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# Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration

Wave Equation in Fluids
1. The wave equation in a source-free medium

• Acoustic disturbances in fluids, i.e., gases and liquids, which cannot
support shear stresses, propagate as longitudinal waves.

• Plane wave propagation means that the acoustic variables, such as sound
pressure p, have a constant instantaneous magnitude throughout any given plane perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation

Rarefied Pressure p / p0 p0

Wavelength λ

Direction of propagation Compressed

Direction of propagation

Figure 1 Symbolic depiction of plane longitudinal wave propagation for a sinusoidal disturbance. The fluid particles are sketched in the compressed and in the rarefied regions.

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Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration

Wave Equation in Fluids
• Simplifying assumptions are
(i) The medium is homogenous and isotropic, i.e., it has the same properties at all points and in all directions. (ii) The medium is linearly elastic, i.e., Hooke’s law applies. (iii) Viscous losses are negligible. (vi) Heat transfer in the medium can be ignored, i.e., changes of state can be assumed to be adiabatic. (v) Gravitational effects can be ignored, i.e., pressure and density are assumed to be constant in the undisturbed medium. (vi) The acoustic disturbances are small, which permits linearization of the relations used.

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Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration

Wave Equation in Fluids
The following quantities are considered:

Pressure:
where

p0 the pressure in the undisturbed medium, and v p (r , t ) the pressure disturbance in the medium, the sound pressure.

r v p t (r , t ) is the total pressure as a function of position ( r

v v p t (r , t ) = p 0 + p (r , t )

(1)
) and time (t),

r r r r r Particle Velocity u (r , t ) = u x e x + u y e y + u z e z

(2)

r r where u (r , t ) is the particle velocity vector ux, uy, ur are the corresponding velocity components, r r z e x , e y , e z is the unit vector r r ρ t (r , t ) = ρ 0 + ρ (r , t ) Density:
r where ρ t (r , t )is the total density,

(3)

ρ0 is the density in the undisturbed medium, r ρ (r , t ) is the density disturbance in the medium.

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Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration

Wave Equation in Fluids
Absolute Temperature:
A fundamental assumption is that we consider small disturbances, i.e., small variations in pressure. As a rule of thumb, for air at normal temperature and pressure, the sound pressure level should not exceed 140 dB

Equations of continuity
one-dimensional case
Δy

ρ ux t
z y x Δx

Δz

ρu ρ ux +∂( t x) t Δx
∂x

Figure 2 Mass flow in the x-direction through a volume element fixed in space.

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Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids According to figure 2. for small variations about the undisturbed equilibrium state. so that a mass balance is received equal the mass change ∂ ( ρ t ΔxΔyΔz ) = ( ρ t u x ΔyΔz ) x − ( ρ t u x ΔyΔz ) x + Δx ∂t ∂t (4) The second term on the right-hand side can be expanded into a series. net flow in the element is therefore ( ρt u x ΔyΔz ) x − ( ρt u x ΔyΔz ) x + Δx . and must ∂ ( ρ t ΔxΔyΔz ) . and if higher-order terms can be neglected. then ∂ ∂ ⎡ ⎤ ( ρ t ΔxΔyΔz ) = ( ρ t u x ΔyΔz ) x − ⎢( ρ t u x ΔyΔz ) x + ( ρ t u x ΔyΔz ) x Δx ⎥ (5) ∂t ∂x ⎣ ⎦ This can be simplified to ∂ρ t ∂ + (ρ t u x ) = 0 ∂t ∂x (6) Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 5/48 . the mass in the volume element is ρ t ΔxΔyΔz . and the mass flow out is ( ρ t u x ΔyΔz ) x + ΔxThe . the mass flow into the element ( ρ t u x ΔyΔz ) x is .

gives the linearized wave equation Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 6/48 . and ignoring second order terms. that consist of the product of two acoustic disturbances. ∂ρ t ∂ ∂ ∂ + (ρ t u x ) + ρ t u y + (ρ t u z ) = 0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ( ) (7) Defining the del operator. as (8) ∂ρ t r + ∇ ⋅ ( ρt u ) = 0 ∂t (9) Putting the total density (3) into the equation and taking advantage of the fact that the undisturbed density ρ0 is independent of time and position. as ⎡r ∂ r ∂ r ∂ ⎤ ∇ = ⎢e x + ey + ez ⎥ ∂y ∂ z⎦ ⎣ ∂x permits a simplified expression of the continuity equation.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids Generalized to the three dimensional case.

