ORGANIS ED RETAIL
TOPIC 1. What is Retailing 2. Functions of Retailers 3. Meaning of Multichannel Retail 4. What is Organised Retailing 5. Impact of Oragnised Retailing on our Environment 6. Difference between Organised and Unorganised Retail 7. Kishore Biyani 8. The Great Indian Tale Called Retail 9. Retail Roadmap 10. Major Retailers in India 11. Tactics used by Organised Retailers 12. Success Stories
13. Failures 14. Field Study 15. Future Prospects
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1. WHAT IS RETAILING? Although there are many approaches to understanding and defining retailing, most often emphasis is on retailing as a business activity of selling goods or services to the final consumer. Retailing is the set of business activities that adds value to the products and services sold to consumers for their personal or family use. Often people think of retailing only as the sale of products in stores, but retailing also involves the sale of services: overnight lodging in a motel, a haircut, a DVD rental, or a home –delivered pizza not all retailing is done in stores. Examples of non store retailing include platforms like ebay.com. As per the above definition, the final consumer is a key concept within the distribution chain, especially since the retailers are at the end of the chain and directly interact with the customer. Moreover, the final consumer is presumed to be the final user of a product unlike a customer who may have bought the goods for her own use or as a present or as a part of her own business activity. Retail transaction include more than the sale of tangible products, services such as financial services, beauty care saloons, dry cleaning and so on. They receive goods from producers and wholesalers and pass it on to consumers. The retailers are able to accomplish this through the store/retail outlet located at convenient place and also by ensuring that the consumer is a focal point for the selection and display of stock. It is said that the term retailing is derived from the old French word ‘retailer’ meaning ‘a piece of’ or “to cut up”. This can be applied to the functions carried out by the retailers-
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acquiring whole stock of goods which they divide in to smaller amounts which are then sold to individual consumers. Traditionally, the retail landscape in India has been dominated by unorganized retailers like kirana stores, cloth merchant’s etc. Who buy and resell merchandise from local suppliers or wholesalers. Most of today’s modern retail formats, that have been proliferating over the metros, cities and towns were non existent a decade ago. Fifteen years ago future Group, Home Town, Spencer’s retail, Reliance Retail, Shoppers Stop Limited, Subhiksha, Lifestyle etc. were either small start-up firms or did not even exist. Leading international retailers are heading towards India for setting up their stores. Wal-Mart worlds largest corporation and Carrefour, the worlds second largest retailer are awaiting foreign direct investment laws to be amended suitably to allow them to open their stores in India. However, till such time Wal-Mart and Carrefour are planning to enter India through the cash-and-carry business route. In fact Wal-Mart has started with this format with Bharti as an equal partner in JV formed. Sears, America’s fourth largest retailer with approximately 3,800 full-line and speciality retail stores is also looking at entering India through the same route. The Indian government allows 100percent FDI through cash and carry format making this route quite attractive for global retailers.
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2. FUNCTIONS OF RETAILERS Retailers play an important link in the marketing function by adding a lot of value to manufacturer’s products or services, sold to the ultimate consumers. These functions include: • • • • Providing an assortment of products and services Breaking the bulk into smaller quantities Holding inventory stocks Provide right infrastructure and suitable environment to make shopping “consumer friendly” • Increase the value of products
All the above functions are designed/performed keeping the consumer in mind. They eventually try to achieve the comfort and satisfaction level of consumers. Providing assortments Producers usually manufacture one or more variety of products. They prefer to sell this stock of inventory to a few buyers so as to reduce costs. Whereas, the final customers will like to make a selection from a large variety of merchandise. Though he may ultimately purchase the same in small quantities only. The retailers while acting as the intermediary tries to work out a balance of the demands of both the sides. For this purpose the retailer
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Today. How tedious would it be to visit each manufacturer if at all the retailers would not have been in this chain. By holding stock. For the manufacturer. retailers help manufacturers by holding inventory stock for them. This breaking bulk is very important and helpful to the manufacturer as well as the customers. when space is a premium
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will build up an assortment of merchandise obtained from various sources in sufficiently large quantities and then sell them to the final customers in smaller units at their retail outlets. This functional process is referred to as sorting or providing assortments of products and services and also adding value to the merchandise sold to the final customers. sizes and prices from their particular outlet (or location). retailers are helping consumers by ensuring them that the products are available at their outlet whenever required. In turn these retailers will break this bulk into smaller quantities tailored to meet the requirements of the individual customers. Example: If customers were to make their purchase from supermarkets like Spencer’s (RPG group) they will be able to make choice from a wide range of brands in various designs. While customers will find it more convenient to shop for products. it will be cost effective to pack and transport in large quantities to retailers. Holding inventory stock Related to the above mentioned function. Breaking the bulk into smaller quantities In order to reduce transportation costs. the manufacturers and wholesalers will usually transport large cartons of the products (or merchandise) to the retailers.
