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Series and Parallel Pumps

sewage. It can be concluded that the pressure of water flowing in series configuration has higher pressure compared to the pressure of water in parallel configuration. Centrifugal pumps are widely used in many applications in our daily lives to transfer liquid especially in domestic uses. Running Pump Pump 1. 3. Therefore. In series configuration. 2 & 4 Close Valve 2&3 2&4 3 Pump Operation Single Series Parallel 5. The circulation tank is with water up to at least the water covers the end of the pipe output. Centrifugal pumps cannot be used to transfer liquid that has high viscosity because the work done generated are not sufficient to transfer the liquid and it will wear off the blades. P1 & P2 Both pumps. the flow rate of water is much higher than the flow rate of water in series configuration. As for parallel configuration. P1 Both pumps. It has the same operating concept as the “water wheel” used in ships before motor is used to move a ship. Pumps are devices used to increase the velocity of water flow-rate which at the same time increases the amount of water that can be obtained compared to its normal flow-rate without the aid of pumps. Another reason is that it has a few moving parts and therefore are able to generate water flow with higher pressure and velocity. Since it is efficient in transporting a larger amount of water compared to series configuration. The power supply is switched on. it can be concluded that series configuration is effective in transporting water to a place which is in higher level than the source while parallel configuration is effective in transporting a large amount of water at a place which is at the same or lower level from the source. 4. it can be said that water flowing in series configuration has higher efficiency in transporting water at a higher velocity thus allowing it to transport water to a higher level. The pump is turned on and slowly open V5 until maximum flowrate is achieved. Therefore. It transfers mechanical energy into fluid energy which produce liquid flow. Procedures P1 General start-up procedures 1. The reasons behind it are because it‟s cheap and conventional. P1 & P2 Open Valve 1&4 1&3 1. The appropriate pump is selected and the valve positions are adjusted as the following. . The V5 was made sure to be in partial open position. petroleum pumping and many more. the flow rates of water are not divided into several pipes which will decrease the pressure of water in the pipe. it can be used in a situation where a large amount of water is needed. The mechanical energy is supplied by the constant rotation of the blades inside the pump.Summary and Introduction This experiment is conducted to determine the effect of flow rate of water in series and parallel configuration towards the pressure and flow-rate of water in each pipe. 2.

2. The basic procedure written in P1 is followed.ORIENTATION Single Series Parallel MINIMUM FLOWRATE (LPM) 20 20 40 MAXIMUM FLOWRATE (LPM) 90 90 160 P2 General shut-down procedures 1. 2. Valve 5 is slowly opened till the flow-rate reaches 20 LPM. The settings are set up as on the „set up of equipment‟ above. 5. The observation is repeated by increasing the flow-rate by 10 LPM until the flow-rate reaches 90 LPM. P3 Experiment 1: Single Pump Operation Set up of equipment: Fully Closed Valve 2&3 Fully Opened Valve 1&4 Variable Parameter Valve 5 Pump ON Pump 1 Procedures: 1. The main power supply is turned off. 3. . The flow-rate and pressure values are taken when stable condition is achieved. The pressure reading on the pressure indicator is observed. 2. The pump is turned off. The valve V5 was made sure to be turned off fully in closed position. P4 Experiment 2: Series Pump Operation Fully Closed Valve 2&4 Fully Opened Valve 1&3 Variable Parameter Valve 5 Pump ON Both Pumps Procedures: 1. The flowrate and pressure values are taken when stable condition is achieved. 4. The pressure reading on the pressure indicator is observed. 3. Valve 5 is slowly opened till the flowrate reaches 20 LPM. 4. The settings are set up as on the „set up of equipment‟ above. 3. The basic procedure written in P1 is followed.

