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Intelligent Systems

a bilateral LFC scheme using

flexible neural networks

*Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan

Email: bevrani@st.eecs.kumamoto-u.ac.jp

†Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu 804-8550, Japan

‡ Department of Electrical Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan

º Department of Electrical Engineering, K. N. T. University of Technology, 16315-1355, Tehran, Iran

A new approach based on artificial Flexible Neural Networks (FNNs) is proposed to design of load frequency controller for a

large scale power system in a deregulated environment. In this approach, the power system is considered as a collection of sep-

arate control areas under the bilateral Load Frequency Control (LFC) scheme. Each control area which is introduced by one or

more distribution companies, can buy electric power from some generation companies to supply the area-load. The control

area is responsible to perform its own LFC by buying enough power from pre-specified generation companies, which equipped

with a FNNs based load frequency controller. The proposed control strategy is applied to a 3-control area power system. The

resulting controllers are shown to minimize the effect of disturbances and achieve acceptable frequency regulation in the pres-

ence of load variations and line disturbances.

Keywords: Load frequency control, Bilateral LFC scheme, Artificial neural network, Flexible sigmoid function, Back propagation

algorithm

important as Independent Power Producers (IPPs) get

In a deregulated environment, Load Frequency Control into the electric power markets [1].

(LFC) acquires a fundamental role to enable power There are several schemes and organizations for the

exchanges and to provide better conditions for the elec- provision of LFC services in countries with a restruc-

tricity trading. LFC is treated as an ancillary service tured electric industry, differentiated by how free the

essential for maintaining the electrical system reliability market is, who controls generator units, who has the

at an adequate level. In an open energy market, genera- obligation to execute LFC. Some possible LFC struc-

tion companies (Gencos) may or may not participate in tures are introduced in [1-4]. Under deregulated envi-

the LFC task, therefore the control strategies for new ronment, several notable solutions have already been

structure with a few number of LFC participators are proposed. [1], [5] and [6] have reported strategies to

not such straight than those for vertically integrated adapt well-tested classical LFC schemes to the changing

H BEVRANI ET AL

environment of power system operation under deregula- voluntary agreements, and, this paper focuses on techni-

tion. The H∞-based method for a distribution area with cal solution for designing of load-frequency controllers

two generation units is given in [7]. [8] has proposed in a bilateral based electric power market.

the µ-based load frequency controller for the same The artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been

example. [9-10] discuss on some general issues for already used to design of load-frequency controller for

solution of LFC problem for power system after deregu- power system with classical (regulated) structure [17-

lation. [11] has introduced the participation matrix con- 21]. Generally, in the all applications, the learning algo-

cept to generalized the classic LFC scheme in a rithms cause the adjustment of the connection weights

deregulated environment, and recently some robust con- so that the controlled system gives a desired response.

trol techniques are suggested to design of market-based In this work, in order to greatest response and better

LFC system [12-15]. performance, we have proposed FNN-based load fre-

In response to the coming challenge of integrating quency controller with dynamic neurons that have wide

computation, communication and control into appropri- ranges of variation [22].

ate levels of system operation and control, a compre- The proposed control strategy is applied to a 3-con-

hensive scenario is proposed to perform the LFC task in trol area example. The obtained results show that

a deregulated environment. In the developed scenario, designed controllers guarantee the desired performance

the boundary of control area encloses the generation for a wide range of operating conditions. This paper is

companies (Gencos) and the distribution companies organized as follows. Section 2 describes the bilateral

(Discos) associated with the performed contracts. LFC scheme and control area modeling. The synthesis

Therefore, the concept of physical control area is methodology is given in section 3. In section 4, the pro-

replaced by Virtual Control Area (VCA) [1]. posed strategy is applied to a 3-control area, and, finally

It is assumed that in a VCA, the necessary hardware some simulation results are given in section 5 to

and communication facilities to enable reception of data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

and control signals are available and Gencos can bid up

and down regulations by price and MW-volume for each

predetermined time period to the regulating market.

