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PROPERTY - All things which are, or may be, the object of appropriation (Art. 414, NCC) Thing and Property Distinguished THING PROPERTY includes both things which are appropriable and non- susceptible of appropriable objects appropriation and which are already possessed and found in the possession of man Note: Strictly speaking, thing is NOT synonymous with property. HOWEVER, the New Civil Code uses these terms interchangeably. Requisites/Characteristics: (USA) 1. utility ability to serve as a means to satisfy human needs 2. substantivity or individuality separate and autonomous existence 3. appropriability even if not yet actually appropriated (Reyes-Puno, p.1) CLASSIFICATION OF PROPERTY Kinds of Properties: 1. Immovable or real (Art. 415) 2. Movable or personal (Arts. 416, 417)

be appropriated. Under certain conditions, the body of a person or parts thereof may be the subject matter of a transaction (See RA No. 349, RA No. 7170, RA No. 7719). Parties to a contract may treat as personal property that which by nature is real property; and it is a familiar phenomenon to see things classed as real property for purposes of taxation which on general principle might be considered personal property (Standard Oil Co. vs. Jaranillo GR No. 20329, March 16, 1923).

IMMOVABLE PROPERTIES Categories: (NIDA) 1. Real by nature it cannot be carried from place to place (pars. 1 & 8, Art. 415) 2. Real by incorporation attached to an immovable in a fixed manner to be an integral part thereof (pars. 13 Art. 415) 3. Real by destination placed in an immovable for the utility it gives to the activity carried thereon (pars. 47 and 9 Art. 415) 4. Real by analogy it is so classified by express provision of law (par. 10, Art. 415) Types of Immovable Properties (Art. 415) 1. Land, buildings, roads and constructions of all kinds adhered to the soil Where a building is sold to be demolished immediately, it is to be regarded as movable because the subject matter of the contract is really the materials thereof. Buildings are immovables by incorporation. Hence, their adherence to

The human body, whether alive or dead, is neither real nor personal property, for it is not even property at all, in that it generally cannot

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: HERBERT CALVIN ABUGAN overall chair and chair academics operations, MANOLO ADEL SANTOS chair hotel operations, GRACE SARAH TRIA vice chair for operations, JUAN CARLOS NUESTRO vice chair for academics, MAE ANGELIE ETANG vice chair for secretariat, KRISTINE ANNABELLEE HIPOS vice chair for finance, EIREENE XINA ACOSTA vice chair for edp, ACE JELLO CONCEPCION vice chair for logistics CIVIL LAW: FRANCESCA LOURDES SENGA subject chair, SHEENA MARIE ABELLA assistant subject chair, ACE ARVIN GANDO edp, FRANCESCA LOURDES SENGA persons and family relations, CRISCELYN CARAYUGAN property, MA. PELISA CORAZON PARIDO and MARY IVY ANNE GALANG wills and succession, MARIA DANIAFLOR BERAMO and COLLEEN INFANTE obligations and contracts, MARY IVY ANNE GALANG sales and lease, EVA CHRISTINE NAPARAN partnership, agency and trust, KATHERINE ANN ASILO credit transactions, SHEENA MARIE ABELLA torts and damages, JAN PEARL PORTUGAL land titles and deeds, JAN MANUELLE REYES conflict of laws MEMBERS: Aldren Abrigo, Lloyd Elgene Apostol, Joanna Arellano, Jonathan Bajeta, Paul Isaac Barrameda, Barbara Jeniffer Bautista, Arlene Borja, Leana Blasco Keith Francis Briones, Angelita Calalang, Uelah Cangco, Kristine Paula Chu, Benedicto Claravall, Diane Therese Dauz, Herbert Davis, Riyah Lalaine Domingo, Ana Ofloda delos Reyes, Ramona Diozo, Clarissa Enano-Caenano, Carla Esplana, Diana Fajardo, Leoponville Ndota Wambui Gitau, Kristine Carmela Gonzales, Daisy Joy Jalova, Roehl Joson, Jackie Lamug, Flocerfina Lloren, Jerome Matas, Herbert Matienzo, Charlene Clara, Mendoza, Kristel Concepcion Ona, Joanna Marie Paguio, Patricia Salang, Christine Santos, Rio Rose Santos, Charlotte Sayson, Mary Meilani Suyat, Jezreel Caridad Taguba, Florence Tolentino, Philip Torres, Gilda Villanueva, Joan Grace Wilson, Joshua Villena, Raul Canon, Deogracias Natividad


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a. The machinery, etc. must be placed by the owner of the tenement or his agent b. The industry or works must be carried on in a building or on a piece of land c. The machinery, etc. must tend directly to meet the needs of the said industry or works

the land must be permanent and substantial. Portable structures are not immovables. A building is an immovable even if not erected by the owner of the land. The only criterion is union or incorporation with the soil. (Ladera vs. Hodges CA-GR No. 8027-R, September 23, 1952). A building is real property thus, its sale as annotated in the Chattel Mortgage Registry cannot be given the legal effect of registration in the Registry of Real Property (Leung Yee vs. Strong Machinery Co. GR No. L-11658 February 15, 1918).

2. Trees, plants, and growing fruits When trees are cut or uprooted, incorporation ceases and they become movables; timber is still integral part of an immovable property when it constitutes the natural product of the latter. For purposes of attachment, execution, and the Chattel Mortgage Law, growing crops have the nature of personal property (Sibal vs. Valdez GR No. L27352, August 4, 1927). 3. Everything attached to an immovable in a fixed manner The attachment need not be made by the owner. The breakage or injury, in case of separation, must be substantial. The fact that the machineries were bolted or cemented on real property mortgaged does not make them ipso facto immovable under Art. 415 (3) and (5) as the parties intent has to be looked into. Even if the properties appear to be immovable by nature, nothing prohibits the parties from treating them as chattels to secure an obligation under the principle of estoppel (Tsai vs. CA, GR No. 120098, October 2, 2001). 4. Statues, reliefs, paintings, or other objects for use or ornamentation Requisites: a. Placed by the owner or by a tenant as agent of the owner b. With the intention of attaching them permanently, even if adherence will not involve breakage or injury 5. Machinery, receptacles, instruments, or implements for an industry or works Requisites:

Movable equipments, to be immobilized in contemplation of law, must be essential and principal elements of an industry or works (Mindanao Bus Co. vs. City Assessor and Treasurer GR No. L-17870, September 29, 1962). Machinery, movable in nature, becomes immobilized when placed on a plant by the owner of the property but not so when placed by a tenant, usufructuary or a person having only a temporary right unless such person acted as agent of the owner (Davao Sawmill Co. vs. Castillo GR No. 40411, August 7, 1935).

There are 2 views on the effect of the temporary separation of movables from the immovables to which they are attached: a. They continue to be regarded as immovables. b. Fact of separation determines the condition of the object (supported by Paras and Tolentino)

If the machine is still in the building, but is no longer used in the industry, the machine reverts to the condition of a chattel. On the other hand, if still needed for the industry, but separated from the tenement temporarily, the property continues to be an immovable (Paras, p.20).

6. Animal houses, pigeon houses, beehives, fish ponds, etc. Requisites: a. Placed by the owner, or by a tenant as agent of the owner, with the intention of permanent attachment b. Forms a permanent part of the immovable 7. Fertilizer Actually used means that it has been spread over the land. 8. Mines, quarries and slag dumps They are considered as realty only if the matter remains unsevered from the soil. Once severed, they become personalty.


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9. Docks and Structures Vessels are considered personal property under the Civil Law as well as under the common law, although occasionally referred to as a peculiar kind of personal property. (Phil. Refining Co., Inc. vs. Jarque
GR No. 41506, March 25, 1935).


Note: The New Civil Code, in many instances, uses the terms consumable and fungible interchangeably. PROPERTY IN RELATION TO WHOM IT BELONGS (Arts. 419425) Property is either of: 1. public dominion 2. private ownership I. Property of Public Dominion

10. Contracts for Public works, and servitudes and other real rights A personal right is always regarded as personal property. The exception is in the case of contracts for public works which are considered as real property. MOVABLE PROPERTIES Tests: 1. By exclusion: all not included in Art. 415 2. By description: an object is movable if: a. It can be transported from place to place; b. Without substantial injury to the immovable to which it is attached. 3. Real Property considered as personal property by special provision of law. Kinds of Movable Properties (ASFTOS): 1. Those movables susceptible of appropriation which are not included in the preceding article 2. Real property which by any special provision of law is considered personalty 3. Forces of nature which are brought under control by science 4. In general, all things which can be transported from place to place without impairment of the real property to which they are fixed (Art. 416) 5. Obligations and actions which have for their object movables or demandable sums 6. Shares of agricultural, commercial and industrial entities, although they may have real estate (Art. 417) Classifications of Movables: 1. By Nature: a. Consumable - cannot be used according to its nature without it being consumed. b. Non-consumable - any other kind of movable property (Art. 418). 2. By Intention: a. Fungible - replaceable by an equal quality and quantity, either by nature of things or agreement. b. Non-fungibles - irreplaceable because identical objects must be returned.

Concept: It does not import the idea of ownership. It is not owned by the state but simply under its jurisdiction and administration for the collective enjoyment of people. The ownership of such properties is in the social group, whether national, provincial or municipal. Purpose: To serve the citizens and not the state as a juridical person. Kinds: 1. For public use may be used by anybody 2. For public service may be used only by authorized persons 3. For the development of national wealth

The charging of fees to the public does not determine the character of the property, whether it is of public dominion or not. Art. 420 defines property of public dominion as one intended for public use. Even if the government collects toll fees, the road is still intended for public use if anyone can use it under the same terms and conditions as the rest of the public (MIIA vs. CA, GR No. 155650, July 20, 2006). Characteristics: (OI-PAE) 1. Outside the commerce of man 2. Inalienable, but when it is no longer needed for public use or service, it may be declared patrimonial property. 3. Cannot be acquired by prescription 4. Not subject to attachment or execution 5. Cannot be burdened with easements Note: They CANNOT be registered under the land registration law and be the subject of a Torrens title. The character of public property is not affected by possession or even a Torrens Title in favor of private persons (Palanca vs. Commonwealth, GR No. 46373, Jan. 29, 1940). As property of public dominion, the Roppongi lot is outside the commerce of man. The fact that it has not been used for a long time does not automatically convert it to patrimonial property. The conversion happens only if the abandonment is definite and upon a formal


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authority to control or regulate the use of public properties unless specific authority is vested upon them by Congress (Macasiano vs. Diokno GR N. 97764, August 10, 1992). OWNERSHIP The rights to enjoy, dispose, and recover a thing without further limitations than those established by law or the will of the owner. SUBJECT-MATTER (Art. 427) 1. thing - usually refer to corporeal property 2. right - whether real or personal, are classified as incorporeal property RIGHTS INCLUDED: 1. Right to enjoy: (PUFA) a. to possess (jus possidendi) b. to use (jus utendi) c. to the fruits (jus fruendi) and accessions d. to abuse (jus abutendi) 2. Right to dispose: (DATE) a. to destroy b. to alienate c. to transform d. to encumber 3. Right to vindicate: (PR) a. pursuit b. recovery 4. Right to exclude: (ER) 1. to enclose, fence and delimit 2. to repel intrusions even with force CHARACTERISTICS: (GEEPI) 1. General the right to make use of all the possibilities or utility of the thing owned, except those attached to other real rights existing thereon. 2. Elastic power/s may be reduced and thereafter automatically recovered upon the cessation of the limiting rights. 3. Exclusive there can only be one ownership over a thing at a time. There may be two or more owners but only one ownership. 4. Perpetuity ownership lasts as long as the thing exists. It cannot be extinguished by non user but only by adverse possession. 5. Independence it exists without necessity of any other right. LIMITATIONS: (GOSIP) 1. General limitations imposed by the State for its benefit 2. Limitations imposed by the owner himself 3. Specific limitations imposed by law

declaration on the part of the government to withdraw it from public use (Laurel vs. Garcia GR No. 92013, July 25, 1990). The Executive and possibly the Legislative Departments have the authority and the power to make the declaration (Natividad vs. Director of Lands 37 O.G. 2906).

