You are on page 1of 9

Contents

Pump ................................................................................................................................................ 2 Types ................................................................................................................................................ 2 Positive displacement pump ......................................................................................................... 2 Positive displacement pump behavior and safety ............................................................................... 3 Positive displacement types............................................................................................................. 3 Rotary positive displacement pumps fall into three main types: .......................................................... 4 Typical reciprocating pumps are: ...................................................................................................... 6 Pump repairs ................................................................................................................................. 6 Pump Applications ............................................................................................................................. 7 Pump Maintenance ............................................................................................................................ 8 References ........................................................................................................................................ 9

Page 1

Pump A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases). Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift. impulse pumps. velocity pumps. gravity pumps. or sometimes slurries. or wind power. Pumps operate via many energy sources. Positive displacement pump A lobe pump lobe pump internals Page 2 . steam pumps and valveless pumps. displacement. electricity. by mechanical action. Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary). and gravity pumps. engines. Types Pumps can be classified into positive displacement pumps. including manual operation. and consume energy to perform mechanical work by moving the fluid.

A relief or safety valve on the discharge side of the positive displacement pump is therefore necessary. The relief valve can be internal or external. However. or both. theoretically can produce the same flow at a given speed (RPM) no matter what the discharge pressure. The pump manufacturer normally has the option to supply internal relief or safety valves. positive displacement pumps are constant flow machines. a slight increase in internal leakage as the pressure increases prevents a truly constant flow rate. Liquid flows into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses. centrifugal or roto-dynamic pumps. Thus. The volume is constant through each cycle of operation.A positive displacement pump makes a fluid move by trapping a fixed amount and forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. A positive displacement pump must not operate against a closed valve on the discharge side of the pump. The internal valve is usually only used as a safety precaution. An external relief valve in the discharge line. A positive displacement pump operating against a closed discharge valve continues to produce flow and the pressure in the discharge line increases until the line bursts. Some positive displacement pumps use an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. Positive displacement types Page 3 . Positive displacement pump behavior and safety Positive displacement pumps. because it has no shutoff head like centrifugal pumps. the pump is severely damaged. with a return line back to the suction line or supply tank provides increased safety.

Reciprocating positive displacement pumps Main article: Reciprocating pump  Page 4 . making it rotate at a slow. flexible vane or sliding vane. flexible impeller. which eventually causes enlarged clearances that liquid can pass through. these have a cylindrical rotor encased in a similarly shaped housing.A positive displacement pump can be further classified according to the mechanism used to move the fluid: Rotary-type positive displacement: internal gear. steady speed. As the rotor orbits. which reduces efficiency. the vanes trap fluid between the rotor and the casing. Drawbacks: The nature of the pump demands very close clearances between the rotating pump and the outer edge.a simple type of rotary pump where the liquid is pushed between two gears  Screw pumps . the fluids cause erosion. the Wendelkolben pump) or liquid ring vacuum pumps  Reciprocating-type positive displacement: piston or diaphragm pumps  Linear-type positive displacement: rope pumps and chain pumps Rotary positive displacement pumps  Positive displacement rotary pumps move fluid using a rotating mechanism that creates a vacuum that captures and draws in the liquid[citation needed].g.the shape of the internals of this pump usually two screws turning against each other pump the liquid  Rotary vane pumps . circumferential piston. eliminating the need to bleed the air from the lines manually. Advantages: Rotary pumps are very efficient[citation needed] because they naturally remove air from the lines.similar to scroll compressors. screw. drawing the fluid through the pump. shuttle block. helical twisted roots (e. If rotary pumps are operated at high speeds. Rotary positive displacement pumps fall into three main types: Gear pumps .

or doubleacting with suction and discharge in both directions.Simple hand pump Hand-operated. or membranes (diaphragms).Slovakia (walking beam pump) Reciprocating pumps move the fluid using one or more oscillating pistons. water pump in KošiceŤahanovce. Many reciprocating-type pumps are duplex (two) or triplex (three) cylinder. This type of pump was used extensively in the 19th century—in the early days of steam propulsion—as boiler feed water pumps. with one cylinder. plungers. They can be either single-acting with suction during one direction of piston motion and discharge on the other. while valves restrict fluid motion to the desired direction. Pumps in this category range from simplex. Now reciprocating pumps typically pump highly viscous Page 5 . to in some cases quad (four) cylinders. positive displacement. or more. by air or steam. reciprocating. or by a belt driven by an engine. The pumps can be powered manually.