Also the control center can distributes load demand sig- 2. BILATERAL LFC SCHEME AND

nals to available generating units on a real-time basis. MODELING

The participation factors which are actually time

dependent variables, must be computed dynamically 2.1 Bilateral LFC scheme

based on the received bid prices, availability, congestion

problem and other related costs in case of using each Depending on the electrical system structure, there are

applicant (Genco). Each participating unit will receive different control methods and LFC schemes, but the

its share of the demand, according to its participation common objective is restoring the frequency and the net

factor; through a dynamic controller which it usually interchanges to their desired values, in each control

includes a simple Proportional-Integral (PI) structure in area. In this paper we will focus on LFC design in a giv-

real world power system. Since the PI controller param- en control area under bilateral structure. The bilateral

eters are usually tuned based on classical, experiences LFC scheme can be considered similar to the decentral-

and trial-and-error approaches, they are incapable of ized pluralistic LFC which is defined by Union for the

obtaining good dynamical performance for a wide range Coordination of Transmission of Electricity (UCTE) in

of operating conditions and various load scenarios. Europe [3].

An appropriate computation method for the participa- In the bilateral LFC scheme the power system is con-

tion factors and desired optimization algorithms for the sidered as a collection of distribution control areas

mentioned agents have been already reported in [16]. As interconnected through high voltage transmission lines

a part of the mentioned overall scenario, this paper or tie-lines. Each control area has its own load frequen-

focuses on the design of dynamic controller unit using cy controller and is responsible for tracking its own

the artificial Flexible Neural Networks (FNNs). Techni- load and honoring tie-line power exchange contracts

cally, this unit has a very important role to guarantee a with its neighbors. Similar to [1], the general theme in

desired LFC performance. An optimal design ensures a our paper is that the loads (the Discos) are responsible

smooth coordination between generator set-point sig- for purchasing the services they require.

nals and the scheduled operating points. This paper In a bilateral LFC structure, each distribution area

shows that the FNN control design provides an effective must purchase LFC from one or more Gencos. Control

design methodology for the load-frequency controller is highly decentralized. Each load matching contract

synthesis in a new environment. requires a separate control process, yet this control

It is notable that this paper is not about how to price processes must cooperatively interact to maintain sys-

either energy or any other economical aspects and serv- tem frequency and minimize time error. In this struc-

ices. These subjects are getting much attention already. ture, a separate control process exists for each control

It is assumed that the necessary pricing mechanism and area. Such a configuration is conceptually shown in

congestion management program are established either Figure 1 for a 3-control area power system. Each con-

by free market, by specific government regulation or by trol area is interconnected to others either through

LOAD-FREQUENCY REGULATION UNDER BILATERAL LFC SCHEME

Transco or Gencos. 2H i d ∆ fi

The control areas regulate their frequency by their ––– ––– = ∆PMi – ∆Pi – di – Di∆fi; (1)

f0 dt

own controllers. If some control areas perform a control i = 1, 2,..., N

block, in this case a separate controller/operator (block d ∆δ i

coordinator) coordinates the whole block towards its –––– = 2π∆ fi

neighbor blocks/control area by means of its own con- dt

troller and regulating capacity. The control algorithm

for each control area is executed at the Genco end where

(which here is equipped with a FNN controller), since ∆: Deviation from nominal value,

ultimately the Genco must adjust the governor set- Hi: Constant of inertia,

point(s) of its generator(s) for LFC. Di:Damping constant,

In vertically integrated power system structure, it is δi:Rotor angle,

assumed that each bulk generator unit is equipped with f0:Nominal frequency,

secondary control and frequency regulation require- PM:Turbine (mechanical) power,

ments, but in an open energy market, generation compa- fi: Frequency,

nies may or may not participate in the LFC problem. di:Disturbance (power quantity).

Therefore, in a control area including numerous distrib-

uted generators with an open access policy and a few The generators are equipped with a speed governor.

