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John Morris , Marin Radu
Syringa Bioscience (Pty) Ltd, 137 Edward Avenue, Hennops Park, Centurion 0157, South Africa Centrul de Cercetari pentru Materiale Macromoleculare si Membrane – CCMMM, 202B, Splaiul Independentei, Sector 6, 060023, Bucuresti, Romania. Abstract Pollution created by the increased number of people and by industrial and domestic activities put pressure in the planet’s climate that can conduct to a catastrophe which may end the humans’ life on the planet. Hydrogen is an endless source of energy, clean and efficient, which exist in the Universe in a high proportion, over 88% (Peavey, 2008; Holland & Provezano 2007; Romm, 2005; Rifkin, 2002). Current problems that stop the development of an efficient Hydrogen Economy are the high production costs, storage problems, and transport and supply problems, due to the high cost of operational structure for supply to the end user. To all these objective reasons may be added the high rate of international terrorism that may use storage of liquid hydrogen as a target for its activity. Looking in the right direction, Marin Radu solved the above problems by producing hydrogen in situ, via an electro-catalytic membrane, which decomposes the water molecules efficient, with low input of electric current.
Words: in situ, electro-catalytic membrane, water decomposition *Correspondence author: email@example.com
Materials and Methods In a glass cylinder a round polymeric membrane [Photo 1& 2] was connected to a normal 220V source of electric current. Water was added to cover minimum 10 cm the top of the membrane. The electrocatalytic membrane is a polymer inserted with an inorganic material that plays the role of a catalyst that urges the decomposition process of the water’s molecule. Due to the membrane’ specific molecular arrangement the decomposition process is located in every molecule and the same quantity of electric current that activate water’s decomposition acts simultaneously in a large number of polymer’s molecules, resulting a high production of hydrogen and oxygen in the same space [Photo 2].
In normal water electrolysis the system acts linear – catod-membrane-anod – and need more energetic input for separating the two elements H2 and O [Figure 1]. In the polymeric membrane the process is ‘organized’ and has two big advantages: high volume of water is decomposed with the same input of energy and the two gases are combined and burnt together [Figure 2].
. and the input of electric current (i.e. When oxygen is added. the temperature increases to plus minus 3 000 ̊ C.Figure 1 Electro-catalytic membranous water decomposition 5 x 20% Efficiency = 100 % Efficiency -polymer molecules Inorganic catalyst -water molecules H₂O Decomposition H-O-H High Energy 2000 + ̊C Figure 2 Burning H₂ + O Organized system Results The production of decomposed water depends by two factors: membrane. An important effect of combining the two gases H 2 and O is the high temperature of the flame. plus minus 2 000 ̊ C. The electro-catalytic membrane can be folded and thus in a small space a small device (the blue device) can produce hydrogen on demand. a car’s alternator produce variate quantity of electric current as per acceleration needs). as per application needs [Photo 3 & 4].
are of a high quality. we will apply a hydrogen making device to supply the above cooking machines. etc. The resulted by-products. A Real Hydrogen Economy in Africa Cooking The need to prepare food is a problem in many areas of South Africa as well as in the whole Africa. especially carbon. power stations. Instead of using fire wood or the expensive LPG. which will produce the necessary energy to cook with a small quantity of water. industrial. Applications This method to decompose the water on its components and using it as an almost unlimited resource of energy without any form of pollution. or other energetic sources. alcohol. which is between 3 to 6 times cheaper than classic resources of energy. has many applications. cars. . and many more. among them are: domestic. water desalination.Photo 3 Photo 4 In Photo 3 to the laboratory gas lamp was attached a syringe needle and in Photo 4 a 12 mm diameter cooper pipe was used to show the high production of gas (H 2 + O). The membrane can separate the hydrogen from other liquids which has this element in their composition as petroleum products. Heating During the cold days of the winter every house need a heating system.
light inclusive. elegant. Thus. there are opportunities for many. the temperature being around 2 000 ̊ C. many other industrial applications. environmentally friendly (the emission is water) and can be used in the areas where ESKOM has no distribution systems in place. Hydrogen is the best application and the water consumption is very limited due to the high caloric power of the hydrogen. Independent Electrical Power In any house there are necessary appliances that are using electrical power during their functioning. The flame produced by the above shown lab devices are melting a steel bar with a 4 mm diameter in seconds. If oxygen is added the temperature can be increased to over 3 000 ̊C. Running an electrical generator with hydrogen is cheaper. Hot Water/Geyser The electrical geysers are very non-economical devices due to their permanent need to heat the water. .LPG (and electricity) is very expensive and is not environmentally friendly. For ESKOM itself. With hydrogen in a few minutes the water content of a hundred litre geyser from the above photo will be heated at 80 ̊C in less than 15 minutes ‘burning’ maximum one litre of water. is much cheaper to use hydrogen and produce electrical power more cheaply than it is now. And more news. Industrial applications Bigger generators can provide energy for factories and other industrial applications. instead of burning coal on its power stations. hydrogen can be used in the nuclear power stations instead of radioactive (and dangerous) uranium or other radioactive chemical elements.
USA. The Hydrogen Age: Empowering a Clean-Energy Future. and the Prospect for a Cleaner Planet. efficient and of high quality. Inc. We will create stations around the country that will filter the polluted water on different levels. Penguin Books. Tomorrow’s Energy: Hydrogen.g. Merit Products. 2007. What’s next? To Work for the End of Energy Crisis From the lecture of this material everybody can see that this huge opportunity is not only for African Hydrogen company. Fuel Cells.Water supply for hydrogen purposes In South Africa as well as in other African countries the resources for fresh water are limited. 7. USA. African Hydrogen. This is an opportunity of a national importance and every driving force in our society may collaborate to develop it. Michael A. Hydrogen Africa (Pty) Ltd will use this technology in South Africa and in all African countries. ISBN: 978-1-846-14185-0 James Lovelock. ISBN: 978-0-141-03535-2 John Morris. USA. 2. For all these implementations we need political support and grants. The cost for these new products (water of various qualities) must be very affordable. including for human consumption. The MIT Press. Holland and James Provezano. . Publisher. So. USA. continent and for the entire planet. agriculture. An efficient distribution system must be developed. The Revenge of Gaia.) as well as the two oceans. ISBN: 1-58542-254-1 Peter Hoffmann. Tarcher/Penguin. 3. ISBN: 978-1-58685-786-8 Joseph J. The Hype about Hydrogen: Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate. Gibbs Smith. References: 1. To implement this technology in a proper way the following must be done: Register the patent worldwide including in all African countries. Thus. Starting sales activity with domestic applications (e. Unpublished. 2002. which water can we use to produce hydrogen? It is simple. Peavey. ISBN: 978-0-945516-045 Geoffrey B. The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning. 2002. Penguin Books.2008. 5. Jeremy P. 2009.12th Ed. etc. 6. All these end in a lot of jobs to create a new ecological activity that will make our life easier and will sustain our future on this planet. The Hydrogen Economy: The Creation of the Worldwide Energy Web and the Redistribution of Power on Earth. Involve young students in the applicative research. 2007. In South Africa we have a lot of polluted sources of ground water (mining activities. I hope that everybody understood why this is an urgent matter for our country. industrial activities. Fuel from Water: Energy Independence with Hydrogen. RDP houses). Island Press. SABS certification. 2005. and including marine water (desalinisation) by using hydrogen and other types of membranes invented and produced by CCMMM. ISBN: 1-55963-704-8 Jeremy Rifkin. 8. Obtain the European Office of Standards certification. ISBN: 0-262-08295-0 James Lovelock. 4. Romm.