B 3







f .


1906 All rights reaervei. u. Chicago . Printed in the United States of America By Paquin Printers. s.coptriqht bt Thb Open Court Publishing CHICAGO. Co. A.

yss' CONTENTS. PACK Introduction 3 3 7 Yin Chih Wen Ch'ang Ti Chiin Kwan Ti and Wen Ch'ang g 10 11 Chang-0 The Chinese Title The Age of the Yin Chih Wen 12 17 The Tract of the Quiet Way Notes of the Chinese Commentator Man's Indebtedness to the Lord Heaven and Earth A Good Judge 25 25 25 26 Humaneness Rewarded Saving Many Lives The Double-headed Snake The Foundation of Bliss Seek Truth for the Sake of Salvation The Disease of Egotism Filial 27 29 30 31 32 32 33 34 34 35 Piety Several Ways Buddhism and Confucianism A Sympathetic Heart The Voice Within Translator's Notes 36 39 Index 47 ivi578180 .




so far as we know. "Book but of Secret Blessings. It is difficult to translate the title of the book.INTRODUCTION." does not the truth as terse is recommend is itself. His reference to the Yin Chih Wen is made on pp. THE Yin Chih Wen in is a religio-ethical tract. that an exact translation which would be and as expressive as the Chinese. but its contents are very Western world. which. and we have only once met with references to it by Professor Douglas in his Confucianism and Taouism under the title of "Book of Secret Blessings. and there is probably no family in China without little it. appears to be all but impossible. and we * Professor Douglas's book is one in the series of NonChristian Religious Systems published by the Society for the Advancement of Christian Knowledge. All we can say is that the rendering by Douglas. has not as yet. We have long been in doubt as to what English words would best express the term Yin Chih. all spite of its popularity over the Middle Kingdom."* in the known YIN CHIH. been translated into any Western language. Next to the Kan-Ying P'ien it is read and studied and taught both in schools and at the home. 256 and 272. .

to the awe and astonishment says the Christian of every sapient observer. As a verb it it means "to determine." It also conveys the idea of anything possessed with a deeper meaning." "way. express two meanings which ought to be combined into one such as is the third." In common language the word chih means "stallion." and "mysterious workings. ." "to go up higher. raise" . The word chih is used both as verb and as noun. is not intelligible without further ex." "method." None of these versions would be incorrect. anything mysterious and the two words together." "rule. sameness of sound led to the use of the same character. denote the quiet way of Heaven. invisibly yet unfailingly. as hymn in a "God moves mysterious way His wonders If to perform.: 4 YIN CHIH WEN." we had to translate these lines into Chinese. though it is sufficiently broad and brief. which." but we may be sure that this is an accidental homophony." which is modified by the symbol "to ascend. may of divine dispensation." "dispensation. yin chih."* The word yin means "in secret. we *The character is presumably phonetic. planation." the latter being a compound of "higher" and "to step up." "to be defined as a noun by "principle. have seriously considered the following three possibilities: "secret virtue. an A occurrence which is very frequent in the Chinese language. in order to serve as an equivalent of this peculiar expression and we have finally decided to render our title The Tract of the Quiet Way." either in the sense of "unheeded" or "unostentatious." "heaven's quiet dispensation. It consists of the radical "horse. but they do not sufficiently express The first and second the full meaning of the term. however. which works out the ends .

" —Hamlet. and of mercy." reminding us of Christ's injunction not to let our right hand know what the left hand is doing (Matt. vi. . and without desire for praise. and translated by. without hope of reward. and if either meaning predominates we should say that it is certainly the former the quiet ways of Heaven which determine the destiny of man and which are described by Shakespeare as — "A divinity that shapes our ends. spirit without cherishing ulterior motives. In the title of the book the words Yin Chih cover the general idea of the "secret ways" both as they are working in the divine dispensation and in human action. VI. As Heaven lets its sun shine upon good and evil. 1-4). to rule. "secret virtue. show benevolence and kindness toward all in an impartial . The man who thus imitates "Heaven's quiet way" in unostentatiously realizing the ideal of heavenly goodness is truly virtuous.INTRODUCTION. perform acts of rectitude. 1-4. Rough-hew them how we will. without discrimination and also without expecting reward or advantages so man should do good to his fellows. of justice. It is an old maxim of the traditional wisdom of China which is most emphatically insisted upon by Lao Tze and all the sages of his school. and so yin chih has also come to denote a condition which may be characterized as. The word there it is chih occurs for the literature in the first time in Chinese "Great Plan" of the Shu King. 5 might render the words "a mysterious way" very appropriately by yin chih. that these quiet ways of Heaven should be imitated by man. and used in the verbal sense "to regulate.

.. Indeed it is the guiding (ting) principle of crea- tion that good men never lose an opportunity to do what is good. 'to de- The quoted passage means affairs of that "Heaven alone. for there is something this in the unseen which fully regulates and determines (ting) your affairs. . e.6 to determine." intelligent The commentator continues: "The human soul is most essential nature is and its intrinsically good. i. in a quiet or mysteriously unnoticeable way. and thing appears some- when the people practise goodness." man's unostentatious virtue") are o." YIN CHIH WEN.' " ting. If you really practise it (i. Those who deny sin fact commit a secret (yin) (o) and their retribu- Therefore this book is called Yin Chih. The commentator title in of the Yin Chih Wen explains the the following words: "In the 'Great Plan. they should be these beings it When Heaven have their reasons why above created this mysteriously endowed them with something to guide (ting) them. All our moral relations and daily 'actions so. we read: 'wei tien yin chih hsia min/ [Only Heaven mysteriously rules below the people] | | | | I and a gloss explains the word chih by termine. explicitly. e." The words Yin Chih ("the quiet way. "the mysterious dispensation in of Heaven showing itself opposed to yin heart.' a chapter of the Slwh King. "the hidden evil in the bad man s The word o (a compound of "crookedness" is and "heart") the common term for evil or badness. the good) in your heart it is not necessary that others should know of it." or more tion will be speedy. directs the mankind living below on earth.