II. Property of Private Ownership Kinds: 1. Property owned by the state and its political subdivisions in their private capacity and is known as patrimonial property (Art. 421-424) 2. Property belonging to private persons (Art. 425) Patrimonial Property of the State 1. Property of the State owned in a private or proprietary capacity 2. Property of public dominion, when no longer intended for public use or public service, shall form part of the patrimonial property 3. The state has the same rights over this kind of property as a private individual in relation to his own private property Property of Political Subdivisions 1. Property for public use consist of roads, streets, squares, fountains, public waters, promenades and public works for public service paid for by the LGUs. Note: The enumeration in Art. 424 are not exclusive. 2. Patrimonial Property all other properties possessed by LGUs without prejudice to provisions of special laws Note: Arts. 423 and 424 speak of property for public use, indicating that property for public service is patrimonial. However, the Supreme Court, in Province of Zamboanga Del Norte vs. City of Zamboanga (GR No. L-23922, June 30, 1969), categorically stated that this court is not inclined to hold that municipal property held and devoted to public service is in the same category as ordinary private property. The classification of municipal property devoted for distinctly governmental purposes as public, under the Law of Municipal Corporations, should prevail over the Civil Code in this particular case. The Law of Municipal Corporations was considered as a special law in the context of Art. 424 of the NCC. Properties of public dominion devoted to public use are outside the commerce of men and cannot be disposed of or leased by the LGU to private persons. LGUs have no


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4. Inherent limitations arising from conflict with
other rights 5. Limitations imposed by the party transmitting the property either by contract or by will DE FACTO CASE OF EMINENT DOMAIN Expropriation resulting from the actions of nature as in a case where land becomes part of the sea. The owner loses his property in favor of the state without any compensation. When the sea moves towards the estate and the tide invades it, the invaded property becomes foreshore land and passes to the realm of the public domain (Republic vs. CA, GR No. 100709, November 14, 1997). PRINCIPLE OF SELF-HELP (Art. 429) The owner or lawful possessor of a thing has the right to exclude any person from the enjoyment and disposal of the property by the use of such force as may be necessary to repel or prevent actual or threatened unlawful physical invasion or usurpation of his property. Requisites: (RONA) 1. reasonable force 2. owner or lawful possessor is the person who will exercise 3. no delay in ones exercise 4. actual or threatened physical invasion or usurpation DOCTRINE OF INCOMPLETE PRIVILEGE OR STATE OF NECESSITY (Art. 432) General rule: A person cannot interfere with the right of ownership of another. Exception: Doctrine of Incomplete Privilege or State of Necessity Requisites: (ID) 1. Interference necessary to avert an imminent and threatened danger 2. Damage to another much greater than damage to property LEGAL REMEDIES TO RECOVER POSSESSION OF ONES PROPERTY: 1. Personal Property Replevin a remedy for the recovery of possession of personal property which is governed by Rule 60 of the Rules of Court 2. Real Property a. Accion interdictal: A summary action to recover physical or material possession of property. It must be brought in the proper municipal trial court or metropolitan trial court within one year from the time the cause of action arises.

MEMORY AID IN CIVIL LAW| 46 i. Forcible entry (detencion): An action for recovery
of material possession of real property when a person originally in possession was deprived thereof by force, intimidation, strategy, threat or stealth. ii. Unlawful Detainer (desahuico): An action for recovery of possession of any land or building by a landlord, vendor, vendee, or other person against whom the possession of the same was unlawfully withheld after the expiration or termination of the right to hold possession, by virtue of any contract.

Forcible Entry and Unlawful Detainer Distinguished UNLAWFUL FORCIBLE ENTRY DETAINER As to when possession became unlawful Possession of the defendant is unlawful from the beginning as he acquires possession by force, intimidation, strategy, threat or stealth Possession is inceptively lawful but becomes illegal from the time defendant unlawfully withholds possession after the expiration or termination of his right thereto.

As to the necessity of demand No previous demand for Demand is the defendant to vacate jurisdictional if the is necessary ground is non payment of rentals or failure to comply with the lease contract As to necessity of proof of prior physical possession Plaintiff must prove that Plaintiff need not have he was in prior physical been in prior physical possession of the possession premises until he was deprived thereof by the defendant As to when the 1 year period is counted from 1 year period is generally counted from the date of actual entry on the land 1 year period is counted from the date of last demand or last letter of demand


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6. The finder is not married under the absolute
community or the conjugal partnership system (otherwise his share belongs to the community).

b. Accion publiciana: An ordinary civil proceeding to recover the better right of possession of property and is resorted to when the dispossession has lasted for more than 1 year. The issue involved is not possession de facto but possession de jure of realty independent of the title. Must be brought in the proper regional trial court within a period of 10 years from the time the cause of action arises. c. Accion reivindicatoria: An action to recover real property based on ownership. The object is the recovery of dominion over the property as owner. Must be brought in the proper regional trial court within a period of 10 years from the time the cause of action arises. Requisites: i. The thing must be corporeal, concrete, and determinate ii. Proof of identity iii. Proof of title (Reyes-Puno, p.24) SURFACE RIGHTS (Art. 437) The owner of parcel of land is the owner of its surface and everything under it. Limitations: Horizontally: extends up to the boundaries Vertically: extends below the surface and above it to the extent required by the economic interest of or utility to the owner, in relation to the exploitation that may be made of the property Airspace: the owner cannot complain of the reasonable requirements of aerial navigation HIDDEN TREASURE (Arts. 438 & 439) Any hidden or unknown deposit of money, jewelry or other precious objects, the lawful ownership of which does not appear General rule: It belongs to the owner of the land, building or other property on which it is found. Exceptions: The finder is entitled to provided: 1. Discovery was made on the property of another, or of the state or any of its political subdivisions; 2. The finding was made by chance; 3. The finder is not a coowner of the property where it is found; 4. The finder is not a trespasser; 5. The finder is not an agent of the landowner;

It is necessary that no known owner appears. Hence, that money found in a library, when the books were delivered to the legatees in a testamentary proceeding, could not be considered a treasure because it was shown that the library had been used by the testator and that money consisted, in greater part, of this kind in circulation during the life of the testator (1 Capistrano 394).

ACCESSION (Arts. 440 475) The right by virtue of which the owner of a thing becomes the owner of everything that is produced thereby or which is incorporated or attached thereto, either naturally or artificially. ACCESSORIES - things joined to or included with the principal thing for the latters embellishment, better use, or completion

Classifications: 1. Accession Discreta the right pertaining to the owner of a thing over everything produced thereby Fruits - all periodical additions to a principal thing produced by forces inherent to the thing itself Requisites: a. increase or addition to the original thing b. at repeated intervals c. by inherent forces Kinds of Fruits a. natural fruits spontaneous products of the soil, the young and other products of animals b. industrial fruits those produced by lands of any kind through cultivation or labor c. civil fruits rents of buildings, price of leases or lands and the amount of perpetual or life annuities or other similar income

Bonus to planters for the risk undergone in mortgaging property is NOT a civil fruit of the mortgaged property


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(Bachrach Motor Co. vs. Talisay-Silay Milling Co. GR No. 35223, September 17, 1931). General rule: To the owner of the principal belongs the natural, industrial, and civil fruit. Exceptions: If the thing is: (PULA) a. in possession of a possessor in good faith; b. subject to a usufruct; c. leased or pledged; or d. in possession of an antichretic creditor General rule: Expenses of production, gathering and preservation (whether more or less than the value of the fruits) must be borne by the receiver of the fruits. Exception: The rule does NOT always apply to pending fruits.


LANDOWNER (LO) Good Faith Acquire improvements and pay to B, P, S indemnity; subsidiarily liable to owner of materials a. sell land to B or P except if the value of the land is considerably more b. rent to S (448, 546, 455) Good Faith Acquire improvements and pay indemnity to B, P, S A. Sell to B, P except if the value of land is considerably more, forced lease Without subsidiary liability for cost of material Good Faith Option to: Acquire improvement w/o paying indemnity and collect damages, or Demolition or restoration, and collect damages, or Sell to B, P or rent to S, and collect damages Pay necessary expenses to B, P, S (449, 450, 451) BUILDER, PLANTER, SOWER (B,P,S) Good Faith Right of retention for necessary and useful expense Pay value of materials to owner of materials OWNER OF THE MATERIALS (OM) Good Faith Collect value of materials primarily from B, P, S; subsidiarily from land owner if B, P, S insolvent Remove only if without injury (455, 447)

2. Accession Continua the right pertaining to

the owner of a thing over everything that is incorporated or attached thereto either naturally or artificially; by external forces. a. With respect to real property accession industrial building, planting, sowing accession natural alluvium, avulsion, change of course of rivers, formation of islands b. With respect to personal property adjunction or conjunction commixtion or confusion specification Basic Principles: (GONE BAD) 1. He who is in good faith may be held responsible but will not be penalized. 2. To the owner of a thing belongs the extension or increase of such thing. 3. Bad faith of one party neutralizes the bad faith of the other. 4. There should be no unjust enrichment at the expense of others. 5. Bad faith involves liability for damages. 6. Accessory follows the principal. 7. Accession exists only if the incorporation is such that separation would either seriously damage the thing or diminish its value. Right of Accession With Respect To Real Property Accession Industrial Table of Rights and Obligations:



Good Faith Right of retention for necessary and useful expenses Keep building, planting or sowing w/o indemnity to owner of materials and collect damages (546, 449)

Bad Faith Lose them without right to indemnity (449)

i. ii. iii.

