ans. It is the ability of a capacitor to store charge and energy.

Suppose the capacitor is charged fully, its final charge is Q and final potential difference is V.

These are related as

Q = CV ….(1)

Let q and v be the charge and potential difference, respectively, at an intermediate stage during

charging process then q = Cv. At this stage the small work done dW required to transfer an

additional charge dq is

dW = vdq =

C

qdq

….(2)

The total work W needed to increase the capacitor’s charge q from zero to its final value Q is

given by

W =

∫ ∫ ∫

· ·

Q

0

Q

0

W

0

qdq

C

1

C

qdq

dW

….(3)

37

C.B.S.E Study Material

or W =

2C

Q

2

q

C

1

2

Q

0

2

· ….(4)

This work is stored in the capacitor in the form of its electric potential energy. Hence,

U =

2C

Q

2

….(5)

substituting Q = CV in equation 5 we have

U =

2

1

CV

2

….(6)

which is the required expression.

Consider a parallel plate capacitor with plate area A and distance between plates d. Now the

total energy stored in a capacitor is

U =

2

1

CV

2

….(7)

Now volume between the plates is v = Ad and the value of capacitance C is C = .

d

A ε

0

Substituting these values in equation 6 we have u = ( )

Ad

1

Ed

d

A ε

2

1

Ad

1

V

d

A ε

2

1

v

U

2

0 2 0

× · × ·

here V = Ed, hence energy density u is

u =

2

1

ε

0

E

2

….(8)

113. Derive an expression for the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor when the

space between the plates is partially filled with a dielectric medium of dielectric constant ‘K’.

Explain why the capacitance decreases when the dielectric medium is removed from between

the plates.

Ans. Consider a parallel plate capacitor having each plate of area A and separated by a distance d.

When there is vacuum between the two plates, the capacitance of

the parallel plate capacitor is given by C = .

d

A ε

0

Suppose that when the capacitor is connected to a battery, electric

field of strength E

0

is produced between the two plates of the

capacitor. Further, suppose that when dielectric slab of thickness t

(t < d) is introduced between the two plates of the capacitor as

shown in figure, the electric field reduces to E due to polarization

of the dielectric.

Therefore, between the two plates of the capacitor; over a distance

t, the strength of the electric field is E and over the remaining

distance (d – t) the strength is E

0

. If V is the potential between the

plates of the capacitor, then

V = Et + E

0

(d – t) ….(1)

Since E = E

0

/K where K is the dielectric constant, therefore the above equation becomes

V = t

K

E

0

+ E

0

(d – t) = E

0

,

_

¸

¸

+ −

K

t

t d

….(2)

The electric field between the plates of the capacitor is given by

E

0

=

0 0

Aε

Q

ε

σ

·

….(3)

Hence the potential between the two plates becomes

38

C.B.S.E Study Material

V = E

0

,

_

¸

¸

+ − ·

,

_

¸

¸

+ −

K

t

t d

A ε

Q

K

t

t d

0

….(4)

Hence the capacitance of the parallel plate capacitor is given by

C =

V

Q

=

,

_

¸

¸

+ −

·

,

_

¸

¸

+ −

K

1

1 t d

A ε

K

t

t d

A ε

Q

Q

0

0

The capacitance decreases because K > 1. Therefore the removal of the dielectric decreases

the capacitance.

114. An electric dipole is held in a uniform electric field (i) Prove that no translatory

force acts on it. (ii) Derive an expression for the torque acting on the dipole. (iii) Calculate the

work done on the dipole when it is rotated through 180

o

from its equilibrium position

Ans. (i) Consider an electric dipole consisting of charges –q

and +q and dipole length d placed in a uniform electric

field as shown figure below. Let the dipole moment make

an angle φ with the direction of the electric field.

The two charges experience force qE each. These forces

are equal, parallel and opposite. Therefore the net force

acting on the dipole is

F

n

= qE – qE = 0

Thus the net force acting on the dipole is zero.

(ii) But these two forces constitute a couple. This applies a torque on the dipole given by

τ = Either force × arm of the couple.

τ = qE × d sin φ where d sinφ is the arm of the couple.

τ = qdF × sin φ

where p = qd, dipole moment

τ = pE sin φ .

The work done in rotating a dipole in an electric field is given by

W =

∫

θ

0

pE

sin φ d φ = pE [ ]

θ

0

cosφ −

= –pE [cos θ – cos θ]

W = pE [1 – cos θ]

when φ = 180

o

= –1

∴ W = pE [1 + 1] = 2pE

W = –pE cos θ, since θ = 180

o

therefore the work done is W = –pE cos 180

o

= + pE

115. Define dipole moment of an electric dipole. Show mathematically that the

electric field intensity due to a short dipole at a distance ‘d’ along its axis is twice the intensity

at the same distance along the equatorial line.

Ans. It is defined as the product of the magnitude of either charge and the distance between them.

Consider an electric dipole consisting of –q and +q charges separated by a distance 2a as

shown in figure. Let P be the point of observation on the axial line where the electric field has

to be found. Let it be at a distance r from the centre O of the dipole. Let us suppose that the

dipole is placed in vacuum.

Let E

A

and E

B

be the electric fields at point P due to the charges at A and B respectively.

Therefore,

E

A

=

( )

2

0

a r

q

ε 4π

1

+

39

C.B.S.E Study Material

and E

A

=

( )

2

0

a - r

q

ε 4π

1

The two fields at p are in opposite directions thus the resultant electric field at p is given by

E = θ cos E 2E E E

B A

2

B

2

A

+ +

=

( )

2

A B

E E −

= E

B

– E

A

since θ = 180

o

Therefore the resultant electric field is

E =

( ) ( )

1

]

1

¸

+

−

−

2

0

2

0

a r

q

ε 4π

1

a r

q

ε 4π

1

=

( ) ( )

1

]

1

¸

+

−

−

2 2

0

a r

1

a r

1

ε 4π

q

=

( ) ( )

( ) 1

1

]

1

¸

−

− − +

2

2 2

2 2

0 a r

a r a r

ε 4π

q

Solving we have

E =

( )

2

2 2

0 a r

2pr

ε 4π

1

−

….(1)

where p = q × 2a

If the dipole is short then r >> a, therefore a is neglected as compared to r, hence

E =

3

0

4

0

r

2p

ε 4π

1

r

2pr

ε 4π

1

·

….(2)

Consider an electric dipole consisting of charges –q and +q separated by a distance 2a as

shown in figure below. Let the point of observation P lie on the right bisector of the dipole

AB at a distance r from its mid point O. Let E

A

and E

B

be the electric field intensities at point

P due to charges at A and B respectively.

The two electric fields have magnitudes.

E

A

=

( )

2 2

0

a r

q

ε 4π

1

+

….(3)

In the direction of AP

E

B

=

( )

2 2

0

a r

q

ε 4π

1

+

….(4)

in the direction of PB

The two fields are equal in magnitude, but have different directions. Resolving the two fields

E

A

& E

B

into their rectangular components i.e. perpendicular to and parallel to AB. The

components perpendicular to AB i.e. E

A

sinθ and E

B

sinθ being equal and opposite cancel out

each other while the components parallel to AB i.e. E

A

cos θ and E

B

cos θ being in the same

direction add up as shown in the Fig. Hence the resultant electric field at point P is given by

E = E

A

cos θ + E

B

cos θ

= 2E

A

cos θ =

( )

cosθ

a r

2q

ε 4π

1

2 2

0

+

….(5)

40

C.B.S.E Study Material

E =

( ) ( )

2 / 3 2 / 3

2 2

0

2 2

0 a r

p

ε 4π

1

a r

2qa

ε 4π

1

+

·

+

∵ cos θ =

( )

2 / 1

2 2

a r

a

+

and q × 2a = p

For a short dipole r

2

>> a

2

therefore E =

3

r

p

ε 4π

1

0

Thus for a short dipole (ideal dipole) the electric field on the axial line is E

a

=

3

r

2p

ε 4π

1

0

where as on the equatorial line is E =

3

r

p

ε 4π

1

0

, thus we find that the electric field intensity

due to a short dipole on the axial line is twice that on the equatorial line.

116. Derive an expression for the electrostatic energy stored in a parallel plate

capacitor. Assuming that the capacitor is disconnected from the charging battery, explain how

the (i) capacitance (ii) potential difference and (iii) energy stored, in the parallel plate

capacitor change, when a medium of dielectric constant ‘K’ is introduced between the plates.

Ans. Suppose the capacitor is charged fully, its final charge is Q and final potential difference is V.