that moves with the medium.[( p+p ) + 0 ∂ ( p+p )Δ x Δ y 0 Δz ] ∂ x Figure 3 Force in the x-direction on a particular fluid particle moving with the medium. as in figure 6-3. with a fixed mass Dm and a fixed volume ∆V = ∆x∆y∆z. Δy ( p+p ) Δ y Δ z 0 z y x Δx Δz . Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 7/48 .Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids r ∂ρ + ρ 0∇ ⋅ u = 0 ∂t In one dimension (10) ∂ ux ∂ρ + ρ0 =0 ∂t ∂x (11) Equation of motion Consider a specific fluid particle.

as (14) ⎡r ∂ r ∂ r ∂ ⎤ + ey + ez ⎥ ∇ = ⎢e x ∂x ∂y ∂ z⎦ ⎣ (15) Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 8/48 . so that Fx = − ∂p Δ xΔyΔz ∂x (13) In three dimensions. the force vector becomes r ⎡ r ∂ p r ∂ p r ∂ p⎤ F = − ⎢e x + ey + ez ⎥ Δ xΔyΔz ∂y ∂ z⎦ ⎣ ∂x Putting in the del operator.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids The force in the x-direction is ∂ ∂ ⎤ ⎡ Fx = ⎢( p0 + p )ΔyΔz − ( p0 + p + ( p0 + p )Δ x)ΔyΔz ⎥ = − ( p0 + p )Δ xΔyΔz ∂x ∂x ⎦ ⎣ (12) where p0 is constant.

t + Δt ) − u ( x. z .t The differential change in position (∆x. ∆y = uy ∆t and ∆z = uz ∆t. t ) r ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t a = lim (18) Δt Δt →0 Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 9/48 . z). y. z + u z Δt . z + Δz. t ) + u x Δt + u y Δt + u z Δt + Δt + K − u ( x. At time t and position (x. t). the velocity is (x. ∆z) can be written ∆x =ux ∆t. t ) is a function of position and time. y + u y Δt . z+ ∆z) and the velocity is u ( x + Δx. so that equation (17) can be rewritten r r r r r r ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u u ( x. z . the velocity u ( r . then equation (14) reduces to r F = −∇p ΔV (16) r r For a given fluid particle.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids and using the relation ∆x∆y∆z = ∆V. ∆y. At a later instant t+∆t. t ) Δt Δt →0 (17) The first term is reformulated with the help of a Taylor series. t + Δ. y+ ∆y. y + Δy. so that the acceleration can be written r a = lim r r u ( x + u x Δt . y . y. y. y. z . z. r the position is (x+ ∆x.

so that r r ∂u a= ∂t (22) 10/48 Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee . (20) ∂ux ∂ux + ux ax = ∂x ∂t (21) For acoustic fields with small disturbances.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids The acceleration of the fluid particle becomes r r r r r ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u + uy + uz + a = ux ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t (19) With simplifying notation this is r r r ∂u r a= + (u ⋅ ∇)u ∂t In one dimension. the second term in equation(20) can be neglected.

gives a relation between pressure and particle velocity in a sound field. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 11/48 . as well as ∆m = (ρ0 + ρ) ∆V .Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids In one dimension. r ∂u ρ0 + ∇p = 0 ∂t (25) ρ0 ∂ ux ∂ p + =0 ∂t ∂x (26) The equation of motion. inviscid equation of motion is r ∂u − ∇ pΔ V = ( ρ 0 + ρ ) Δ V ∂t (24) In one dimension. then the linear. the equation of motion can be formulated as (23) If second order terms can be ignored. ∂ ux ax = ∂t Making use of equations (16) and (22).

Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids The thermodynamic equation of state For an ideal gas. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 12/48 . R = 8.315 [J/(mol K)] is the ideal gas constant. or. M [kg] is the mass of a mole of gas. (ρ0 + ρ) [kg/m3] is the total density. and T [K] is the absolute temperature. implying such good heat conduction in the medium that the temperature is constant throughout. in which no heat conduction occurs. ( p 0 + p ) = ( ρ 0 + ρ ) RT M where (p0 + p) [Pa] is the total pressure. (27) Two idealizations can be considered: an isothermal process. an adiabatic process. the ideal gas law applies.