Bad Faith Recover necessary expenses for preservation Lose improvements w/o right to indemnity from LO (452) unless the LO sells land

Bad Faith Recover value from B, P, S (as if both acted in good faith) If B, P, S acquires improvements, remove materials if w/o injury (447) No action versus LO

Bad Faith {Same as though all acted in good faith (453)} Bad Faith Good Faith Good Faith Acquire Remove Remove improvements improvements in materials if w/o after paying any event injury indemnity and Be indemnified Collect value of damages to B, for damages materials, P, S primarily from B, Subsidiarily P, S; subsidiarily liable to owner from LO (447,


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(Ignao vs. Intermediate Appellate Court GR No. 72876, January 18, 1991). Does not apply where ones interest in the land is merely that of a holder such as a mere lessee under a rental contract (Balucanag vs. Francisco GR No. L-33422, May 30, 1983), an agent, or a usufructuary (Macasaet vs. Macasaet GR No. 154391, September 30, 2004). The provision on indemnity in Art. 448 may be applied by analogy considering that the primary intent of the law is to avoid a state of forced coownership especially where the parties agree that Arts. 448 and 546 are applicable and indemnity for the improvements may be paid although they differ as to the basis of the indemnity. It is the current market value of the improvements which should be made the basis of reimbursement to the builder in good faith (Pecson vs. CA, GR No. 94033, May 29, 1995).

of materials (454, 447, 455) Bad Faith Acquire improvements after indemnity to B, P, S; subsidiarily liable to owner of materials a. Sell to B, P except: if the value is considerably more b. Rent to S (453, 448, 546, 548, 455) Good Faith Option to: Acquire w/o paying indemnity and collect damages Sell to B, P and rent to S and collect damages Demolish or restore and collect damages Pay necessary expenses to B, P, S Subsidiarily liable to owner of materials (449, 450, 451) Bad Faith Acquire improvements & pay indemnity & damages to B, P, S (454,447) Bad Faith Right of retention for necessary expenses Pay value of materials to owner of materials and pay him damages (546, 447) 455) Good Faith Collect value of materials primarily form B, P, S; subsidiarily from LO 2. Collect damages 3. If B, P, S acquires improvements remove materials in any event (447, 455) Good Faith Collect value of materials and damages from B, P, S and subsidiarily from LO Remove materials in any event if B, P, S acquires improvements

Bad Faith Recover necessary expenses (452, 443) Lose improvements w/o right of retention from LO (452) unless LO sells the land

Good Faith Indemnity for damages Remove improvements in any event (454,447)

Bad Faith No indemnity; lose materials (449)

Article 448: Application: Applies only when the builder, planter or sower believes he has the right to build, plant or sow because he thinks he owns the land or believes himself to have a claim of title (Morales vs. CA, GR No. 126196, January 28, 1998). When the co-ownership is terminated by a partition and it appears that the house of an erstwhile co-owner has encroached upon a portion pertaining to another co-owner which was however made in good faith, then the provisions of Art. 448 should apply to determine the respective rights of the parties

Options of the landowner: The owner of the land shall have the right to appropriate as his own the building, planting or sowing, after payment of the necessary and useful expenses. The owner of the land may also oblige the builder, planter or sower to pay the price of the land. If the owner chooses to sell his land, the builder, etc. must purchase the land; otherwise, the owner may remove the improvements thereon. The builder, etc. is not obliged to purchase the land if its value is considerably more than the building. In such case, the builder, etc. must pay rent. If the parties cannot come to terms over the conditions of the lease, the court must fix the terms thereof. (Ballatan vs. CA, GR No. 125683, March 2, 1999). The landowner may not refuse both to pay for the building and to sell the land and instead seek to compel the owner of the building to remove the building from the land. He is entitled to such removal ONLY when, after having chosen to sell the land, the other party fails to pay for said land (Ignacio vs. Hilario GR No. L-175, April 30, 1946). Should no other arrangement be agreed upon, the owner of the land does not automatically become the owner of the improvement (Filipinas Colleges, Inc. vs. Timbang GR No. L-12812, September 29, 1959). Right to choose:


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It is the owner of the land who must exercise the option because his right is older and because, by the principle of accession, he is entitled to the ownership of the accessory (Bernardo vs. Bataclan GR No. 44606, November 28, 1938). The so-called workable solution, as provided in the case of Grana vs. CA (GR No. L49219, April 18, 1988) is one where the Court orders the owner of the land to sell to the builder, etc. the part of the land intruded upon, and thereby depriving him of his right to choose, because it would be impractical to choose the first alternative for the whole improvement might be rendered useless.


An alluvion is automatically owned by the riparian owner from the moment the soil deposit can be seen but the additional area does not automatically become registered land just because the lot which receives such accretion is covered by a Torrens title. The riparian owner must register the additional area (Heirs of E. Navarro vs. Intermediate Appellate Court GR No. 68188, October 13, 1997). Failure to register the acquired alluvial deposit by accretion subjects said accretion to acquisition thru prescription by third persons (Reynante vs. CA, GR No. 95907, April 8, 1992). A riparian owner cannot acquire the addition to his land caused by special works (e.g., dikes) expressly intended by him to bring about accretion (i.e., for reclamation purposes) and not to protect his property from the destructive force of the waters of the river (Republic vs. CA, GR No. L-43105, August 31, 1984). In the absence of evidence that the change in the course of the river was sudden, the presumption is that the change was gradual and was caused by alluvium and erosion (Payatas-Estate Improvement Co. vs. Tuason GR No. L30067, March 23, 1929). 2. Avulsion (Art. 459) The transfer of a known portion of land from one tenement to another by the force of the current. The portion of land must be such that it can be identified as coming from a definite tenement.

Accession natural 1. Alluvion or Alluvium (Art. 457-458) Increment which lands abutting rivers gradually receive as a result of the current of the waters Accretion - the process by which a riparian land gradually and imperceptibly receives addition made by the water to which the land is contiguous Requisites of alluvion or accretion: a. the deposit or accumulation of soil or sediment must be gradual and imperceptible (increase must be comparatively little) b. the accretion must result from the effects or action of the current of the water c. that the land where accretion takes place is adjacent to the bank of the river

Accretions belong to the riparian owners upon whose lands the alluvial deposits were made (Agustin vs. Intermediate Appellate Court GR Nos. 66075-76, July 5, 1990). Reasons for the rule: a. To compensate the owner for losses which they may suffer by erosion. b. To compensate them for the burdens of legal easements, which are imposed upon them c. Because it is the owner of the contiguous land who can utilize the increment to the best advantage d. Because this is the only feasible solution, since the previous owners can no longer be identified.

Requisites: a. the segregation and transfer must be caused by the current of a river, creek or torrent b. the segregation and transfer must be sudden or abrupt c. the portion of land transported must be known or identified Note: The owner must remove (not merely claim) the transported portion within two years to retain ownership. Art. 460 applies only to uprooted trees. If a known portion of land with trees standing thereon is carried away by the current to another land, Art. 459 govern and the 2 year period applies.


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ii. outside territorial waters to the first occupant b. If formed in lakes, or navigable or floatable rivers State c. If formed on nonnavigable or nonfloatable rivers: i. if nearer to one margin or bank to the nearer riparian owner ii. if equidistant from both banks to the riparian owners, by halves There is no accession when islands are formed by the branching of a river; the owner retains ownership of the isolated piece of land. Right of Accession With Respect To Personal Property Basic Principle: Accession exists only if separation is not feasible. Otherwise, separation may be demanded. Kinds: 1. Adjunction/ conjunction (Arts. 466-471): The union of two movable things belonging to different owners, in such a manner that they cannot be separated without injury, thereby forming a single object Requisites: a. the two things must belong to different owners b. that they form a single object, or that their separation would impair their nature Kinds: a. inclusion or engraftment


In case of uprooted trees, the owner retains ownership if he makes a claim within 6 months. This does not include trees which remain planted on a known portion of land carried by the force of the waters. In the latter case, the trees are regarded as accessions of the land through gradual changes in the course of adjoining stream (Payatas-Estate Improvement Co. vs. Tuason GR No. L30067, March 23, 1929). Alluvium and Avulsion Distinguished ALLUVIUM AVULSION gradual imperceptible and sudden process identifiable verifiable or abrupt and

soil cannot be identified

belongs to the owner of belongs to the owner the property to which it from whose property it is attached was detached 3. Change of Course of Rivers (Art. 461462) Requisites: (NAPA) a. There must be a natural change in the course of the waters of the river; otherwise, the bed may be the subject of a State grant (ReyesPuno, p.54). b. The change must be abrupt or sudden c. The change must be permanent; the rule does not apply to temporary overflowing d. There must be abandonment by the owner of the bed i.e. a decision not to bring back the river to the old bed. (ReyesPuno, p.53).

Once the river bed has been abandoned, the owners of the invaded land become owners of the abandoned bed to the extent as provided by Art. 462. No positive act is needed on their part, as it is subject thereto ipso jure from the moment the mode of acquisition becomes evident. It does not apply to cases where the river simply dries up because there are no persons whose lands are occupied by the waters of the river. 4. Formation of Islands (Arts. 463465) Rules on Ownership: a. If formed by the sea: i. within territorial waters State

b. soldadura or soldering i. ferruminacion if both the accessory

and principal objects are of the same metal plumbatura if the accessory and principal objects are of different materials escritura or writing pintura or painting tejido or weaving

ii. c. d. e.

Tests to determine principal in adjunction: a. the rule of importance and purpose (Art. 467) b. that of greater value if they are of unequal values c. that of greater volume if they are of equal values


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d. that of greater merits take into consideration all pertinent provisions applicable as well as the comparative merits, utility and volume Rules on Who is Entitled: a. Adjunction in good faith by either owner: General rule: Accessory follows the principal Exceptions: If the accessory is much more precious than the principal, the owner of the accessory may demand the separation even if the principal suffers some injury b. Adjunction in bad faith by the owner of the principal Options of the owner of the accessory: i. to recover the value plus damages ii. to demand separation plus damages c. Adjunction in bad faith by the owner of the accessory i. he loses the accessory ii. he is liable for damages When separation of things allowed: i. separation without injury ii. accessory is more precious than the principal iii. owner of the principal acted in bad faith


Owner of the principal (worker) in good faith: i. maker acquires the new thing ii. he must indemnify the owner of the material Exception: if the material is more valuable than the resulting thing, the owner of the material has the option: i. to acquire the work, indemnifying for the labor, or ii. to demand indemnity for the material b. Owner of the principal (worker) in bad faith, the owner of the material has the option: i. to acquire the result without indemnity ii. to demand indemnity for the material plus damages c. Owner of the material in bad faith i. he loses the material ii. he is liable for damages Indemnity of the material, how paid (Art 471): a. The delivery of the same quality, kind and quality; or b. The payment of the value, as per expert appraisal. In determining the value, sentimental value must be taken into account. Adjunction, Mixture and Specification Distinguished SPECIFICATIO ADJUNCTION MIXTURE N Involves at Involves least 2 things least things Accessory Cofollows the ownership principal results Things retain nature joined Things their mixed or confused may either retain or lose their respective natures at 2 May involve one thing (or more) but form is changed Accessory follows principal the


2. Mixture (Arts. 472-473): Union of materials

where the components lose their identity Kinds: a. b. Commixtion mixture of solids Confusion mixture of liquids

Rules: a. By the will of both owners or by accident: each owner acquires an interest in proportion to the value of his material b. By one owner in good faith: apply rule (a) c. By one owner in bad faith: i. he loses all his rights to his own material ii. he is liable for damages

The new object retains or preserves the nature of the original object.

3. Specification (Art. 474): The transformation of

anothers material by the application of labor. The material becomes a thing of different kind. Labor is the principal Rules:

QUIETING OF TITLE (Arts. 476481) Cloud on title A semblance of title, either legal or equitable, or a claim or a right in real property, appearing in some legal form but which is, in fact, invalid or which would be inequitable to enforce


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2. to mere written or oral assertions of claims, EXCEPT: a. if made in a legal proceeding b. if it is being asserted that the instrument or entry in plaintiffs favor is not what it purports to be 3. to boundary disputes 4. to deeds by strangers to the title UNLESS purporting to convey the property of the plaintiff 5. to instruments invalid on their face 6. where the validity of the instrument involves pure questions of law Duty of plaintiff to restore benefits and expenses (Art. 479): 1. Restoration is required whenever the complainant is shown to be morally bound to reimburse the defendant 2. Even if the debt is not enforceable by reason of the statue of limitations, payment may be required by the court Reason: He who seeks equity must do equity.

