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Issue 14, January-June 2009 p. 112-123

**Optimum Pipe Size Selection for Turbulent Flow
**

Timothy A. AKINTOLA and Solomon O. GIWA

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering & Technology Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ibogun, Nigeria E-mail: timtola2000@yahoo.com, sologiwa2000@yahoo.com

Abstract Pipelines are normally designed to deliver fluid at the required head and flow rate in a cost effective manner. Increase in conduit diameter leads to increase in annual capital costs, and decrease in operating costs. Selection of an optimum conduit diameter for a particular fluid flow will therefore be a vital economic decision. This paper presents a computer aided optimisation technique for determination of optimum pipe diameter for a number of idealized turbulent flow. Relationships were formulated connecting theories of turbulent fluid flow with pipeline costing. These were developed into a computer program, written in Microsoft Visual C++ language, for a high-level precision estimate of the optimum pipe diameter, through the least total cost approach. The validity of the program was ascertained through case studies, representative of fluids with different densities and compressibility. The optimum conduit diameter was found to increase linearly with increase in compressibility. Keywords Pipe diameter, Turbulent flow, Optimisation, Costs, density

Introduction

Pipe flow, as used in this work, refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid, which an economic investigation indicates are sufficiently large and

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112

In selecting pipe size for different applications. an optimum pipe diameter must exist. and conduit dimension [3]. A larger pipe will save more in energy cost than the additional investment. This optimum value can be determined by combining the principles of fluid dynamics with cost analysis. the larger pipe may so reduce the total pump head that a higher and lower priced pump and power unit may be used [6]. with notable applications in oil and gas conveyances as well as water distribution systems [2]. AKINTOLA and Solomon O. A similar approach has been used by authors [4.5].A number of equations governing fluid flow in pipelines have been developed by authors [4. (kNm-2) Q = fluid flow rate (kgs-1) 113 . the fixed or annual pumping cost can be determined using. Hence.Optimum Pipe Size Selection for Turbulent Flow Timothy A. 7]. Pipelines are one of the lowest . Besides. The head losses in piping installations include the energy or head required to overcome resistance of the pipeline and fitting in the pumping system. and adopting the least total cost approach through computer simulation in Microsoft Visual C++. small pipe may require a lower initial investment but the head loss due to friction is greater and this increases the energy cost. The most widely used ones include the Scobey. (7) C1 = where: PdC eQt pη (1) C1 = the annual pumping cost Pd = the frictional pressure drop. Darcy-Weisbach and Hazen-Williams formula. Material and Method For flow of fluid through a conduit of constant diameter. GIWA continuous to justify the investment. density. viscosity. Friction exists on both the discharge and suction sides of a pump and energy loss in pipe flow depends on the fluid velocity. This work is aimed at determining the optimum pipe diameter for turbulent fluid flow with different compressibility through integration of cost analysis into the principles of fluid dynamics.cost means of transportation [1].

yr-1) ρ = fluid density. γ =compressibility.84 (5) Using (1). For high Reynold’s number.13 × 1010 Q 2. 9] have integrated equations (3) and Reynold’s number expression.84 tC e (6) The operating cost or piping cost has been expressed in the form: (4) C 2 = C pd n (1 + F)(a + b) (7) where: 114 . (mm) Authors [2. (%) Fluid compressibility can be expressed in terms of fluid density as: γ= where. (4) and (5). Using equation (2). f= fanning friction factor.16ρ−1d −4. into the fanning pressure drop equation.04 Re 0.Leonardo Journal of Sciences ISSN 1583-0233 Issue 14. to obtain: Pd = 4. 112-123 Ce = cost of electrical energy.13 × 1010 Q1.84µ 0. the flow is said to be turbulent and the friction factor is given as: [8] ƒ= 0. (mNm-2s) di = inside diameter of pipe. (2). (m3kg-1) 1 ρ (2) In pipe flow problems.84µ0. (hr. the friction factor is a function of Reynold’s number and characterizes the nature of flow. (kgm-3) η = Efficiency of motor and pump. the Reynold’s number can be written in the form: Re = 4Q γµπd i (4) where: µ = fluid viscosity. the annual pumping cost takes the form: C1 = 4. in terms of fluid density. January-June 2009 p.16 (3) where: Re = Reynold’s number. (N kWhr-1) t = operational hours per year.16 γ 2d −4. (Re > 2000).