LFC participators, comes the need for novel control The linear models of speed governors and turbines asso-

strategies to maintain the reliability and eliminates the ciated with generators are given by deferential equations:

frequency error.

d∆PVi 1 KHi 1

––––– = ––– – ∆PVi + ––– (∆Prefi – –– ∆fi);

dt THi THi Ri

2.2 Control area modeling i=1,...,N (2)

d∆PMi 1 KMi

––––––– = –––––– ∆P + –––– ∆P

Mi Vi

Consider a general distribution control area includes N dt T Mi TMi

Generator companies that supply the area-load and

assume the kth Genco Gk can be able to generate enough where

power to satisfy necessary participation factor for track- P V: Steam valve power,

ing the load and performing the LFC task, and other R i: Droop characteristic,

Gencos are the main supplier for area-load. The connec- TM,T H: Time constants of turbine and governor,

tions of each control area to the rest of power system KM,KH: Gains of turbine and governor,

are considered as disturbances. Prefi: Reference set-point (control input).

Power systems are inherently non-linear. There are

different complicated and nonlinear models for power The individual generator models are coupled to each

systems. For LFC, however, a simplified and linearized other via the control area system. Mathematically, the

model is usually used. In advanced control strategies local state space of each individual generator must be

(such as the one considered in this paper), the error extended to include the system coupling variable, which

caused by the simplification and linearization can be allows the dynamics at one point on the system trans-

considered in respect to their adaptive property. For mitted to all other points. The state space model of con-

simplicity, assume that each Genco has one generator. trol area can be obtained as follows [12]:

The linearized dynamics of the individual generators are .

given by: x = Ax + Bu + Fw (3)

y = Cx + Ew (4)

where

K

C = [C 1 C2 ··· CN CN+1], E = [1 θ ]

The ∆PL is the area load demand and d shows the input

disturbance vector. The θ is a zero vector with the same

Figure 1 Three control areas size of d.

H BEVRANI ET AL

3. DESIGN METHODOLOGY

control area and propose an effective controller based

on ANNs. There is a strong relationship between the

Figure 3 The proposed control scheme

training of ANNs and adaptive control. Therefore,

increasing the flexibility of structure induces a more

efficient learning ability in the system, which in turn maintain area frequency and total exchange power close

causes less iteration and better error minimization. To to the scheduled value by sending a corrective signal to

obtain the improved flexibility, teaching signals and the assigned Gencos. This signal, weighted by the gen-

other parameters of ANNs (such as connection weights) erator participation factor C ij, is used to modify the set-

should be related to each other. points of generators. As there are many Gencos in each

In this paper we use a sigmoid unit function, as a area, the control signal has to be distributed among

mimic of the prototype unit, to give a flexible structure them in proportion to their participation in the LFC.

to the neural network. For this purpose, we introduce a Hence, the generator participation factor shows the

hyperbolic tangential form of the sigmoid unit function, sharing rate of each participant generator unit in the

with a parameter that must be learned [22], to fulfill the LFC task. Note that for a given control area i with N

above-mentioned goal. The overall scheme of the pro- Gencos we can write,

posed control system for a given control area is shown in

Figure 2. N

In fact this figure shows the main framework and syn- ∑ Cij = 1

j=1

thesis strategy for obtaining desired controller. The FNN

uses back-propagation algorithm in supervised learning

mode. The accuracy and speed of back propagation The general structure of FNN-based controller is

method is improved using the dynamic neurons. The shown in Figure 4. In this figure, unit functions in the

main idea is to modify connection weights and Sigmoid hidden and output layers are flexible functions. The

Functions Parameters (SFPs) in the proposed FNNs- number of hidden layers and units in each layer is entire-

based controller (FNNC) to minimizing the output error ly dependent on the area control system, and there is no

(e) signal and improvement system performance. On the mathematical approach to obtain the optimum number of

other hand, it is desirable to find a set of parameters in hidden layers [23], since such selection is generally fall

the connection weights and SFPs that minimizes the out- into the application oriented category.

put error signal. However the number of hidden layers can be chosen

The designed FNNC acts to maintain area frequency based on the training of the network using various con-

and total exchange power close to the scheduled value figurations. The FNN configuration gives the fewer

by sending a corrective signal to the assigned Gencos number of hidden layers and nodes than traditional

(∆PCi = u). This secondary regulating power signal, ANN, which still yield the minimum root-mean-squares

weighted by the generator participation factorC ij, is (RMS) error quickly and efficiently. Experiences and

used to modify the set-points of generators. I is an input simulation results showed that using a single hidden lay-

vector which is includes a properly set of output (y), er is sufficient to solve of LFC problem for many control

reference (yd) and control signal (u) in current and pre- area with different structures.