Action to quiet title An action to remove cloud or to quiet title is a remedy or proceeding in equity, the purpose of which is the declaration of the invalidity of a claim on a title or the invalidity of an interest in property adverse to that of the plaintiff, and thereafter to free the plaintiff and those claiming under him form any hostile claim thereon. General rule: Only real property could be the subject matter of quieting of title. Exception: Certain personal properties vessels may be the object of quieting of title. like

Nature: Actions for quieting of title are neither suits in rem nor suits in personam. They are suits against a particular person in respect to the res and the judgment will apply only to the property in dispute. They are suits quasi in rem (Realty Sales Enterprises, Inc. vs. Intermediate Appellate Court GR No. L-67451, September 28, 1987). Requisites: (LCD-R) 1. plaintiff must have a legal or equitable title to, or interest in the real property which is the subject matter of the action; 2. there must be a cloud in such title; 3. such cloud must be due to some instrument, record, claim, encumbrance or proceeding which is APPARENTLY VALID but is in truth invalid, ineffective, voidable or unenforceable, and is prejudicial to the plaintiffs title; and 4. plaintiff must return to the defendant all benefits he may have received from the latter, or reimburse him for expenses that may have redounded to his benefit. Classes: 1. Remedial (Action to quiet title) - the action may be brought to remove a cloud or quiet title to real property or an interest therein (Art. 476 par. 1) 2. Preventive (Action quia timet) - to prevent a future cloud (doubt) from being cast upon the title to real property or an interest therein (Art. 476 par. 2). Prescriptive Period: 1. plaintiff in possession imprescriptible 2. plaintiff not in possession 10 (ordinary) or 30 years (extraordinary) The action to quiet title does NOT apply: 1. to questions involving interpretation documents of



As to buildings: The complainant must show that his property is adjacent to the dangerous construction, or must have to pass by necessity in the immediate vicinity. Lack of knowledge of the falling condition of the structure will not excuse the owner from liability. If the damage is caused by defects in the construction, then the builder is responsible for the damages. As to trees: The fall of the tree, occasioned by the inaction or negligence of the owner, someone has been hurt, the owner of the tree is liable for damages under the law on quasi-delict (Art. 2191, par. 3). CO- OWNERSHIP That form of ownership which exists whenever an undivided thing or right belongs to different persons. By the nature of coownership, a coowner cannot point to any specific portion of the property owned in common as his own because his share in it remains intangible and ideal (Avila et al. vs. Sps. Barabat GR No. 141993, May 17, 2006).


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The possession of a coowner is like that of a trustee and shall not be regarded as adverse to the other coowner but in fact beneficial to all of them (Salvador vs. CA, G.R. No. 109910, April 5, 1995)


Distribution of profits must be proportional to the respective interests of the co owners A coownership is not dissolved by the death or incapacity of a coowner. No public instrument needed even if real property is the object of the coownership An agreement to keep the thing undivided for a period of more than 10 years is void. Distribution of profits is subject to the stipulation of the parties Death or incapacity dissolves the partnership May be made in any form except when real property is contributed There may be agreement as to a definite term without limit set by law.

REQUISITES: 1. Plurality of owners 2. The object of ownership must be a thing or right which is undivided 3. Each coowners right must be limited only to his ideal share of the physical whole CHARACTERISTICS: (PSNCLG) 1. Plurality of subjects/owners 2. there is a single object which is not materially divided 3. there is no mutual representation by the co owners 4. it exists for the common enjoyment of the co owners 5. it has no distinct legal personality 6. it is governed first of all by the contract of the parties; otherwise, by special legal provisions, and in default of such provisions, by the provisions of Title III on coownership SOURCES: (C2LOST) 1. Contract 2. Chance 3. Law 4. Occupation 5. Succession 6. Testamentary disposition or donation inter vivos COOWNERSHIP AND PARTNERSHIP DISTINGUISHED COOWNERSHIP Can be created without the formalities of a contract Has no juridical or legal personality Purpose is collective enjoyment of the thing Coowner can dispose of his shares without the consent of the others with the transferee automatically becoming a co owner. There is no mutual representation. PARTNERSHIP Can be created only by contract, express or implied Has juridical personality distinct from the partners Purpose is to obtain profits A partner, unless authorized, cannot dispose of his share and substitute another as a partner in his place. A partner generally bind partnership. can the

RULES: I. Rights of each coowner as to the thing owned in common: (USBRAPLDP) 1. To use the thing owned in common Limitations: a. use according to the purpose for which it was intended b. interest of the coownership must not be prejudiced c. other coowners must not be prevented from using it according to their own rights 2. To share in the benefits and charges in proportion to the interest of each. Any stipulation to the contrary is void. 3. To the benefits of prescription: prescription by one coowner benefits all. 4. Repairs and taxes: to compel the others to share in the expenses of preservation even if incurred without prior notice. The coowner being compelled may exempt himself from the payment of taxes and expenses by renouncing his share equivalent to such taxes and expenses. The value of the property at the time of the renunciation will be the basis of the portion to be renounced. 5. Alterations: to oppose alterations made without the consent of all, even if beneficial. Alteration is an act by virtue of which a coowner changes the thing from the state in which the others believe it should remain, or withdraws it from the use to which they desire it to be intended. 6. To protest against seriously prejudicial decisions of the majority 7. Legal redemption: to be exercised within 30 days from written notice of sale of an


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III. Rights as to the ideal share of each co owner: 1. Each has full ownership of his part and of his share of the fruits and benefits 2. Right to substitute another person in its enjoyment, EXCEPT when personal rights are involved 3. Right to alienate, dispose or encumber 4. Right to renounce part of his interest to reimburse necessary expenses incurred by another coowner 5. Transactions entered into by each co owner only affect his ideal share. Even if a co-owner sells the whole property as his, the sale will affect only his own share but not those of the other co-owners who did not consent to the sale. This is because the sale or other disposition affects only his share and the transferee gets only what would correspond to his grantor in the partition of the thing owned in common. Since a co-owner is entitled to sell his undivided share, a sale of the entire property by one co-owner without the consent of the other co-owners is not null and void. Only the rights of the co-owner-seller are transferred, thereby making the buyer a co-owner of the property (Bailon-Casilao vs. CA, GR No. L78178, April 15, 1988).

undivided share of another coowner to a stranger 8. To defend the coownerships interest in court 9. To demand partition at any time Partition is the division between 2 or more persons of real or personal property which they own in common so that each may enjoy and possess his sole estate to the exclusion of and without interference from others. The purpose of partition is to separate, divide and assign a thing held in common among those to whom it belongs. (Avila vs. Sps. Barabat GR No. 141993, March 17, 2006). General rule: Partition is demandable by any of the coowners as a matter of right at any time. Exceptions: (SCLUPA) a. When there is a stipulation against it; but not to exceed 10 years. b. When the condition of indivision is imposed by the donor or testator; but not to exceed 20 years. c. When the legal nature of the community prevents partition. d. When partition would render the thing unserviceable. e. When partition is prohibited by law f. When another coowner has possessed the property as exclusive owner for a period sufficient to acquire it by prescription. II. The following questions are governed by the majority of interests: 1. Management Acts of Management (Castan) a. Those that do not involve an alteration b. Are renewable from time to time c. Do not bind the community for a long time in the future d. Do not give rise to a real right over the thing owned in common (ReyesPuno. p.73). e. Expenses to improve or embellish are decided by the majority Minority may appeal to the court against the majoritys decision if the same is seriously prejudicial. 2. Enjoyment 3. Improvement or embellishment

A co-owner cannot acquire by prescription the share of the co-owners, absent any clear repudiation of the co-ownership. In order that the title may prescribe in favor of a co-owner, the following requisites must concur: (1) the co-owner has performed unequivocal acts of repudiation amounting to an ouster of the other co-owners; (2) such positive acts of repudiation have been made known to the other co-owners; and (3) the evidence thereof is clear and convincing (Robles vs. CA, GR No. 123509, March 14, 2000). The act of executing the affidavit of self adjudication did not constitute sufficient act of repudiation. In fact, there was bad faith of the coheir in feigning sole ownership of the property to the exclusion of the other co heirs. (Galvez vs. CA, GR No. 157954, March 24, 2006). The Torrens title does not furnish a shield for fraud. Thus, where one registered the property in question in his name in fraud of his coheirs, prescription can only be deemed to have commenced from the time the latter


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discovers the fraudulent act (Adille vs. CA, GR No. L-46484 January 29, 1988). Under the law, anyone of the coowners may bring an action in ejectment (Art. 487). This can be done without joining all other co owners because the suit is presumed to have been filed for the benefit of his coowners. But if the suit is for the benefit of the plaintiff alone who claims to be the sole owner and entitled to the possession of the litigated property the action should be dismissed and it will not prosper especially so that there is evidence of coownership of the property, and there is no showing that they waived their rights (Baloloy vs. Hular GR No. 159723. September 9, 2004).


1. When the project has not been rebuilt or repaired substantially to its state prior to its damage or destruction 3 years after damage or destruction which rendered a material part thereof unfit for use; 2. When damage or destruction has rendered or more of the units untenantable and that the condominium owners holding more than 30% interest in the common areas are opposed to restoration of the projects; 3. When the project has been in existence for more than 50 years, that it is obsolete and uneconomic, and the condominium owners holding in aggregate more than 50% interest in the common areas are opposed to restoration, remodeling or modernizing; 4. When the project or a material part thereof has been condemned or expropriated and the project is no longer viable, or that the condominium owners holding in aggregate more than 70% interest in the common areas are opposed to the continuation of the condominium regime; 5. When conditions for partition by sale set forth in the declaration of restrictions duly registered have been met. SOME SPECIAL PROPERTIES WATERS (Arts. 502-518) Laws Governing Waters: 1. Civil Code of the Philippines 2. Special Law of Waters of August 3, 1866 3. The Irrigation Acts, Act 2152 and amendments 4. Water Power Act No. 4062 5. Art. XIII of the Philippine Constitution

EXTINGUISHMENT OF COOWNERSHIP (CALSTEP) 1. consolidation or merger in one coowner 2. acquisitive prescription in favor of a third person or a coowner who repudiates the co ownership 3. loss or destruction of property coowned 4. sale of property coowned 5. termination of period agreed upon by the co owners 6. expropriation 7. judicial or extrajudicial partition CONDOMINIUM ACT (RA 4726) Condominium - an interest in real property consisting of a separate interest in a unit in a residential, industrial or commercial building and an undivided interest in common, directly or indirectly, in the land on which it is located and in other common areas of the building. Any transfer or conveyance of a unit or an apartment, office or store or other space therein, shall include transfer or conveyance of the undivided interest in the common areas or, in a proper case, the membership or shareholdings in the condominium corporation: Provided, however, that where the common areas in the condominium project are held by the owners of separate units as coowners thereof, no condominium unit therein shall be conveyed or transferred to persons other than Filipino citizens or corporations at least 60% of the capital stock of which belong to Filipino citizens, except in cases of hereditary succession. General rule: Common areas shall remain undivided, and there shall be no judicial partition thereof Exceptions:


Classification 1. Waters public per se (water is the principal); the bed follows the character of the water 2. Waters public or private according to their bed (water is accessory to bed) 3. Waters public by special provision MINERALS (Art. 519) Laws Governing Minerals: 1. Before 1902: R.D. sobre Mineria 1867 2. Between 1902-1906: The Philippine Bill of 1902 and Legislative Acts 3. After the Advent of the Commonwealth: Art. XIII of the Philippine Constitution and CA No. 137 4. Present: Mineral Resources Development Decree of 1974 (P.D. 463) and the Civil Code of the Philippines


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to transfer ownership but is defective (ex. when the seller is not the true owner or could not transmit his rights thereto to a possessor who acted in GF) 4. possession with a title in fee simple derived from the right of dominion or possession of an owner; the highest degree of possession