These are related as

Q = CV ….(1)

Let q and v be the charge and potential difference, respectively, at an intermediate stage

during charging process then q = Cv. At this stage the small work done dW required to

transfer an additional charge dq is

dW = vdq =

C

qdq

….(2)

The total work W needed to increase the capacitor’s charge q from zero to its final value Q is

given by

W =

∫ ∫ ∫

· ·

Q

0

Q

0

W

0

qdq

C

1

C

qdq

dW

….(3)

or W =

2C

Q

2

q

C

1

2

Q

0

2

· ….(4)

41

C.B.S.E Study Material

This work is stored in the capacitor in the form of its electric potential energy. Hence,

U =

2C

Q

2

….(5)

substituting Q = CV in equation (5) we have

U =

2

1

CV

2

….(6)

which is the required expression

Consider a parallel plate capacitor with plate area A and distance between plates d. Now the

total energy stored in a capacitor is

U =

2

1

CV

2

….(7)

When the charging battery is removed the charge on the capacitor remains the same. The

capacitance increases and becomes K times its original value. The potential difference

between the plates decreases and becomes 1/K times the previous value. Energy decreases

and becomes 1/K times its original value.

117. Give the principle of working of a Van-de-Graff generator. With the help of a

labeled diagram, describe its construction and working. How is the leakage of charge

minimized from the generator?

Ans. The Van-de-graff generator is based on the following two principles.

(i) The corona discharge.

(ii) When a charged conductor is placed in contact with the inside of a hollow

conductor, all of the charge of the first

conductor is transferred to the hollow

conductor. The charge on the hollow conductor

can be increased by repeating the process.

Construction: It consists of a large and highly

polished hollow metal sphere called dome. It is

insulated from the ground with the help of

insulating supports. Two, comb like, metallic

needles are provided at point C

1

and C

2

as shown in

figure below. The comb at point A is called the

spray comb and that at point B is called the

collector comb. There is a provision of two pulleys

around which a belt of insulating material e.g. Silk,

rayon, reinforced rubber, moves.

Working: Due to high density of positive charge at

the sharp point of the teeth of the combs C

1

, positive charge is sprayed on the belt (Corona

Discharge). As the belt is rotated by the electric motor, these positive irons move upward

along with the belt. A negative charge is induced on the sharp teeth of the collecting comb C

2

and an equal positive charge is induced on the farther end of the comb C

2

. This positive

charge shifts to the outer surface of the conducting shell S. Due to Corona discharge at the

sharp teeth of comb C

2

a negatively charged electric wind is setup. This neutralizes the

positive charge on the belt. This process continues and sphere goes on getting more and more

of positive charge.

The leakage is minimized by housing the whole generator inside a steel chamber filled with

N

2

or methane sulphur hexafluoride or some other inert gas at high pressure.

MAGNETICS

42

C.B.S.E Study Material

1. Under what condition is the force acting on a charge moving through a uniform

magnetic field minimum?

Ans. When the charge moves parallel to the direction of the magnetic field.

2. What is the nature of the magnetic field in a moving coil galvanometer?

Ans. Radial magnetic field.

3. A certain proton moving through a magnetic field experiences maximum force.

When does this occur?

Ans. When it moves perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field.

4. In a certain arrangement a proton does not get deflected while passing through a

magnetic field region. Under what condition is it possible?

Ans. When it moves parallel to the direction of the magnetic field.

5. An electron and a proton moving with the same speed enter the same magnetic

field region at right angles to the direction of the field. For which of the two particles will the

radius of the circular path be smaller.

Ans. The radius of the circular path is given by the expression r =

.

Bq

mv

Since v, B and q are same

for both, therefore the radius of the circular path depends upon its mass. Since electron’s mass

is less than that of a proton, therefore the radius of the circular path of the electrons will be

smaller.

6. How will the magnetic field intensity at the centre of a circular coil carrying

current change, if the current through the coil is doubled and the radius of the coil halved?

Ans. The magnetic field at the centre of a circular current carrying coil is given by the expression

B = .

2r

I μ

0

When current is doubled and the radius is halved the magnetic field becomes four

times.

7. State two properties of the material of the wire used for suspension of the coil in

a moving coil galvanometer.

Ans. (i) High tensile strength. (ii) Small value of torque per unit twist.

8. An ammeter and a milli-ammeter are converted fro the same galvanometer. Out

of the two, which current measuring instrument has higher resistance?

Ans. A milli ammeter has higher resistance.

9. Define the term magnetic moment.

Ans. It is defined as the product of either pole strength and the dipole length.

10. How does the intensity of magnetization of a paramagnetic material vary with

increasing applied magnetic field?

Ans. It increases with the increase in the applied magnetic field.

11. Why do magnetic lines of force prefer to pass through ferromagnetic substances

than through air?

Ans. It is because the permeability of ferromagnetic material is greater than that of air.

12. A small magnetic needle pivoted at the centre is free to rotate in a magnetic

meridian. At what place will the needle be vertical?

Ans. At the poles

13. What is the angle of dip at a place where the horizontal and vertical components

of the earth’s magnetic field are equal?

Ans. 45

o

14. In which direction would a compass needle align if taken to geographic (i) North

and (ii) South pole?

Ans. In perpendicular direction for both cases.

15. How does the intensity of a paramagnetic sample vary with temperature?

Ans. It decreases with the increase in temperature.

43

C.B.S.E Study Material

16. What should be the orientation of a magnetic dipole in a uniform magnetic field

so that its potential energy is maximum?

Ans. It should be anti parallel to the applied magnetic field.

17. Write the SI unit of (i) Magnetic pole strength (ii) Magnetic dipole moment of a

bar magnet.

Ans. (i) Am and (ii) Am

2

18. Name the SI unit of intensity of magnetization.

Ans. Am

–1

19. Two wires of equal length are bent in the form of two loops. One of the loops is

square shaped and the other is circular. These are suspended in a uniform magnetic field and the

same current is passed through them. Which loop will experience a greater torque? Give

reasons.

Ans. Torque experienced by a current carrying loop placed in a uniform magnetic field is given by

the expression τ - BInA. In other words torque is directly proportional to the area of the loop.

Since a circular wire has more area than a square wire for the same dimension, therefore the

circular wire experiences more torque than the square wire.

20. State the reason why soft iron is used in making magnets.

Ans. It has a high retentivity.

21. Under what condition an electron moving through a magnetic field experience

maximum force?

Ans. When it is moving perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field.

22. Write one condition under which an electric charge does not experience a force

in a magnetic field.

Ans. When it moves parallel to the direction of the magnetic field.

23. Write SI unit of magnetic field.

Ans. tesla.

24. What is the value of the horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field at the

magnetic poles?

Ans. Zero

25. What is the force acting on an electron when moving (i) parallel and (ii)

antiparallel to a magnetic field?

Ans. (i) Zero (ii) Zero.

26. How does the magnetic moment of an electron in a circular orbit of radius r and

moving with a speed v change when the frequency of revolution is doubled?

Ans. The magnetic moment of an electron is given by the expression M =

π

ω

2

e

× πr

2

=

2

r v π e

2

.

When the frequency is doubled the magnetic moment also becomes double.

27. Permanent magnets whereas soft iron is preferred for making electromagnets.

Give one reason.

Ans. (i) Retentivity of steel is more than that of soft iron.

(ii) Soft iron has a smaller value of coercivity than steel.

28. What is the value of angle of dip at a place on the surface of the earth, where the

ratio of the vertical component to the horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field is

3 1/

Ans. Using the expression tan δ =

.

3

1

B

B

H

V

·

Therefore δ = 30

o

.

29. Consider the circuit shown here where APB and

AQB are semi-circles. What will be the magnetic field at the centre

C of the circular loop?

44

C.B.S.E Study Material

Ans. Zero, because magnetic fields due to APB and AQB are equal in magnitudes but opposite in

directions.

30. A current is set up in a long copper pipe. Is there a magnetic field (i) inside, (ii)

outside the pipe?

Ans. (i) There is no magnetic field inside the pipe.

(ii) There is a magnetic field outside the pipe.

31. The force F experienced by a particle of charge e moving with velocity v in a

magnetic field B is given by ( ). B v e F

× · Of these, name the pairs of vectors which are always

at right angles to each other.

Ans. F and V as well as F and B are the pairs which are always at right angles to each other.

32. Which one of the following will describe the smallest circle when projected with

the same velocity v perpendicular to the magnetic field B: (i) α – particle, and (ii) β – particle?

Ans. β–particle as mass of β–particle is less than that of alpha particle.

33. Equal currents I and I are flowing through two infinitely long parallel wires.

What will be the magnetic field at a point mid-way when the currents are flowing in the same

direction?

Ans. Zero, because fields due to two wires will be equal but opposite.

34. The figure shows a circular loop carrying current I.

Show the direction of the magnetic field with the help of lines of

force.

Ans. The magnetic field lines are as shown

35. Which one of the following will have minimum frequency of revolution, when

projected with the same velocity v perpendicular to the magnetic field B: (i) α-particle (ii) β-

particle.

Ans. Frequency of revolution v =

m 2π

qB

and

m

q

of α-particle is less, hence α-particle will have

minimum frequency of revolution.

36. What is the effect on a vertical spring carrying a weight when a current is passed

through the spring?