vious iteration steps. The equivalent discrete time domain state space of

The proposed control scheme, shown in Figure 3, continues models (3) and (4) can be obtained as follow-

uses the demand and frequency changes as input sig- ing forms, respectively:

nals. The β i and λ Pi are properly setup coefficient of the

secondary regulator. The proposed controller acts to x(k + 1) = Ax(k) + Bu(k) + Fw(k) (5)

random initial weights and SFPs, an erroneous system

input u(k) may be produced erroneous output y(k). This

output will then be compared with the reference

signalyd(k). The resulting error signal e(k) is used to

train the weights and SFPs in the network using the

back-propagation algorithm. In fact, the basic concept

of the back propagation method of learning is to com-

bine a nonlinear perceptron-like system capable of mak-

Figure 2 The area controller synthesis framework ing decisions with the objective error function and

LOAD-FREQUENCY REGULATION UNDER BILATERAL LFC SCHEME

ever-decreasing tracking errors from sampling by using

FNN.

structure

Basic concepts and definitions of the introduced FSF

were described in [22]. The following hyperbolic tan-

gent function as a sigmoid unit function is considered in

hidden and output layers:

1 – e–2xa

f(x, a) = ––––––––– (11)

Figure 4 General structure of FNN-based controller a(1+ e–2xa)

gradient descent method. With repetitive training, the altered by changing the parameter α, as shown in Figure

network will learn how to response correctly to the ref- 5. It also has the property

erence signal input.

As the number of training increases, the network is lim f(x, a)=x (12)

a→0

becoming more and more mature; hence the area control

error would be smaller and smaller. However, as it is

Thus it is proved that the above function becomes lin-

seen from Figure 4, the back-propagation of error signal

ear when a → 0, while the function becomes nonlinear

ca∂ot be directly used to train the FNNC. In order to

for large values of a [22]. It should be noted that in this

properly adjust the weights and SFPs of the network

study, the learning parameters are included in the update

using the back-propagation algorithm, the error in the

of connection weights and SFPs.

FNNC output, i.e.

Generally, the main idea is to present an input pattern,

allow the network to compute the output, and compare

ε(k) = ud(k) – u(k) (7)

this to the desired signals representing provided by the

supervisor or reference signal. Then, the error is utilized

where ud(k) is the desired driving input to the control

to modify connection weights and SFPs in the network

area, should be known. Since only the system output

to improve its performance with minimizing the error.

error

3.2.1 Learning algorithms

e(k) = y d(k) – y(k) (8)

The learning process of FNNs for control area i is to

minimize the performance function given by:

is measurable or available, ε (k) can only be determined

using the following expression,

1

J = –– (ydi – yiM)2 (13)

∂ y(k) 2

ε (k) = e(k) ––––– (9)

∂ u(k) where ydi represents the reference signal, yiM represents

system. Thus, the application of this scheme requires a

through knowledge of the Jacobean of the system. For

simplicity, insist of (7), we can use the following term:

∆ y(k) – ∆ y(k – 1)

ε (k)=e(k) –––––––––––––––– (10)

∆ u(k) – ∆ u(k – 1)

of a neural network emulator, which brings a substantial

saving in development time.

The proposed load frequency controller acts as a self-

tuning controller, that, it can learn from experience, in

the sense that connection weights and SFPs are adjusted Figure 5 Sigmoid function with changeable shape

H BEVRANI ET AL

the output unit and M denotes the output-layer. It is σiM = (ydi – yiM) (17)

desirable to find a set of the parameters in the connec-

tion weights and SFPs that minimizes the J, considering The next step is to calculate α in the hidden-layer k:

the same input-output relation between the kth layer and

the (k+1)th layer. It is useful to consider how the error ∂J ∂ J ∂ y ik ∂J

varies as a function of any given connection weights –––– = –––– –––– = –––– f*(hik, aik) (18)

k k k

∂ ai ∂ yi ∂ ai ∂ y ik

and SFPs in the system.

