General Orientation of Manufacturing Unit and Overview of Motor Testing

Summary:
An Industrial Summer Training Report of things learnt during Orientation program; and an overview of the different tests carried out on a motor to meet Indian Standards.
Marathon Electric Motors India Limited Paharpur Works 58 Taratala Road 91 33 2469 5560/61/65 91 33 2469 8530/5369 6/1/2012

Details
Document: “Industrial Summer Training Report” on General Orientation of Manufacturing Unit and Overview of Motor Testing required for Indian Standard Certification.

Company:

Marathon Electric Motors India Limited Paharpur Works 58 Taratala Road Kolkata - 700024 (West Bengal)

Guided By:

Mr. Rajiv Ranjan General Manager (Design, LT Motors) & Mr. Subal Chatterjee Manager in-Charge, Testing Dept.

Submitted By: Rishabh Dassani B.Tech, Electronics & Electrical Engineering (2nd yr) School of Electronics Engineering Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT) University Bhubaneswar - 751024 (Odisha)

Submitted To: Dr. Saranjit Singh, Dean, (T&P) Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT) University Bhubaneswar – 751024 (Odisha)

2

General Manager (Design. to Mr. Third. Secondly. for giving permission to undergo training at an organization of my choice. LT Motors).Charge of the various Units of the Manufacturing Plant and all the working staff who were mostly ready to lend a helping hand. Most importantly. General Manager (HR). Basudeb Dutta. Mr.Tech (2nd Year) Electronics & Electrical Engineering School of Electronics KIIT University 3 . to entire staff of Motor Testing Department for the Immense patience kept while showing me around and help extended towards me in garnering knowledge for further assistance in my career. Paharpur Works for being InCharge of my project here. Rishabh Dassani B. Fifth.Acknowledgement This project report has been made possible due to the kind hands of support extended by a number of people and I would like to thank the following who helped directly or indirectly. Riten Chatterjee. to Mr. Rajiv Ranjan. Paharpur Works for referring my application and making it possible to undergo training here. to all the Managers in. Fourth. Saranjit Singh. to Mr. First. Dean (T&P). for assisting me in whatever way possible. Assistant Manager (HR).

Marathon Electric’s name has been recognized for engineering excellence. conveyors. to an aggressive acquisition program. Available in all popular enclosures from 1/12 HP through 800 HP and in a variety of mounting configurations. Regal Beloit has its headquarters at Beloit. x-ray machines. Mexico. manufacturing. at a fair price and a time dictated by the customer. Marathon Electric’s unique design provide more ways in which to add accessories. but essential to the function of much of the equipment powering the world. sales. which has become a company hallmark. office equipment. Regal Beloit's ongoing success can be attributed. Europe and Asia. With the acquisition of Fasco and Jakel that same year. Few companies can match Regal Beloit’s abilities to adapt and modify products to required specifications and deliver consistent quality. Regal Beloit expanded into blower systems for the HVAC market. which effectively doubled the size of Regal Beloit. elevators. custom designed products and an extensive product line industrial quality motors. the Company acquired Morrill Motors. Markets include Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC). power stations and thousands of other places of critical uses. such as blowers. to name a few. In 2007.000 employees and 54 manufacturing and service/distribution facilities throughout the United States and in Canada. brakes and encoders. medical. State of-the-art lab facilities are equipped and staffed with the finest resources available to ensure successful utilization of products. Since 1913. and service facilities throughout North America and in Mexico. From electric motors and generators to gear reducers. and electronic switchgears. pumps. 2004 saw two major motor acquisitions from General Electric (GE). and has manufacturing. Asia and Australia. Regal Beloit's strength is in its market diversity as it serves an expansive array of markets from heavy industry to high technology. Alstom’s motor and fan business in India was then purchased. Regal Beloit's products are often concealed within. Regal Beloit products can be found in home furnaces. in part. Since 1913. taking another step towards the execution of the Company’s globalization initiative. material handling. petrochemical. a leading manufacturer of fractional horsepower motors for commercial refrigeration and freezer markets. to motors than anyone else in the motor business. Europe. agriculture and mining. Wisconsin. Marathon Electric has been dedicated 4 . construction. Regal Beloit Corporation is a leading manufacturer of electrical and mechanical motion control and power generation products serving markets throughout the world. food processing. The Company now has over 17.Company Profile Marathon Electric Motors India Limited (MEMIL) is part of the Regal Beloit family of companies.