Ans. As the currents in the neighboring loops are in the same direction, hence they will attract each

other and as a result the spring will contract.

37. A current is passed through a loop of a flexible wire. What shape will it take?

Ans. It will acquire a circular shape because each small part of the loop will experience a repulsive

force due to the magnetic field from the opposite part of the loop.

38. An electron and a proton moving parallel to each other in the same direction

with equal moment, enter into a uniform magnetic field which is at right angles to their

velocities. Trace their trajectories in the magnetic field.

Ans. Because both electron and proton have the same charge and momentum, therefore they will

describe circles of equal radii as shown.

45

C.B.S.E Study Material

39. Name the physical quantity which has its unit JT

–1

. Is it a scalar or a vector

quantity?

Ans. Magnetic dipole moment has the unit JR

–1

. It is a vector quantity.

40. How does the (i) pole strength, and (ii) magnetic moment of each part of a bar

magnet change if it is cut into two equal pieces transverse to its length?

Ans. (i) Pole strength remains unchanged.

(ii) Magnetic moment m is half of the original value.

41. How does the (i) pole strength, and (ii) magnetic moment of each part of a bar

magnet change if it is cut into two equal pieces along its length?

Ans. (i) Pole strength of each part becomes half.

(ii) Magnetic moment also becomes half.

42. What is the source of magnetic field?

Ans. Magnetism is of electrical origin. The electrons revolving in an atom behave as tiny current

loops, which give rise to magnetism.

43. Compare the magnetic fields due to a straight solenoid and a bar magnet.

Ans. Both the fields are identical. In fact a long straight solenoid behaves as a bar magnet having

dipole moment m = N I A.

44. A short bar magnet placed with its axis making an angle θ with a uniform

external field B experiences a torque. What is the magnetic moment of the magnet?

Ans. Torque on a short bar magnet τ = MB sin θ, therefore M =

θ sin B

τ

45. Can two magnetic lines of force intersect? Justify your answer.

Ans. Two magnetic field lines cannot intersect at any point because if they do so then there will be

two possible directions of the magnetic field at the point of intersection, which is not possible.

46. Which one of the following will experience maximum force, when projected

with the same velocity ‘v’ perpendicular to the magnetic field (i) alpha particle and (ii) beta

particle?

Ans. The force experienced by a charged particle is given by the expression F = Bq v. Since an

alpha particle has more charge than the beta particle, therefore alpha particle will experience

more force.

47. Which one of the following will have minimum frequency of revolution, when

projected with the same velocity v perpendicular to the magnetic field B; (i) alpha particle and

(ii) beta particle?

Ans. The frequency of revolution of a charged particle in a magnetic field is given by v =

m 2π

Bq

.

The ratio of

m

q

for an alpha particle is less than that for a beta particle; therefore alpha

particle will have minimum frequency of revolution.

48. What is the effect on a vertical spring carrying a weight when a current is passed

through the spring?

46

C.B.S.E Study Material

Ans. A spring will behave as combination of different current carrying conductors carrying current

in the same direction; these conductors will attract each other. This will in turn contract the

spring.

49. Name the material used in making the core of moving coil galvanometer.

Ans. Soft iron.

50. A small magnet is pivoted to move freely in the magnetic meridian. At what

place on the earth’s surface, will the magnet be vertical.

Ans. At the magnetic poles of the earth.

51. An electron beam projected along + X-axis, experiences a force due to a

magnetic field along the + Y-axis. What is the direction of the magnetic field?

Ans. The direction of the magnetic field is along z-axis. This is because the direction of motion, the

magnetic field and the force are perpendicular to one other as an electron carries negative

charge.

52. The vertical component of Earth’s magnetic field at a place is 3 times the

horizontal component. What is the value of angle of dip at this place?

Ans. Given: Bv = 3 B

H

, we know that tan δ = 3

B

B 3

B

B

H

H

H

V

· · or δ = 60

o

Therefore angle of dip, δ = 60

o

53. An electron is moving along the +ve X-axis in the presence of uniform magnetic

field along the +ve Y-axis. What is the direction of force acting on it.

Ans. The force acts along the –ve Z-axis.

54. Why should the material used for making permanent magnets have high

coercivity?

Ans. It is because a permanent magnet should not easily de-magnetised.

55. An electron and a proton, having equal momenta, enter a uniform magnetic field

at right angels to the field lines. What will be the ratio of the radii of curvature of the their

trajectories?

Ans. As radius of charged particle in magnetic field is r =

.

Bq

mv

Since q, mv and B are same

therefore the ratio of their radii is 1.

56. A compass needle, pivoted about the horizontal axis and free to move in the

magnetic meridian is observed to point along the

(i) vertical direction at a place A.

(ii) horizontal direction at a place B

Give the value of the angel of dip at these two places.

Ans. (i) 90

o

and (ii) 0

o

57. An electron is moving with velocity v along the axis of a long straight solenoid

carrying current I. What will be the force acting on the electron due to the magnetic field of the

solenoid?

Ans. Zero, as force on charged particle moving in magnetic field is F = Bqv sin θ

Here both v and B are along the axis of solenoid, so θ = 0

o

between them. Hence F = qvB sin

θ = 0.

58. Derive an expression for the torque on a rectangular coil of area A, carrying a

current I and placed in a magnetic field B, the angle between the direction of B and the vector

perpendicular to the plane of the coil is φ .

Ans. Current carrying conductors usually form closed loops. This prompts us to find the total force

and torque acting on the loop. Consider a current carrying loop placed in a uniform magnetic

field as shown in figure. The loop can be considered to be consisting of a series of straight-

line segments. We will find that the total force acting on the loop is zero but there is net

torque acting on it.

47

C.B.S.E Study Material

Figure below shows a rectangular loop of wire with length ‘a’ and breadth ‘b’. A line

perpendicular to the plane of the loop (i.e. a normal to the plane) makes an angle φ with the

direction of the magnetic field B, and the loop carries a current I as shown. Let the forces

acting on the various sides of the loop be

4 3 2 1

F and , F , F , F

as shown. It follows from the

expression for the force experienced by a conductor in a magnetic field that force on arm AB

is

,

_

¸

¸

× ·

→ →

B AB I F

1

….(1)

Here I

,

_

¸

¸

→

AB

is a vector in the direction of the current. In accordance with Fleming’s left

hand rule this force acts in the place of the paper and is directed upwards as shown.

The force on arm CD is given by

,

_

¸

¸

× ·

→ →

B CB I F

1

….(2)

Here I

,

_

¸

¸

→

CB

is a vector in the direction of the current. In accordance with Fleming’s left

hand rule this force acts in the plane of the paper and is directed downwards as shown.

The sides with length ‘b’ i.e. AB and CD make an angle (90

o

– φ ) with the direction of the

magnetic field. Therefore the forces acting on these two sides given by equations (1) and (2)

are equal and opposite.

Since these two forces are equal and opposite and have the same line of action therefore they

cancel out each others effect and their resultant effect on the coil is zero.

Now the force on arm BC is

,

_

¸

¸

× ·

→ →

B BC I F

3

….(3)

Here

,

_

¸

¸

→

BC I

is a vector in the direction of the current. In accordance with Fleming’s left hand

rule this force acts perpendicular to the plane of the paper and is directed outwards as shown.

Finally the force on arm DA is

,

_

¸

¸

× ·

→ →

B DC I F

4

….(4)

Here

,

_

¸

¸

→

DA I

is a vector in the direction of the current. In

accordance with Fleming’s left hand rule this force acts

perpendicular to the plane of the paper and is directed

inwards as shown in figure below.

Both forces F

3

and F

4

make an angle of 90

o

with the

direction of the magnetic field. Therefore in magnitude

these forces are given by

F

3

= F

4

= I l Bsin 90

o

= I l B ….(5)

The lines of action of both these force are perpendicular to

the plane of the patper.

The two forces F

3

and F

4

lie along, different lines and each

gives rise to a torque about the X-axis. The two torques,

produce a resultant torque in +X direction. The arm of the

couple (perpendicular distance between the lines of action

of the two forces) from the figure below is given by

48

C.B.S.E Study Material

Arm of couple = b sin φ ….(6)

Therefore by the definition of torque we have

Torque = either force × arm of couple

Using equation 5 and 6 we have

Torque = I B a × b sin φ

But a b = A, area of the coil, therefore

τ = I BA sin φ

59. Derive a formula for the force between two parallel straight conductors carrying

current in the opposite directions and write the nature of the force. Hence define an ampere.

Ans. Consider two long, straight parallel wires separated by a distance ‘a’ and carrying I

1

and I

2

in

the same direction as shown. We can easily determine the force on one wire due to the

magnetic field set-up by the other wire. Wire 2, which carries a current I

2

, sets-up a magnetic

field B

2

at the position of wire 1.

The direction of B

2

is perpendicular to the wire, as shown in figure.