The error function procedure finds the values of all

where h denotes the outputs of the hidden layer, by

of the connection weights and SFPs that minimize the

defining

error function using a gradient descent method. That is,

after each pattern has been presented, the error gradient ∂J

moves toward its minimum for that pattern provided a aik ≡ – ––– (19)

suitable learning rate. ∂ y ik

Learning of SFPs by employing the gradient descent

method, the increment of a ik denoted by ∆ a ik, can be we have

obtained as,

∂J ∂J ∂ymk+1 ∂ymk+1 ∂hmk+1

––– = ∑ –––––– ––––– = – ∑ σ mk+1 ––––– ––––––

∂J ∂yik m ∂ymk+1 ∂yik m ∂hmk+1 ∂yik

∆a ik = –η 1 ––– (14) (20)

∂ a ik

∂f(hmk+1, amk+1)

= – ∑ σ mk+1 ––––––––––– wi,mk,k+1

where η 1 > 0 is a learning rate given by a small positive m ∂hmk+1

constant. In the output-layer M, the partial derivative of

J with respect to a is described as follows: where

∂J ∂ J ∂ y iM ∂f(hmk+1, amk+1)

–––– = –––– –––– (15)

∂ a iM ∂ y iM ∂ a iM ai =∑ σ mk+1

k –––––––––––– wi,mk,k+1 (21)

m ∂hmk+1

Here, defining

Therefore, the learning update equation for a in the

output and hidden-layers neurons is obtained, respec-

∂J

σ iM≡ – ––– (16) tively, by

∂ y iM

gives aik (t +1) = aik(t) + η1σki + f*(hik, αik) + α 1∆aik(t) (22)

LOAD-FREQUENCY REGULATION UNDER BILATERAL LFC SCHEME

layer, ∂ f(.,α ik)/∂ yik in the hidden-layer and α i is a stabi-

lizing coefficient defined by 0 < α 1 < 1. For deeper

insights in to the subject, the interested reader is

referred to [22].

Generally, the learning algorithm of connection

weights has been studied with different authors. Here,

we simply summarize it as follows:

(23)

Figure 7 The proposed FNNC for the given control area

rate given by a small positive constant, α 2 is a stabiliz-

ing (or momentum) coefficient defined by 0 < α 2 < 1

and,

network acts as a feed forward controller to supply the

M

δj = (ydj – yj M) f′(hj M) (24) plant a correct driving input u(k), which is based on the

reference input signal yd(k), previous system output signals

δjk = f′(hjk) ∑δmk+1Wijk,k-1 (25) y(k – 1), ..., y(k – 4) and control output signals u(k – 1),

m ..., u(k – 4). yd(k), is the output variable y(k), when the

f′(hjM) = df′(hjM) / dh jM (26) error signal must be equal to zero. Then the input vector of

neural network is:

IT(k) = [yd(k) y(k – 1) ... y(k – 4) u(k – 1) ... u(k – 4)] (28)

4. APPLICATION TO A 3-CONTROL

AREA h 1,...,h7 are outputs of the hidden-layer, u(k) is the out-

put of the output-layer.

A power system with three control areas under bilateral

As shown in Figure 7, in the learning process not only

LFC scheme is shown in Figure 6. Each control area has

the connection weights, but also, the SFPs are adjusted.

some Gencos with different parameters and it is

Adjusting the SFPs causes a change in the shapes of sig-

assumed that one generator unit with enough capacity is

moid functions in turn. The proposed learning algorithm

responsible to area load frequency regulation, for exam-

considerably reduces the number of training steps, result-

ple in areas 1 and 3 we have,

ing in a much faster training in comparison to traditional

ANNs [22].

Ci1 = 1,

; i = 1,2 (27) For the problem at hand, simulations show that three

C ij = 0, j ≠ 1 layers are enough for the proposed FNNC to obtaining

desired performance. Increasing the number of layers dose

The control area 1 delivers enough power from G11 not significantly improve the control performance. In the

and firm power from other Gencos to supply its load proposed controller, the input layer uses the linear neu-

and support the LFC task. In case of a load disturbance, rons, while the hidden and output-layers use the bipolar

G11 must adjust its output accordingly to track the load FSFs (11).

changes and maintain the energy balance.