Marathon Electric Motors: Delivers efficient mechanical power solutions using AC electric motors up to 1250 HP. and various fans of Industrial. Marathon Electric Generators: Offers power generation for the 21st century with a wide selection of generators for standby and continuous power. Danfos. Wisconsin. the company is composed of two strategic product lines: motors and generators. ABB and BHEL amongst others. within a power rating of 80W to 250kW. is essentially a supplier of export goods to well known MNC’s and national giants including the likes of Hitachi. The manufacturing unit here in Paharpur. Proven top performers in every respect.providing customers with quality products for targeted applications. 5 . Centrifugal. Axial Flow and Man Cooler Types. Paharpur Works. Located in Wausau. Marathon Electric Motors India Limited. produces a wide variety of LT Induction Motors in the frame size of 63mm to 355mm.

6 .2. He exploited this principle in the design of a poly-phase induction motor in 1883. Block Diagram of functioning of Motor) 1.2.2.1 Types of AC motor (depending on the type of rotor used): 1. The magnetic field on the rotor of this motor is created by the current due to the induced emf.2 HISTORY In 1882. an outside stationary stator having coils supplied with alternating current to produce a rotating magnetic field. 1. Serbian inventor Nicola Tesla identified the rotating magnetic induction field principle and pioneered the use of this rotating and inducting electromagnetic field force to generate torque in rotating machines. Galileo Ferraris independently researched the concept.2.2 AC MOTOR INTRODUCTION An AC motor is an electric motor that is driven by an alternating current.1.2.1 Synchronous motor This rotates exactly at the supply frequency or a sub-multiple of the supply frequency. Induction motor This rotates slightly slower than the supply frequency. 1.1 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION Current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field. 1. In 1885. Ferraris published his research in a paper to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Turin. 1. It consists of two basic parts. The magnetic field on the rotor is either generated by current delivered through slip rings or by a permanent magnet.ELECTRIC MOTORS An Electric motor is an electrical machine which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy using Faradays’ Laws. In 1888. and an inside rotor attached to the output shaft that is given a torque by the rotating field. experiences amechanical force whose direction is given by Fleming’s Left-hand rule and whose magnitude is given by Electrical Energy Input Motor System Mechanical Energy Output (Figure A.1.

In fact. Most large (> 1 hp or 1 kW) industrial motors are poly-phase induction motors. and consequent current flow. Professor Poeschel had realized that the induced rotating Magnetic field would start the rotor of the motor spinning. This current flow creates an electromagnet whose polarity opposes the motion of the permanent magnet according to Lenz’s Law. 1. the rotating and inducting electromagnetic field force generates torque in rotating machines. Conversion of electrical power into mechanical power takes place in the rotating part of the motor. This type of motor is now used for the vast majority of commercial applications.1 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION Based on rotating magnetic induction field principle.Introduction of Tesla's motor from 1888 onwards initiated what is sometimes referred to as the Second Industrial Revolution. 7 . One means of creating a rotating magnetic field is to rotate a permanent magnet. also of Tesla's invention (1888). stated that would be akin to building a Perpetual motion machine. Induction motors are favored due to their ruggedness and simplicity. Initially Tesla suggested that the commutators from a machine could be removed and the device could operate on a rotary field of electromagnetic force. making them nearly completely interchangeable between manufacturers (although European and North American standard dimensions are different). Tesla later obtained U. and overland conveyor systems. Lenz's Law: The polarity of the electromagnet is such that it pulls against the permanent magnet. Michail Osipovich & Dolivo-Dobrovolsky later invented a three-phase "cage-rotor" in 1890. making possible both the efficient generation and long distance distribution of electrical energy using the alternating current transmission system. The disk follows with a little less speed than the permanent magnet. all motors operated by continually passing a conductor through a stationary magnetic field (as in homo-polar motor).000. Before widespread use of Tesla's principle of poly-phase induction for rotating machines. wind-tunnel drives. Large industrial motors are mostly 3. In Induction motors rotor receive electric power by induction in exactly the same way as the secondary of a 2-winding transformer receives its power from the primary. in the conductive disk. it will follow the motion of the magnet. but he did not see that the counter electromotive force generated would gradually bring the machine to a stop.3. Nicola Tesla conceived the basic principles of the poly-phase induction motor in 1883. Professor Poeschel. his teacher. Tesla sold the manufacturing rights to George Westinghouse for $65. for pipeline compressors. Very large induction motors are capable of tens of megawatts of output.194. This was because Tesla’s teacher had only understood one half of Tesla's ideas. 90% of industrial motors are induction motors. 1. and had a half horsepower (400 watts) model by 1888.3 INDUCTION MOTORS Most AC motors are induction motors. Induction motors are the workhorses of industry and motors up to about 500 kW (670 hp) in output are produced in highly standardized frame sizes. The lines of flux cutting the conductor will induce a voltage.phase motors. Patent # 416.S. That is why such motors are known induction motors. If the moving magnetic lines of flux cut a conductive disk.