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 13/48 . to that at constant volume. ∂ ρt ρ =ρ 2 ∂ ρt2 t ρ t = ρ0 0 (29) where the partial derivatives are constants that remain to be determined for adiabatic disturbances about ρ0. the density in the undisturbed medium. ( p0 + p ) ⎡ (ρ 0 + ρ )⎤ γ = p 0 ⎢ ⎣ ρ0 ⎥ ⎦ (28) where γ = cp /cv is the ratio of the specific heat of the gas at constant pressure. it can be shown that the process can. be regarded as adiabatic.e.. The total pressure can be expanded as 2 ∂p t 2 1 ∂ pt pt = p0 + p = p 0 + ρ +ρ + . i. and ρt = (ρ0 + ρ) denotes total density. to a good approximation... For the sake of simplicity.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids For small disturbances below a certain frequency limit. in the series expansion. pt = (p0 + p) denotes total pressure. For an adiabatic change of state.

second and higher order terms can be neglected. The homogenous linearized wave equation Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 14/48 . and a linear relation is obtained as p=ρ ∂p t ∂ ρt ρ =ρ t 0 (30) or p = βρ ρ 0 (31) where β = ρ0 ∂p t ∂ ρt ρ =ρ t 0 (32) is called the adiabatic bulk modulus.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids For small disturbances.

Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids One dimension Three dimensions Time derivative of continuity eq. Using . r ⎛ ∂ u⎞ ρ 0∇ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ + ∇ 2 p = 0 ⎝ ∂t⎠ Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (37) 15/48 . of motion (25). ρ0 ∂ ux ∂ p =0 + ∂x∂ t ∂ x 2 2 2 (36) (35) In abbreviated notation. (11). ∂ 2ρ ∂t 2 + ρ0 ∂ ux =0 ∂ x∂ t 2 (33) r ⎛ ∂ u⎞ ρ 0 ∇ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ + ∇ ⋅ (∇p ) = 0 ⎝ ∂t⎠ ∂ 2ρ Spatial derivative of eq. Time derivative of continuity equation (10). of motion (26) r ⎛ ∂ u⎞ + ρ 0∇ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ = 0 2 ⎝ ∂ t⎠ ∂t r ⎛ ∂ u⎞ ρ 0 ∇ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ + ∇ ⋅ (∇p ) = 0 ⎝ ∂t⎠ (34) Divergence of eq.

Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids One dimension Subtraction of (33) from (35) gives 2 2 Three dimensions ∂ p ∂x 2 − ∂ ρ ∂t 2 =0 (38) Subtraction of (34) from (37) gives ∂ 2ρ 2 ∇ p− =0 (39) 2 ∂t Equation of state (31) eliminates ρ Equation of state (31) eliminates ρ ∂2p ρ0 ∂ 2 p =0 − 2 β ∂t2 ∂x (40) ρ0 ∂ 2 p ∇2 p − =0 2 β ∂t (41) The wave equation in one dimension The wave equation in three dimensions ∂2p ∂x 2 − 1 ∂2p c 2 ∂t 2 =0 (42) ∇2 p − 1 ∂2p c 2 ∂t 2 =0 (43) Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 16/48 .

the speed of sound.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids The constant c is defined as c = β / ρ0 (44) and is the propagation speed of a disturbance in the medium. According to equation (32) c = β / ρ0 = ∂p t ∂ ρt (45) ρ t = ρ0 For an ideal gas. equation (28) implies pt ⎛ ρ t ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ ⎜ ρ ⎟ ⇒ ln pt − ln p 0 = γ (ln ρ t − ln ρ 0 ) p0 ⎝ 0 ⎠ γ (46) Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 17/48 .