50 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1.04 1.00 2.60 Analog Pressure Gauge 1 (APL 1) 0.06 1.82 2.03 1.15 2.80 1.90 1.72 2. 5. The basic procedure written in P1 is followed.73 2.01 0.99 Digital Pressure Gauge 2 (DPL 2) Bar 3. Valve 5 is slowly opened till the flowrate reaches 40 LPM.04 1.02 1.05 1.5.00 1.01 .51 Digital Pressure Gauge 1 (DPL 1) Digital Pressure Gauge 2 (DPL 2) 3. The flowrate and pressure values are taken when stable condition is achieved.03 1.01 1.90 2. The pressure reading on the pressure indicator is observed.04 1.03 1.03 1.01 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Analog Pressure Gauge 2 (APL 2) 2. The observation is repeated by increasing the flowrate by 10 LPM until the flowrate reaches 90 LPM.81 2. P5 Experiment 3: Parallel Pump Operation Fully Closed Valve 3 Fully Opened Valve 1. 2 & 4 Variable Parameter Valve 5 Pump ON Both Pumps Procedures: 1. Results and Analysis Experiment 1: Rotameter (FL 1) LPM Digital Pressure Gauge 1 (DPL 1) Bar 1.10 3. The settings are set up as on the „set up of equipment‟ above.05 1.01 2.60 1. 2.04 1.06 3.04 2.94 2. The observation is repeated by increasing the flowrate by 20 LPM until the flowrate reaches 180 LPM. 4.80 1.88 2.63 2. 3.12 3.98 2.

Digital Pressure Difference.5 2 1.5 1 0.99 1. (Gauge 2 – Gauge 1) 2. (Gauge 2 – Gauge 1) Analog Pressure Difference.94 1.86 1.01 2.50 Graph of Pressure Difference (Gauge 2 Gauge 1) vs Flowrate Pressure Difference.80 1.59 Analog Pressure Difference. (Gauge 2 – Gauge 1) 2.05 1.69 1. (Gauge 2 – Gauge 1) GRAPH 1 .5 0 0 20 40 60 Flowrate.90 1.00 1.14 2.06 2. (𝑘𝑔 𝑓)/〖𝑐𝑚〗^2 2. LPM 80 100 Digital Pressure Difference.60 1.79 1.80 1.

02 1.80 1.09 2.50 3.04 2.20 4.61 0.20 4.83 2.60 3.90 1.00 1.40 3.08 3.73 1.50 3.04 1.54 2.94 1. (Gauge 3 – Gauge 1) 2.70 0.10 2.34 4.87 4.04 0.10 2.97 4.70 2.25 Digital Pressure Difference.05 2.60 3.05 1.85 2.50 4.03 1.08 1.00 1.03 2.04 1.20 Analog Pressure Difference.02 1.01 2.06 1.47 3.14 4.45 2.00 0.90 1.04 1.80 3.60 1.60 1.26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.90 0.84 1.03 1.52 Analog Pressure Difference.18 4.63 1.66 2.50 .28 4.02 1.80 1.00 3.99 2.99 Digital Pressure Gauge 3 (DPL 3) Bar 3.04 1.00 3.05 2.80 0.05 1.53 4.01 1.76 4.10 4.63 2.10 4.70 1. (Gauge 4 – Gauge 1) 4.87 3.02 Digital Pressure Gauge 1 (DPL 1) Digital Pressure Gauge 3 (DPL 3) Digital Pressure Gauge 4 (DPL 4) Analog Pressure Gauge 1 (APL 1) Analog Pressure Gauge 3 (APL 3) Analog Pressure Gauge 4 (APL 4) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1.62 4.Experiment 2: Rotameter (FL 1) LPM Digital Pressure Gauge 1 (DPL 1) Bar 1.70 1.78 2.57 3.93 2.67 3.53 Digital Pressure Gauge 4 (DPL 4) Bar 4.40 3.80 3.13 3.03 1.20 Digital Pressure Difference. (Gauge 3 – Gauge 1) 1.14 2.99 0.22 3.46 4. (Gauge 4 – Gauge 1) 3.

(𝑘𝑔 𝑓)/〖𝑐𝑚〗^2 2. (Gauge 3 – Gauge 1) GRAPH 3 .5 4 3.5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Flowrate.5 3 2.5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Flowrate. (𝑘𝑔 𝑓)/〖𝑐𝑚〗^2 4. (Gauge 4 – Gauge 1) GRAPH 2 Graph of Pressure Difference (Gauge 3 – Gauge 1) vs Flowrate Pressure Difference. LPM Digital Pressure Difference. LPM Digital Pressure Difference. (Gauge 3 – Gauge 1) Analog Pressure Difference.5 1 0.5 2 1. (Gauge 4 – Gauge 1) Analog Pressure Difference.Graph of Pressure Difference (Gauge 4 – Gauge 1) vs Flowrate Pressure Difference.5 2 1.5 1 0.

85 1.78 2.04 1.86 2.93 2.79 1.02 1.70 2.90 1.83 2.12 1.88 2.00 3.03 2.90 1.99 0.03 2.79 Digital Pressure Difference.84 1.00 2.66 2.03 1.01 1.02 1.56 2.00 1.80 2.79 1.04 2.67 2.00 1.02 1.80 1.50 Digital Pressure Gauge 4 (DPL 4) Bar 2.94 2.Experiment 3: Rotameter (FL 1) LPM Digital Pressure Gauge 1 (DPL 1) Bar 1.15 2. (Gauge 3 – Gauge 1) 2.75 2.98 Digital Pressure Gauge 2 (DPL 3) Bar 3.00 2.90 1.74 1.04 1. (Gauge 4 – Gauge 1) 2.00 0.84 1.58 2.98 2.79 1.82 1.60 Digital Pressure Difference.98 2.63 Analog Pressure Difference.63 1.99 2.08 3.90 1.15 2.94 1.01 1.11 1.51 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.92 2.85 1.10 2.92 2.00 1.03 1.00 2.78 2.62 2. (Gauge 3 – Gauge 1) 2.74 2.88 1.82 1.09 0.59 Digital Pressure Gauge 1 (DPL 1) Digital Pressure Gauge 2 (DPL 3) Digital Pressure Gauge 4 (DPL 4) Analog Pressure Gauge 1 (APL 1) Analog Pressure Gauge 2 (APL 3) Analog Pressure Gauge 4 (APL 4) 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 1.93 Analog Pressure Difference.90 1.04 1.80 1.05 3.65 . (Gauge 4 – Gauge 1) 2.16 2.10 2.05 1.82 2.00 1.97 1.55 3.02 1.73 0.00 1.03 1.65 1.

7 1.5 0 50 100 150 200 GRAPH 4 2.05 2 1.65 1.2.95 1.Gauge 1) Analog Pressure Difference (Gauge 4.6 1.75 1.Gauge 1) 1 0.85 1.9 1.8 1. (Gauge 3 – Gauge 1) (kg f)/〖 cm〗^2 50 100 150 200 GRAPH 5 .5 2 Graph of Pressure Difference (Gauge 4 – Gauge 1) vs Flowrate 1.55 Graph of Pressure Difference (Gauge 3 – Gauge 1) vs Flowrate Digital Pressure Difference.5 Digital Pressure Difference (Gauge 4. (Gauge 3 – Gauge 1) (kg f)/〖 cm〗^2 Analog Pressure Difference.

The reading of the digital pressure gauge is initially in the unit of bar therefore it has to be converted to to make all the units same.06 Discussion Based on all the analog readings of pressure gauge 1 of all experiments. the reading is 0. But then the digital reading of pressure may be more accurate because the average value of the data was taken. there may be errors while taking the reading of the pressure because the pin was fluctuating. For experiment 1. Conversion from bar to 1 bar = 1. By analyzing graph 1. clearance and blade design.04 bar × = 1. Other factors that could contribute to the errors are impeller diameter. By comparing the analog pressure gauge reading and the digital pressure gauge reading. Both readings may have errors due to the unstable flow of the water and the air bubbles found in the water will further increase the percentage error. As for analog pressure reading. . the head generated (by using the calculated). the difference in pressure is not really too far from each other. It is suggested that different pipe diameters should be used to accommodate to the unstable flow to get a stable reading. Sample Calculations: 1. 2.Analysis: 1. Overall. 2 and 3 they have more stable flow compared to graph 4 and 5 which was plotted by using the data from experiment 3. by any centrifugal pump decreases as the flow rate provided by the pump increases. 2 and 3 the readings on pressure gauge 1 is made to be deducted by the readings of other pressure gauges because it is the inlet pipe of the water.

com. March 2009. How Centrifugal Pumps Work: Advantages and Disadvantages of Centrifugal Pumps.Conslusion The experiment is successful.pumpsolutions. the rotameter reading can be referred. http://en. The graphs in experiment 1 and 2 and 3 show a positive result.au/how-centrifugal-pumps-work-advantages-and-disadvantagesof-centrifugal-pumps/ 2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centrifugal_pump . The maximum amount of water that can be transferred by series pump operation is 90 LPM while the maximum amount water that can be transferred by parallel pump operation is 160 LPM. As to prove that parallel pump operation can transfer larger amount of water compared to series pump operation. References 1. It is also proven that series pump operation has higher velocity compared to of parallel pump operation by having a higher pressure difference. Centrifugal Pump. http://www.