Now the magnetic force on length L of wire 1 is

,

_

¸

¸

× ·

→ →

2 1 1

B L I F

Since L is perpendicular to B

2

, the magnitude of F

1

is given by

F

1

= I

1

LB

2

….(1)

But the field due to wire 2 is given by the relation B =

a π 2

I μ

2 0

….(2)

Therefore from equations 1 and 2 we have

F

1

= I

1

LB

2

=

a 2π

I I Lμ

a 2π

I μ

L I

2 1 0 2 0

1

·

,

_

¸

¸

We can rewrite it in terms of force per unit length as

a 2π

I I μ

L

F

2 1 0 1

· ….(3)

The direction of F

1

is downward, towards wire 2, since

B L

×

is downwards. If one considers

the field set-up at wire 2 due to wire 1, force F

2

is found to be equal and opposite to F

1

, which

is in accordance with Newton’s third law of motion. When the currents are in opposite

directions, the forces are reversed and the wires repel each other. Hence we find that the force

per unit length of wire between two parallel current carrying wires is given by

F =

a 2π

I I μ

2 1 0

Therefore two conductors carrying current in the same direction attract each other whereas

two conductors carrying current in the opposite directions repel each other.

The above expression can be used to define ampere, the SI unit of current. Let I

1

= I

2

= 1

ampere, a = 1m then F = 2 × 10

–7

Nm

–1

Thus we have

One ampere is that much current which when flowing through each of the two infinitely long

straight conductors held 1 metre apart in space, produce a force of F = 2 × 10

–7

N per metre

of their length.

49

C.B.S.E Study Material

60. Explain how will you convert a galvanometer into a voltmeter to read a

maximum potential of ‘V’ volt. Can one use a voltmeter to measure the emf of a cell? Justify

your answer?

Ans. Suppose a galvanometer having resistance G is to be converted into a voltmeter, which can

measure the potential difference from 0 to V volt. Let a high resistance R be joined in series

with the galvanometer for this purpose. Its value is so chosen that when the galvanometer

with the resistance is connected between two points having a potential difference of V volt,

the galvanometer gives full-scale deflection. It is clear from the figure below that

V = I

g

(R + G)

or R =

G

I

V

g

−

On connecting the above high resistance in series with a

galvanometer, the galvanometer is converted into a voltmeter of range V volt.

A voltmeter cannot measure the emf of the cell as it draws current from the cell while

measuring potential difference.

61. Explain how will you convert a galvanometer into an ammeter to read a

maximum current of ‘I’ ampere. An ammeter is always connected in series with a circuit. Why?

Ans. Suppose a galvanometer of resistance G is to be converted into an ammeter having range 0 to

I ampere. Let I

g

be the current, which gives full-scale deflection in the galvanometer. Suppose

S is the appropriate shunt required for this purpose i.e. when

shunt S is used, current I

g

passes through the galvanometer

and the remaining (I – I

g

) passes through the shunt as shown

in figure below. Since the shunt and the galvanometer are

connected in parallel therefore the potential differences

across both will be same. Hence

I

g

G =(I – I

g

) S ….(1)

S =

g

g

I I

G I

−

….(2)

An ammeter is used to measure current; therefore it is connected in series so that the entire

current passes through it. Moreover an ammeter is a low resistance device.

62. Using Biot Savart’s law, derive an expression for the magnetic field at any point

on the axis of a circular coil of radius r and having N number of turns. Indicate the direction of

the magnetic field.

Ans. Consider a circular loop of wire of radius R located in the YZ plane and carrying a steady

current I as shown in figure below. Let us calculate the magnetic field at an axial point P a

distance x from the centre of the loop. From the figure it is clear that any element dL is

perpendicular to

, rˆ

furthermore all the elements around the loop are at the same distance r

from P, where r

2

= x

2

+ R

2

. Hence by Biot Savart’s law the magnetic field at point P due to the

current element dL is given by

dB =

( )

2 2

0

2

0

R x

IdL

4π

μ

r

r dL I

4π

μ

+

·

×

→

ˆ

….(1)

50

C.B.S.E Study Material

The direction of the magnetic field dB due to the element dL is perpendicular to the palen

formed by rˆ and dL as shown in figure above. The vector dB can be resolved into

components dB

x

along the X-axis and dB

y

which is perpendicular to the X-axis. When the

components perpendicular to the X-axis are added over the whole loop, the result is zero. That

is, by symmetry any element on one side of the loop will set up a perpendicular component

that cancels the component set up by an element diametrically opposite it. Therefore it is

obvious that the resultant magnetic field at P will be along the X-axis. This result can be

obtained by integrating the components dB

x

= dB cosθ. Therefore, we have

B =

∫ ∫

+

·

2 2

0

R x

cosθ dL

4π

I μ

cosθ B d ….(2)

Where the integral is to be taken over the entire loop since θ, x and R are constants for all

elements of the loop and since

cos θ =

2 2

R x

R

+

therefore, we have

B =

( ) ( )

3/2

2 2

2

0

3/2

2 2

0

R x 2

IR μ

dL

R x 4π

IR μ

+

·

+

∫

The direction of magnetic field is as shown below.

63. Using Biot Savart’s law, derive an expression for the magnetic field intensity at

the centre of a current carrying circular coil.

Ans. Consider a circular loop of radius r carrying I and having centre at O as shown in figure

below.

Consider a small current element dL on the loop. Then by Biot Savart’s law the magnitude of

the magnetic field at the centre of the loop due to the current element we have

51

C.B.S.E Study Material

dB =

2

0

r

θ sin IdL

4π

μ

….(1)

In this case the angel between the current element dL and the radius vector is 90

o

therefore

equation 1 can be written as

dB =

2

0

r

L d I

4π

μ

….(2)

The circular loop can be considered to be consisting of such small elements placed side by

side, and then the magnetic intensities of these elements will be in the same direction.

Thus, net intensity of B at the centre of the loop is given by

B =

∫

B d

=

∫ ∫

· dL

r

I

4π

μ

r

IdL

4π

μ

2

0

2

0

….(3)

But

∫

dL

= 2πr Therefore, we have

B =

r

I 2π

4π

μ

0

….(4)

64. A charge ‘q’ moving in a straight line is accelerated by a potential difference

‘V’. It enters a uniform magnetic field ‘B’ perpendicular to its path. Deduce in terms of V an

expression for the radius of the circular path in which it travels.

Ans. When the electron moves in a magnetic field, it is acted upon by the magnetic force given by

( ) B v q F

× · . Since the angle between v and B is 90

o

then the force is given by F = qvB. This

force is perpendicular to both the velocity vector and the magnetic field vector, hence the

particle will move in a circular path with a constant speed v. The necessary centripetal force

for circular motion will be provided by the Lorentz magnetic force.

Let m be the mass of the charged particle and r the radius of the circular path, then the

necessary centripetal force is given by .

r

mv

2

Hence for the circular motion of the charged

particle we have

r

mv

2

= qvB or r =

Bq

mv

Since mv = p = , 2mqV 2mE · where V is the potential through which the electrons has

been accelerated. Therefore we have

r =

q B

2mV

Bq

2mqV

Bq

mv

2

· ·

65. A particle with charge ‘q’ moving with velocity ‘v’ in the plane of the paper

enters a uniform magnetic field ‘B’, acting perpendicular to the plane of the paper. Deduce an

expression for the time period of the charge, as it moves in a circular path in the field. Why

does the kinetic energy of the charge not charge, while moving in the magnetic field?

Ans. Due to the presence of the perpendicular magnetic field the particle moves in a circle of radius

r given by

r =

qB

mv

....(1)

The charged particle moves in a circle of radius r. The time taken to complete one revolution

is therefore

T =

velocity

path circular the of length

52

C.B.S.E Study Material

=

Bq

m 2π

v

r 2π

·

The magnetic force acts an angle of 90

o

. Therefore it does not do any work. Hence the kinetic

energy of the particle does not change.

66. Using Ampere’s circuital law, derive an expression for the magnetic field along

the axis of a toroidal solenoid.

Ans. A toroid is a solenoid of finite length bent in the form of a circle. Let N be the number of turns

and I be the current passed through it. If the coils are closely spaced, the field inside the

toroidal coil is tangent to the dotted circular path as shown in figure below and is same at all

points lying on the dotted line.

Therefore we have

( )

∫ ∫

· ·

→

r 2π B dL B dL . B

(1)

By Ampere’s circuital law we have

∫

·

→

NI μ dL . B

0

(2)

From equations 1 and 2 we have

B(2πr) = µ

0

NI

or B =

r 2π

NI μ

0

but

r 2π

N

= n i.e. number of turns per unit length

Therefore we have B = µ

0

nI

This gives the field inside a toroidal solenoid.

67. Name the elements of the earth’s magnetic field at a place. Explain their

meaning?