(48) (49) c = γ p0 ρ 0 c = γ RT M The temperature dependence of the speed of sound is obtained by putting the ideal gas law (27) into (48) (50) If the speed of sound at 0° C (273 K) is denoted c0.e.. this yields c = γ pt ρ t i. then for other temperatures c = c 0 T 273 Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (51) 18/48 .Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids so that pt ∂p t =γ ρt ∂ ρt ρt = ρ 0 (47) Put into the expression for the speed of sound (45).

a relationship with great significance for sound propagation outside.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids The speed of sound increases with temperature. where the temperature often varies with distance to the ground. t ) = f (t − x c ) + g (t + x c ) Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (53) 19/48 . the relation between these is b = which the sound speed in liquids is found from γ βT . the wave equation (42) applies. Assume a general solution form of p ( x. isothermal bulk modulus βT . after c = γ βT ρ0 Solutions to the wave equation General solution for free plane one-dimensional wave propagation (52) For plane wave propagation in the x-direction.

That assumed solution is known as d’Alembert´s solution.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids where f and g are arbitrary functions and (t – x / c) and (t + x / c) are their respective arguments. Derivation of equation (53) with respect to x gives ∂p 1 1 = − f ′(t − x c ) + g ′(t + x c ) c c ∂x ∂2 p ∂x2 = 1 c2 f ′′(t − x c ) + 1 c2 g ′′(t + x c ) (54) (55) and similarly with respect to t gives ∂p = f ′(t − x c ) + g ′(t + x c ) ∂t ∂2p ∂t 2 (56) (57) = f ′′(t − x c ) + g ′′(t + x c ) Putting (55) and (57) into (42) shows that the solution fulfills the wave equation. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 20/48 .

(t1 − x1 c ) = (t1 + Δt − ( x1 + Δ x) c ) which gives the condition (58) Δ x = cΔt Thus. It represents a certain sound pressure p1(x1. with speed c. i. at a later instant in time (t1 + ∆t). consider a special point (x1. then the arguments have to be the same.t1) in the wave.t1).. (59) Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 21/48 . To have the same sound pressure at another point (x1 + ∆x).Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids To interpret (53). in figure 4.e. the solution f (t – x / c) implies wave propagation in the positive direction along the x-axis.

The propagation speed of the disturbance is c. wave speed or phase velocity. so that Δx = −cΔt (60) The propagation speed c of a disturbance is called the speed of sound (or sound speed).direction. g(t + x / c) implies propagation in the negative x.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids Figure 4 Instantaneous picture of the wave propagation in the positive x-direction at time instants t1 and (t1 + ∆t). Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 22/48 . Similarly.

t ) = p + cos ω (t − x c) (61) ˆ where p+ is the amplitude. give the same sound pressure at points separated along the x-axis a distance equal to the wavelength λ. it is known that every periodic process can be built up of the summation of harmonic. plane. The solution must also. the argument must increase by 2π. that implies that the argument.. the set of which is called a Fourier series. for a certain x-value. The harmonic solution we seek for the angular frequency ω = 2πf must. where T is called the period. i. sinusoidal processes with different frequencies. the angle. one-dimensional wave propagation From Fourier analysis. For a harmonic function. say x1 + x. Even in that case. The argument ω (t . say t1 = t.x/c) = ωt – kx is called the phase and Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 23/48 . we attempt a solution of the form ˆ p ( x. give the same sound pressure at time t as it does one period later at time t + T. Thus. for a certain time value.. i. see figures 5a and 5b. increases by 2π.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids Harmonic solution for free.e. the highest value of the sound pressure.e.

. ωT = 2p ..e. The first condition above gives (62) (63) ˆ ˆ p + cos(ω t − kx1 ) = p + cos(ω (t + T ) − kx1 ) i. ω = 2π /T The second condition gives (64) ˆ ˆ p +cos (ω t1 − kx) = p +cos (ω t1 − k ( x + λ )) (65) i. one obtains the relation (66) (67) c = fλ Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 24/48 .Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids k = ω /c is called the wave number. k = 2π λ From (62). (64) and (66). kλ = 2π .e.

Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids which applies to all types of wave propagation. and in which the frequency is f=1/T p(x1. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 25/48 .t) (68) \$ p+ t Period T Figure 5a The variation of sound pressure with time at a fixed position x1.

The first term on the right-hand side refers to propagation in the positive xdirection.e. the real part of (69) is needed. For the sake of physical interpretation.. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 26/48 .t1) \$ p+ x Wavelength λ Figure 5b The variation of sound pressure with position at a fixed time t1. i.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids p(x. and the second term to propagation in the negative x-direction. t ) = p + e i (ω t− kx) + p − e i (ω t+ kx) (69) in which bold print means that the variable concerned is complex. complex notation ˆ ˆ p( x.

Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids ˆ p ( x. t ) = Re( p+ e i (ω t − kx ) ˆ + p− e i (ω t + kx ) ˆ ˆ ) = p+ cos(ω t − kx) + p−cos(ω t + kx ) (70) (71) The equation of motion (26) ρ0 ∂ ux ∂ p + =0 ∂t ∂x relates the particle velocity to the sound pressure. rearranged. putting in (69) gives the particle velocity 1 ⎡ − ik ik ⎤ ˆ + e i (ω t − kx) + ˆ u x ( x. the particle can be written (73) Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 27/48 . t ) = − p p − e i (ω t + kx ) ⎥ ρ 0 ⎢ iω iω ⎣ ⎦ Since k/ω = 1/c. it gives ux = − 1 ρ0 ∫ ∂p dt ∂x (72) Next.

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 28/48 . The ratio of pressure to particle velocity is called the specific impedance Z. respectively. for the free plane wave case. Z = p ux and. respectively. t ) = ˆ ˆ p + i (ω t− kx) p − i (ω t+ kx) e − e ρ0c ρ0c (74) The two terms refer to wave propagation in the positive and negative xdirections. is therefore (75) + Z 0 = ρ0c and (76) − Z 0 = −ρ0c (77) for propagation in the positive and negative directions. The quantity ρ0c is called the wave impedance.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids u x ( x.

t ) = p( x. t ) For propagation in the x-direction. t ) u (r . t ) The time-averaged sound intensity is (80) Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 29/48 . t ) = p(r . (79) I x ( x.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids Sound intensity for free. t )u x ( x. one-dimensional wave propagation The sound intensity is defined as the sound energy per unit time that passes through a unit area perpendicular to the propagation direction. plane. the instantaneous power can be written r r W(t ) = F (t ) ⋅ u (t ) A general expression for sound intensity is therefore that (78) r r r r r I (r .

Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids 1 I x ( x) = T T ∫ p( x. i. gives the intensity in the form ˆ 2 ˆ 2 I x = ( p+ − p− ) 2ρ 0c (82) The first term refers to a wave moving in the positive x-direction.. and the second term to a wave moving in the negative x-direction. so that (82) can be written p ˆ ~ 2 ~ 2 p+ p− Ix = − ρ0c ρ0c (83) Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 30/48 .e.e. the real part of (74). t )u x ( x. the real part of (69).. i. in (81). For harmonic waves. and the particle velocity. t )dt (81) 0 Making use of the expression for pressure. the relation between the rms amplitude and the peak value is ~ = p 2 .

2 ρ 0V0 u x ( x. t ) = (85) (86) For wave propagation in the x-direction. t ) 2 The potential energy of the fluid mass comes from the work that expended to compress it.e.. so that its mass can be written ρ 0V0 = ρ t V E k ( x.t) S dx is performed. The kinetic energy Ek can be related to the velocity of a fluid particle.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids Energy and energy density in free. the kinetic and the potential energy. Consider.e. i.t)S. The potenti-al energy Ep is due to the compression.. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 31/48 . When the piston moves a distance dx. The force applied to the piston is equal to the product of the piston’s area S and the pressure p against its inside surface. its kinetic energy is. from elementary mechanics. the fluid volume shown in figure 7. the elasticity. Fx = p(x. the differential amount of work dEp = Fx dx = p(x. now. Consider a particular mass of gas that has density ρ0 and volume V0 in the undisturbed medium. i. plane. one-dimensional wave propagation The energy E associated with a sound wave consists of two parts.

t )dV (87) where the minus sign implies that a positive sound pressure p(x. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 32/48 . a volume reduction or compression). Since Sdx = dV .t). dEp can.e.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids Figure 7 Work performed to compress a fluid volume. be written dE p = − p( x. with complete generality. which gives a negative volume change (i. We choose to express dV as a function of the sound pressure. Differentiating (85).. corresponds to a positive potential energy.

Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids V = 1 ρt ρ 0V0 ⇒ dV = − ρ 0V0 ρt 2 dρ t ≈ − V ρt dρ t γ (88) Since equation (46) states that then pt ⎛ ρ t ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ ⎜ρ ⎟ p0 ⎝ 0 ⎠ dρ t ρt = ρ 1 dp t ⇒ dρ t = t dp t γ pt γ pt (89) equations (88) and (89) give dV = − V dp t γ pt (90) Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 33/48 .

for plane wave propagation in the xdirection. finally. thus. Ep = According to (49). thus.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids For small pressure and volume disturbances. t ) (94) Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 34/48 . t ) = V0 2ρ0c 2 p 2 ( x. obtained by integrating from 0 to the sound pressure p. a general expression for the energy is 2 V0 p2 2γ p 0 (93) E p ( x. the undisturbed pressure and the undisturbed volume can be used dV = − V0 dp γ p0 V0 p dp γ p0 (91) The work (87) can now be written as dE p = (92) The potential energy is. c =γ p 0 ρ 0 .

t ) 2ρ0c + p 2 ( x. Of course this quantity.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids The concept of energy density ε [J/m3] refers to the energy per unit volume. u x ( x.e. r r r ε (r . t ) 2 + p 2 ( x. just as the total energy does.. t ) + ε p (r . t ) dt = T ρ0c 2 0 ∫ (98) 35/48 Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee . the energy density for propagation in the x-direction is then ε ( x. t ) = p ( x. t ) = ε k (r . i. consists of two parts: kinetic and potential energy densities. t ) (97) T ~ 2 ( x) 1 p ε ( x) = ε ( x. t ) 2 (95) Using expressions for the kinetic energy (86) and the potential energy (94). t ) = p 2 ( x. t ) 2ρ0c = p 2 ( x. Using this in (96) yields the instantaneous value of the energy density ρ0c 2 The time average is obtained by integrating with respect to time 2 2 ε ( x. t ) 2ρ 0c 2 (96) According to (76) and (77). t ) ( ± ρ 0 c ) applies to plane waves. t ) = ρ 0 u x ( x.

since it doesn’t decay with distance. as I x =ε c General solution for free spherical wave propagation (100) The spherical wave is a basic cornerstone in the study of acoustic fields. the rms pressure is independent of position x. i. More complex sound fields can be built up of combinations of spherical waves Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 36/48 ..e. ε = ~2 p ρ0c 2 (99) A comparison to (83) gives the relation between the sound intensity and the energy density of a plane wave.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids For a plane wave however. that naturally applies to the time-averaged energy density as well.

. .. . ..... ... . ... ... .... .. .. .. ... .... ..... .. ........ . . ........ .. .. . .. . ... . . .... .. .... .... ...... ... .... ..... .. . ..... .......... .. . ..... .. ......... ..... ........ . ... .. .. ..... .... ........... ..... ........ .......... ... . . ...... .. ........ ... ... . ....... . ...... ......... .. .. ... .... . . . ........ .......... ..... ........ . .. ... ....... ...... ... ... ... .......... ... . ... ... ...... ... . ....... ..... ...... ... .. ...... . ... ... . .. .. .......... ...... . . .. ..... .. ...... ... ..... . ..... ... . ............. ..... .... ............... ..... . .... ...... .... ... ........... ...... ............ .. .. .......... .. .... . . . ........... ..... . ..... .... . ..... . .... .. λ ....... . ... ........ ...... ...... .. ................ .... ....... ...... .. ... .. . . ...... ... .. . .... .. ........ . . . ..................... . . .......... .. .. . . .. .. ........ ... ... ... . . ...... .. ... . ....... ... ... . . .... . ...... ... . .. ... .... .......... . .. .... .... .... ..... ...... . .. . . .. ..... . ... ... . .. ... . ... ... . .... ..... .. ..... ..... ... ..... .... .... .. .......... ........ .. .... ..... ............. .. ... ..... ... ........... ..............Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids ... ........ .... .. ....... .. . . ................ ....... ..... .. . ....... .... ......... ...... .... .. . ... .... ...... .. ... ........ .. ... . ... . ......... ...... ... .... ....... ....... ....... . .. .. ... ..... ... . .. ...... . ... ... . .. .. ... . .. ... .. .. ... ..... ......... ... ... ... ... ....... ....... ......... . . r Figure 8 Symbolic picture of spherical wave propagation from a harmonic disturbance............... ...... . .. . .. . ........ Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 37/48 . .. . . . .............. .... .......... . ........ . ......... ...... . ... ....... .. . .... .......... ... .. .. . ...... . . ... .... ...... ... ... .... ....... ... . .. ........ .... ...... .. . ..... ..... ......... .. .. ... ......... .... .................. . ............. .......... .. ..... .. ... . ... ...... ......... ... .......... . .. . . ......... .... .. ....... .. .... .. . . ..... ... .... . . .. . . .... . .. . .. . . . .... .......... ..... . ... ....... ........ .. ... ..... ......... . ..... ... ....... .... ..... ........ .... . .... ..... .. ... . .. .......... ... . . .... .............. ...... ..... . ... . ....... ........ . ... ... . . .... . ...... .. .