Minerals all inorganic substances found in nature, whether in solid, liquid, gaseous, or any intermediate state, with the exception of soil which supports the organic life, and of ordinary earth, gravel, sand, and stone which are used for building or construction purposes TRADEMARK AND TRADE NAMES (Arts. 520523) Laws Governing Trademarks and names: 1. Intellectual Property Code (RA 8293) 2. Civil Code of the Philippines POSSESSION CONCEPT: 1. As an act the holding of a thing or the enjoyment of a right with the intention to possess in ones own right 2. As a fact when there is holding or enjoyment 3. As a right the right of a person to holding or enjoyment to the exclusion of all others having better right than the possessor a. jus possidendi - right to possession which is incidental to or included in the right of ownership b. jus possessionis right of possession independent from the right of ownership REQUISITES: 1. occupancy, apprehension, or taking of a thing or right (possession in fact); 2. deliberate intention to possess (animus possidendi) An insane or demented person CANNOT acquire possession as they are incapable of understanding the import of their actions. 3. by virtue of ones own right in his own name or in that of another. DEGREES: 1. possession without any title whatsoever mere holding without any right at all (ex. thief or squatter) 2. possession with juridical title - predicated on juridical relation existing between the possessor and the owner (ex. lessee, usufructuary, depositary, agent, pledgee and trustee) 3. possession with just title the possession of an adverse claimant whose title is sufficient Trade

CLASSES: 1. In ones own name where possessor claims the thing for himself 2. In the name of another for whom the thing is held by the possessor 3. In the concept of owner possessor of thing or right, by his actions, is considered or believed by others as the owner, regardless of good or bad faith of the possessor Possessor in the concept of an owner is presumed with just title. (Art. 541) 4. In the concept of holder possessor holds it merely to keep or enjoy it, the ownership pertaining to another person; possessor acknowledges in another a superior right which he believes to be ownership; cannot acquire ownership by prescription None of these holders may assert a claim of ownership for himself over the thing but they may be considered as possessors in the concept of owner, or under claim of ownership, with respect to the right they respectively exercise over the thing. 5. In good faith possessor is not aware that there is in his title or mode of acquisition a defect that invalidates it Requisites: a. Ostensible title or mode of acquisition b. Vice or defect in the title c. Possessor is ignorant of the vice or defect and must have an honest belief that the thing belongs to him Gross and inexcusable ignorance of the law may not be the basis of good faith, but possible excusable ignorance may be such basis (Kasilag vs. Roque GR No. 46623, December 7, 1939). 6. In bad faith possessor is aware of the invalidating defect in his own title. Only personal knowledge of the flaw in ones title or mode of acquisition can make him a possessor in bad faith. It is not transmissible even to an heir.


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Possession in good faith ceases from the moment defects in his title are made known to the possessor EXTENT OF POSSESSION: 1. Actual possession occupancy in fact of the whole or at least substantially the whole property 2. Constructive possession occupancy of part, in the name of the whole, under such circumstances that the law extends the occupancy to the possession of the whole Doctrine of constructive possession possession in the eyes of the law does not mean that a man has to have his feet on every square meter of ground before it can be said that he is in possession (Ramos vs. Director of Lands GR No. 13298, November 19, 1918). PRESUMPTIONS IN FAVOR OF POSSESSOR: 1. of good faith (Art. 527) 2. of continuity of initial good faith (Art. 528) 3. of enjoyment in the same character in which possession was acquired until the contrary is proved (Art. 529) 4. of noninterruption in favor of the present possessor (Art. 554) 5. of continuous possession by the one who recovers possession of which he was wrongfully deprived (Art. 561) 6. of extension of possession of real property to all movables contained therein (Art. 542) OBJECT OF POSSESSION: General rule: All things and rights susceptible of being appropriated (Art. 530) Exceptions: 1. Res communes 2. Property of public dominion 3. Discontinuous servitudes 4. Nonapparent servitudes ACQUISITION OF POSSESSION (Arts. 531-538) Manner of acquiring possession: 1. Material occupation of the thing or exercise of a right 2. Subjection to our will 3. Proper acts and legal formalities established for acquiring such right Special Cases of Acquisition of Possession: 1. Acquisition through another person. Where possession is acquired, not by an agent or representative but by a stranger without agency, possession is not acquired until the act is ratified (Art. 532).


2. Acquisition by Succession Mortis Causa a. Time of Acquisition. If the inheritance is accepted, the estate is transmitted without interruption from the death of the predecessor. But the heir who repudiates is deemed never to have acquired possession (Art. 533). b. Effect of Bad Faith of the decedent. One who succeeds by hereditary title shall not suffer the consequences of the wrongful possession of the decedent unless it is shown that he had knowledge of the defects affecting it; but the effects of possession in good faith shall not benefit him except from the death of the decedent (Art. 534). CONFLICTS BETWEEN SEVERAL CLAIMANTS: General rule: Possession cannot be recognized in two different personalities Exception: In case of copossession when there is no conflict Criteria in Case of Dispute: 1. present/actual possessor shall be preferred 2. if there are two possessors, the one longer in possession 3. if the dates of possession are the same, the one with a title 4. if all the above are equal, the fact of possession shall be judicially determined, and in the meantime, the thing shall be placed in judicial deposit Possession cannot be acquired through force or violence. To all intents and purposes, a possessor, even if physically ousted, is still deemed the legal possessor (Caquea vs. Bolante GR No. 137944, April 6, 2000). A person who believes himself entitled to the possession of property may not take the law into his hands (Bishop of Cebu vs. Mangaron, G.R. No. 1748, June 1, 1906) or else he will be made to suffer the consequences of his lawlessness (Santiago vs. Cruz GR No. L-31919, March 24, 1930). EFFECTS OF POSSESSION (Arts. 539-561) POSSESSOR IN POSSESSOR IN BAD GOOD FAITH FAITH Fruits gathered to possessor to owner Cultivation Expenses of gathered fruits not reimbursed to reimbursed to possessor possessor Fruits pending and charges


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prorated according to to owner time Production expenses of pending fruits indemnity pro-rata to no indemnity possessor (owners option) in money, or by allowing full cultivation and gathering of all fruits Necessary expenses reimbursed to reimbursed to possessor; retention possessor; no retention Useful expenses reimbursed to no reimburse-ment possessor (owners option) initial cost plus value may remove if no reimbursement, and no damage is caused to the principal by the removal Ornamental expenses reimbursement at owners option: owners option: removal, or removal if no injury, or value at time of cost without removal recovery Taxes and charges (i. on capital, ii. on fruits and iii. charges) taxes and charges taxes and charges i. charged to i. charged to owner owner ii. charged to owner ii. charged to iii. to owner possessor iii. prorated Improvements no longer existing no reimbursement no reimburse-ment Liability for accidental loss or deterioration only if acting with liable in every case fraudulent intent or negligence, after summons Improvements due to time or nature to owner or lawful to owner or lawful possessor possessor Necessary expenses preservation of the thing made for the LOSS OF POSSESSION (Art. 555) General Causes: 1. By the will of the possessor a. Abandonment b. Transfer or conveyance 2. Against the will of the possessor a. Eminent domain b. Acquisitive prescription c. Judicial decree in favor of one who has a better right d. Possession of another for more than one year This refers to possession de facto where the possessor loses the right to a summary action; but he may still bring action publiciana or reivindicatoria. e. By reason of the object i. destruction or total loss of the things ii. withdrawal from commerce Acts NOT Constituting Loss of Possession (Arts. 537538) 1. Acts executed by stealth and without knowledge of the possessor 2. Acts merely tolerated either by the possessor or by his representative or holder in his name unless authorized or ratified 3. Violence 4. Temporary ignorance of the whereabouts of movable property

The possessor who recovers possession is considered as having had uninterrupted possession despite these acts of violence, stealth and tolerance; but he must recover possession by due process, and not otherwise (Arts. 561, 536, 539) POSSESSION OF MOVABLES (Art. 559): Theory of Irrevindicability - Possession in good faith of a movable is presumed ownership. It is equivalent to title. No further proof is necessary (Aznar vs. Yapdiangco, G.R. No. L-18536, March 31, 1965). The rule isnecessary for purposes of facilitating transactions on movable property which are usually done without special formalities (Sotto vs. Enage, 43 O.G. 5075 [1947]). Requisites: 1. possession is in good faith 2. the owner has voluntarily parted with the possession of the thing 3. possessor is in the concept of owner

Useful expenses add value to property or increase the objects productivity Ornamental/luxury expenses add value to the thing only for certain persons in view of their particular whims; neither essential for preservation nor useful to everybody in general


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Exceptions to the Theory of Irrevindicability: 1. where the owner or possessor lost a movable 2. where the owner or possessor has been unlawfully deprived of a movable General rule: One who has lost or has been unlawfully deprived of a movable may recover it from whoever possesses it without reimbursement. The owner of the thing must prove: (1) ownership of the thing, and (2) loss or unlawful deprivation; or bad faith of the possessor. Exceptions: 1. Where the owner acts negligently or voluntarily parts with the thing owned, he cannot recover it from the possessor. 2. If the possessor of the movable acquired it in good faith at a public sale, the owner cannot obtain its return without reimbursing the price paid therefor. Public sale one where there has been a public notice of the sale in which anyone is allowed to bid for the object he desires to buy. POSSESSION OF ANIMALS (Art. 560): Wild Animals living in a state of nature independently of and without the aid and care of man; considered possessed only while they are under mans control Domesticated/ Tamed Animals - wild or savage by nature but have been subdued and became accustomed to live in a tamed condition; considered possessed if they habitually return to the premises of their possessor Domestic/ Tame animals live, born and reared under the control and care of man USUFRUCT Gives the right to enjoy the property of another with the obligation of preserving its form and substance, unless the title constituting it or the law otherwise provides. CHARACTERISTICS: 1. real right 2. of temporary duration 3. to derive all advantages from the thing due to normal exploitation 4. may be constituted on real or personal property, consumable or nonconsumable, tangible or intangible, the ownership of which is vested in another


5. transmissible KINDS OF USUFRUCTUARY ACCORDING TO ORIGIN: 1. Legal created by law such as usufruct of the parents over the property of their unemancipated children 2. Voluntary created by will of the parties either by act inter vivos such as donation or by act mortis causa such as in a last will and testament 3. Mixed acquired by prescription such as when believing himself to be the owner of the property of an absentee, gave in his will the usufruct of the property for the requisite prescriptive period to his wife, who possessed it in good faith as usufructuary, and naked ownership to his brother RULES GOVERNING USUFRUCT: Governed primarily by the title creating it, or in the absence thereof, by Articles 566-612 of the Civil Code. NORMAL USUFRUCT AND ABNORMAL USUFRUCT DISTINGUISHED ABNORMAL NORMAL USUFRUCT USUFRUCT that which involves nonconsumable things which the usufructuary can enjoy without altering their form or substance, though they may deteriorate or diminish by time or use that which involves things which would be useless to the usufructuary unless they are consumed or expended, such as money, grain, liquors, etc.