Ans. The elements required to completely specific the earth’s magnetic field at a plane are called

magnetic elements. These elements are

(i) Declination. (θ)

(ii) Dip or inclination. (δ)

(iii) Horizontal component of earth’s

magnetic field. (B

H

)

(i) Declination: Declination at a place is defined as the

acute angle between the magnetic meridian and the

geographic meridian.

In figure above angle θ is called the angel of

declination. There are several periodic variation. There

are several periodic variations in the value of

declination for a given location.

(ii) Dip: Dip at a place is defined as the angle between

the direction of total intensity of earth’s magnetic field and a horizontal line in the magnetic

field and a horizontal line in the magnetic meridian at that place. It is denoted by δ.

53

C.B.S.E Study Material

Suppose a freely suspended magnet aligns itself along the direction AO as shown in figure,

then, this gives the direction of earth’s total magnetic field at that place. Then the angle

∠ BAO = δ is called the angle of dip or simply dip at that point.

(iii) Horizontal Component of Earth’s Magnetic Field: It is the component of total

intensity of earth’s magnetic field along a horizontal line in the magnetic meridian. It is

denoted by B

H

or H.

68. State and illustrate Curie’s law in magnetism.

Ans. Experimentally one finds that the intensity of magnetization (I) of a paramagnetic material is

1. directly proportional to magnetic induction (B) or applied field, and

2. inversely proportional to the temperature (T) of the material. i.e.

I ∝ B ….(1)

and I =

T

1

….(2)

combining the above two equations we have

I =

T

B

….(3)

As B ∝ H therefore we have

I =

T

H

or we have

T

1

H

I

∝

But

H

I

= χ

m

therefore the above equation becomes χ

m

∝

T

1

or χ

m

=

T

C

….(4)

where C is a constant called Curie constant. The above equation is called Curie law.

69. You are given two identical looking bars A and B. one of them is a bar magnet

and the other is an ordinary piece of iron. Give an experiment to identify which one of the two

is a bar magnet. You are not to use any additional material for the experiment.

Ans. Take one of the rods in your hand and touch the other by (lying on the table) at the ends and

also in the centre. If there is no attraction at the centre but there is attraction at the ends then

the rod on the table is a magnet.

70. Write the expression for the magnetic dipole moment for a closed current loop.

Give its SI unit. Derive an expression for the torque experienced by a magnetic dipole in a

uniform magnetic field.

Ans. The required expression is τ = MB sinθ.

It is measured in Am

2

Consider a uniform magnetic field of strength B. Let a magnetic dipole be suspended in it

such that its axis makes an angle θ with the field as shown in figure below. If ‘m’ is the

strength of each pole, the two poles experience two equal and

opposite forces ‘mB’ each. These forces constitute a couple

which tends to rotate the dipole. Suppose the couple exerts a

torque of magnitude τ.

Then τ = either force × arm of the couple = mB × AN = mB × 2

L sinθ or

Since m × 2L is the magnetic dipole moment of the magnet.

Therefore τ = MB sinθ in vector form we have B M τ

× ·

71. Sketch the lines of force of a magnetic field around a bar magnet, placed along

the magnetic meridian, with its North Pole pointing towards the geographical south. Indicate

the position of the neutral points.

Ans. The required figure is as shown below.

54

C.B.S.E Study Material

Here P and Q are the neutral points.

72. A magnetized needle suspended freely in a uniform magnetic field experiences

torque but no net force. An iron nail near a bar magnet experiences a force of attraction in

addition to torque. Why?

Ans. A bar magnet produces a non-uniform magnetic field. Therefore in this field the nail

experiences both a translatory force and a torque. Therefore in this field the nail experiences

both a translatory force and a torque.

73. The susceptibility of a magnetic material is – 0.085. Identify the magnetic type

of the material. A specimen of this material is kept in a non-uniform magnetic field. Draw the

modified field pattern.

Ans. The material is a diamagnetic material as diamagnetic

materials have negative susceptibility. The modified field

pattern is as shown below.

74. Distinguish between a diamagnetic substance and a paramagnetic substance

stating two points of difference.

Ans.

Diamagnetic Paramagnetics

These are the substances, which are

feebly repelled by a magnet. E.g. Bi, Zn,

Cu Ag, Au, diamond C, NaCl, H

2

O, Hg,

N

2

, H

2

etc Exhibited by solids liquids

and gases.

When a diamagnetic substance is placed

in a magnetizing field, the lines of force

prefer not to pass through the substance.

These are the substances, which are feebly

attracted by a magnet. E.g. Al, Na, Pt, Mn,

CuCl

2

, O

2

etc. Exhibited by solids, liquids and

gases.

When a paramagnetic substance is placed in a

magnetizing field, the lines of force prefer to

pass through the substance.

75. A magnetic needle free to rotate in a vertical position orients itself with its axis

vertical at a certain place on the earth. What are the values of (i) angle of dip and (ii) horizontal

component of earth’s magnetic field at this place? Where will this place be on the earth?

Ans. The angle of dip is 90

o

and the horizontal component of earth’s magnetic field is zero. This

place is the magnetic pole of the earth.

55

C.B.S.E Study Material

76. Define neutral point. Draw lines of force when two identical magnets are placed

at finite distance apart with their N-poles facing each other. Locate the neutral

points.

Ans. It is a point near a magnet where the magnetic field of the earth is

completely balanced by the magnetic field of the magnet. The figure is as

shown below.

The cross indicates the neutral point.

77. A diamagnetic material and a paramagnetic material of the same shape and size

are in turn kept in an external uniform magnetic field. Draw the modification of the magnetic

field lines of force in the two cases. How does the intensity of magnetization of a paramagnetic

material vary with temperature?

Ans. The modified lines of force are as shown below.

The intensity of a magnetization of a paramagnetic materials depends inversely on its absolute

temperature.

78. A uniform magnetic field gets modified as shown below, when two specimens X

and Y are placed in it.

(i) Identify the two specimens X and Y.

(ii) State the reason for the behaviour of the field lines in X and Y.

Ans. (i) X is a diamagnetic substance and Y is a paramagnetic substance.

(ii) This is because the permeability of a diamagnetic substance is less than one and that of a

paramagnetic substance is greater than one.

79. A charged particle having a charge q, is moving with a speed of v along the X-

axis. It enters a region of space where the electric field is ( ) j E E

ˆ

and a magnetic field

B

are

both present. The particle, on emerging from the region, is observed to be moving, along the X-

axis only. Obtain an expression for the magnitude of B in terms of v and E. Give the direction

of B.

Ans. Since the particle continues to move along the X axis therefore the magnetic force acting on it

should be completely balanced by the electric force. Since the electric force acts along the Y-

axis therefore the magnetic field must be along the Z-axis. Thus is equilibrium

qE = Bqv or v = E/B

80. A straight wire of length L carrying a current I, stays suspended horizontally in

mid air in a region suspended horizontally in mid air in a region where there is a uniform

magnetic field. The linear mass density of the wire is λ. Obtain the magnitude and direction of

the magnetic field.

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C.B.S.E Study Material

Ans. The magnetic fore acting on the straight wire balances the weight of the wire. Therefore in

equilibrium we have

Mg = BIL, here M = Lλ, therefore we have

Llg = BIL or B = λ/Ig

This field acts horizontally ⊥ to the length of the wire.

81. Name the three types of magnetic materials which behave differently when

placed in a non uniform magnetic field. Give two properties for each of them.

Ans. The three types of magnetic materials are

(i) Diamagnetic (ii) Paramagnetic and (iii) Ferromagnetic

Diamagnetic Paramagnetic Ferromagnetic

These are the substances,

which are feebly repelled

by a magnet. e.g. Bi, Zn,

Cu Ag, Au, diamond C,

NaCl, H

2

O, Hg, N

2

, H

2

e.t.c. Exhibited by solids

liquids and gases.

When a diamag-netic

substance is placed in a

magnetizing field, the

lines of force prefer not

to pass through the

substance.

These are the substances,

which are feebly attracted by a

magnet. e.g. Al, Na, Pt, Mn,

CuCl

2

, O

2

e.t.c. Exhibited by

solids, liquids and gases.

When a paramagnetic

substance is placed in a

magnetizing field, the lines of

force prefer to pass through the

substance.

These are the substances,

which are strongly attracted

by a magnet. e.g. Fe, Ni,

CO, Fe

3

O

4

etc. Exhibited by

solids only, that too

crystalline

When a ferromagnetic

substance is placed in a

magnetizing field, the lines

of force prefer to pass

through the substance.

82. Show mathematically that the cyclotron frequency does not depend upon the

speed of the particle.

Ans. Due to the presence of the perpendicular magnetic field the particle moves in a circle of radius

r given by

r =

qB

mv

….(1)

The path of the particles in the dees is a semicircle and the time the particle spends in each

dee is

t =

v

r π

velocity

path ar semicircul the of length

·

=

Bq

m π

….(2)

using equation (1)

The above time is independent of the radius of the path and the velocity of the charged

particle. Now the time period of the cyclotron is twice the time spent by the particle in each

dee. Thus

T = 2t =

Bq

m π 2

….(3)

Hence cyclotron frequency or the magnetic resonance frequency is given by

v =

m π 2

Bq

T

1

· ….(4)

which is independent of the speed of the particle.