"Little younger brother" is the usual term meaning "disciple. The god is seated on a stool and the scribe of the book reverently kneels before him holding the Yin Chih Wen in his hands. and that the former is widely used with a deep religious significance." and tze "child.INTRODUCTION. The inscription of the picture reads Ti tze Shen Chin-Ching hui. The white charger on which he has come down from heaven stands in the foreground. Wen Ch'ang is the name of the god. . but our readers will bear in mind the original sense and become accustomed to our translation by associating it with its right interpretation. WEN CH'ANG Our resents frontispiece.the fact that the lish is as word "way" Eng- broad as the meaning of chih in Chinese. The how contrast in which yin chih stands to yin far it 7 p explains title by in would be proper to translate our "secret virtue. repCh'ang Ti Chiin. TI CHUN." Ti means "younger brother. which means "the humble disciple Shen Chin-Ching pinxit." or "devotee. one of the highest diauthor of vinities of China." Considering. Wen drawn by Shen Chin-Ching." here used as a diminutive. The picture represents the god as accompanied by two attendants. and Ti Chiin his title." by which title the artist here calls him- self to indicate that he is a follower of the religious doctrines taught in the Yin Chih Wen. we have finally chosen as a translation of our title the term "the quiet way. revealing himself to the the tract." We are fully con- scious of the shortcomings of our rendering.

" because in English the term scripture refers mainly to religious literature and is similar to the Chinese original in so far as it has a devotional ring. the god of divine revelation through scripture. He Ch'ang or "scripture sometimes done) is." or "master" and so "Ti Chiin" (Lord Superior) might also be translated "imperial master. and especially applied to short exhortations of a religious nature such as are com- monly called in we translate book. and in Chinese high schools a hall him as the patron saint of education. above all. misleading. and especially moral instruction through dedicated to ligious books. It denotes is Wen in writing in general." the character being composed of two suns. we translate wen by "scripture." The word chiin means "superior. finement. rere- Belles lettres form only one and in fact an insignificant branch of his department." Hence "The Tract of the Quiet Way." Chiin is the term by which chiin tse the "higher man" is denoted in Lao Tze's Tao Teh King. indicating an intensified brightness of light." and the word Ti Chiin." as Western terminology "tracts. an anticipation of Nietzsche's . The rank of Wen Ch'ang in the world of gods." is commonly translated by "lord is superior. He is. "the higher emperor." not "the Douglas has it. is the god of learnis ing in general. With reference to the god's name. To characterize the god Wen is glory" as god of literature (as to say the least. "Emperor" or "Ti. Ch'ang means "glory" or "radiance. 8 YIN CHIH WEN.." The word zvoi is the same character which occurs the last word of the title of our book. Ch'ang means "scripture glory.

means but in the classical period of Jewish monotheism the word Michael was explained not faith in is as a characterization of the archangel as being like God. and if the latter archangel IMichael. Gabriel as is as different in character is Wen Ch'ang: from Kwan Ti. the chosen people.INTRODUCTION. or Attila. Michael. by the god compared to the Ch'ang. should that Ti. implying the proposition that there no second to God. while Nietzsche's "superman" is more The term like Kubla Khan. or Napoleon. is the representative of God." and seems to designate that divine presence (viz." also borne is Kwan Ti. but as expressing monotheism. Gabriel from Michael means ." only with this difference that Lao Tze's "higher man" bears a great resemblance to Christ and Buddha. for the conception of both may have been derived from Babylonian prototypes. there is In fact. Wen be likened to Gabriel. the dragon (Rev. according to the angel lore of the Hebrews. and so he is identified with God's cause. As Marduk fought with Tiamat. chilli is commonly applied also to leading thinkers such as Lao Tze and Confucius. Michael being represented by Marduk and IMichael Gabriel by Nebo. the ineffable name) which is believed to be equal to God. He is the guardian angel of Israel. KWAN The of war. literally "who is like God. so Michael wages war against xii. title TI AND WEN is CH'ANG. we cannot deny a strong probability of historical connection between these highest princes among the angels. and also commander-in-chief of the angelic hosts. 7). the former. 9 "superman. "emperor.

forcible. man of God. "he lived during the T'ang dynasty (620-950 A. As Kwan Ti. differently from the Cherubim (the human . but later he moved to Tzu T'ung in the district of Shu. so Wen Ch'ang. D. was represented to have lived on earth as a man. In the sent God's revelation. luminous. He was distinguished by His writings were clear. generally represented as the angel of God's special revelation and the inter- Thus. or "scripture glory. Old Testament scholars have pointed out his resemblance to the Babylonian god Nebo. alluded to above. There is no figure in Christian tradition which would resemble Wen Ch'ang more closely than Gabriel." He is deemed superior is to all other angels except Michael and preter of God's intentions. the scribe of God. nor can we doubt that the angel with an inkhorn by his side. New CHANG-0. We and are told that his personality nobility and piety. the god of war.headed winged bulls). and his secular name was Chang-O." kiel X. mentioned in Eze- was Gabriel. it is Gabriel who explains Daniel's vision . began to exercise a moral power . but little is known of the man to whom the Chinese tradition refers. who in the monuments is depicted in human form with an inkhorn at his side. which fact throws light on the vision of Ezekiel." is said to have been an ancient Chinese sage. 2-3. and shows that there is a specific meaning in the name "man of God. Yiieh was his native province.). Testament Gabriel continues to repreIt is he who announces the birth of John the Baptist and of Jesus.10 "the YIN CHIH WEN. According to the commentator.

' near came to offer prayers which were remarkably well responded to by the sage. Chang-O] must." The last tw'O words form one Shih idea which might be translated "educational. II who unconsciously felt his spirituality." a verbatim translation. over the people. or at least as the divinity who has guided the pen of the man who composed it. 'There is in the heavens a star called Wen Ch'ang the " sage [i. "instruction. e. [the] Imperial Master. The people of Shu showed great affection for him. not satisfied with the course of politics. he resigned his government position and lived as a saintly recluse.' Our tract bears the name of the god Wen Ch'ang. when he died." means "model. not recorded. and accordingly he is regarded as its author. but. name of of the scribe who made its himself the mouthpiece Wen Ch'ang and who in human is consideration ought to be regarded as author. THE CHINESE TITLE.INTRODUCTION. but (unless we assume that Chang-O was the author which is not positively impossible) the . normal instruction. title We reproduce Quiet the complete of the Tract of the reads: Way in its original Chinese characters on the it fly leaf preceding our translation. and there Ti-Chiin "Wen-Chang This means in Yin Chih Wen Shih-Hsiin. said. then. [the] Quiet-Way-tract. built a temple in his honor calling People far and it 'Temple of the Sage of Tzu T'ung. He entered for a while upon an official career." "norm" or "pattern" and hsiin." In their combination the two denote that the present book is intended to serve educational pur. . have been its incarnation.. and. Everybody. "[Of] Scripture Glory.


and that

contains the estabHshed or orthodox

standard of conduct.

date of the Yin Chih


can only approxiit

mately be determined.
older than

appears that

cannot be

Chang-O and must

not therefore be dated

T'ang dynasty. In the days was not only well known, but commented upon and supplied with exearlier than the time of the

of Kang-Hi, however, the pamphlet

planatory stories.

Accordingly we cannot stray far

from truth when we look upon the Yin Chih



approximately simultaneous with the Kan-Yin g P'ien

which in many respects it greatly resembles, and so we would say that we should certainly not set the date

composition later than about 1600 A, D.

Specialists of Chinese literature will probably be

able to ascertain the age of the Yin Chih

Wen more

accurately by pointing out quotations from

in other

books whose date of composition



Yin Chih Wen consists (i) of the which is here translated, (2) of glosses added by commentators, and finally (3) of a great many stories which are similar to the stories of the






P'ien, except that they are



and appear



reference to



superstitious agencies.

The book has apparently

pealed more to the rationalistic Confucianists or

who, while upon the whole agnostic, exhibit at the same time due respect for the officially recognized



sinological part of the present version

exclusively the

our edition

is more work of Mr. Teitaro Suzuki than in of the Kan-Ying P'ien; and in our own

version of terms and other details
satisfied until

we have

not been

we had

his assent.

In addition to the text of the Yin Chih Wen, the

from the Notes of the Chinese Commentator those passages that appealed to him, and has abstained from publishing any one of the stories, because he thought that Western readers would not
editor has picked out

take a great interest in them.
these moralizing tales
stories of the


general tenor of

sufficiently indicated in




We hope that the publication of this book will help Western readers to understand better the Chinese character and especially its undeniable fervor for moral


the Chinese mind, especially
is filled


the uneducated classes,

with superstitious no-


we cannot help granting that the character of moral maxims ranges very high and we must

confess that



the nations of the world there

perhaps none other so seriously determined to
ethical culture.

up to the highest standard of


appreciation of the virtues of the Chinese will

help Western people to treat them with

more considand so we contribute our interpretation of this treatise as a mite towards a better understanding between the East and the West, between the white races of Europe and America and the natives of Asia. We



hope that the day will come when the mutual distrust will disappear, and when both in reciprocal appreciation of their natural


qualities, will be

anxious to

treat each other with fairness

and brotherly kindness.
p. c.

X. it %K .


^*^^ . I have extensively practised secret virtue (yin chih^) which is attuned to heaven above. and I have never oppressed my people nor makreated my subordinates. these are the instructions I declare unto man."* let wants to expand the field of it happi- him lay the foundation of on the bottom of his heart. I have helped them in misfortune. Heaven will surely bestow upon you blessings. The Lord says:^^' I have been incarnated' as a high mandarin. benefit the people. Benefit all creatures^. For seventeen generations kind :^ He who ness. and let your deeds of merit be unheeded (yin). Therefore. I have forgiven their transgressions.THE TRACT OF THE QUIET WAY. ^^'' Practise benevolence^ wherever you find an opportunity. I have rescued them from poverty I have taken compassion on their orphans.^^^ If you are able to keep your hearts as I have kept mine.

^^'° Be congenial and friendly to brothers. Be sincere in your intercourse with friends. .^*^'^ By discoursing on morality and righteous- ness. Be and obedient to parents.*^*^^ Fulfil the four obligations^.l8 YIN CHIH WEN.' Be filial faithful and reverential to the ruler. '° Let some worship the Truthful One. Deliver people from danger as quickly as you must free a sparrow from a tight noose. By preaching on tories. impartially ob- serve the three doctrines. Respect the old and help the poor." and revere the Northern Constellation. Relieve people in distress as speedily as you must release a fish from a dry rill [lest he die]. Let your heart be impartial and wide of range. Practise goodness: acquire merit. the canonical books and histhe enlighten and the be- nighted. the state government must be devoted to the salvation of the people. convert both the cunning and the ignorant dull.*^*^" while others bow before the Buddha and recite su- tras. Be compassionate to orphans and relieve widows. like Heaven in conducting your Compassionate and auspicious. Be honest affairs.

With tea or water relieve the distress of the thirsty. Treat your servants with generosity and consideration. Let measures and scales be accurate. corpses. provide for and relieve your neigh- bors and friends. ferry people across. Give away coffins and cases lest the dead of Build charitable graveyards for unclaimed the poor he exposed. extend relatives. Keep boats on rivers to . Publish and make known sutras'"" and tracts.THE TRACT OF THE QUIET WAY. Establish philanthropic institutions for the education of children. may Save your clothing and provisions that ye befriend the hungry and cold on the road. Do not expect perfection nor be too strict in your demands. Distribute medicine to alleviate the suffer- ing of the sick. If your own hand family to is well provided. If the a helping your har- vest fails. Be lenient with others and exacting with yourself. Light lanterns in the night to illuminate where people walk. Build and repair temples and shrines. I9 Promote the good and recommend the wise. and be neither chary in selling nor exacting in bu3ang.

! 20 YIN CHIH WEN. brothers at variance with one another. of worms and set tain Be cautious with fire and do not woods or forests ablaze. for personal malice. Set not father and son at variance for fles. not scheme for others' property. Do Do on. •Do not approach thy neighbor's wife or Do Do Do not stir thy neighbors to litigation. tri- Never take advantage of your power. nor disgrace the good and law-abiding. not envy others' accomplishments. away paper that is written Do Do maids. captive animals and give CC13 Buy dom. affairs. nor to the water to poison moun- Do not go into the mountain to catch birds fishes in nets/^ and minnows. Set not. . not injure thy neighbor's reputation or not meddle with thy neighbor's conjugal interest.'^ them free- How commendable is abstinence^^ that dis- penses with the butcher While walking be mindful ants.'^ not butcher the ox that plows thy not throw field.

and 'nay' with the heart.THE TRACT OF THE QUIET WAY. * This recalls the fact that in Babylon "to say 'yea' with the mouth. . soul. Cut the brambles and thorns that obstruct the highway. also the Biblical expression in Ezek. it for friends. Remove bricks and stones that lie in the path.* Always have in mind helpful sayings. XX. 47. See Delitzsch. that will help 3^ou to practise virtue with body distance. p. Repair the defiles though for many hundred years they have remained unimproved. but promulgate all that is good. and "Third and Last Lecture" in The Open Court. Live in duty/'' be humble concord with your relatives and clansmen. xxxiii. Do not use improper language. Do not assert with your mouth what your heart denies. 31. Presume the needy not. Those that are good. . 21 nor deceive and suffering. Let go hatred'^ and forgive malice. seek ye and you. Those that are wicked.. ye that are rich.was repeatedly branded as a sin. keep at a will prevent evil from approaching Pass in silence over things wicked." p. While attending to your and modest. 151. Build bridges to be traversed by thousands and ten thousands of people. Babel and Bible: Two Lectures. Cf.

^^''^ and let your speech express humaneness.22 YIN CHIH WEN.^" . to correct the peo- Supply the means ple of talent. or rewards may be remote. and will devolve upon your posterity. Expound moral maxims ple's faults. and always be encompassed by good guardian anall gel s. '^ Be mindful when you are shadov/ of your coverlet. good fortune is piled up a thousandfold like a mass of clouds. alone^*^'"^ in the Anything evil refrain ye from doing i^^''* good deeds do!^' So will you be released forever from the influence of evil stars. to give instruction to peo- Let your work conform to Heaven's reason. Keep the ancient sages before your eyes even when at supper or while looking over the fence. and you will receive them in person.^^ Rewards may be immediate. Blessings come a hundredfold in loads as if drawn by horses. Do not all these things accrue to the heart of the quiet way ? .



words! They are surely the road that leads to sainthood and enlighten- and kindhearted are ment. is greater than that of a father . also called in the yin. I. MAN'S INDEBTEDNESS TO THE LORD. who are unable to their karma. May all people who receive these instructions exert their mental energy to put them in practice and be attuned to the Great Lord's boundless love to save the world. 2. who in- structs his children his discipline is greater than that who trains his disciples. thereby to lead to enlightenment the generations to come. His love of a master earnest. which shape all conditions world including the destinies of human affairs. takes compassion on the igall The Lord Superior norance of erate themselves sentient beings. the best method that avoids misfortune and rescues us from evil. HEAVEN AND EARTH. his How sincere.* : Chou-tze says at "Heaven and Earth are constantly thousand things. yang and . lib- from the curse of So he proclaims these moral instructions.NOTES OF THE CHINESE COMMENTATOR. work * to regenerate the ten That The term "heaven and earth" stands for the two divine principles.

Compare in the them note 3 on page 39. Her own daughter hearing of the incident went to court and charged her sisterin-law with murder. unable to vindicate herself. Accordingly we have same type in which our translation of the text is set. was so much distressed over her helplessness that finally she hanged herself to release her daughter-in-law from the duty of self-sacrifice. then he becomes himself Heaven and Earth. "It is not sufficient for an officer of high position to refrain ing wealth. lest her mother-in-law be left without support. thought of a person is always bent on benefiting others. Yii King of the Han dynasty (206 B. was held in such high esteem [on account of his virtue] that a gateway for fourhorse carriages was erected in his honor. In his district there was a young widow who. and the latter. from coveting promotion ana from seekHe should employ his benevolence so as to benefit his fellow men . showed no disposition to marry again. D.26 is YIN CHIH WEN. otherwise the purpose for will which Heaven has created us be altogether lost. but have removed them to the Chinese Commentary. 23) was judge of a criminal court on the eastern shore of China. because they appear to be out of place in the text.* In olden times. judge of the criminal court. The aged woman. . to A. If the their puqDort. Yii King. on account of her parental devotion." A GOOD JUDGE. however. * was condemned to death in spite of Yii King's The words printed in large type in the present and the all three following notes belong in to the text of the set original Chinese editions Yin Chih Wen proper. C.

Heaven failed to give rain a along the eastern coast for a period of three years. Yii King exhim the cause of the long drought. saying: "I have a great many times in my official life practised secret virtue (yin teh) and have never innocent. too. and note 3. and his grandson. One night his grandfather appeared to him in a dream and said "You : may not have any issue at all.' Tou Yii-Chiin was not yet favored with a son when he was thirty years old. Yii King showed his humane disposition in many When new governor was other trials. 27 protest. page 39. prosperity. Yii King advised them to have it raised and enlarged." * See footnote ' on page is 26. and then at last it started to rain. plained to installed. . Thereupon the grave of the dutiful daughter-in-law was officially decorated. nor may you live long. His son became prime minister and was created a noble.NOTES OF THE CHINESE COMMENTATOR. Olea or cassia kzvei in Chinese and symbolizes success. so that a four-horse carriage could be driven through it. unless you are diligent in performing benevolent deeds." And so things came to pass. HUMANENESS REWARDED. all After this tragedy. condemned the will surely be Among my descendants there some one who will rise high and will occupy important positions. When the elder people in his district pro- posed to repair his family gate which was dilapidating. and honor. was promoted to a responsible position in the government.* The Toil family saved people and thus nobly obtained the five-branched olea.

the : guilty one fled leaving daughter thirteen years attached which read for sale. Yii-Chiin was a well-to-do to do many benevolent things. The poor of repentance. a considerable svmi of the fact man and One of could afford his servants his chest. of it When her father heard he was greatly affected and returned home full His old master forgave him and did not say anything about his former crime. liberally assisted by him." Yii-Chiin burned the note. and had her reared by his wife." "The way of Yin and Yang. your merits have been recorded by the Heavenly Lord. took the girl to his own house. give their daughters in marriage. "is like the law of Karma. could not afford funeral services for their dead. were handsomely supplied with gold. while he himself lived most frugally. In the meantime he saw again his grandfather in a dream. But on account of your humane deeds.28 YIN CHIH WEN." the spirit added. and those who could on account of a lack of dowry. Poor children were educated and the helpless taken care of. stole money from When his was exposed. Yii-Chun did many other good things. who were not. to whom "Offer this girl my debt. The reward may become manifest either in this life or in succeeding lives. Your life will be prolonged and you will have five children who will be very prosperous. a note was and my house With the money thus realized I wish to pay old. The . who said: "You were originally destined not to have any offspring and to live only a few more years. When she reached maturity he gave her a large dowry and chose for her a good husband. He also built a large library and gave employment to many learned men.

NOTES OF THE CHINESE COMMENTATOR.* He who took pity on ants attained the highCh'i (eleventh century A." as that?" est creatures are Rethat flecting a little while." Yii-Chiin's five sons successfully passed the literary examinations and were promoted to high sitions. Sung said: "I remember about ten days ago I porch in danger of being flooded." answered the monk. "Even the meanenjoying their lives you know." monk examined their physiognomy "The younger Sung will be the first elder. achieve such a feat "Yes. and note 3. official po- 5. a strange Buddhist When they were both at college. Ten to years later." replied the monk. declared. "the younger Sung is now leading the list but you will not be second to him. You must cherish no doubt about this. page . and the will unfailingly pass. est literary honor. millions of lives. Sung again happened The monk showed exclaiming: "Your fortunes have suddenly changed. found an ants' nest under my I took a few bam- boo sticks and made a bridge over the water to let the poor ants cross over it. the elder meet the monk on the road." When the order of literary graduates was 39. too. You Sung look as said.) were brothers. SAVING MANY LIVES. great astonishment. 29 heavenly net is vast and hangs loosely. Sung Chiao and Sung D. * See footnote on page 26." I. May this be it?" "Exactly. if you had saved laughing: "How could a poor follower of Confucius. but it never permits things to escape. and prophesied: on the list of literary graduates.

headed snake which he sight. Heaven above attends to affairs below. he was made a of state. minister page 39. to put out of buried it in the ground." replied the mother. thither will be gathered a thousand blessings. and note 3. "Where that others might see "Never mind then. of Chu state. killed and. Yovi to become eminent in this state. I "Fearing and buried it. Where are sure there is benevolence." When Shun was a man. I shall die. An anxto tears. 6. when a boy." not die. "you will the it snake now?" too. gloom and showed no appetite at ious inquiry of his mother brought him he said mournfully: "People say. and Sung Chiao was put at the head of the elder Sung the second. * See footnote on page 26. a hundred evils are distanced. THE DOUBLE-HEADED SNAKE. list. Where there is virtue.* buried [out of sight] the snake [of He who bad omen] was deemed worthy of the honor of premiership.30 the younger YIN CHIH WEN. used to One day he saw a doubleit go out very frequently. . and will have to leave you alone. saw one to-day and fear that before long mother. I killed understand that secret virtue (yin teh) brings rewards that are open. and seen who have I doomed to die soon. Sung was found to be the first and the But the Empress Chang Hsien decreed that the younger brother should not precede the elder." is The mother then asked him. those a double-headed snake are He came home in the table. Shun Shu-Ao.

tangible soil. Merely . yet possesses a solid.All the enumerated below be- gin in the heart and are completed. which can be watered and tilled. 3 7. this. Merely this. earnest gentleman^ has its root in this obscure recess. in a very actual field. though spiritual and mysterious. Merely . in the heart." but title is also used sons in the sense of "gentleman. Unexpected blessings grow. simply pivots here around this puny little thing. It literally means "scholar. line of the Dhammait Shih.1. too. The difference between sages such as Yao and Shun and wretches such as Chieh or Chou. The heart's inmost recess is the very spot where there is Heaven and where there is Hell. not a mote of a heart for making light of the world. a heart earnestly to promote one's conversion not a mote of a heart for indulgent self-delusion. The heart. as it were. of The term distinction. NOTES OF THE CHINESE COMMENTATOR. ^This passage resembles the pada and may be a translation of ^ first it." being a sometimes equivalent given to perto the English "Esquii-e. a heart to have respect for others . which he examines purifies in and a heart to save the world solemn silence and privacy. THE FOUNDATION OF good acts that are BLISS All deeds originate in the heart. ]\Ierely this. a heart to love mankind not a mote of a heart for hatred of people. not one mote of a heart for worldliness. this. This is the way of self-purification and the sure foundation of bliss. The soul of a true. which can be ploughed and harvested. ." covers the ideal of a truly respectable man who deserves the esteem of his fellow-citizens.

was once warned by a strange saintly personage. an eminent seeker of truth. it is the difference between Heaven and Earth. THE DISEASE OF EGOTISM. Treat efifect : * The ideals of Taoism. Li Kwang-Yiien. though it be hidden and they know it not and there is no thought of their ever attaining to saintship. SEEK TRUTH FOR THE SAKE OF SALVATION.. . Ch'ang-tze says : 8. ''The ideals of the Confucians. saints and gods will have no regard for thee." fundamental thought. Mother Cheng used to instruct her children to this "When others do good. "If a respectable gentleman is at all disposed towards lovingkindness. others good deeds and when we see the result." Supplementing this. Some incessantly accumulate evils. The difference is in one's own others. thus: "I see thou art seeking truth. whether it is of the ego or not. 9. 32 YIN CHIH WEN. they are grievously at fault." Are not gods and saints* as well as sages and holy men^ bent on saving the world? Some seek saintliness in their pursuit of life everlasting and immortality. Those who are able to think of others are called superior men. but if their hearts are tainted with a single thought of egotism. he will surely do things harmful to Both of these sayings are indisputably true. . fall in line as if it were your work and be sure to bring it to completion. and those who think of themselves are called small men. Ch'en An-Shan says: "If a bent on selfishness. But wouldst thou have it for thy private self. he cannot villain is ever help doing things beneficial to others.

happiness. . And. e. Filial piety is the all actions. Only be cured of the disease of egotism. the "will exists in other creatures. he alone wants to be blessed with longevIt is for this and to he is others' poverty. and Heaven's Reason will be displayed in an untold exuberance. and he declares that to live." The com- mentator of evil in the world. he alone wants to be honored. and your heart will be broadened even to the vastness of infinite space. the w'ill to live will have its way. so that wealth. he alone wants has thousands of troubles to enjoy ity . life. 10." as it we should let sheng i. then. longevity could all be enjoyed Vv'ith others. honor. —an our egotism and vanity is the main cause idea apparently imbibed from Bud- dhism. he alone wants to be easy." Hsieh Wen-Ching says: "The reason why a man is because he clings to the idea of self. Heavenly Reason. i. develop without hin- drance. health. he alone wants to be happy. danger. is reason that the life-wilP of others en's disregarded and Heav- Reason neglected. FILIAL PIETY. so you will be thoughtful in using it. which will result in an untold exuberance of the dis- play of T'ien Tao. he schemes and contrives in He alone wants to be ten thousand different ways. is it It is the ultimate root of humaneness and possible that the root be rotten while the branches and leaves grow luxuriously ? * The term sheng insists that i. "life-will. everything will have its natural longings satisfied. or suffer- ing. altogether indifferent.NOTES OF THE CHINESE COMMENTATOR. therefore." is a noteworthy antici- pation of Schopenhauer's idea of the "will to live. misery. rich. guide of . 33 Others' property as if it were your own. comfort.

They filled will not let their parents' hearts be alarmed or their with fear. the to lest all Lord Superior them to come him in any way they may be pleased to follow." . 12. (3) To keep the body unimpaired (4) To cultivate the character. these roads will lead to goodness but there should be no thought of attaininc^ blessings or acquiring rewards. parents' hearts be perplexed. . we Conneedless fucians endeavor to preserve sincerity of heart and consider reverence as most essential.. Therefore. and is frivolity {wang our life and what is vacilis most excellent a reverential heart. may pay homage before the worship the Northern Constellation they : may may bow they Buddha and recite his Sutras if they only do so with singleness and sincerity of heart. 34 YIN CHIH WEN. It is . . II. P'an Ch'ung-Mou says: "What lation is to be avoided most nien) in . BUDDHISM AND CONFUCIANISM. They parents' hearts be annoyed or harassed. Pious children will not not let their let their parents' hearts will be roused to thoughts of cold indifference. They at the Taoist sanctuary . They will not let their parents' hearts be grieved or embarrassed. parents' hearts feel They will not They will not let let their ashamed or indignant. people might not be induced invites In his anxiety to goodness. Yao-Jao Hou says: "The four essential elements of filial piety are : ( i ) To be established in virtue (2) To keep up the family. SEVERAL WAYS.

Keep the heart always restrained by reverence and awe. 35 to say that sincerity ions of heaven and earth. is The and all great virtue of heaven and earth living beings. another class of people recite his Sutras. 13. which is here interpreted as . their vitality . however. etc.'^ What is necessary. Nowhere under the sun is there a being that dislikes life and embraces death with joy. then. which will by degrees become pure and bright. and "wantonly kill them.NOTES OF THE CHINESE COMMENTATOR. To buy up captive animals for the sake of setting them free is nothing but an outburst of a sympathetic heart. men and animals alike. free from evil thoughts and ready to do good. They bow before will Buddha and always bent on prenever relax serving reverence and awe. This enlightenment is called their most happy land. The commentator refers to the Western Paradise (suLand sect. A SYMPATHETIC HEART. derive from this one and the same source. spiders. ^ khavati) of the Pure a state of mind. Thoughtless people make light of puny creatures such as ants. Otherwise what can be the use of the recitation of Sutras or the discourses of Confucius?" and frivolity. and reverence make us compangods and spirits. "There the is. having no thought of pity or remorse but pious hearts refrain from such cruelty.. who adopt Buddhism as their guidance. for Buddhists as well as Confucians is to avoid vacillation which will render you unreliable. to create. their vigilant They guard over the heart.

.' . lest one go astray then you will see how one's strength grows. Li. and you have too much." ^ ^ ^ is The source of good and evil it in the heart. and the best method of controlling is a reverential atti- tude of the heart. + * * Proceed will in be not enough will goodness for a thousand days and there proceed in evil for half a minute . 14. man punctiHously guards himself when alone. 36 YIN CHIH WEN. there remains in your heart some misgiving. three consecutive 'These three passages deaHng with the same subject are comments as indicated by the references. Look after what you ought to do and measure not : your merit. Ever turbulent ever wakeful is is the heart of the heart of him who does evil him who does good.. . but T'ien which means "reason" or "rationality" in the commonly cepted sense. are written in the six The teachings canonical books. Therefore says Tung Ch'ung-Shu [a famous Confucian] "Attend to your duty and scheme not for gain. then your deed A virtuous is against Heaven and contrary to Reason. If when you do a thing. "Heaven's Reason consists of two words but they are in your own heart. of holy men There are thousand gates and ten thousand doors through which shall we enter ? The main thing is to guard oneself when alone. THE VOICE WITHIN. ac- * Heaven's Reason is here not T'ien Tao. . solely to retain Heaven's Reason® and to calm human desires.



' The doctrine of reincarnation is not indigenous in China. have removed the lines here omitted to the Chinese Commentary. of the previous lives of Lord Scripture Glory. of course. contains narrations dhism. well We known among the Chinese. great . again and again practising the six virtues of perfection (pdramitd) The Taoist Book of Incarnations {Hua Shu). written this in the same tone ' * as the Buddhist Jdtaka. so as to render them We For all we know the passages may be a which has crept into the text. they must be older than the commentaries belonging to them in which the stories alluded to are told. its Sanskrit The word benevolence translates the Chinese fang pien is literally "deeds of benevolence." "Saving Many Lives. omit here a few lines which to the English reader. For the exact meaning of word see the Preface. Lord Scripture Glory alludes to a number of moral stories. not familiar with Chinese ways." "Humaneness Rewarded. where they are printed in the same type as our translation of the text of Yin Chili Wen. In the opening sentence of the Chinese text. would appear to interrupt the context." * "Bliss of happiness" is original " is a Buddhist term and probably punyakshetra. later addition details see the Chinese Commentary 3-6. For further easily recognizable. entitled "A Good Judge. as instances of rewards of virtue." which the common version .TRANSLATOR'S NOTES." and "The Double-Headed Snake. but even then. must consider this opening passage as showing a strong Hindu influence which was introduced to China through Bud- We The Jdtaka Stories tell us that Buddha appeared a many times as a Bodhisattva on this earth.

excellent. the third to the ruler of the country. the commentator's enum. lor it ' "Impartiality of heart" again belongs to Buddhist phra- seology.eration does not agree with the latter. Though the author must have borrowed the idea from Buddhism.) sire to Lun Yu. is in the sense which the English word "method" has acquired among Wesleyan Methodists. that whatever you do not de- have done to you. (The Diamond-Cutter Sutra. for all sentient beings. The commentator evidently thinks humaneness (jen) to be the essence of Confucianism. and ' According to a Chinese Buddhist is sutra. Chinese translation. refers to all objects about us. of the Buddhist term ul>aya and means "method" or "successIt is especially applied in the ful way of attaining an end.. daya. He puts teachers and elders in place of the Triple Treasure." literature of the Mahayana. understands it in the sense of the Confucian Golden Rule. "wisdom. the second to all sentient beings. you should not do to others (the also in the Buddhist sense that a Bodhisattva (intelligent being) should be free from the thought of an ego (atmasamjnd). "Creatures" should be understood in the broadest sense." salvation in itself insufficient because of e. it is en- lightenment in the abstract. and the method commonly designated kausala. the first obliga- tion to the parents. and the fourth to the Triple Treasure (triratna) of Buddhism. XII." applied. Buddhism and Taoism. and Heaven and Earth.2i). however. Prajna. it In order to become efficient for prajna is upaya. 'The three doctrines are Confucianism. compassion (karund) that ." its interprets the term fang pien is in a popu- and takes it for "any deed that beneficial to oth- In Buddhism this word plays a very important part. The commentator lar sense ers. The method of salvation according must be applying teachers is "good or to Buddhist by "deeds of benevolence" as indicated by its i. and adoption here shows how strongly the author of this short treatise ® was influenced by Indian thought. The Sanskrit original is samatdcitta or samatahriThe commentator.40 YIN CHIH WEN.

we may better understand them as virtually including all the classical books bebooks. " This inally is also distinctly a Buddhist sentiment." "This that if is a Buddhist custom. and response and retribution (kan ying) that of heart. by Chinese show great respect for writing and writing them we become acquainted with the virtues. but not at birds perching. We may perchance find some of our own an- we do not act cestors among horses or dogs or birds whom we now treat carelessly and contemptuously. " It is strange that the author does not say anything here about the relation between husband and wife. for the saving of lives is considered to be very meritorious. and that he killed them only when it was necessary for the sustenance of human life. term "Sutras" originally refers only to Buddhist the commentator does not wish to have the phrase interpreted in that sense. 27. (i. He shot. because. but did not use a net. they say. or Taoist saints.TRANSLATOR S NOTES. or the doctrine in general. Taoism. not orig- found in China. "In the Lun Yu (Confucian Analects) we read: "The Master angled. Any . e. chen) refers to the Chen may denote Lao Tze.) The passage is understood to mean that Confucius was so tender-hearted as not to take advantage of animals when hunting. or the Taoist sacred book. and declares that they all come out of the human which is one and the same in all three religions. "The materials. (wu chang) " The term "the Truthful One" religion of the Taoists. ^The but : longing to the three religions. 4I of Buddhism. wisdom and sayings of ancient sages. and says "Though they seem specifically to denote Buddhist literature. in this life The Buddhist theory is humanely we are sure to be born in the form of a lower animal and to suffer for what we have done. forgetting the good they did for us." (XII. while he is manifestly referring to the five eternal virtues of Confucianism.. T'ai-Shang Kan-Ying P'ien.

" Says a Taoist sage. The Great Learning (Tai Hsiao) as well as The Doctrine of the Mean (Chung Yung) teach one to be watchful over himself when he is alone. ." "The superior man does act contrary to virtue." " "Let go hatred" translates the words hsieh yilan. In Pali it reads "Sabba papassa akaranam. D. Says Confucius (Lun Yil. but full of religious feelings. (the knot of) hatred or enmity. verse 1S3). which altogether consist of only six characters. and writing. your own heart. "to be always on guard lest the heart might go astray. to "This means not instructions of wise forget for a moment the deeds or men of old. or untieing. "This is decidedly Confucian. The one-character book reads.' These three sacred books are not found in the Great Tripitaka [collection of Buddhist literature]. not. Kusalassa upasampada. 'Do your duty. to save them the disgrace of any disrespectful treatment. the Confucians show a great earnestness and solemn reverence toward Heaven's Reason (Tien Tao)." dha. declares "Even a three year old child can : ." that chieh yiian. {Doctrine of the Mean). In spite of their agnostic tendencies. IV. and so to return to an amicable relation is conceived as a loosening. it is said that the tao ("path. a Buddhist recluse who lived in Hang Chou about 800 A." In the Chung Yung. partakes of the nature of spirit. : In moments of haste his mind dwells on it. "To owe a grudge" is called in Chinese. " This is one of the noblest injunctions given by the Bud(The Dhammapada. 'Meekness' the two-character book. but in : . "Tieing is. In time of danger his mind dwells on it. there is a special order of monks who make it their duty to collect written scraps of paper and burn them. for that which can be ignored not the tao.: 42 YIN CHIH WEN. 5) even for a space of a single meal. Niao Che. 'Good-will' and the three-character book.. This watchfulness is not merely intellectual. to the Chinese. according to the commentator "I have three canonical books." or "doctrine") is not for a is moment to be ignored.

43 tise." . also but even a gray-haired man finds it difficult to pracPsalm xxxiv. ing." Cf. 14 and xxxvii. 27. S NOTES. " The Chinese word shen means god or any spiritual beand according to the context would here best be trans- lated by "angel.TRANSLATOR say this.




Like Filial a. piety. K. 29. Doctrines. 32. Befriend 40. 34. 21 n.ting) 6. Cliih 32. 42. commendable. Nest of. 10. 12. the. Helpful sayings. Fouiidation of. etc. Confucius. this. Gabriel. Chiin. 20. Daniel's vision. 31. Befriend the hungry. Discourse on morality. Buy. 19. all. Books in. 29. Babylon. Reverential. 20. Happiness. way should be imitated. Ch'ang 8. Be 33. first used. 18. 34. Humaneness rewarded. 42. 32. Elements of. Coffins. Foundation of happiness. 4. 36. Confucianism. 22. The three. Quiet way of. 8. 42. 33. 21 n. Buddhism. like Heaven. Age of the Yin Chili IV en. 18. Heaven's reason. i8. piness. defined. Buddha. Frivolity. Humble. 19. Hungry. Brothers at variance. i8. 39. 21. Christ. 19. impartial. Foundation 39. 35. Golden Rule Good deeds Graveyards. Hatred. Egotism. 42. Deliver from danger. 5. 39. 19. 27. 17. 18. Benefit Bliss. 9. 21. Ch'ang-tze. Abstinence. Ch'en An-Shan. Ching. 20. Angel. 20. Honest.. 21. 8. Refrain from. and mouth. 18. 35. 5 f. 18.. by Shen Chin- in heart. 34. 23. Incarnated seventeen times. Be. 5. honest like. 34. Mindful of. Be. . 40. Douglas. incarnation of Wen Guiding principle (. R. 22. 22. Let go. 42. Ants. Great Plan. Improper language. 21. 10. 18. 5. Build. 3.INDEX. Heart. cautious with. Fire. 12. Child can say Chou-tze. 25. 34. 21. Be Give away. Delitzsch. 31 42. n. 33Captive animals. 17. Chang-O Ch'ang. 40. and earth. Books Frontispiece. Father. 43. 25. 42-43. 20. 26. Heaven. j8. 7. Dhammapada. 17. do. of. 17. Secret virtue attuned to. of hap- Four obligations. 33 n. 40. 22. Coverlet. 17. 4. Convert. Hsieh Wen-Ching. Evil.

Reverential heart. Wen Wen Ch'ang. Marduk. 32. Truthful One. 21. 28. 18. 34. Publish sutras. Ting. Teitaro. 8. 8. 7- Idea Seventeen Self. 9. 9. 3 ff. Methodists. Shen Chin-Ching.48 Incarnations. L'nheeded. 41. Let deeds be. IVen. Diffitranslation. Reincarnation. Lao Tze. Snake. 9- 18. virtue 17- (Yin o). that plows. of. Let the. Shakespeare. 30. "Guiding principle. Judge. Northern Constellation. Yang and Yin. 4. 32-33. Light lanterns. 15. 8 f. pp. 20. 34. 8. and 11. attuned to heaven. 7 f. YIN CHIH WEN. Respect for. Ch'ang Ti Chun. 18. 17. 18. Rich presume not. Yin defined. A good. Yin Chih. virtue. Michael. Morality. 32. 20. Mindful of ants. culties of 3 f. of. Do not. Love of the Lord. 39. 25. 6. Orphans. Kwan Ti. not stir. ex6. Writing. 21. Frontispiece by. 39. Secret. Kan-Ying P'ien. Presume not. 28. Ti. 39. times incarnated. rich. 20. Popularity of. plained by commentator. 20. Double-headed. 19. Suzuki. 22. 36. 18. 33 n. Measures. 5." 6- . Let the Proceed in goodness." Chinese characters Cf. Discourse on. 9. of. 26. 41. Yin Chih Wen. Life-will. 19. 3. Practise goodness. 8. 13. Rewards. accurate. 3. n. Popularity of Yin Chih IV en. 5. 40. 21. Paper written on.. 20. 3. Three doctrines. Indebtedness to the Lord. 9. Ox Ways. 41. 33 Scripture glory. Yin "Secret sin. 17. Several. p. Litigation. Karma. 9. 40. 18. 34. 18. 6. Schopenhauer. 17. 19. Contents 3. sin 4-5. 17. 20. 12. heart. Meddle. 5. Jataka Stories. Book of. Philanthropic institutions. Salvation and truth. Do Shu-King. Widows. Nietzsche. 19. 17. 25. Title. Truth and salvation. Mouth and Nebo.




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