GENERAL RULE: Usufructuary is bound to preserve the form and substance of the thing in usufruct. EXCEPTION: Abnormal usufruct whereby the law or the will of the parties may allow the modification of the substance of the thing. USUFRUCT AND LEASE DISTINGUISHED USUFRUCT LEASE Always a real right Generally a personal right

Person creating the Lessor may not be the usufruct should be the owner owner or his duly authorized agent May be created by law, Generally created by by contract, by will of contract the testator, or by


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prescription As a rule, usufruct Lease generally refers covers all the fruits and to uses only all the uses and benefits of the entire property. Involves a more or less passive owner who allows the usufructuary to enjoy the object given in usufruct Lease involves a more active owner or lessor who makes the lessee to enjoy 3. At the expiration of the usufruct: a. to collect reimbursement from the owner: i. for indispensable extraordinary repairs made by the usufructuary ii. for taxes on the capital advanced by the usufructuary iii. for damages caused by the usufructuary b. to retain the thing until reimbursement is made c. to remove improvements made by him, but without injuring the property

Pays for ordinary repairs Lessee is not generally and taxes on the fruits under obligation to undertake repairs or pay taxes SPECIAL USUFRUCTS: 1. of pension or income (Art. 570) 2. of property owned in common (Art. 582) 3. of cattle (livestock) (Art. 591) 4. on vineyards and woodlands (Art. 575576) 5. on a right of action (Art. 578) 6. on mortgaged property (Art. 600) 7. over the entire patrimony (Art. 598) 8. over things which gradually deteriorate (Art. 573) 9. of consumable property (Art. 574) RIGHTS OF THE USUFRUCTUARY 1. As to the thing and its fruits a. To receive and benefit from the fruits b. To enjoy any increase through accessions and servitudes c. To the half of the hidden treasure he accidentally finds d. To lease the thing, generally, for the same or shorter period as the usufruct. e. To improve the thing without altering its form and substance f. Right to setoff the improvements he may have made on the property against any damage to the same g. To retain the thing until he is reimbursed for advances for extraordinary expenses and taxes on the capital h. To collect reimbursements from the owner for indispensable extraordinary repairs, taxes on the capital he advanced, and damages caused to him. i. To remove improvements made by him if the same will not injure the property 2. As to the usufruct itself a. To mortgage the right of usufruct except parental usufruct b. To alienate the usufruct

In a usufruct, only the jus utendi and jus fruendi over the property are transferred to the usufructuary. The owner of the property maintains the jus disponendi or the power to alienate, encumber, transform, and even destroy the same (Hemedes vs. CA, GR No. 107132, October 8, 1999). Under the Massachusetts Rule, a stock dividend is considered part of the capital and belongs to the remainderman; while under the Pennsylvania Rule, all earnings of a corporation, when declared as dividends in whatever form, made during the lifetime of the usufructuary, belong to the latter. The Pennsylvania Rule is more in accord with our laws than the Massachusetts Rule (Bachrach vs. Seifert and Elianoff, GR No. L-2659, October 12, 1950). Corollary to the right to all the rents, to choose the tenant, and to fix the amount of the rents, a usufructuary of the rents has the right to choose himself as the tenant, provided that the obligations he has assumed towards the owner of the property are fulfilled (Fabie vs. Gutierrez David, GR No. L-123, December 12, 1945).

OBLIGATIONS OF THE USUFRUCTUARY 1. Before exercising the usufruct: a. To make an inventory of the property b. To give a bond, EXCEPT i. when no prejudice would result ii. when the usufruct is reserved by the donor or parents iii. in cases of caucion juratoria where the usufructuary, being unable to file the required bond or security, files a verified petition in the proper court asking for the delivery of the house and furniture necessary for himself and his family without any bond or security. 1) takes an oath to take care of the things and restore them 2) property cannot be alienated or leased because this


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would mean that the usufructuary does not need it Effects of failure to post bond: a. owner shall have the following options: i. receivership of realty, sale of movables, deposit of securities, or investment of money; OR ii. retention of the property as administrator b. the net product shall be delivered to the usufructuary c. usufructuary cannot collect credits due or make investments of the capital without the consent of the owner or of the court until the bond is given 2. During the usufruct: a. To take care of the property b. To replace with the young thereof animals that die or are lost in certain cases when the usufruct is constituted on flock or herd of livestock c. To make ordinary repairs d. To notify the owner of urgent extra ordinary repairs e. To permit works and improvements by the naked owner not prejudicial to the usufruct f. To pay annual taxes and charges on the fruits g. To pay interest on taxes on capital paid by the naked owner h. To pay debts when the usufruct is constituted on the whole patrimony i. To secure the naked owners or courts approval to collect credits in certain cases j. To notify the owner of any prejudicial act committed by third persons k. To pay for court expenses and costs regarding usufruct


a. the value of the usufruct is not impaired b. the rights of the usufructuary are not prejudiced OBLIGATIONS OF THE OWNER AT THE EXPIRATION OF THE USUFRUCT: 1. to make reimbursement for advances of the usufructuary 2. to cancel the bond, upon discharge of the usufructuarys obligations 3. to respect leases of rural lands by the usufructuary for the balance of the agricultural year EXTINGUISHMENT OF USUFRUCT (PT2DERM) 1. Prescription 2. Termination of right of the person constituting the usufruct 3. Total loss of the thing 4. Death of the usufructuary, unless contrary intention appears 5. Expiration of the period or fulfillment of the resolutory condition 6. Renunciation of the usufructuary 7. Merger of the usufruct and ownership in the same person EASEMENT OR SERVITUDE Encumbrance imposed upon an immovable for the benefit of a community or one or more persons or for the benefit of another immovable belonging to a different owner. EASEMENT AND SERVITUDE DISTINGUISHED EASEMENT SERVITUDE Origin English law always real Roman law Recipient of Benefit may be real personal (broader) or

3. At the termination of the usufruct:

a. To return the thing in usufruct to the owner unless there is a right of retention b. To pay legal interest on the amount spent by the owner for extraordinary repairs or taxes on the capital c. To indemnify the owner for any losses due to his negligence or of his transferees RIGHTS OF THE OWNER DURING THE USUFRUCT: 1. He retains title 2. He may alienate the property, but he may not: a. alter the form or substance of the thing b. do anything prejudicial to the usufructuary 3. He may construct buildings, make improvements and plantings, provided:

CHARACTERISTICS: 1. It is a real right but will affect third persons only when duly registered. 2. It is enjoyed over another immovable, never on ones own property 3. It involves two neighboring estates (in case of real easements). 4. It is inseparable from the estate to which it is attached, and, therefore, cannot be alienated independently of the estate. 5. It is indivisible for it is not affected by the division of the estate between two or more persons.


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registered or not is registered, or when its subject matter is real property and the duration exceeds one year May involve either real or personal property Limited right to both the possession and use of anothers property

6. It is a right limited by the needs of the dominant owner or estate, without possession. 7. It cannot consist in the doing of an act unless the act is accessory in relation to a real easement. 8. It is a limitation on the servient owners rights of ownership for the benefit of the dominant owner; and, therefore, it is not presumed. CLASSIFICATION: 1. As to recipient of benefit: a. Real/Predial when the easement is in favor of another immovable b. Personal when it is in favor of a community or of one or more persons i. Public if it is vested in the public at large or in some class of indeterminate individuals ii. Private if it is vested in a determinate individual or certain persons 2. As to its source: a. Voluntary when the easement is established by the will or agreement of the parties or by a testator b. Legal when it is imposed by law either for public use or in the interest of private persons c. Mixed when it is created partly by will or agreement and partly by law 3. As to its exercise: a. Continuous Easements those the use of which is, or may be, incessant without the intervention of any act of man b. Discontinuous Easements those which are used at intervals and depend upon the acts of man 4. As to the indication of their existence: a. Apparent Easements those which are made known and are continually kept in view by external signs that reveal the use and enjoyment of the same b. Nonapparent Easements those which show no external indication of their existence 5. As to duty of servient owner a. Positive the servient owner must allow something to be done in his property or do it himself; also called servitudes of intrusion and or/service b. Negative the servient owner must refrain from doing something which he could lawfully do if the easement did not exist EASEMENT AND LEASE DISTINGUISHED EASEMENT LEASE Real right, whether Real right only when it

Imposed only on real property There is a limited right to the use of real property of another but without the right of possession

EASEMENT AND USUFRUCT DISTINGUISHED EASEMENT USUFRUCT Imposed only on real May involve either real property or personal property Limited to particular or Includes all the uses specific use of the and the fruits of the servient estate property A nonpossessory right Involves a right of over an immovable possession in an immovable or movable Not extinguished by the Extinguished by the death of the dominant death of the owner usufructuary MODES OF ACQUISITION: (PDFAT) 1. by prescription of 10 years (continuous and apparent easements) a. Positive servitude - counted from the day their exercise commences. b. Negative servitude - counted from the formal prohibition to the servient owner to do any act opposed to the servitude (Art. 621). There must be a notarized document. 2. by deed of recognition 3. by final judgment 4. by apparent sign established by the owner of two adjoining estates, unless: a. there are contrary stipulations or b. the sign is effaced 5. by title DOMINANT OWNER Rights: 1. To exercise all the rights necessary for the use of the easement 2. To make on the servient estate all the works necessary for the use and preservation of the servitude 3. To renounce the easement if he desires to exempt himself from contribution to necessary expenses 4. To ask for mandatory injunction to prevent impairment of his use of the easement


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Obligations: 1. Cannot render the easement or render it more burdensome 2. Notify the servient owner of works necessary for the use and preservation of the servitude 3. Choose the most convenient time and manner in making the necessary works as to cause the least inconvenience to the servient owner 4. Contribute to the necessary expenses if there are several dominant estates SERVIENT OWNER Rights: 1. To retain ownership and possession of the servient estate 2. To make use of the easement, unless there is agreement to the contrary 3. To change the place or manner of the easement, provided it be equally convenient Obligations: 1. Cannot impair the use of the easement 2. Contribute to the necessary expenses in case he uses the easement, unless there is an agreement to the contrary EXTINGUISHMENT OF EASEMENTS (REMAIN BREW) 1. Redemption agreed upon 2. Expiration of the term or fulfillment of the resolutory condition 3. Merger of ownership of the dominant and servient estate 4. Annulment of the title to the servitude 5. Permanent impossibility to use the easement 6. Nonuser for 10 years a. discontinuous: counted from the day they ceased to be used b. continuous: counted from the day an act adverse to the exercise takes place 7. Bad condition when either or both estates fall into such a condition that the easement could not be used 8. Resolution of the right to create the servitude, (i.e. in case of pacto de retro, when the property is redeemed) 9. Expropriation of the servient estate 10. Waiver by the dominant owner LEGAL EASEMENTS Kinds of Legal Easements: 1. Public legal easements those for public or communal use, governed primarily by special laws and by the Civil Code

MEMORY AID IN CIVIL LAW| 64 2. Private legal easements those for the
interest of private persons or for private use; governing law: a. primarily by the agreement of the interested parties; b. in the absence thereof, by the provisions of general or local laws and ordinances; and c. in default of (a) and (b), by the Civil Code


Easement Relating To Waters (Art. 637): Lower estates must receive waters which are naturally and without intervention of man descend from higher estates including earth or stones carried with them (Art. 637) Limitations: 1. Dominant owner must not increase the burden but he may erect works to avoid erosion. 2. The servient owner must not impede the descent of the water (but may regulate it).

II. Easement On Riparian Property (Art. 638) III. Easement On Dam Or Weir (Art. 639) IV. Easement For Watering Cattle (Art. 640):
This is a combined easement for drawing of water and right of way Requisites: a. must be imposed for reasons of public use b. must be in favor of a town or village c. indemnity must be paid

V. Easement of Aqueduct (Arts. 643646)

From a forced easement, by virtue of which the owner of an estate who desires to avail himself of water for the use of said estate may make such waters pass through the intermediate estate with the obligation of indemnifying the owner of the same and also the owner of the estate to which the water may filter or flow Requisites: 1. dominant owner must prove that he has the capacity to dispose of the water 2. that the water is sufficient for the intended use 3. that the course is most convenient, and least onerous to the 3rd person 4. payment of indemnity


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laws prior to the Civil Code of 1889 (Art. 657). Special Cause of Extinction: 1. the opening of a public road, or 2. joining the dominant tenement to another with exit on a public road The extinction is NOT automatic. There must be a demand for extinction coupled with tender of indemnity by the servient owner. Easement of right of way cannot be acquired by prescription because it is discontinuous/intermittent (Ronquillo, et al. vs. Roco GR No. L-10619, February 28, 1958).