83. Why does a paramagnetic substance display greater magnetization for the same

magnetizing field when cooled? How does a diamagnetic substance respond to similar

temperature charges?

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C.B.S.E Study Material

Ans. (i) The tendency to disrupt the alignment of dipoles (with the magnetizing field) arising from

random thermal motion is reduced at lower temperature, hence, greater magnetization of the

given paramagnetic sample.

(ii) The induced dipole moment is a diamagnetic simple is always opposite to the magnetizing

field, no matter what the internal motion of atoms is. Thus it is independent of the

temperature.

84. Is any work done by a magnetic field on a moving charge? Why?

Ans. No work is being done by a magnetic field on a moving charge because force due to magnetic

field acts perpendicular to the direction of motion of the charged particle. Consequently, work

done W =

S . F

= FS cos 90

o

= 0.

85. Define the SI unit of magnetic field. “A charge moving at right angles to a

uniform magnetic field does not undergo change in kinetic energy,” why?

Ans. The SI unit of magnetic field is tesla (T). Magnetic field is said to be 1 tesla if a charge of 1 C,

while moving with a velocity of 1 ms

–1

at right angles to the magnetic field, experiences a

force of 1 N.

When a charge is moving at right angle to a uniform magnetic field, no work is being done on

the charge by the magnetic field because force due to magnetic field behaves as the

centripetal force. Hence, in accordance with work-energy theorem, the kinetic energy of the

charge remains unchanged.

86. A stream of electrons traveling with speed v ms

–1

at right angles to a uniform

magnetic field ‘B’ is deflected in a circular path of radius ‘r’. Prove that

B r

v

m

e

·

Ans. Let a stream of electrons be traveling with speed v at right angles to a uniform magnetic field

B then force due to magnetic field provides the requisite centripetal force which deflects the

electron beam along a circular path of radius ‘r’ such that

Bev =

r

mv

2

or

rB

v

m

e

·

where e = electronic charge and m = mass of the electron.

87. Why do two long parallel conductors carrying current exert force on each other?

Ans. We know that a magnetic field is set up around a current carrying straight conductor. Under

the influence of this magnetic field conduction electrons moving in the other conductor (also

carrying a current) experience Lorentz force. As the electrons are confined to the conductor,

force on electrons show its effect as the force on the conductor.

88. Why do two straight parallel metallic wires carrying current in the opposite

directions repel each other?

Ans. Consider two long, parallel, straight wires carrying currents I

1

and I

2

respectively. Due to current I

1

, the magnetic field

developed at a point P on second wire, as per right hand rule,

points into the plane of paper. Now in accordance with

Fleming’s left rule second conductor carrying current I

2

experiences a force

→

12

F

due to magnetic field

→

2

B

and the

direction of force is normally away. Thus, it experiences a

repulsive force.

89. In Fig. below, the straight wire AB is fixed while the loop is free to move under

the influence of the electric currents flowing in them. In which direction does the loop begin to

move? Give reason for your answer.

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C.B.S.E Study Material

Ans. The loop moves towards the straight wire AB. In the loop in the side nearer to wire AB

current I

2

is in same direction as I

1

and hence attractive force acts. However, in the side farther

away from wire AB current I

2

is in the opposite direction and the force is repulsive. But as the

magnitude of attractive force is attractive in nature and hence, the loop moves towards the wire AB.

90. Define the terms ‘Magnetic Dip’ and ‘Magnetic declination’ with the help of

relevant diagrams.

Ans. Magnetic dip: Magnetic dip at a place is defined as the angle between

the direction of total intensity of earth’s magnetic field and a

horizontal line in the magnetic meridian at that place. It is denoted by

δ.

Magnetic declination: Magnetic Declination at a place is defined as

the acute angle between the magnetic meridian and the geographic

meridian.

In figure below shows both the magnetic dip and the magnetic

declination.

91. State the principle of working of a cyclotron. Write two uses of this machine.

Ans. It is based on the principle that the positive ions can be accelerated to high energies with a

comparatively smaller alternating potential difference by making them to cross electric field

again and again, by making use of a strong magnetic field.

Uses: (i) It is used to accelerate charged particles like protons, deutrons, etc. which is used to

induce nuclear reaction.

(ii) It is used in hospitals to bombard tumour with nuclear radiations.

92. Which one of the two, an ammeter or a milliammeter, has a higher resistance and

why?

Ans. The shunt resistance connected to convert a galvanometer into an ammeter or a milliammeter

is given by the expression S =

,

I I

G I

g

g

−

where S is shunt resistance, G galvanometer resistance,

I total current through G and S, and I

g

galvanometer current. In case of milliammeter I is

small.

Therefore S

milliammeter

> S

ammeter

. Hence resistance of a milliammeter is greater than that of an

ammeter.

93. Derive an expression for the maximum force experienced by a straight conductor

of length L, carrying current I and kept in a uniform magnetic field, B.

Ans. Consider a straight segment of a conducting wire; with length L and cross sectional area A,

the current is from bottom to top as shown in figure below. The wire is in a uniform magnetic

field B perpendicular to the plane of the diagram and directed into the plane. Let us assume

that the moving charges are positive.

The drift velocity is upward, perpendicular to B. The average force experienced by each

charge is

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C.B.S.E Study Material

,

_

¸

¸

× ·

→ →

B vd q f

….(1)

Directed to the left as shown in the figure

Since

→

d

v

and

→

B

are perpendicular, the magnitude of the force is given by

f = qv

d

B ….(2)

Let n be the number density of charges i.e. number of charges per unit volume. A segment of

the conductor with length L has volume V = A L and contains a number of charges N given

by

N = nA L ….(3)

Now the total force F on all the charges moving in this segment is

F = Nf = (n AL) qv

d

B

= (nqv

d

A) (LB)

But nqv

d

A = I, therefore the above equation becomes

F = BIL ….(4)

94. Three identical specimens of magnetic materials Nickel, Antimony, Aluminium

are kept in a non-uniform magnetic field. Draw the modification in the field lines in each case.

Justify your answer.

Ans. Nickel is ferromagnetic. Antimony is diamagnetic and Aluminium is paramagnetic. Therefore

they will show the behaviour as shown in the figures below.

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C.B.S.E Study Material

95. Give one example each of a diamagnetic and a paramagnetic material. In what

way would each of these tend to move when placed in a non-uniform external magnetic field?

Ans. Diamagnetic Gold,

Paramagnetic – Platinum.

When a diamagnetic substance is placed in a non-uniform magnetic field it moves from

stronger portion of the magnetic field towards the weaker portion of the magnetic field.

When a paramagnetic substance is placed in a non-uniform magnetic field it moves from

weaker portion of magnetic field towards the stronger portion of the magnetic field.

96. A charged particle enters a region of uniform magnetic field with its initial

velocity directed (i) parallel to the field and (ii) perpendicular to the field. Show that there is

no change in the kinetic energy of the particle in both the cases.

Ans. The force experienced by a charged particle in a magnetic field is given by the expression

( ) B v q F

× · .

(i) When the initial velocity is parallel to the magnetic field θ = 0.

∴ F = qvB sin θ = 0 and no change in energy takes place.

(ii) In this expression the velocity and the force vectors are always perpendicular to

each other. Since the direction of motion of the particle is given by the direction of

velocity, therefore the displacement of the charged particle will also be perpendicular (θ =

90

o

) to the direction of the force.

Now work = change in K.E.

Since W = FS cos θ, and θ = 90

o

, therefore work done in zero.

Hence change in kinetic energy is zero.

97. Write the relation for the force F acting on a charge q moving with a velocity v

through a magnetic field B in vector notation. Using this relation deduce conditions under

which this force will be (i) maximum (ii) minimum.

Ans. The expression for force in vector notation is

( ) B v q F

× ·

In scalar form this is written as

F = Bqv sin θ, where θ is the angle between the velocity vector and the magnetic field vector.

Force will be maximum if sin θ is maximum or

Sin θ = 1 or θ = 90

o

. This maximum value of force is F = Bqv

Force will be minimum if sin θ is minimum or

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C.B.S.E Study Material

Sin θ = 0 or θ = 0

o

. This minimum value of force is F = 0

98. Obtain an expression for the magnetic moment of an electron in a circular orbit

of radius ‘r’ and moving with a speed ‘v’. State the rule to find its direction. How does this

magnetic moment change when

(i) the frequency of revolution is doubled

(ii) the orbital radius is halved?