With an initial guess value of the internal diameter of pipe. i. structured in user-screen interactive form was tested using typical input data.16 γ 2d −4. GIWA C 2 = operating cost .84C eT µ0. AKINTOLA and Solomon O. This procedure is repeated with increase in the value of the internal diameter such that: d(i + 1) = di + ∆d (10) with the total cost determined in each case until the total cost function passes through a minimum point. CT .: C T = C1 + C 2 (8) Combining equations (1). Cp = cost per unit length of pipe. (4) The total annual cost. is the addition of the fixed cost and the piping cost.0 for d ≤ 25.5 for d ≥ 25. (Nmm-1) F = ratio of total costs for fittings and installation to purchase cost for new pipe a = capital charge. written in Microsoft Visual C++ 6. keeping all other parameters constant. This method has been employed by authors (9. (2) For steel pipes.0mm.13 × 1010 Q 2. n ≅ 1. a computer program. The internal diameter corresponding to the least total cost is taken as the optimum. (7) and (8) the total annual operational cost becomes: C T = C p d n (1 + F)(a + b) + 4. n is dependent on the current cost of piping. For quick and high level precision results. Using the above procedure. known values for other parameters in equations (4) and (9).75. The value of F generally ranges from 1.10) for the solution of related optimization problems.5 to 6. (%) b = maintenance charge (%) and.e.0mm while n ≅ 1. and. the optimum pipe diameter was determined in each case. 115 . for different hypothetical values of compressibility. the nature of flow is determined using equation (4) and the total annual cost is evaluated using equation (9).Optimum Pipe Size Selection for Turbulent Flow Timothy A.0 is developed.84 (9) A computational iterative technique is employed in the solution of the problem. The program.

The results obtained are presented in Table 2. value of maintenance charge. Graphical illustration of the result is also shown in Fig 1.25 10 Efficiency 0. (9). The computation is carried out via 55 iterations and the results are generated in a user-defined file. Table 1. fittings and erection. fluid flow rate. January-June 2009 p.0mm-1 Capital charge 10% Maintenance charge 5% Ratio of total costs for fittings and installation to new pipe purchase cost 2.50kwhr-1 Cost / mm length of pipe N5. 112-123 Review of the Program The program prompts and accepts input data such as filename. purchase cost for new one millimetre diameter per millimetre of pipe length and value of capital charge. The program then determines the nature of flow through eq. small increment in pipe diameter. the initial value of pipe diameter efficiency of compressor and pump. fluid compressibility. Energy cost N2. hours of operation per year. cost of electrical energy.study presented in Table 1 were fed into the program for validation.6 11 Initial guess for internal pipe diameter 31.136363 X 10-3m3kg-1 Operating time 8000 hrs. Results Data from the case . Program Validation The computer code was validated using the case study presented in Table 1.05mm S /N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 116 .Leonardo Journal of Sciences ISSN 1583-0233 Issue 14. Input data for Program Validation Parameters Value Compressibility 1.9mm 12 Increment in pipe diameter 0.yr-1 Mass flow rate 10 kgs-1 Viscosity 1. (4) and computes the total annual cost through eq. fluid viscosity.1 X 10-3 Nsm-2 Elect. total cost of valves.

15 64636.85 64362.0 33.3 33.85 64827.65 64981.1 34.7 32.6 117 .0 33.00 64332.20 65410.7 32.8 33.05 64695.9 32. GIWA Table 2.2 33.95 65700.6 33.40 64512.0 32.0 32.65 64417.60 65023.90 64351.90 64792.25 65357.9 32.75 64387.80 64864.8 33.35 65254.0 34.40 65205.0 32.70 64941.05 65580.0 32.3 33.7 33.80 64374.9 33.30 65305. Output of the Program for the Case Study Inside Diameter of pipe Total annual cost 31.7 33.4 33.4 32.45 65157.10 65522.45 64490.4 33.30 64558.50 65111. AKINTOLA and Solomon O.6 33.55 65067.75 64902.25 64583.95 64341.3 32.4 32.9 32.50 64470.1 33.10 64317.3 34.2 33.0 33.4 32.55 64451.15 65465.4 33.4 33.00 65639.7 32.Optimum Pipe Size Selection for Turbulent Flow Timothy A.8 32.10 64665.0 32.60 64433.20 64609.00 64726.35 64534.8 32.4 32.5 32.70 64401.95 64759.8 33.05 64324.2 32.

950 5 1. 112-123 34.030928 33. Program Results for Different Fluid Compressibility.000000 33.700 7 1.0 64300.3 34.041666 33.40 34.3 64298.3 64302.25 34.9 34 34 64311.098901 34.2 34.55 34.2 34.5 34.063829 33.Leonardo Journal of Sciences ISSN 1583-0233 Issue 14. Table 3.4 34.136363 34.35 34.20 34. (=N=/Yr . January-June 2009 p.455 9 1.9 64299.1 34.150 12 1.6 34.800 6 1.010101 33.400 2 1.075262 33.2 34.150 3 1.6 64299.8 64307.052632 33.1 34.600 8 1.111111 34.5 64300.086956 33.60 34.5 34.3 34. Variation of total annual cost with pipe sizes for a turbulent flow case study (program output) The results obtained from the computer program for different values of compressibility are shown in Table 3.65 64360 64350 Total Annual Cost.6 34.4 34.020408 33.50 34.) 64340 64330 64320 64310 64300 64290 64280 64270 33.2 64303.9 64310.15 34.7 Figure 1.7 64305.050 118 .30 34.050 4 1.350 10 1.250 11 1.45 34. S /N Compressibility X 103(m3kg-1) Optimum Pipe Diameter(mm) 1 1.

(m m ) Figure 2. equating the resulting expression to zero.60 with a corresponding pipe diameter of 34.4 O ptim um Pip e Diam e t er . 298.25 33.11 Flu id C om pre s sib ility X 103 (m3/k g) 1.15 33. the total annual cost decreases to a minimum value of N64. A plot of the optimum pipe diameter against compressibility.455 33.6 33.03 1.99 0. GIWA Discussion From Table 2 and Fig.7 33. The recommended pipe diameter therefore. is shown in Fig.2. will be the one corresponding to the lowest total annual costs. The approach involves differentiation of equation (9) with respect to diameter.95 33.15 1.05 33.09 1. d. 1. The results obtained are in good agreement with an otherwise method of differential calculus.40mm and then steadily increases.1. Variation of optimum pipe diameter with fluid compressibility for turbulent flow Conclusions A computer aided technique for determination of optimum pipe diameter for non – viscous flow was developed using the least cost approach.13 1.05 34. 119 .95 34.97 0.07 1.05 1. and solving the expression for the optimum diameter. Results obtained from the validation of the developed software revealed that optimum pipe diameter for turbulent flow increases linearly with fluid compressibility.2 that the economic pipe diameter increases linearly with fluid compressibility. this implies that less dense fluids have larger optimum pipe diameter.15 34. Conversely. AKINTOLA and Solomon O.Optimum Pipe Size Selection for Turbulent Flow Timothy A. representative of different fluids.8 33.01 0. It can be inferred from Fig.35 33.

423. Ernest. M. 2nd ed. 1995.. pp. Robert.0^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^/ #include<iostream. 2002. Akintola.O. 20-22. 1968. 186 – 190.. O. O. 2nd ed. Vikas Publishers. Pergamon Press. 3rd ed. January-June 2009 p. McGraw – Hill.J. Sinnot. M.. McGraw Hill.h> 120 . J. Fluid mechanics. A. O. Durowoju. New York. Irrigation Theory and Practice. Computer Simulation of Optimum Thickness of Thermal Insulation for Bread Baking Local Fire-clay Oven. Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers. T. 3. Global Journal of Mechanical Engineering. Adigun. Frederick. 18 – 22 – 34.O. F. M. 1997. Computer – aided Optimum Pipe Size Selection for Non Viscous Flow. 1998. 4. 2..h> #include<fstream. W. Micheal. J. 10. USA. pp. Swaffield Gasiorek. Alamu.. O. Durowoju. Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook. K. 1(4): 30 – 39...J.. Peters. England. A.. R. 1 (1): 19-25. B. F.. New Delhi. 1993. New York. O.6. pp 279 – 282. Standard Handbook for Civil Engineers. New York. 1976. 299.. M.A. K. Alamu. Douglas. pp. 2001. Longman. 1983. 9. Horage. 7. McGraw – Hill.Leonardo Journal of Sciences ISSN 1583-0233 Issue 14. M. 112-123 References 1.J. pp. Vol.. P. S. Computational Solution of Heat Transfer problem of a Local stove. S. and Timmerhaus K. pp. 5. Appendix Computer Program //PROGRAM:OPTIMUM PIPE DIAMETER FOR TURBULENT FLOW^^^^^^^^^^^^/ //COMPILER: MICROSOFT VISUAL C++ 6. 302 – 305. . 95.. 6.. McGraw – Hill. 6th ed. pp. 2000. Alamu.6. Journal of Engineering Applications. Handbook of Hydraulics for the Solution of Hydraulic Engineering Problems. Annals of Engineering Analysis. Singapore. 8. Coulson and Richardson’s Chemical Engineering. 2 (2):18-27..

b.a.E. float deltaD. cin>>E.g. cin >>filename. (decimal)\n"." << "(ratio of cost of new pipe)\n".Cp. (#/mm)\n". cin>> deltaD.N. cin>>D. cout<<"Supply fluid viscosity.Ct.y.x. cin>>N. cout<<"enter the value of maintenance charge. cout<<"Supply efficiency of compressor and pump. cin>>CMP. cout<<"supply Hours of operation per year.fittings and erection. cout<<"enter total cost of valves.F.Ce. double Cpiping.CMP.d. (#/kWhr)\n". cin >>H. (mm)"<<endl. cout<<"Supply purchase cost for new one milimetre diametre per" <<"milimetre of pipe length.Optimum Pipe Size Selection for Turbulent Flow Timothy A. (per cent)\n". cin>>b. (kg/s)\n". 121 . ofstream fout(filename).a. (Ns/sq.b.e.)\n".Q.F.D./yr.Ce. cout<<"enter cost of electrical energy. (cubic metre/kg)\n". cin>>F.h> float c.N. int main (){ cout <<" supply filename"<< endl. cout<<"enter fluid COMPRESSIBILITY. cin>>Ce. char filename[25]. AKINTOLA and Solomon O.Re.H. (hr. cout<<"enter the initial value of pipe diameter (mm)"<<endl.metre)\n". cout<<" enter fluid flow rate.f. GIWA #include<math.n.Cf.Cpipe. cout<<"enter the small increment in Pipe diameter. cin>>Q.

cout<<"x"<<x. cout<<"Cpiping"<<Cpiping. cout<<"Cf"<<Cf.0. f=(1+F). cout<<"g"<<g. i<55. Re = Re/(3. (per cent)\n".5. Cpiping=d*c*Cpipe. i++){ if(D>=25.0*Q/CMP. cout<<"Supply the value of capital charge.Leonardo Journal of Sciences ISSN 1583-0233 Issue 14. Cf=Cf*pow(D.0) n=1.(-4. cout<<"f"<<f. January-June 2009 p. cout<<"c"<<c. else n=1.0. 122 . cin>>a. for(int i=0.16)*y. y=4. g=pow(CMP.84)).(2))/E.n).2. e=(a+b). Re = 4.84)*x. 112-123 cin>>Cpipe. cout<<"Re"<<Re. Cf=H*pow(Q. cout<<"y"<<y.141592654*N*D). d=pow(D. cout<<"e"<<e.13e10*Ce*g. cout<<"d"<<d. c=e*f. cout<<"Inside Diameter of pipe Total annual cost"<<endl. x=pow(N. fout<<"Inside Diameter of pipe Total annual cost"<<endl.

} return 0. GIWA cout<<"Re"<<Re. AKINTOLA and Solomon O.0) { Cp = Cf.Optimum Pipe Size Selection for Turbulent Flow Timothy A. } 123 . } cin>>Ct. cout<<"Cp"<<Cp. Ct = Cp+Cpiping. if(Re>=2000. fout<<D<<"\t"<<"\t"<<"\t"<<"\t"<<"\t"<<"\t"<<"\t"<<"\t"<<Ct<<endl. cout<<D<<"\t"<<"\t"<<"\t"<<"\t"<<"\t"<<"\t"<<"\t"<<"\t"<<Ct<<endl. } else { cout<<"Flow is not turbulent"<<endl. D+=deltaD.

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