it is of course more convenient to make use of the latter. see figure 9. z (r. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 38/48 . θ . φ ) θ φ x r r cosθ y r sinθ cosφ r sinθ sinφ Figure 9 Relation between spherical and Cartesian coordinate systems.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids For spherical wave propagation.

Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids In spherical coordinates. the wave equation (43) takes the form ⎡ 1 ∂ ⎛ 2 ∂ ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂ ⎞ ∂2 ⎤ 1 1 1 ∂2 p + + r sin θ p= ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ∂θ ⎠ r 2 sin 2 θ ∂φ 2 ⎥ ⎢ r ∂r ⎝ ∂ r ⎠ r 2 sin θ ∂θ ⎝ c 2 ∂t 2 ⎣ ⎦ (101) For spherical symmetry. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 39/48 . the sound intensity is. In a plane wave. and equation (101) reduces to 1 ∂ ⎛ 2 ∂ ⎞ 1 ∂2p ⎜r ⎟p = 2 2 ∂r⎝ ∂ r⎠ c ∂t2 r or (102) ∂ 2p 2 ∂ p 1 ∂ 2p + = 2 r ∂r c2 ∂ t 2 ∂r (103) Unlike plane wave propagation. the sound pressure has no angular dependence. since the sound power in the wave is divided over an ever-expanding spherical surface of area 4π r2. according to (82). the sound pressure amplitude decays with increasing radius.

Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids i. proportional to the squared sound pressure amplitude. On a term-by-term basis. an assumed solution might therefore take the form p(r . their amplitude would therefore have to decay at a rate of 1/r according to the energy principle. t ) = 1 1 f (t − r c ) + g (t + r c ) r r (105) Here. The incoming wave seldom exists in connection with acoustic radiation from machines.e. by analogy to the plane wave case. The solution is verified by inserting it into the wave equation (103).. we have ∂ 2p ∂r 2 = 1 rc 2 f ′′(t − r c ) + 2 2 f ′(t − r c ) + 2 3 f (t − r c ) + r c r 1 2 2 + g ′′(t + r c ) − g ′(t + r c ) + g (t + r c ) rc 2 r 2c r3 (106) 2 ∂p 2 2 2 2 =− f ′(t − r c ) − f (t − r c ) + g ′(t + r c ) − g (t + r c ) 2 3 2 3 r ∂r r c r r c r (107) Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 40/48 . the first term represents an outgoing diverging wave and the second term an incident converging wave. Assuming that applies to spherical waves as well.

Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids 1 ∂ 2p c 2 ∂t 2 = 1 rc 2 f ′′(t − r c ) + 1 rc 2 g ′′(t + r c ) (108) Putting all of these into (103) shows that the assumption does indeed fulfill the wave equation. the equations of motion can be reduced to r 1 ∂ ⎤ ∂ u ⎡r ∂ r 1 ∂ r ρ0 + ⎢e r + eθ + eφ ⎥p = 0 sin θ ∂φ ⎦ ∂t ⎣ ∂r r ∂θ (109) ∂ ur ∂ p + ρ0 =0 ∂t ∂r (110) and the particle velocity expressed as ur = − 1 ρ0 ∫ ∂p dt ∂r (111) Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 41/48 . The equation of motion (25) relates the particle velocity to the sound pressure. In spherical coordinates. t )e r . it takes the form r r With spherical symmetry and u = u r (r .