Ans. Equivalent current of an electron revolving in an orbit of an atom is I = ve =

T

e

where v is

frequency and T is time period of revolution given by

T =

v

r 2π

or v =

T

r 2π

therefore I = ve

=

r 2π

ve

So, the magnetic moment of a current loop is

M = I A

or M = IA

=

r 2π

ve

× πr

2

or M =

2

r ev

This gives magnetic moment of an electron revolving with speed ‘v’ in a circular orbit of

radius r.

Direction of magnetic moment is given by right hand screw rule.

If fingers are curled in the direction of current, then thumb gives the direction of magnetic

field.

(i) As M = IA = veA, so when frequency v is doubled, magnetic moment M is doubled.

(ii) By principle of conservation of angular momentum mvr = mv‘r’

or vr = v’

2

r

or v’ = 2v

So when radius r is halved speed v gets doubled. Therefore magnetic moment remains same.

99. Write the expression for the magnitude of force per unit length, between tow

infinitely long parallel straight current carrying conductors. Hence define the SI unit of current.

Ans. The expression for force is F = .

a 2π

I I μ

2 1 0

The above expression can be used to define ampere,

the SI unit of current.

Let I

1

= I

2

= 1 ampere a = 1m then F = 2 × 10

–7

Nm

–1

. Thus we have one ampere is that much

current which when flowing through each of the two infinitely long straight conductors held 1

metre apart in space, produce a force of F = 2 × 10

–7

N per metre of their length.

100. Obtain an expression for the frequency of revolution of a charged particle moving in a uniform

transverse magnetic field. How does the time period of the circulating ions in a cyclotron

depend on (i) the speed, (ii) the radius of the path of ions.

Ans. The necessary centripetal force required by charged particle to revolve in a circular path in

magnetic field is provided by force due to magnetic field i.e.,

r

mv

2

= Bqv

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C.B.S.E Study Material

or v =

m

Bqr

So, the frequency of revolution is then given by

n =

r 2π

v

=

m

Bqr

r 2π

1

×

=

m 2π

Bq

Time period of the circulating ions in a cyclotron is

T =

Bq

m 2π

(i) From the above expression we find that time period is independent of the speed v.

(ii) Also it follows that time period is independent of the radius of the path of ions.

101. Explain with the help of a labeled diagram the underlying principle, construction and working

of a moving coil galvanometer.

Ans. It is an instrument used to detect weak currents in a circuit.

Principle: It is based on the principle that, whenever a loop carrying current is placed in a

magnetic field, it experiences a torque, which tends to rotate it.

Construction: It consists of a rectangular or circular coil

made by winding a fine insulated copper wire on an

aluminium frame. A thin phosphor bronze strip from a

torsion head, which is connected to terminal screw S

1

,

suspends this coil. To the lower portion of the screw is

attached a small light mirror which rotates along with the

strip and whose deflection can be measured by a lamp and

scale arrangement. The lower end of the coil is connected

to a fine spring which is connected to another terminal

screw S

2

. The coil hangs in space between the pole pieces

of a powerful horseshoe magnet NS as shown in figure

below. The pole pieces are made concave cylindrical. This

provides a radial magnetic field. Since the field is radial,

therefore the plane of the coil remains parallel to the

magnetic field in all the orientations of the coil. In between

the pole pieces, within the coil, lies a soft iron cylindrical

piece called ‘core’. The core does not touch the coil

anywhere. The whole arrangement is enclosed in a non-

magnetic box to protect it from air currents. Three leveling

screws are provided at the base.

Working: When the closed loop is suspended in the magnetic field, it experiences a torque,

which tends to rotate it along a vertical axis. This torque, called the deflecting torque, is given

by

τ = nBIA sin φ ….(1)

where φ is the angle which the normal to the plane of the coil makes with the direction of the

magnetic field. Since the magnetic field is radial therefore the normal to the plane of the coil

will always be perpendicular to the applied magnetic field i.e. φ = 90

o

and sin φ = 1,

Therefore equation 1 can be written as

τ

d

= BInA ….(2)

As a result of this torque the coil gets deflected. This produces a twist in the suspension wire,

due to which the coil is acted upon by another torque called restoring torque. This torque

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C.B.S.E Study Material

tends to take the coil back to its original position. If ‘C’ is the restoring torque per unit

angular twist and θ is the angle through which the wire has been turned then the restoring

torque is given by

τ = cθ …(3)

The closed loop is twisted till the restoring torque becomes equal to the deflecting torque.

Therefore, in equilibrium, from equations (2) and (3) we have

BInA = cθ

I =

nBA

c

θ ….(4)

or I = K θ

102. Explain with the help of a labeled diagram the underlying principle, construction and working

of a cyclotron.

Ans. Principle: It is based on the principle that the positive ions can be accelerated to high energies

with a comparatively smaller alternating potential difference by making them to cross electric

field again and again, by making use of a strong magnetic field.

Construction: It consists of two D-shaped, hollow metal dees D

1

and D

2

. The dees are placed

with a small gap in between them. The dees are connected

to a source of high frequency alternating potential

difference. The dees are evacuated in order to minimize

energy losses resulting from collisions between the ions

and air molecules. The whole apparatus is placed between

the poles of an electromagnet as shown in figure below.

The magnetic field is perpendicular to the plane of the

dees.

Working: In a cyclotron, particles of mass m and charge q

move inside an evacuated chamber in a uniform magnetic

field

B

that is perpendicular to the plane of their paths.

The alternating potential difference applied between the hollow electrodes D

1

and D

2

, creates

an changes precisely twice in each revolution, so that the particles get a push each time they

cross the gap. The pushes increase their speed and kinetic energy, boosting them into paths of

larger radius. The electric field increases the speed and the magnetic field makes the particles

move in circular paths. Due to the presence of the perpendicular magnetic field the particle

moves in a circle of radius r given by

r =

qB

mv

….(1)

The path of the particles in the dees is a semicircle and the time the particle spends in each

dees is

t =

Bq

πm

v

πr

velocity

path ar semicircul the of length

· ·

[by using equation (1)]

The above time is independent of the radius of the path and the velocity of the charged

particle. Hence the charged particle spends the same time in each dee and encounters a dee of

opposite polarity whenever it comes into the gap between the dees and thus is continuously

accelerated.

103. State Biot Sarart’s law for the magnetic field due to a current carrying element. Use this law to

obtain a formula for magnetic field due to an infinitely long straight conductor.

Ans. Consider a thin, straight wire carrying a constant current I along the X-axis as shown in

figure. Consider an element dL at a distance r from P where the magnetic field has to be

found. The direction of the field due to this element is out of the paper. Since

r dL ˆ ×

→

is out of

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C.B.S.E Study Material

the paper. All elements of the conductor give a contribution directly out of the paper at P.

Therefore by Biot Savart’s law we have

dB =

2

0

r

θ sin IdL

4π

μ

….(1)

In order to integrate this expression we must relate θ, dL and r. From the figure below, from

right angled triangle AOP we have

θ + φ = 90

o

or θ = 90

o

– φ Therefore

sinθ = sin (90

o

– φ ) = cos φ ….(2)

Again in right angled triangle AOP we have

cos φ =

r

a

or r =

φ cos

a

….(3)

Also tan φ =

a

L

or L = a tan φ ,

Differentiating

We get dL = a sec

2

φ dφ ….(4)

Substituting equations 2, 3 and 4 in equation 1 we have

dB =

( )

2

2 2

0

a

φ cos φ cos dφ φ sec a

4π

I μ

=

a

dφ φ cos

4π

I μ

0

….(5)

The total intensity of the magnetic field can be determined by integrating equation 5 within

limits φ = –φ

1

to φ = φ

2

Therefore we have

B =

∫

2

1

φ

φ

0

a 4π

I μ

cos φ dφ

= [ ]

2

1

φ

φ

0

φ sin

a 4π

I μ

−

or B =

a 4π

I μ

0

[sin (φ

2

) – sin (–φ

1

)]

or B =

a 4π

I μ

0

[sin φ

2

+ sin φ

1

] ….(6)

This gives the value of magnetic field at a distance ‘a’ form

the conductor.

If the conductor is infinitely long, then φ

1

= φ

2

=

,

P

π

then equation 6 becomes

B =

1

]

1

¸

+

2

π

sin

2

π

sin

a 4π

I μ

0

or B =

a 4π

I μ

0

[1 + 1]

or B =

a

2I

a 4π

I μ

0

104. Figure below shows a long straight wire of circular cross section (radius a) carrying steady

current I. The current is uniformly distributed across this cross-section. Calculate the magnetic

field in the region r < a and r > a. Draw a graph showing the variation of magnetic field for the

above two cases.