VI. Easement For The Construction of A Stop
Lock or Sluice Gate (Art. 647)

VII. Easement of Right of Way (Arts. 649657):

The right granted to the owner of an estate which is surrounded by other estates belonging to other persons and without an adequate outlet to a public highway to demand that he be allowed a passageway throughout such neighboring estates after payment of proper indemnity. Requisites: 1. Claimant must be the owner of the enclosed immovable or one with real right; 2. The dominant estate is surrounded by other immovables and there must be no adequate outlet to a public highway; 3. Right of way must be absolutely necessary; 4. Isolation must not be due to the claimants own act; 5. Easement must be established at the point least prejudicial to the servient estate; and insofar as consistent with this rule, where the distance from the dominant estate to the public highway may be the shortest; and 6. Payment of proper indemnity.


Easement of Party Wall (Arts. 658666) Party Wall - common wall which separates 2 estates built by common agreement at the dividing line such that it occupies a portion of both estates on equal parts

The burden of proving the existence of the pre-requisites to validly claim a compulsory right of way lies on the owner of the dominant estate (Costabella Corp. vs. CA, GR No. 80511, Jan. 25, 1991). Where the easement may be established on any of several tenements surrounding the dominant estate, the one where the way is shortest and will cause the least damage should be used, even if it will not be the shortest. The criterion of least prejudice to the servient estate must prevail over the criterion of shortest distance (Quimen vs. CA, GR No. 112331, May 29, 1996). It is the needs of the dominant property which ultimately determine the width of the passage, and these needs may vary from time to time (Encarnacion vs. CA, GR No. 76322 March 11, 1991). The right of way for cattle should not be more than 10 meters wide unless a greater width was a vested right under

Party Wall and Coownership Distinguished PARTY WALL COOWNERSHIP Shares of parties Shares of the co cannot be physically owners can be divided segregated but they and separated can be physically physically but before identified such division, a co owner cannot point to any definite portion of the property as belonging to him No limitation as to None of the co use of the party wall owners may use the for exclusive benefit community property of a party for his exclusive benefit Owner may free Partial renunciation is himself from allowed contributing to the cost of repairs and construction of a party wall by renouncing all his rights thereto Presumptions of Existence (juris tantum): 1. in adjoining walls of buildings, up to common elevation 2. in dividing walls of gardens and yards (urban) 3. in dividing fences, walls and live hedges of rural tenements 4. in ditches or drains between tenements


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Rebuttal of Presumption: 1. title 2. by contrary proof: 3. by signs contrary to the existence of the servitude (Arts. 660 & 661) If the signs are contradictory, they cancel each other Rights of Part Owners: 1. to make use of the wall in proportion to their respective interests, resting buildings on it or inserting beams up to onehalf of the walls thickness 2. to increase the height of the wall a. at his expense b. upon payment of proper indemnity c. to acquire half interest in any increase of thickness or height, paying a proportionate share in the cost of the work and of the land covered by the increase Obligations of Each PartOwner: 1. to contribute proportionately to the repair and maintenance unless he renounces his partownership 2. if one part owner raises the height of the wall, he must: a. bear the cost of maintenance of the additions b. bear the increased expenses of preservation c. bear the cost of construction d. give additional land, if necessary, to thicken the wall


Restrictions on openings in ones own wall when contiguous (less than 2m) to anothers tenement: 1. it cannot exceed 30cm each side 2. openings must be at the height of the joists, near the ceiling (Choco vs. Santamaria, GR No. 6076, December 29, 1911). 3. the abutting owner may: a. close the openings if the wall becomes a party wall b. block the light by building or erecting his own wall unless a servitude is acquired by title or prescription c. ask for the reduction of the opening to the proper size Restrictions as to views: 1. Direct views: the distance of 2m between the wall and the boundary must be observed 2. Oblique views: (walls perpendicular or at an angle to the boundary line) must not be less than 60cm from the boundary line to the nearest edge of the window

Any stipulation permitting lesser distances is void (Art. 673). Modes of Acquisition 1. by title 2. by prescription a. positive counted from the time of the opening of the window, if it is through a party wall b. negative counted from the formal prohibition on the servient owner. Mere nonobservance of distances prescribed by Art. 670 without formal prohibition, does not give rise to prescription.

IX. Easement of Light and View (Arts. 667

673) 1. Easement of Light (jus luminum) right to admit light from the neighboring estate by virtue of the opening of a window or the making of certain openings. Requisites: a. opening must not be greater than 30 centimeters square, made on the ceiling or on the wall; and b. there must be an iron grating

X. Drainage of Buildings (Arts. 674676) 1. Easement of drainage of buildings

the right to divert or empty the rain waters from ones own roof or shed to the neighbors estate either drop by drop or through conduits 2. Easement to receive falling rain waters deals not with legal easement but with a voluntary easement to receive rain water falling from the roof of an adjoining building

2. Easement of view (jus prospectus) the

right to make openings or windows, to enjoy the view through the estate of another and the power to prevent all constructions or work which would obstruct such view or make the same difficult. It necessarily includes easement of light.


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Subjacent support when the supported land is above and the supporting land is beneath

3. Easement giving outlet to rain water
where house surrounded by other houses Requisites: a. there must be no adequate outlet to the rain water because the yard or court of a house is surrounded by other houses b. the outlet to the water must be at the point where egress is easiest and establishing a conduit for drainage c. there must be payment of proper indemnity

XI. Intermediate Distances And Works For

Certain Constructions And Plantings (Arts. 677681) 1. Constructions: wells, sewers, etc. a. distance is fixed by ordinances or custom must be observed b. protective structures prescribed by ordinances or custom must be erected; if none, precautions must be taken to avoid damage to neighboring estates c. violation causes responsibility for damages caused 2. Plantings: a. distances as prescribed by ordinances or customs must be observed. If none: i. for large trees: at least 2m from boundary ii. for shrubs: at least 50cm from the center of the tree b. intrusions; i. of branches: the owner of the tree may be compelled to cut intruding branches at the boundary ii. of roots: the owner of the invaded tenement may cut them himself at the boundary iii. fruits falling naturally belong to the owner of the land

There exists a doubt as to whether easements against nuisance and lateral and subjacent support may be categorized as legal easements (ReyesPuno. pp.188189). The duty of an adjacent owner making excavations upon his land not to deprive any adjacent land of sufficient lateral or subjacent support is an absolute one. It does not depend upon the degree of care and precaution made by the proprietor in making the excavation or building in his land (De Jesus, et al vs. Howmart Corp. et al, GR No. 44191-R, August 28, 1974). VOLUNTARY EASEMENTS (Arts. 688-693) Constituted by the will of the parties or of a testator. The owner possessing capacity to encumber property may constitute voluntary servitude. If there are various owners, ALL must consent; but consent once given is not revocable.

Rules governing voluntary easements: 1. if created by title, such as contract or will, then by such title 2. if created by prescription, by the form and manner of possession of the easement 3. in default of any of the above, by the provisions of the Civil Code on easements Voluntary easements are established in favor of: 1. predial servitudes: a. for the owner of the dominant estate b. for any other person having any juridical relation with the dominant estate, if the owner ratifies it 2. personal servitudes: for anyone capacitated to accept NUISANCE Any act, omission, establishment, business or condition of property or anything else which: (ISAHO) 1. Injures/endangers the health or safety of others; 2. Shocks, defies or disregards decency or morality;

XII. Easement Against Nuisance (Arts. 682683)


Lateral and Subjacent Support (Arts. 684-687) Lateral support when the supported and supporting lands are divided by a vertical plane


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3. Annoys or offends the senses; 4. Hinders or impairs the use of property; or 5. Obstructs or interferes with the free passage
to any public highway or street, or body of water. CLASSES: 1. Per se nuisance at all times and under all circumstances regardless of location and surrounding. 2. Per accidens nuisance by reason of circumstances, location, or surroundings. 3. Public affects the community or a considerable number of persons. 4. Private affects only a person or a small number of persons. 5. Mixed nuisance may be both public and private in character DOCTRINE OF ATTRACTIVE NUISANCE One who maintains on his premises dangerous instrumentalities of a character likely to attract children in play and who fails to exercise ordinary care to prevent children from playing therewith or resorting thereto is liable to a child of tender years who is injured thereby, even if the child is technically a trespasser in the premises.


REGISTRY OF PROPERTY REGISTRATION any entry made in a book or public registry of deeds Systems of registration: 1. Former registration systems a. Spanish Mortgage Law of 1893 b. Torrens System established by the Land Registration Act (Act No. 496) c. Sec. 194 - Revised Administrative Code 2. Present registration system - Property Registration Decree (PD No. 1529) Effects of registration: 1. operates as constructive notice 2. does not validate or cure defective instrument 3. cannot bind property where it is legally ineffective 4. does not vest title 5. rule of first in time, first in right THEORY OF MODE AND TITLE MODE the actual process of acquisition or transfer of ownership over a thing in question. This is the proximate cause of the acquisition. TITLE - the juridical justification for the acquisition or a transfer of ownership or other real right. This is the remote cause of the acquisition (Acap vs. CA, GR No. 118114, December 7, 1995)

A swimming pool or water tank is not an attractive nuisance (Hidalgo Enterprises vs. Balandan GR No. L-3422, June 13, 1952).

REMEDIES AGAINST PUBLIC NUISANCE: (PCE) 1. Prosecution under the RPC or local ordinance 2. Civil Action 3. Extrajudicial Abatement REMEDIES AGAINST PRIVATE NUISANCE: (CE) 1. Civil Action 2. Extrajudicial Abatement Note: The action to abate a public/private nuisance is NOT extinguished by prescription. EXTRAJUDICIAL ABATEMENT Requisites: 1. nuisance must be specially injurious to the person affected; 2. no breach of peace or unnecessary injury must be committed; 3. prior demand; 4. prior demand has been rejected; 5. approval by district health officer and assistance of local police; and 6. value of destruction does not exceed P3,000.