Governed by the Factory Act of India. Rigorous hard work and Preventive Measures and Action.General Orientation The general orientation program spanned over a period of 2 weeks was as: 2. Everyday 22. This department though not directly concerned with motors from a student’s perspective. Proper Planning. The National Safety Day. and Volatile Organic Compounds. Only they consider it also to be their ethical binding to look after the immediate. Fire etc so the only way to reduce the risk would be to limit the exposure.000 lts extra. Now. on 4th March. and poster making competitions to raise awareness amongst the workers. and the demand is for just a meagre 4. They are the caretakers of every nook and corner and solely responsible for the clockwork like precision and working of the entire plant.2 MAINTENANCE: Conducted under Mr. and by introducing an effluent treatment plant so as to be able to reuse the water being thrown out such that water consumption is reduced drastically. and all workers are to wear it. is celebrated every year with mock fire drills. The team also performed some spectacular self repairing projects in a couple of parts of the plant which reduced the cost of repair by more than 300% The maintenance team meticulously focuses on Response Time. has a few prized machinery and they are nearly 70 years old yet functioning properly. like electricity. the HAZARDS cannot be removed. all companies are under the judicial obligation to met out certain safety measures for its workers. A number of steps have been taken to limit accidents and it is reflected in the fact that as of June. along with skilled workers who know their jobs. work and surrounding environment to which the plant is exposed. 8 .1 ENVIRONMENT. and disposal of waste. Now. and effort.000 lts of water is reused. and hence PPE or Personal Protective Equipments are made compulsory. Policy. Most of these machines are tweaked and modified to improve their efficiency and working capabilities by the Maintenance dept. The ensuring of maintenance of environment is done by ensuring proper disposal of waste to the designated locations. 2. HEALTH AND SAFETY: Conducted under Mr. is given a lot of importance by the company as proved by its. it is identified that RISK=HAZARD times EXPOSURE to HAZARD. Prasant Banerjee The Maintenance department of the manufacturing plant is a prized asset for the company. under many a different company. and Marathon Electric Motors are no different. Amal Mukhopadhyay. by filtering out air pollutants. 2012 there hasn’t been an accident for over 500 days. The plant being functional since 1930’s.

Very poor method. The filling of air gaps can be done in three procedures:    Gravity Control: this method requires poring of molten metal and waiting for it to settle down and remove air pockets under the effect of gravity. The brackets or end shields are also perfected her using vertical and horizontal turning machines. Ranjan Mandal The winding department has to install winding in two different parts of the motor.4 DIE-CASTING DEPARTMENT: Conducted under Mr. and given the trademark touch here in the plant by the use of vertical and horizontal turning machines which are mostly automated for higher efficiency. The polishing. The squirrel cage rotor core is made by stacking fine sheets of laminations and then heating them and adding molten aluminium to fuse and form a solid conducting rotor. The stator shells undergo first operation and second operations.5 WINDING AND VARNISHING DEPARTMENT: Conducted under Mr. The automated machines run on a software program called FARROW and FANUC. Shells of cast iron material are bought from outside. 2. There are a 450 ton and 250 ton such smaller press machines for die-casting. The rotor cores made are of two types: squirrel cage and slip ring type. Most of the productions of completed motor parts are finished here.2.3 MACHINE SHOP: Conducted under Mr. There are automatic machines for quicker work. and finer grooving and many such intricate detailing operations are carried out by manually operated machines. in the same machine and then loaded into another machine for third and final operation. Partha Pratim Das The die-cast department has a small foundry of its own for the making of small to medium sized shields. Pressure Control: this method requires pressurizing the molten metal into the gaps and is a slightly better method than above. Centrifugal Control: this method puts the cylindrical stack on a plate which rotates once the molten metal is poured into it. by undergoing numerous turning operations are carried out here. Using the above methods. the stator core and the rotor core. the squirrel cage rotors are made with implanted shafts. The department uses a one-of-a-kind 750 ton press machine imported from South Africa and is the only such specimen in India. The formation or rather transformation of raw cylindrical shaped rods into shafts. This centrifugal process is the best cause it pushes the molten metal into the smallest of gaps and cracks. 2. The stator core and rotor cores are either made in the die-casting department or bought from outside depending upon their convenience. stator shells and stator and rotor cores. Subrata Koley The machine shop makes some of the motor parts that are not bought from third party dealers or vendors. 9 . and manually operated machines for higher precision.

Following processes are carried out at passing line: 2. one pair for each of the two phases of AC. In Tesla's time. This insulation sheet is called flexiglass. The individual coils of a pair are connected in series and correspond to the opposite poles of an electromagnet. For the stators which has salient. • Stator core is built from high-quality low-loss silicon steel laminations and flash-enameled on both sides. in three layers called top-guard. the other to a S-pole until the phase of AC changes polarity. A better alternative is being used and mica sheets are being phased out. obvious protruding poles. the source of the two phases of AC was a 2-phase alternator. for larger motors less torque pulsation and higher efficiency results if the coils are embedded into slots cut into the stator laminations.2. The plant or place where whole process of insulation and insertion of winding and other processes takes place is called as passing line. made from good quality silicon and has chemical composition of glass. is inserted into the slots of the stator at slot insulator machines.1. The 2-phase induction motor stator above has 2. Generally stack heights vary from 18mm to 500mm. slot width. The other pair of coils is oriented 90° in space to the first pair. INSULATION • A thick insulation paper. i. is used to this day for sub-fractional horsepower motors (<50 watts). A stack of these is secured by end screws. which may also hold the end housings. as used on Tesla's early induction motor.pairs of coils. chip and separator. one coil corresponds to a N-pole.1. This pair of coils is connected to AC shifted in time by 90° in the case of a 2phase motor. Stator frame showing slots for windings) The stator laminations are thin insulated rings with slots punched from sheets of electrical grade steel. However. That is.5. which is a good quality mica sheet. (Figure A) (Figure B.e.5. • Insulation paper is inserted into the slots according to the stack height. where fields are produced. 10 .1 STATOR: The stator is wound with pairs of coils corresponding to the phases of electrical energy available. shape and dimensions.

besides insertion of slot paper should be uniform and of equal height with no shifting down from its original position. Stator with (a) 2-φ and (b) 3-φ windings) The coils are wound on an external fixture. 2. Comparing the 2-φ motor to Tesla's 2-φ motor with salient poles. a pole winding. 2. and heights of the winding head. Insulation wedged between the coil periphery and the slot protects against abrasion.5.phase motor have been installed in the stator slots. the number of coils is the same. Edge slots may contain windings from two phases.D.• General check points for insulation are proper checking of stack heights. Forming process is another focal point in the production process. INSERTION Wound coils are inserted into the stator slots at insertion machines along with the wedge paper for insulation of coil periphery from stator laminations and adjoining cells. WINDING (Figure C. scratch wire detection.2. The distributed coils of the phase belt cancel some of the odd harmonics.D. O. producing a more sinusoidal magnetic field distribution across the pole. to final forming of I.4. This group is called a phase belt. In (Figure B). the windings for both a two-phase motor and a three. In actual large motors.3. is divided into identical coils inserted into many smaller slots than above. and then worked into the slots.1.5. FORMING The best winding and insertion still doesn't make the perfect stator. A great care is taken for proper insertion of wedge paper into the slots. and then worked into the slots. Actual stator windings are more complex than the single windings per pole in (Figure B). diameter and other mechanical dimensions of stator core.5. The coils are wound on an external fixture. Processes carried at this stage are such as expanding lamellas. the phase belts overlap.. That is. 2. The slots at the edge of the pole may have fewer turns than the other slots. 11 .

shifted down wedge paper. and incorrect wire size. Both sides are laced at the same time and a real knot is being tied at the end. This is the most critical and important stage of passing line from the point of view of quality control.After this lead or cables connection are made to the field.5. • Cables or connecting lead length and proper application of insulation tape. 2. • Wedge paper problem. It checks wrong turn count. It can be used to detect the following in the windings: • turn – to – turn short circuits • Coil – to – coil short circuits • Phase– to – phase short circuits • reverse coil connections • Open coils • Grounded coils • Defective insulation The following tests are performed by the computerized winding tester: Resistance test: The Resistance test is performed on the Main and Auxiliary windings. COMPUTERIZED WINDING TEST DESCRIPTION Computerized winding tester is the most comprehensive quality control method for in-plant testing process industries.5.5. Lacing or knotting problem. mislabeled leads. • Slot paper.6. Winding and insulation tapes are applied according to the specifications as per E. 2. The end turns are laced with a "diamond" stitch pattern. It is extremely effective as a diagnostic tool to evaluate and detect any windings fault that may exist. LACING Lacing or knotting is done at the machine for finally tightening the all the loose wires of coil winding. After this process the wound stator looks like in figure and then the final process is carried out on field where final inspection is done for visually detecting and removing the defects on account of following: • Loose wires/wiring. All the resistance measurements are corrected to the ambient temperature (25° C) using the temperature sensors. At this stage the responsibility lies wholly on operator as there is no intervention of machinery and the defects have to be detected visually and removed manually. poor connections. chart.I. • Without marking. 12 .

Surge tests can also detect other faults which change the inductance of a winding such as reversed coils. • Surge test: The high voltage surge test checks for insulation problems between turns. dirt and acid fume would soon cause a complete 13 . Manual Surge Comparison tester. heat. Courtesy: Ample Machines) 2.• Insulation resistance test: The IR or megohm test checks the strength of the insulation. ensuring quality and saving in material and labour costs. • AC Hi-Pot test: The AC hi-pot test detects if there is a breakdown to ground or between windings which would otherwise go undetected using average current measurement techniques.5. This measures the resistive portion of the leakage current. coils. rather than the total current.7. water. The surge test also has the ability to detect corona caused by weak insulation in addition to actual insulation breakdown. the field after being properly checked goes for varnish plant where penetrating coat of good insulating varnishes are applied on windings to protect them from action of vibration.e. VARNISHING Finally the Wound stator i. oil. This test uses the Hall-effect type sensors. To manufacturers this means that the faulty windings can be isolated and repaired at every stage of manufacturing thus. (Figure D. • Rotation test: The rotation direction test determines the rotation of the stator whether it is clockwise or anti-clockwise. and phases of the winding.

The rotor bars are brazed or electrically welded or bolted to two heavy and stout short-circuiting end-rings. with respect to the shaft. The misalignment with the stator slots reduces torque pulsations. 14 . and an embedded Copper or aluminium squirrel cage.2. The squirrel cage conductors may be skewed. Without a coating of insulating varnish. rather the bars are inserted from the end where semiclosed slots are used. which are not wires but consists of heavy copper bars. and remachining of the commutator. distributed winding consisting of coil as used in alternators. The rotor is wound for as many poles as the no.5. Squirrel-cage Rotor: Almost 90% of induction motors employ this type of rotors because of simple and rugged construction and almost indestructible. • Loose wires or wiring in varnished fields (at unloading station) •Without marking. twisted. double –layer. since the varnished fields are passed on for assembly line and if rejection is made on basis of above problems during any stage of assembly line results in wastage of resources. 2. ROTOR The rotor consists of a shaft. of stator poles and is always wound 3-phase even when the stator is wound two-phase. This eliminates the brushes.1. At both loading and unloading stations thorough inspection of fields is done to detect visually for: • Loose wires or wiring in green fields (at loading station) •Wedge paper problem. there is no commutator.2. • Lead cut/unequal length/terminal damage.2. This type of rotor is provided with 3-phase. Loading onto the auto varnishing plant (here the entry and exit point for the stator and rotor cores are the same. slot papers would soon become brittle and crack or soggy from moisture and the enamel covering of wires would chip and flake. They are of two types as follows: 2. insulating varnish provides a solid film protective covering. Phase-wound Rotor: Motors employing this type of rotors are called ‘wound’ motors or ‘Slip-ring’ motors. When properly applied and treated. The rotor consists of a cylindrical laminated core with parallel slots for carrying the rotor conductors.5. while the help of an auto varnishing plant is present in the premises for the varnishing of small rotor and stator windings.3. done using hangers) and unloading takes about 4-5 hours. arcing. graphite dust. One bar is placed in each slot. as compared to a DC motor armature. 2. From the point of view of quality control the inspection made at varnish stations for defect is most crucial. The varnish here is done manually for the large stator and rotor windings.2. a steel laminated rotor. • Knotting/lacing problem.failure of field or rotor circuits. brush adjustment and replacement. sparking. manpower and time.

Sanjib Majumdar & Mr. FAN ASSEMBLY: Conducted under Mr. The rotor and shaft too are pressed together but using just the machine with force applicable to a maximum of 200 tons. shafts and the brackets. the plant also manufactures fans of the types:     Industrial Fans Centrifugal Fans Axial Flow Fans. Partha Pratim Das Apart from the LT Induction Motors. First the rotor is placed inside of stator. brackets and terminal box. and Chilling purpose. DANFOS. Application wise there are two types of cooler fans: Transformer cooling.2. Sujit Bhattacharya The finished products reaching this segment of the plant are the stator shells & cores. 15”. The other bracket is also similiarly attached. and the fit is snug. power rating. The specifications are followed according to the Indian Standard 2312. This department deals with cooler fans. and then inserting the core and then pressed using a hydraulic press machine. MOTOR ASSEMBLY: Conducted under Mr. Both of these are made in the plant. Then the bearings are attached to the shaft and one of the brackets. or the motors are painted according to the demand. 2.6. Then after the last final adjustments in the form of fine cutting and grooving. The name tags or plates are put on once the paint dries up. mentioning the batch code.7. voltage rating frequency and speed of rotation or rpm. The stator shell and core are pressed together by first heating the shell so as to expand it. sphigoting is done on the shell for fixing of brackets. After the pressing operation is complete. The flow chart of formation of an impeller from the sheets of steel it arrives in is as: 15 . as sold to Hitachi. while those for Danfos are painted military green. Then they are bolted together before the terminal box is set up. current rating. The fan as a whole again has two parts: the motor and the impeller. as sold to ABB. They have blade sizes of 12”. or company code. product no. BHEL etc.g. E. rotor. 18” and 24”. The assembled product is then sent off to the paint shop where a basic primer is put on in case the consumer wants to apply paint of their own accord. the assembly line workers collect each of a stator. rotor cores. Motors for Hitachi are painted black. and Man Cooler Fans.

16 . is to conduct tests of the parts during transit. v. Balancing: All rotating devices are made to undergo balance tests. a stringent quality control and assurance department looks after all the tests that a motor undergoes from production line till packaging. Quality directly transcends into goodwill of the company in the market. and weights are added as in where required to balance. Blanking: The outline of the blade is given to the pieces.8. the machine is the only of its kind in Asia! Pressing: The blades are taken together into the required no mentioned by design to form the impeller and pressed together with the help of nuts.1. Diagram showing process of formation of impeller) 2. many production line faults may be noticed and fixing them requires dismantling and reconstruction.Sheet(raw material) Pressing Pretreatment Shearing Drilling & Rivetting Balancing Blanking Forming Painting (Figure E. 2. to reduce the cost of production. iii. ii. The process is better explained below. viii. Shearing: The sheet metal is cut into smaller rectangular pieces. between major stations. iv. Drilling & Riveting: Done using a machine which does both together. When a motor is tested only before packaging. QUALITY CONTROL/ASSURANCE: Conducted by Mr. optimal usage of raw materials and resources along with skilled management of goods. Painting: The finished impellers are sent off to be painted as required. PROCESS OF FORMATION OF IMPALER: i. The way forward. and the machine aiding workers is an automated one.7. is required. Pretreatment: The impellers are taken in baskets and dipped in tanks of chemicals. which is unnecessarily cost increasing for the company. So. vii. Sukanto Roy. Forming: The pieces are further bent so as to shape up like a blade. the impellers are sent to the assembly line to be put together with the motor to form a fan. After these processes are done. Hence. vi.

and beyond scope of the report. The aim of the QC/A is to keep the tested outputs to a half of the permissible half. Most of the tests carried out are mechanical in nature. The Mild Steel materials follow the order: 1 > 2 > 3&4 > 5 > 7 > 10. Special mention: PRETREATMENT FOR FAN BLADES: The blades are dipped in 10 different tanks according to requirement. The tanks have: 1 • I:Phosclean P:Degreasing 2 • I:Running Water P: Rinsing 6 • I:Phoschem Z P:Anti-rust coating 9 • I:Running Water P:Rinsing 3&4 • I:Rustokit 161 P:Pickling 5 • I:Cold Running Water P:Rinsing 8 • I:Rustokit 176 P:Chemical Etching 7 • I:Cold Running Water P:Rinsing 10 • I:Phosbond P:Permanent acid particle removal The Aluminium materials follow the order: 1 > 2 > 8 > 9 > 10. The raw materials taken from trusted sources are also sent for testing in 3rd party laboratory. The above order signifies the drums into which the blades are put into. The standards of quantity are pre-specified by Indian Standards.The standards for quality are predetermined by the ISO or International Organization for Standardizations 9000 series. there is a scope of provided for some error. That way. 17 . so that they can be tested for quality.

1.1. The Megger. one to the windings and another to the body.General Overview of Motor Testing 3.1 The ROUTINE TEST consists of:            Insulation Resistance test Measurement of winding resistance test No Load test Locked rotor test Reduced voltage running up test (die-cast) HV test 3.1 CLASSIFICATION OF TESTS According to the IS 325:1996. Type tests: The test on completion issues a certificate on a motor identical in essential details with the all the motors in its batch (of maximum 20 quantity) along with the routine test certificate for individual motors. 3. The motor is kept on the ground and two connections from a machine capable of generating 3kV potential difference are attached to the motors. the tests on a LT Induction Motor are of two types:   Routine tests: The test on completion issues a certificate which means that the motor has been run and found to be electrically and mechanically sound and in working order in all particulars.1. a resistance measuring device which measures in MΩ.1 INSULATION RESISTANCE test and HIGH VOLTAGE test: The test is conducted on isolated motors. 18 . is used between the ends of windings.1.2 The TYPE TEST consists of: All Routine tests Full load test Torque test Vibration test Noise test 3.

if any. the resistance is again checked (RH). in NEMA standard MG 1-1998. Measurement of WINDING RESISTANCE test: National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA).1.5 for copper (temp co-eff) The aim is to find out the temperature till which the motor air gap heats up.1. using data from the readings of power. 3.2.e. i. between body and winding. Current. which can lead to disastrous consequences. the temperature of the cooling medium of the motor.1. Ideally the result should be an insulation resistance of the order of 2. Ideally the result is aimed at half of the average of permitted range. The test is conducted by measuring the lead-to-lead resistance (RC) in “cold” condition. The motor is then run at rated voltage till the air gap temperature stabilizes(TH).5MΩ and open circuit between body and windings. 19 . winding losses. i. voltage and power are measured at the motor input. has defined temperature rise of motor.1. The losses in the no-load test are all due to core-losses. windage and friction. Balanced voltages are applied to the stator terminals at the rated frequency with rotor uncoupled from any mechanical load. The aim is to find out the losses of the motor.3 NO LOAD Test: This is one of the most basic tests. and speed of the motor. current on input side.e. “the increase in temperature above ambient temperature. Temperature rise has been defined as. The following formula is then used to calculate the acceptable temperature rise (Th) : Th= [(RH/ RC)x(K+ TC)]-K Where K= 234. room temperature (TC). Once done. which effectively helps in checking whether a motor is working within accepted temperature limits or not.The aim is to check for the short connection. 3. The temperature of the air gap of the motor is also noted.

(Figure F. The test is made to check the ability of the motor to run upto its rated speed at no load. READINGS: The input current and power are recorded using 2-WATTMETER method. The aim is to find the breakaway torque. Current. In order to determine the values at rated voltage.4 BLOCKED ROTOR Test: This is another basic test. power and speed are measured to calculate the losses.5. RUN-UP Test for Die-Cast Rotor The test is applied to squirrel cage motors. the pre-mentioned √ 20 . watts and sometimes torque are taken to as a high voltage as possible and then extrapolated to rated voltage on log-lo9g graph paper to establish the desired values. at least three test points of voltage versus current. The rotor is blocked to prevent rotation and balanced voltages are applied to the stator terminals at a frequency of 25% of rated frequency at a voltage where the rated current is achieved. input current and power.1.1. For motors above 37kW. Block diagram of Locked Rotor Test of Induction Motor) 3. Block Diagram of No-Load Test of Induction Motor) 3.1. voltage and power are measured at motor input. (Figure G. The motor upto 37kW is supplied with a reduced voltage of of rated voltage for each direction of rotation.1.READINGS: Input current.

2. Weights scales are used to determine the torque. So when the hot winding resistance is measured. 1/2th & 3/4th load. The aim is to ensure the torque developed is within the specified range. The aim is to calculate the efficiency η.2. power factor cosine φ and slip. but the direction is as specified and not any random direction. The above test is done simultaneously along with the temperature rise test and winding resistance test on the same motor.value or lesser is used.1. TORQUE Test: The rotor is locked and jammed. 3. Speed is measured for all conditions.2. and run at rated voltage.1. FULL LOAD Test Motor is initially run at full load till the constant temperature is attained in the air gap of the motor.1. 3. or its variants. The aim is to find out the least voltage required to run the motor at rated speed. The test is then repeated for 1/4th. NOISE and VIBRATION Test: The motor while being run at various voltages is checked with a vibration meter for vibration in the three axes of the motor so as to check if it is within permissible limits. 21 .1.2. 3. The torque measured is used to find out the output power using the formula: The last equation is for efficiency calculation. The aim is to make sure that the shaft doesn’t come under mechanical stress and lead to faulty results from the motor. Then the force exerted by the shaft is measured by use of weight scale. along with that the speed is measured using tachometer.3. The speed obtained in rpm is subtracted from the synchronous speed and difference is divided by the same to obtain slip. Slip is calculated by using the slip formula: ⁄ The efficiency is calculated by dividing output by input.

At rated frequency. The saturation curve is taken with the motor running without any load. current.2. and the curve extended to zero voltage. friction and core losses in a motor. power and winding temperatures are recorded at each step. Voltage.1. power input minus the stator I2R loss is plotted versus voltage.3.4. To segregate the losses. The test is usually performed after half an hour or more after the no-load test to ensure input values have stabilized. An entire graph is likewise used to determine the saturation test. 22 . SATURATION Test: This test is performed to determine the windage. the line voltage on the motor is varied in steps from 125% of rated voltage down till further voltage reduction brings about disproportionate increase in current.

Three Phase Induction Motors. Understanding Motor Temperature Rise Limits-Tom Bishop 5. Finley. 4. 2.Bureau of Indian Standards. Understanding Complete Tests Performed on Induction Motor-William R. ________________________ Project In-charge signature 23 . A Textbook of Electrical Technology Vol 2 . Bureau of Energy Efficiency Code : ELECTRIC MOTOR.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 3. Theraja.Specifications (5th Revision) .B. L.

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