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C.B.S.E Study Material

Ans. Consider a long circular wire of radius ‘a’ carrying a steady current (dc) that is uniformly

distributed along the cross section of the wire as shown in figure. Let us calculate the

magnetic field in the regions r ≥ a and r < a. In region 1 let us choose a circular path of radius

r centred at the wire. From symmetry, we find that B is perpendicular of dL at every point on

the circular path 1 is I

0

, therefore by Ampere’s law we have

∮ B.dL = B∮dL = B(2πr) = µ

0

I

0

….(1)

or B =

r 2π

I μ

0 0

….(2)

for r ≥ a

Now consider the interior of the wire i.e., region (2) where r < a. In this the current I enclosed

by the path is less than I

0

. Since the current is assumed to be uniform over the area of the

wire,

Therefore

0

2

2

2

2

0

I

a

r

I or

πa

πr

I

I

· ·

….(3)

Now applying Ampere’s circuital rule to region (2) we have

∮B.dL = B(2πr)

= µ

0

I = µ

0

,

_

¸

¸

0

2

2

I

a

r

….(4)

or B =

,

_

¸

¸

2

0 0

2ππ

I μ

r for r < a

The magnetic field versus r for this system is as shown in the

figure below.

105. (a) With the help of a labeled diagram, explain the principle and working of a moving coil

galvanometer.

(b) Two parallel coaxial circular coils of equal radius ‘R’ and equal number of turns ‘N’, carry

equal currents ‘I’ in the same direction and are separated by a distance ‘2R’. Find the

magnitude and direction of the net magnetic field produced at the midpoint of the line joining

their centres.

Ans. (a) It is an instrument used to detect weak currents in a circuit.

Principle: It is based on the principle that, whenever a loop

carrying current is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a

torque, which tends to rotate it.

Working: When the closed loop is suspended in the magnetic

field, it experiences a torque, which tends to rotate it along a

vertical axis. This torque, called the deflecting torque, is given by

τ = n BI A sin φ ….(1)

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C.B.S.E Study Material

where φ is the angle which the normal to the plane of the coil makes with the direction of the

magnetic field. Since the magnetic field is radial therefore the normal to the plane of the coil

will always be perpendicular to the applied magnetic field i.e., φ = 90

o

and sin φ = 1,

therefore equation 1 can be written as

τ

d

= BInA ….(2)

As a result of this torque the coil gets deflected. This produces a twist in the suspension wire,

due to which the coil is acted upon by another torque called restoring torque. This torque

tends to take the coil back to its original position. If ‘C’ is the restoring torque per unit

angular twist and θ is the angle through which the wire has deflected then the restoring torque

is given by

τ

r

= Cθ ….(3)

The closed loop is twisted till the restoring torque becomes equal to the deflecting torque.

Therefore, in equilibrium, from equations (2) and (3) we have

Bin A = Cθ =

nBA

C

θ ….(4)

(b) The magnetic field at a distance R from a circular coil is given by the expression

B =

( ) ( )

3/2

2

2

0

3/2

2 2

2

0

2R 2

NIR μ

R R 2

NIR μ

·

+

For coil 1 B

1

=

( )

,

2R 2

NIR μ

3/2

2

2

0

For coil 2 B

2

=

( )

,

2R 2

NIR μ

3/2

2

2

0

Both are directed in the same direction, therefore the resultant magnetic field at the centre is

B =

( )

3/2

2

2

0

2R

NIR μ

106. (a) State Biot-Savart’s law. Using this law, derive the expression for the magnetic field due to

a current carrying circular loop of radius ‘R’, at a point which is at a distance ‘x’ from its

centre along the axis of the loop.

(b) Two small identical circular loops, marked (1) and (2), carrying equal currents, are placed

with the geometrical axes perpendicular of each other as shown in the figure. Find the mag-

nitude and direction of the net magnetic field produced at the point O.

Ans. (a) It states that the magnetic field due to a small current element at a distance r from it is

given by dB =

2

0

r

θ sin IdL

4π

μ

Consider a circular loop of wire of radius R located in the YZ plane and carrying a steady

current I as shown in figure below. Let us calculate the magnetic field at an axial point P a

distance x from the centre of the loop. From the figure it is clear that any element dL is

67

C.B.S.E Study Material

perpendicular to

, rˆ

furthermore all the elements around the loop are at the same distance r

from P, where r

2

= x

2

+ R

2

. Hence by Biot Savart’s law the magnetic field at point P due to the

current element dL is given by

dB =

( )

2 2

0

2

0

R x

IdL

4π

μ

r

r dL I

4π

μ

+

·

×

→

ˆ

….(1)

The direction of the magnetic field dB due to the element dL is perpendicular to the plane

formed by rˆ and dL as shown in figure above. The vector dB can be resolved into

components dB

x

along the X-axis and dB

y

which is perpendicular to the X-axis. When the

components perpendicular to the X-axis are added over the whole loop, the result is zero. That

is, by symmetry any element on one side of the loop will set up a perpendicular component

that cancels the component set up by an element diametrically opposite it. Therefore it is

obvious that the resultant magnetic field at P will be along the X-axis. This result can be

obtained by integrating the components dB

x

= dB cosθ. Therefore, we have

B = ∮dB cos θ =

∫

+

2 2

0

R x

cosθ dL

4π

I μ

….(2)

where the integral is to be taken over the entire loop since θ, x and R are constants for all

elements of the loop and since

cosθ =

2 2

R x

R

+

therefore, we have

B =

( ) ( )

3/2

2 2

2

0

3/2

2 2

0

R x 2

IR μ

dL

R x 4π

IR μ

+ +

∫

(b) The magnetic field at O due to the circular loop 1 is B

1

=

( )

3/2

2 2

2

0

R x 2

IR μ

+

directed towards

left.

The magnetic field at O due to the circular loop is B

1

=

( )

3/2

2 2

2

0

R x 2

IR μ

+

directed upwards

The net magnetic field is therefore

B = · · +

1

2

2

2

1

B 2 B B

( )

3/2

2 2

2

0

R x 2

IR μ

+

The direction of the net magnetic field is 45

o

with the axis of the loop

as shown in the figure below.

107. Derive an expression for the magnetic field along the axis of an air-

cored solenoid, using Ampere’s circuital law.

Sketch the magnetic field lines for a finite solenoid. Explain why the field at the exterior mid-

point is weak while at the interior it is uniform and strong.

Ans. A solenoid is a coil of wire with a length, which is large as compared with its diameter.

Consider an ideal solenoid carrying current I and having n turns per unit length.

68

C.B.S.E Study Material

(i) Consider a rectangular path abcd of length L as shown in figure below with cd just

outside the solomoid along cd B = 0. Let us apply Ampere’s circuital law to this

rectangular path, so that we have

∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

→ → → → →

+ + + ·

a

d

d

c

c

b

b

a

dL . B dL . B dL . B dL . B dL . B

=

∫

→

b

a

dL . B

= 0 + 0 + 0 = BL ….(1)

since

0 dL . B dL . B

a

d

c

b

· ·

∫ ∫

→ →

∵ θ = 90

o

0 dL . B

d

c

·

∫

→

∵ B = 0

But by Ampere’s circuital law we have

∮

→

dL . B

= µ

0

NI = µ

0

(nL)I ….(2)

From equations 1 and 2 we have

BL = µ

0

nLI or B = µ

0

nI

This gives the value of magnetic field inside a solenoid.

(ii) The sketch is as shown below.

The magnetic field gets added inside the solenoid whereas it is not added outside the solenoid

108. Distinguish the magnetic properties of dia-, para-and ferro-magnetic substances in terms of

(i) susceptibility, (ii) magnetic permeability and (iii) coercivity. Give one example of each of

these materials.

Draw the field lines due to an external magnetic field near a (i) diamagnetic, (ii) paramagnetic

substance.

Ans. The distinct is shown in the table below.

69

C.B.S.E Study Material

External magnetic field near (i) diamagnetic and (ii) paramagnetic are as shown below.

109. How will a dia-, para- and a ferromagnetic material behave when kept in two examples of each

of these materials name two main characteristics of a ferromagnetic material which help us to

decide its suitability for making (a) a permanent magnet, (ii) an electromagnet. Which of these

two characteristics should have high or low values for each of these two types of magnets?

Ans. When kept in a non-uniform magnetic field.

(i) diamagnetic substances moves from stronger to weaker parts of the field.

(ii) para-magnetic substances moves from weaker to stronger parts of the field.

(iii) ferromagnetic substances have greater tendency to move from weaker to

stronger parts of the field.

Example of

(i) diamagnetic substances are Copper and Gold

(ii) paramagnetic substances are Platinum and Aluminium

(iii) ferromagnetic substances are Iron and Cobalt.

Characteristics of ferromagnetic material deciding its suitability for making a

(i) permanent magnet have very large permeability and high retentivity.

(ii) Electromagnet have low retentivity and small hysteresis loss.

For permanent magnet retentivity and coercivity should be large and for electromagnet

retentivity and coercivity should be small.

Dia Para Ferro

Susceptibility Very small and

negative

Small and positive High and positive

Permeability Less than one Greater than one Extremely large

compared to one

Coercivity …. …. Exists

Example Bi, Cu, Pb, Ag,

Au

Al, Na, Ca, Pt Fe, Ni, Co.

70

C.B.S.E Study Material

71

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