Different Modes and Titles of Acquiring Ownership MODES OF TITLES OF ACQUIRING ACQUIRING OWNERSHIP OWNERSHIP Original Modes Occupation Condition of being without known owner Work which includes Creation, discovery or Intellectual creation invention Derivative Modes Law Existence of required conditions Tradition Contract of the parties Donation Contract of the parties Prescription Possession in the concept of owner Succession Death TRADITION/ DELIVERY - a mode of acquiring ownership as a consequence of certain contracts, by virtue of which, the object is placed in the


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1. hunting and fishing 2. finding of movables which do not have an owner 3. finding of abandoned movables 4. finding of hidden treasure 5. catching of swarm of bees that has escaped from its owner, under certain conditions 6. catching of domesticated animals that have escaped from their owners, under certain conditions 7. catching of pigeons without fraud or artifice 8. transfer of fish to another breeding place without fraud or artifice

control and possession of the transferee, actually or constructively. Requisites: 1. Right transmitted should have previously existed in the patrimony of the grantor; 2. Transmission should be by just title; 3. Grantor and grantee should have intention and capacity to transmit and acquire; and 4. Transmission should be manifested by some act which should be physical, symbolical or legal. Kinds: 1. Real Tradition actual delivery 2. Constructive Tradition a. traditio symbolica parties make use of a token or symbol to represent the thing delivered b. traditio longa manu by mere consent of the parties if the thing sold cannot be transferred to the possession of the vendee at the time of the sale c. traditio brevi manu when the vendee already has possession of the thing sold by virtue of another title d. traditio constitutum possessorium when the vendor continues in possession of the thing sold not as owner but in some other capacity 3. Quasitradition exercise of the right of the grantee with the consent of the grantor 4. Tradicion por ministerio de la ley delivery by operation of law 5. Tradition by public instrument the execution is equivalent to the delivery of the thing, object of the contract OCCUPATION A mode of acquiring ownership by the seizure of corporeal things that have no owner, with the intention of acquiring them, and according to the rules laid down by law REQUISITES: 1. There must be seizure of a thing; 2. The thing seized must be corporeal personal property; 3. The thing must be susceptible of appropriation by nature; 4. The thing must be without an owner; 5. There must be an intention to appropriate; and 6. Requisites laid down by law must be complied with. SPECIFIC INSTANCES:

A thing that has been lost or taken by force is not ipso facto converted to res nullius for it to belong to the person who takes possession of the same without the necessity of proving the mode of his acquisition and it may thus be recovered by the original owner (See Art. 559). Such thing cannot be acquired by prescription even if extraordinary. Land cannot be the object of occupation because when land is without an owner, it pertains to the State (Report of Code Commission). The State need not acquire abandoned lands by occupation because once the requisites of abandonment had been fulfilled; reversion operates automatically (Pineda, 497). DONATION

An act of liberality whereby a person disposes gratuitously of a thing or right in favor of another who accepts it (Art. 725) REQUISITES: (CIDA) 1. donor must have capacity to make the donation 2. he must have donative intent (animus donandi) 3. there must be delivery 4. donee must accept or consent to the donation

ESSENTIAL FEATURES/ELEMENTS OF A TRUE DONATION: 1. Alienation of property by the donor during his lifetime, which is accepted 2. Irrevocability by the donor 3. Animus Donandi 4. Consequent impoverishment of the donor CLASSIFICATION: 1. As to effectivity: a. inter vivos


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b. mortis causa c. propter nuptias 2. As to perfection/ extinguishment: a. pure b. with a condition c. with a term 3. As to consideration: a. simple gratuitous b. remuneratory or compensatory made on account of donees merits c. modal imposes upon the donee a burden which is less than the value of the thing donated d. onerous imposes upon the done a reciprocal obligation or, to be more precise, this is the kind of donation made for a valuable consideration, the cost of which is equal to or more than the thing donated (Republic vs. Silim, GR No. 149487, April 2, 2001)


Title conveyed to the donee before the donors death Valid if donor survives done Generally irrevocable during donors lifetime except for grounds provided by law (Arts. 760, 765) Must comply with the formalities required by Arts. 748 and 749 of the Code Must be accepted by the donee during his lifetime Subject to donors tax Title conveyed donors death upon

Void if donor survives done Always revocable at anytime and for any reason before the donors death Must comply with the formalities required by law for the execution of wills Can only be accepted after the donors death Subject to estate tax

A stipulation in the donation that it was made for and in consideration of the love and affection which the Donee inspires in the Donor, and as an act of liberality and generosity is sufficient cause for a donation (Quilala vs. Alcantara, GR No. 132681, December 3, 2001).

DONATION INTER VIVOS AND DONATION MORTIS CAUSA DISTINGUISHED DONATION INTER DONATION MORTIS VIVOS CAUSA Takes effect Takes effect upon the independently of the death of the donor donors death Made out of donors Made in contemplation pure generosity of his death without the intention to lose the thing or its free disposal in case of survival Title conveyed to the Title conveyed upon donee before the donors death donors death Valid if donor survives Void if donor survives donee done Donation Inter Vivos Donation Mortis Causa Takes effect Takes effect upon the independently of the death of the donor donors death Made out of donors Made in contemplation pure generosity of his death without the intention to lose the thing or its free disposal in case of survival

The title given to a Deed of Donation is NOT the determinative factor which makes the donation inter vivos or mortis causa. Whether a donation is inter vivos or mortis causa depends upon the nature of the disposition made (Reyes vs. Mosqueda, GR No. 45262, July 23, 1990). Art. 729 speaks of donations in praesenti which take effect during the lifetime of the donor but the property shall be delivered only after the donors death. Such donations are inter vivos although the subject matter is not delivered at once, or the delivery is to be made post mortem, which is a simple matter of form and does not change the nature of the act (Vita vs. Montanano GR No. L-50553, February 19, 1991).

DONATIONS PROHIBITED BY LAW: 1. Made by persons guilty of adultery or concubinage at the time of donation; 2. Made between persons found guilty of the same criminal offense in consideration thereof; 3. Made to a public officer or his/her spouse, descendants or ascendants in consideration of his/her office; 4. Made to the priest who heard the confession of the donor during the latters last illness, or the minister of the gospel who extended spiritual aid to him during the same period; 5. Made to relatives of such priest, etc. within the 4th degree, or to the church to which such priest belongs; 6. Made by a ward to the guardian before the approval of accounts; 7. Made to an attesting witness to the execution of donation, if there is any, or to the spouse, parents, or children, or anyone claiming under them.


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1. donee may demand the delivery of the thing donated 2. donee is subrogated to the rights of the donor in the property 3. in donations propter nuptias, the donor must release the property from encumbrances, except servitudes 4. donors warranty exists if a. expressed b. donation is propter nuptias c. donation is onerous d. donor is in bad faith 5. when the donation is made to several donees jointly, they are entitled to equal portions, without accretion, unless the contrary is stipulated PAYMENT OF THE DONORS DEBT BY THE DONEE: 1. If there is express stipulation: the donee is to pay only debts contracted before the donation, if not otherwise specified; but the donee answers only up to the value of the property donated, if no stipulation is made to the contrary 2. If there is no stipulation: the donee is answerable for the debts of the donor only in case of fraud against creditors. GROUNDS FOR REVOCATION OF DONATION: 1. birth, appearance, or adoption of a child 2. non-fulfillment of a resolutory condition 3. ingratitude of the donee Acts of Ingratitude (Art. 765) a. If the donee should commit some offense against the person, the honor or property of the donor, or of his wife or children under his parental authority; b. He imputes to the donor any criminal offense, or any act involving moral turpitude, even though he should prove it, unless the crime or the act has been committed against the donee himself, his wife or children under his authority; and c. He unduly refuses him support when the donee is legally or morally bound to give support to the donor. GROUNDS FOR REDUCTION OF DONATION: 1. birth, appearance, or adoption of a child 2. failure of the donor to reserve sufficient means for support of himself or dependent relatives 3. failure of the donor to reserve sufficient property to pay off his existing debts 4. inofficiousness, that is, the donation exceeds that which the donor can give by will

8. Made to a physician, surgeon, nurse, health officer or druggist who took care of the donor during his/her last illness; 9. Made by individuals, associations or corporations not permitted by law to make donations; and 10. Made by spouses to each other during the marriage or to persons of whom the other spouse is a presumptive heir. FORMS OF DONATIONS: 1. Donations of movable property: a. If donation is oral, simultaneous delivery of property donated is required if the value is P5,000.00 or less. Acceptance may be oral or written. b. If donation is in writing, simultaneous delivery of property donated is not required regardless of value. Acceptance may be oral or written. c. If the value exceeds P5,000.00, the donation and acceptance must be in writing. Simultaneous delivery of property donated is not required. 2. Donation of immovable property: a. must be in a public instrument specifying the property donated and the burdens assumed by donee, regardless of value b. acceptance must be either: i. in the same instrument ii. in another public instrument, notified to the donor in authentic form, and noted in both deeds

Expression of gratitude to the donor without express acceptance was held a sufficient acceptance (Cuevas vs. Cuevas GR No. L8327, December 14, 1955).

LIMITATIONS ON DONATION OF PROPERTY: 1. Future property cannot be donated. 2. Present property that can be donated: a. if the donor has forced heirs: he cannot give or receive by donation more than what he can give or receive by will; and b. if the donor has no forced heirs: donation may include all present property provided he reserves in full ownership or in usufruct: i. the amount necessary to support him and those relatives entitled to support from him ii. property sufficient to pay the donors debt contracted prior to the donation. 3. Donation should not prejudice creditors. 4. Donee must reserve sufficient means for his support and for his relatives which are entitled to be supported by him. EFFECTS OF DONATION:


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If a Deed of Donation expressly provides for automatic reversion of the property donated in case of violation of a condition therein, a judicial declaration revoking the same is not necessary. The rules on contracts and the general rules on prescription (10 years to recover in case of written contracts) should apply and not the 4 year prescriptive period under Art. 764 of the Civil Code (Roman Catholic Archbishop of Manila vs. CA, GR No. 77425, June 19, 1991). PRESCRIPTION CONCEPT: it is a means of acquiring ownership and other real rights or losing rights or actions to enforce such rights through the lapse of time. KINDS: 1. Acquisitive prescription one acquires ownership and other real rights through the lapse of time in the manner and under the conditions laid down by law. a. Ordinary acquisitive prescription: requires possession of things in good faith and with just title for the time fixed by law b. Extraordinary acquisitive prescription: acquisition of ownership and other real rights without need of title or of good faith or any other condition Requisites: a. capacity to acquire by prescription b. a thing capable of acquisition by prescription c. possession of thing under certain conditions d. lapse of time provided by law


not the owner applicable to ownership and other real rights vests ownership or other real rights in the occupant results in the acquisition of ownership or other real rights in a person as well as the loss of said ownership or real rights in another can be proven under the general issue without its being affirmatively pleaded of one with a right to bring his action applies to all kinds of rights, whether real or personal produces the extinction of rights or bars a right of action results in the loss of a real or personal right, or bars the cause of action to enforce said right should be affirmatively pleaded and proved to bar the action or claim of the adverse party

LACHES failure or neglect for an unreasonable and unexplained length of time, to do that which, by exercising due diligence, one could or should have done earlier. PERSONS AGAINST WHOM PRESCRIPTION RUNS: 1. Minors and other incapacitated persons who have parents, guardians or other legal representatives 2. Absentees who have administrators 3. Persons living abroad who have managers or administrators 4. Juridical persons, except the state and its subdivision PERSONS AGAINST WHOM PRESCRIPTION DOES NOT RUN: 1. Between husband and wife, even though there be separation of property agreed upon in the marriage settlements or by judicial decree. 2. Between parents and children, during the minority or insanity of the latter 3. Between guardian and ward during the continuance of the guardianship

2. Extinctive Prescription rights and actions

are lost through the lapse of time in the manner and under the conditions laid down by law; also called limitation of actions Acquisitive and Extinctive Prescription Distinguished ACQUISITIVE EXTINCTIVE PRESCRIPTION PRESCRIPTION relationship between one does not look to the occupant and the the act of the land in terms of possessor but to the possession is capable neglect of the owner of producing legal consequences; it is the possessor who is the actor requires possession requires inaction of by a claimant who is the owner or neglect

PERIOD OF PRESCRIPTION MOVABLES IMMOVABLES Good Faith 4 years Bad Faith 8 years 30 years 10 years

Rules on Computation of Period:


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1. The present possessor may complete the period necessary for prescription by tacking his possession to that of his grantor or predecessor. 2. It is presumed that the present possessor who was also the possessor at a previous time, has continued to be in possession during the intervening time, unless there is proof to the contrary. 3. The first day shall be excluded and the last day included.