wave. t ) = − 1 ρ0 ∫ A ∂ p(r. t ) = A+ i (ω t − kr ) A− i (ω t + kr ) + e e r r (112) The first term on the right-hand side refers to an outgoing. gives the particle velocity A+ ⎛ 1 ⎞ i (ω t− kr ) u r (r . wave. k = ω /c. spherical wave propagation A complex harmonic solution is obtained. and applying the relation (62).t ) dt = − + ρ0 ∂r ∫ ⎛ − 1 − ik ⎞ i (ω t− kr ) ⎜ dt ⎜ 2 + r ⎟e ⎟ ⎝r ⎠ (113) Integrating. The amplitude is therefore a function of r. and the second to an incident.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids Harmonic solution for free. where A+ is a constant. From (111). as p(r . converging. The sound pressure amplitude in the outgoing wave is A+/ r. t ) = ⎜1 + ⎟e ρ 0 cr ⎝ ik r ⎠ Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (114) 42/48 . the particle velocity becomes u r (r . diverging.

we define here the complex quantity Z as the ratio of the complex sound pressure to the complex radial particle velocity at a point in a sound field Z= p ur (115) For an outgoing spherical wave. the specific impedance. using equations (112) and (114). gives ⎛ k 2r 2 kr Z = ρ0c = ρ 0 c⎜ +i ⎜ 1 + k 2r 2 1 + k 2r 2 1 + k 2r 2 ⎝ k 2 r 2 + ikr ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (117) Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 43/48 . becomes Z= p = ρ0c ur 1 1 1+ ikr = ρ0c ikr 1 + ikr (116) Multiplying the numerator and denominator by the complex conjugate of the latter.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids By analogy to the definition (75) of the specific impedance of a free plane wave.

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 44/48 . when the radius is small in comparison to the wavelength.e... i. The reactance therefore dominates. i. For kr = 1.e.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids and the specific impedance Z can be divided into a resistive part R and a reactive part X. both the resistance and the reactance approach zero. but the resistance does so more quickly. Z = R + iX Some observations that follow from the preceding are: (118) (i) Nearfield In the acoustic near field (kr = 2πr/λ « 1). both the resistance and the reactance are equally large. ρ0c / 2. the particle velocity becomes large and its phase shift approaches 90° with respect to the sound pressure. and the impedance approaches Z(r ) ≈ i ρ 0 c kr (119) That means that for a given sound pressure.

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 45/48 .Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids (ii) Far field In the acoustic far-field (kr = 2πr / λ » 1). The curvature of the spherical waves in the farfield.. the resistance approaches ρ0c and the reactance approaches zero as r goes to infinity. The resistance dominates and the impedance approaches the same expression as for plane waves Z(r ) ≈ ρ 0 c (120) That means that the phase difference between the sound pressure and the particle velocity approaches zero.e. i. becomes all the less significant and the situation asymptotically approaches that of plane waves. where the radius is large with respect to the wavelength. with increasing distance to the source. as is the case for plane waves.

8 0.0 R / ρ 0c 0.Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids 1. for outgoing spherical wave propagation.2 0 0 5 10 kr 15 20 X / ρ 0c Figure 10 Normalized resistance R /ρ0c . Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 46/48 . and normalized reactance X /ρ0c .6 0.4 0.

the sound power is therefore independent of the radius. spherical control surface of radius r is 2 A+ 2 W = I r (r ) 4π r = 2π (123) ρ0c For a loss-free medium. Write the intensity as I r (r ) = Re(p ⋅ (u r )*) Re(p * u r ) = 2 2 2 A+ 1 ⎞⎤ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟⎥ = ⎝ ikr ⎠⎥ 2 ρ 0 cr 2 ⎦ (121) Putting equations (112) and (114) into equation (121) gives 2 1 ⎡ A+ I r (r ) = Re ⎢ 2 ⎢ ρ 0 cr 2 ⎣ (122) The time-averaged energy flow through a closed. which is in agreement with the energy principle. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 47/48 .Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids Sound intensity for spherical wave propagation The time-averaged sound intensity of outgoing spherical waves can be determined by the same methods as for plane waves.

Fundamentals of Sound and Vibration Wave Equation in Fluids Thank you Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee .