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Department of mechanical Engineering, PVPIT

Automation & Simulation


ByBhushan Chhatre (T.E. Mech) Sai Motling (T.E. Mech)

Email ID:bhushanchhatre@gmail.com sai.motling5@gmail.com

Abstract
Automation is the word inspired from word automatic Nowadays; industries are adapting over to automation to increase their productivity as well as quality to maintain their position in market. Automation is next step forward from mechanization enabling more precise and reliable outputs. Automation has become a key to success for fastest growing industries. Along with automation, simulation plays vital role in manufacturing giving an in detail information of product even before it is going to manufacture. In this paper we have emphasized on types of automation which can be used as per manufacturers requirement. The merits of automation with respect to demerits have been studied. It also focuses on modern trends in automation that are being used in industries. The exact purpose of simulation in manufacturing has been also defined.

INDEX
1. Introduction 2. History 3. Essence of Automation
4. Revolutionizing In Industries:

Types of Automation
5. Application

Automatic Sorting Machines


Automated Inspection for Quality Control

Industrial Robots AGV 6. Advantages of Automation 7. Disadvantages of Automation 8. Simulation Sheet metal forming simulation Metal casting simulation

Automation & Simulation

1. Introduction:
Automation is the use of machines, control systems and information technologies to optimize productivity in the production of goods and delivery of services. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provides human operators with machinery to assist them with the muscular requirements of work, automation greatly decreases the need for human operators while increasing load capacity, speed, and repeatability.

2.

History:
The term automation, inspired by the earlier word automatic was not widely used before 1947, when General Motors established the automation department. At that time automation technologies were electrical, mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic. Between 1957 and 1964 factory output nearly doubled while the number of blue collar workers started to decline.

3.

Essence of Automation:
Control Systems: It is a device, or set of devices to manage,

command, direct or regulate the behavior of other devices or system.

Industrial control system (ICS): It contains several


types of control systems used in industrial production, including supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, distributed control systems (DCS), and other smaller control system configurations such as skid-mounted programmable logic controllers (PLC) often found in the industrial sectors and critical infrastructures.

Numerical control (NC) : It refers to the automation of


machine tools that are operated by abstractly programmed commands encoded on a storage medium, as opposed to controlled manually via hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated via cams alone.

Robotics: It is the branch of technology that deals with the


design, construction, operation, manufacture and application of robots and computer systems for their control, feedback, and information processing.

4. Revolutionizing In Industries:

Industrial Automation is a discipline that includes knowledge and expertise from various branches of engineering including electrical, electronics, chemical, mechanical, communications and more recently computer and software engineering. Automation & Control by its very nature demands a cross fertilization of these faculties.

Types in Automation: Fixed Automation:In this type, sequence of process is fixed in equipment configuration.

Advantages:
1. 2. 3. Maximum efficiency. Low unit cost. High production rates.

Disadvantages:
1. 2. High initial investments. Inflexible to accommodate change in product design.

Programmable Automation-

It includes equipment designed to accommodate a specific class. It has capabilities to change sequence of operations by reprogramming to accommodate different product configuration.

Advantages:1. 2. Flexibility to do changes in product design. Low unit cost for large batches. 3. Most suitable for batch production.

Disadvantages:1. 2. New product needs long set up time. High investments for costumed engineering systems.

job to

Flexible Automation:
It includes system capable of changing over from one another job to another job in least possible time.

Advantages
1. 2. Flexibility to deal with new product design. Useful in manufacturing of customized products.

Disadvantages:
1. 2. 3. High initial investments. Medium production rates. High unit cost.

5. Applications:
1.

Automatic Sorting Machines:

The Autosort is a multifunctional sorting system to recover a wide range of pieces of material from different waste streams, single stream, packaging, paper, household waste and other sorting tasks looking for enhanced material information and color in combination. The Autosort uses the new DUOLINE scanning technology which conducts a double scan on every pass. Extremely fast and extremely reliable sensors take between the scanner unit and the conveyer belt while maintaining the high resolution. In order to sort different material grain sizes, machines are available in a number of resolution stages. The highest resolution is about 2.5 mm. alongside

its superior sorting quality;it provides a high degree of input material, built-in maintenance and control functions of the valve units and the option of controlling and monitoring the sorting unit from a control room.

Benefits:
1. Extremely fast process. 2. Low operating costs. 3. High quality sorting regarding purity, thought. 4. Switch able between wide ranges of sorting tasks. 5. Easily adaptable to your process.

2. Automated Inspection for Quality Control: In present scenario, manual inspection is largely replaced by automated inspection as errors are reduced to great extent by automation of the process. Economic justification of an automated inspection system depends on whether the savings in labor cost & improvement in

accuracy will be more than the investment and/or development costs of the system. Automated inspection is defined as the automation of one or more steps involved in the inspection procedure. Automated or semi-automated inspection can be implemented in the number of alternative ways. Machine vision (MV) is the technology and methods used to provide imaging-based automatic inspection and analysis for such applications as automatic inspection, process control, and robot guidance in industry.

Machine vision is the technology to replace or complement manual inspections and measurements with digital cameras and image processing. The technology is used in a variety of different industries to automate the production, increase

production speed and yield, and to improve product quality. Machine vision in operation can be described by a four-step flow: 1. Imaging: Take an image. 2. Processing and analysis: Analyze the image. 3. Communication: Send the result to the system in control of the process. 4. Action: Take action depending on the vision system's result. In inspection applications the purpose of the vision system is to validate certain features, for example presence or absence of a correct label on a bottle, screws in an assembly, chocolates in a box, or defects. In the example to the right, a camera inspects brake pads for defects.

3. Industrial Robots:Robots can substitute for humans in hazardous work environments. Consistency and accuracy achieved by robots not attainable by humans. They can be reprogrammed. Most robots are controlled by computers and can therefore be interfaced to other computer systems. Robot manipulator consists of two sections: 1. Body-and-arm They are used for positioning of objects in the robots work volume. 2. Wrist assembly It is required for orientation of objects. The two main types of robots are as follows:

1. Grippers They grasp and manipulate objects (e.g., parts) during work cycle. 2. Tools They are used to perform a process, e.g., spot welding, spray painting.

Applications:
1. Material handling applications Material transfer pick-and-place, palletizing Machine loading and/or unloading 2. Processing operations Spot welding and continuous arc welding Spray coating waterjet cutting, laser cutting, grinding.

3.

AGV (Automated Guided Vehicles):


An automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV) is a mobile robot that follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision or lasers. They are most often used in industrial applications to move materials around a manufacturing facility or a warehouse. Advantages: Clear floor space.

Simple installation High availability/reliability Flexible performance increments. Short installation times.

Tracking Methods
Optical Tracks contrasting color Wire Embedded in floor Inertial Gyro with magnets in floor. Laser Triangulation from reflective target

Charging Method
Standard Charging (Battery swap) In-Vehicle (Opportunity) Charging Inductive Charging

6. Advantages of Automation
1. Increased throughput or productivity. 2. Improved quality or increased predictability.

3. Improved consistency, of processes or product. 4. Reduce Production Cost 5. Better Floor Space Utilization 6. Reduce Waste

7. Disadvantages of automation
1. Security Threats/Vulnerability: An automated system may have a limited level of intelligence, and is therefore more susceptible to committing errors outside of its immediate scope of knowledge. 2. Unpredictable/excessive development costs: The research and development cost of automating a process may exceed the cost saved by the automation itself. 3. High initial cost: The automation of a new product or plant typically requires a very large initial investment in comparison with the unit cost of the product, although the cost of automation may be spread among many products and over time. 4. Current technology is unable to automate all the desired tasks. 5. Lower skill levels of workers. 6. Not economically justifiable for small scale production.

5. Simulation:
In a traditional workflow, engineers frequently could not test and validate their control system designs until late in the development cycle, when motors, sensors, actuators, and other system hardware finally became

available. This approach was sufficient when expected system behavior was predictable. Simulation software is based on the process of modeling a real phenomenon with a set of mathematical formulas. It is, essentially, a program that allows the user to observe an operation through simulation without actually performing that operation. Simulation software is used widely to design equipment so that the final product will be as close to design specs as possible without expensive in process modification. Simulations are also used to test new theories. After creating a theory of causal relationships, the theorist can codify the relationships in the form of a computer program. If the program then behaves in the same way as the real process, there is a good chance that the proposed relationships are correct.

Sheet metal forming simulation


Sheet metal forming simulation software utilizes mathematical models to replicate the behavior of an actual metal sheet manufacturing process. Essentially, it is a computer program that converts a computer into a fully functioning metal manufacturing prediction unit. efficiency

in the metal forming.

Metal Casting Simulation


Metal casting simulation is currently performed by Finite Element Method simulation software designed as a defect-prediction tool for the foundry engineer, in order to correct and/or improve his/her casting process, even before prototype trials are produced. The idea is to use information to analyze and predict results in a simple and effective manner to simulate different processes such as: 1. Gravity sand casting.

2. Gravity die casting. 3. Gravity tilt pouring. 4. Low pressure die casting. 5. High pressure