closed by suction on the way back. these failure statistics often are translated into MTBF (in this case. The smallest of these plants had about 100 pumps. installed life before failure). Typical reciprocating pumps are:     Plunger pumps . and serve in special applications that demand low flow rates against high resistance. A total of 15 operating plants having nearly 15. In early 2005 Gordon Buck. however. Liquid flows into the pumps as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses. Unless the pump user upgrades the seal chamber.usually simple devices for pumping small amounts of liquid or gel manually. the pump only accommodates more compact and simple versions. John Crane Inc. In some cases.a reciprocating plunger pushes the fluid through one or two open valves. For the sake of convenience. Radial piston pump Pump repairs Examining pump repair records and MTBF (mean time between failures) is of great importance to responsible and conscientious pump users. Not all plants are refineries. considered as "new. In addition. the alliance contract included having a John Crane Inc. Things have improved in recent years.’s chief engineer for Field Operations in Baton Rouge LA examined the repair records for a number of refinery and chemical plants to obtain meaningful reliability data for centrifugal pumps.000 pumps were included in the survey. The common hand soap dispenser is such a pump. Without this upgrading. pumps have traditionally been "throw-away" items as chemical attack limits life. All facilities were located in the United States. Diaphragm valves are used to pump hazardous and toxic fluids." Many of these plants—but not all—had an alliance arrangement with John Crane. Piston displacement pumps . and different results occur elsewhere. In view of that fact. the preface to the 2006 Pump User’s Handbook alludes to "pump failure" statistics. technician or engineer on-site to coordinate various aspects of the program." others as "renewed" and still others as "established. several plants had over 2000. Common bicycle pumps and foot pumps for inflation use reciprocating action. where the plunger pressurizes hydraulic oil which is used to flex a diaphragm in the pumping cylinder. These positive displacement pumps have an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. Page 6 . In chemical plants.fluids like concrete and heavy oils. but the somewhat restricted space available in "old" DIN and ASME-standardized stuffing boxes places limits on the type of seal that fits. Reciprocating hand pumps were widely used to pump water from wells. Diaphragm pumps .similar to plunger pumps. The volume is constant given each cycle of operation.

Depending on the well depth and configuration. Utility Pumps . Consider that published average values of avoided pump failures range from $2600 to $12. or sludge pumps. costs $5. they pumps can be jet pumps.powered by the sun.000. Extending a pump's MTBF from 12 to 18 months would save $2. Page 7 . Pump Applications          Slurry Pumps . Unscheduled maintenance is often one of the most significant costs of ownership. labor and overhead. parts. centrifugal pumps. abrasive slurries.a type of submersible pump used to remove water from an area. fish. They are also referred to as grinder pumps. and capable of handling abrasive fluids for long periods of time. Trash Pumps . commercial or agriculture applications where a fluid needs to be moved from one tank to another.used to move a fluid from one receptacle to another.designed to draw water to the surface from an underground water source.500 per yr—which is greater than the cost to upgrade the centrifugal pump's reliability. and failures of mechanical seals and bearings are among the major causes. Keep in mind the potential value of selecting pumps that cost more initially. Having fewer pump failures means having fewer destructive pump fires. or submersible pumps. They rely upon principles of displacement. trash. Solar Pumps . This does not include lost opportunity costs.Trash pumps are a type of pump used to handle fluids containing solid content such as mud. They are used in residential. but last much longer between repairs. chopper pumps. They can be both positive displacement or centrifugal pumps. Water Pumps .a type of equipment used to move water through a piping system. or waste products. They are made of durable materials. As has been noted. They are the mechanism that creates pressure to move the water through the system. Transfer Pumps . gravity.a heavy duty pump that is made to handle thick. Wastewater Pumps . Well Pumps . Sprinkler Pumps . residential and agricultural applications. The MTBF of a better pump may be one to four years longer than that of its non-upgraded counterpart. They can be PD pumps or centrifugal pumps. They are used in industrial. suction. This includes costs for material.work within a sprinkler system.used to move wastewater toward or within a waste treatment facility. and vacuums to move water. One pump fire occurs per 1000 failures.lifetimes in chemical installations are generally around 50 to 60 percent of the refinery values.000 on average. a typical pump failure based on actual year 2002 reports. often times after a flood.

Pump packing wears out. a water system spends a great deal of money on infrastructure and capital improvements. These expenses include piping.Pump Maintenance Like any other business. Page 8 . storage and all of the mechanical equipment required to produce. treat. couplings must be maintained. and motor and pump shafts must be aligned. The equipment operators can usually complete these tasks. Some of the procedures may require the use of a few special tools. cleaning. and lubricating the equipment. A preventive maintenance schedule should be utilized to make sure that each piece of equipment gets the proper attention. The most common piece of equipment in a water system is the centrifugal pump. These procedures are not difficult to learn. including component replacement and overhaul. There are several maintenance procedures that must be performed periodically for any centrifugal pump. bearings must be lubricated or replaced. Specially trained personnel that possess the necessary mechanical skills should handle major maintenance. Once an operator understands the basic procedures and has a chance to put the theories into practice. mechanical seals need replacing. and deliver water. Most preventive maintenance consists of inspecting. A maintenance program is essential to insuring that the mechanical components of the system stay in good working order and provide the longest possible service life. it doesn't take long to become proficient at each task.

aspx http://en.pumpscout.org/wiki/Pump Page 9 .com/fire_pumps_appinfo.pdf http://www.com/files/gl-05303.com/all-pump-applications/ Pump maintenance.wikipedia.pdf http://www.References http://www.grpumps.peerlesspump.