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Cheat sheet

Two modes of mass transfer Diffusion and Bulk Motion Diffusion : Fick ' slaw dC A N A "  DAB , flux dx N A  N A "* Area NA "  NA  DAB (C A,1  C A,2 ) L L

Two types of boundary conditions
x 1  xA0 L x A  1  (1  x A0 )( ) 1  x Al

type1: c A ( x  0, t )  c A,0  constant dc A  0  constant flux dx x 0 Steady-state, no chemical reactions, type2 : 1-d, planer d 2cA dc  0, A  c1 dx 2 dx c A ( x  0)  c1 x  c2 c A 2  c A1 L c2  c A1 c1  c A 2  c A1 x  c A1 L Steady-state, no chemical reactions, 1-d, cylindrical c A ( x)  d dc A (r )0 dr dr dc A c1  dr r c A ( x)  c1 ln r  c2 c1  c A 2  c A1 r ln 2 r1 c A 2  c A1 r ln 2 r1

NA " 

cDAB 1  x Al ln L 1  xA0

watch for advection, most times it can be ignored but sometimes it needs to be included Can be rewritten to molar of mass concentrations Resistance of mass transfer,planer L R mt  DAB A NA 

DAB A(C A,1  C A,2 )

BulkMotion Q  hA(C A, S  C A, )

P T = temperature, P = pressure ci  Pi RT

1 (C A1  C A 2 ) R mt cylindrical h  convective mass transfer coefficient r ln( 2 )c 3 r1 mt R  T2 2 LDAB D  , If D can not be found
AB AB

spherical R mt  1 1 1 (  )c 4 DAB r1 r2

Pi RT  Pi  RT i 1 Fick's Law = diffusive molar flux c xi  i  c J A   DAB VC A   DAB V (CX A ) N A "  cDAB x A  x A ( N A " N B ") Same formula for mass and molar rewritten cDAB dx A NA "  1  x A dx dx A solve for dx seperation d cDAB dx A 0 ( ) dx 1  x A dx cDAB dx A c1  1  x A dx cDAB  c1 x  c2 1  xA c1  cDAB 1  x A0 ln L 1  x Al

4 DAB A(C A 2  C A1 ) NA  1 1  r2 r1 Mass diffusion equation dM s M in  M out  M gen  dt d 2 p A d 2 p A d 2 p A nAg 1 dp A     dx 2 dy 2 dz 2 DAB DAB dt p A  p * mA , c A  Cx A Formula can be converted for the information that is given Two boundary conditions are needed mostly x = 0 and x=L are used Only 1-D problems d 2cA N A 1 dc A   2 dx DAB DAB dt assume steady state d 2cA N A  0 dx 2 DAB assume no chemical reaction d 2cA 1 dc A  dx 2 DAB dt assume no chemical reaction and steady state d cA 0 dx 2
2

c2  c A1  ln r1

cA (r )  (

c A 2  c A1 c c ) ln r  c A1  ln r1 A 2 A1 r r ln 2 ln 2 r1 r1

dc A c A 2  c A1 1  ( ) r dr r ln 2 r1 NA "  c A 2  c A1 DAB ( ) r r ln 2 r1

Steady-state, no chemical reactions, 1-d, spherical dc A )0 dr c1 r2 c c A (r )  1  c2 r c A1  c A 2 c1  1 1  r2 r1 c2  c A1  1 c A1  c A 2 r1 1  1 r2 r1 d 2 (r dr dc A  dr

cA (r ) 

c A1  c A 2 1 1 c A1  c A 2 c  1 1 r A1 r1 1 1   r2 r1 r2 r1

dc A c c 1   A1 A 2 2 1 1 r dr  r2 r1 NA "  c A1  c A 2 DAB 1 1 r2  r2 r1

c2  cDAB ln(1  x A0 )

s  erf ( x ) 2 DAB t x 2 DAB t dc A  N Ag r c1   dr DAB 2 r cA (r )  c1  0 cA (r )   N Ag r 2  c2 4 N Ag R 2 4 DAB 4  c A1  N Ag R 2 4 DAB  N Ag r 2 4  c1 ln r  c2 c A ( x.0 )erf c2  c A1  cA (r )   N Ag r 2 All data on erf can be found on Table B. rapid diffusion.i  ( N A *" x x )(1  erf ) DAB 2 DAB t  x2 c A ( x)   kc AL NA "  kL 1 DAB k  0. zeroth. impermeable dc typeII : A 0 dx x  L d 2 c A K1C A  0 dx 2 DAB BC1: c A ( x  0)  c A1 dc A 0 dx x  L Second order Differential Equation k m2  1 DAB BC 2 : c A ( x )  c1e  mx Time dependent Initial Condition : c A ( x.i c A ( x. H  Henry ' s constant H S  solubility coefficient.i  c A. rapid consumption DAB Homogeneous reaction.1st  order . requires catalyst Homogeneous .0  c A. BC 2 : c A ( x  )  c A1 2 2 dc A  N Ag  x  c1 dx DAB c A ( x)  c1  0 c2  c A1  N Ag 2 DAB ( L2  x2 ) 4  N Ag 2 DAB  c1 x  c2  c2 e mx BC1: c1  c2  c A1 c1  c A1  c2 BC 2 : c1e  mx  c2 e mx (c A1  c2 )e  ml  c2 e ml  0 c2  c e  ml c A1e  ml  ml e e 2 cosh( ml ) A1  ml c1  c A1  c A1e  ml 2 cosh( ml ) e  ml )e  mx 2 cosh( ml ) c A ( x )  c A1 (1   N A "  N Ag ( x) c A1 e mx 2 cosh( ml ) cosh( m(1  x)) c A ( x )  c A1 cosh( ml ) .different phases. planer N Ag  either consumed of produced l l x  to 2 2 d 2 c A N Ag  0 dx 2 DAB l l BC1: c A ( x  )  c A1 . t )  c A. s Boundary Condition 2:c A ( x  . t  0)  c A. t  0)  c A.i Type 1 Boundary Condition 1:c A ( x  0. t )  c A. t )  c A.i )erf 4 DAB t  DAB t Homogeneous. zeroth order. planer N Ag   K1C A C A can be easily converted to the units provided bottom boundary.semi-infinte system d 2cA 1 dc A  2 dx DAB dt Initial Condition : c A ( x. t )  c A.0 Type 2 Boundary Condition 1: dc A  N A *" dx x 0 Boundary Condition 2: DAB c A ( x  . t )  2 ( )e   DAB c A . t )  c A . cylindrical N 1 d dc ( r A )  Ag  0 r dr dr DAB BC1: c A (r  R )  c A1 r dc A  N Ag r 2   c1 dr DAB 2 Time dependence.mathematically same as type II BC EX : Heterogeneous c A (0)  N A "( x  0)  kc A ( x  0) from.0  (c A.0 DAB t N A *" 4 DABt c A ( x.Evaporation Raoult ' s Law PA (0)  PAsat x A (0) PA (0) RT Henry ' s Law 1 x A (0)  ( ) PA (0).same phase Heterogeneous . has to be given Chemical reactions Heterogeneous or Homogeneous Heterogeneous . small consumption DAB k  1.i  c A. s c A .2 in the appendix of the book NA  DAB A  x2 *(c A.slow diffusion. x  0toL BC1: c A ( x  L)  c AL  known d cA 0 dx 2 dc BC 2 :  DAB A  kc A ( x  0) dx x 0 c A ( x)  c1 x  c2 c1  c2  k c2 DAB c AL kL 1 DAB kc AL kL DAB (1  ) DAB x c AL kL 1 DAB 2 Homogenous .