A control area may have a contract with a Genco in

other control area. For example, control area 3 buys 5. SIMULATION RESULTS

power from G11 in control area 1 to supply its load. The

control areas are connected to neighbor’s areas through In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the pro-

L12, L13 and L23 interconnection lines. It is assumed posed strategy, some simulations were carried out. In

that each Genco has one generator unit. The power sys- these simulations, the proposed load frequency con-

tem parameters are given in [12]. trollers were applied to the 3-control area power system

A discrete time domain state space model for each described in Figure 6.

control area can be obtained as given in (5) and (6). In order to project physical constraints during simula-

Here, the sampling time is chosen in 1 ms. To achieve tion, the linear model of a nonreheating turbine (2) is

the LFC objectives the proposed control strategy is replaced by a nonlinear model shown in Figure 8. This is

applied to each control area as shown in Figure 7. to take into account the generating constraint (GRC), i.e.

As can be seen from the block diagram, a multilayer the practical constraint on the response speed of a turbine.

neural network including three layers is constructed. This The initial connection weights and initial uniform

network has nine units in the input-layer, seven units in the random number (URN) of sigmoid function unit param-

hidden-layer, and one unit in the output-layer. The neural eters for each control area are properly chosen. For

H. BEVRANI ET AL

increase, using traditional NN-based controllers

terms for area 1 are given in Table 1.

Figure 9 demonstrates the closed-loop frequency devia-

tion at Gencos of 3-control area, following a 0.1 pu step

load increase in the each control area. The closed-loop sys-

tem is equipped with traditional neural network (NN) con-

trollers, means their sigmoid unit functions’ parameter ai

(18) have been fixed at αi =1 (non flexible unit functions).

It can be seen that at steady-state the frequency at each

Genco is back to its nominal value.

Figure 10 shows the same simulation results, using the

FNN based controllers. ∆f11,...∆fij display the frequency

deviation at G11 , …, Gij, respectively. At steady-state the

frequency in each control area reaches to its nominal val-

ue. Simulation results for the control action signals show

following a load change, the power is initially coming Figure 10 Frequency deviations at Gencos following a 0.1 pu step load,

using proposed controllers

from all Gencos to respond to the load increase which will

result in a frequency drop that is sensed by the speed gov-

ernors of all machines. But after a few seconds and at artificial neural network (ANN) to the parameters such as

steady-state the additional power is coming from partici- connection weights while increasing the sensitivity of

pated unit(s) in LFC only and other Gencos do not con- ANN to the SFPs. However in the proposed structure, the

tribute to the LFC task. Comparing Figures 9 and 10 training of SFPs causes change in the shape of individual

illustrates the effectiveness and ability of the proposed sigmoid functions according to input space and reference

control design against the traditional NN-based LFC signal and achieves betterment convergence and perform-

design. ance compare to traditional ANNs.

Figure 11 demonstrates the disturbance rejection prop- In summary, it can be recognized from these simula-

erty of the closed loop system. This figure shows the fre- tions that the learning parameters of connection weights

quency deviation at Gencos in all control areas, following and SFPs increase the load of learning algorithms with

a step disturbance of 0.1 pu on areas interconnection lines keeping high capability in the training process.

L12, L13 and L23 at t=15s.

Finally, the system response is tested in the presence of

a random demand load signal. A random load pattern, 6. CONCLUSION

shown in Figure 12, representing expected area demand

load fluctuations, is applied to the control area 1. The fre- In this paper a new method for load frequency controller

quency deviations at Gencos are shown in the same figure. design using flexible neural networks in a restructured

Figure 12 shows the proposed controller tracks the load power system has been proposed. Design strategy includes

fluctuations effectively. enough flexibility to set a desired level of performance.

Simultaneous learning of the connection weights and The proposed control methodology was applied to a 3-

the sigmoid unit function parameters in the proposed control area power system under a bilateral LFC scheme.

method causes an increase in the number of adjustable Simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of

parameters in comparison with the traditional method, and, methodology. It has been shown that the suggested FNN

the proposed algorithm causes to reduce the sensitivity of load frequency controllers give better ACE minimization

LOAD-FREQUENCY REGULATION UNDER BILATERAL LFC SCHEME

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