In short. These services could take the form of credit facility(buy now and pay in instalments). time and place utilities when the merchandise is sold. which is a very vital role played by the marketing intermediary. the retailer helps manufacturers to gauge and obtain information. holding inventory stock and providing services itself increases the value of products and services bought by their customers.sales personnel to answer queries. Apart from the form. the retailer adds and increases the value of the products and services by ensuring that the customer receives the merchandise in the required assortment (or form) at the required place and right time.
Provide certain additional services When change in ownership of merchandise is provided by the retailer. breaking the bulk into smaller quantities. these services provided by the retailer will help the consumer to save on inventory carrying cost. at times 24x7 availability of products(pharmacy) and home delivery facility (within a short distance from the outlet) Increase the value of products and services By performing the functions of providing assortments.
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. they offer certain additional services making it convenient for the consumers to buy and use products. display of products such that it is easily visible (Visual Merchandising) samples to facilitate testing before purchasing.Organised retailing
in many houses.
Visual merchandising is today’s buzz. they would have needed to employ people from outside of their family. This would recover business from peddlers. create new business and the greater volume would allow the shopkeeper to strike a better deal with suppliers. This was a limiting factor as there would have been a limit to the amount of trusted non family members available to help run the chain. as markets became more permanent fixtures they evolved into shops. most probably operated by another family member. and make their designs visible so that customer/shopper gets to choose from the best. which we shall discuss. as some chains grew.g. it made sense to obtain extra stock and open up another shop.Organised retailing
E. More recent example would be of clothing retailers who focus on visual merchandising. this removed the mobility that a peddler or traveling merchant may still have enjoyed. even more definite limiting factor was the distance
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. make clothes visible. A simple day to day example would be of soft drinks like Pepsi. Thus the Retail Chain would have started. RETAIL CHAINS Origins of Retail Chains It is likely that. From Family Business to Formal Structure Although retail chains would have been mostly run by families. Another. Although advantageous in many respects. company provides them with stock but retailers cool them and keep them at their refrigerators so that consumer gets Pepsi which is ready to drink. For some shopkeepers. in coming chapters.
When this happened towards the end of the 19th century. tot up the bill and receive payment. therefore. There was a personal one-to-one relationship between customer and shopkeeper. pack them in a bag or other container (often supplied by the customer). a natural barrier to expansion. leading to the retail chains that we see today. The First Self-Service Store This all changed in 1915 when Albert Gerrard opened the Groceteria in Los Angeles.
SELF SERVICE Background Up until the introduction of self-service stores. The greater the distance. founded by Clarence Saunders in Tennessee in the U. There was. the more time and effort would have been needed to effectively manage outpost shops and to service them with goods. This was soon followed a year later by the Piggly Wiggly self-service store. the first documented self-service store. customers would simply ask the shopkeeper for their goods.S. Many of these businesses became more structured and formalized. chains became much bigger and more widespread. Efficiency & Growth
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. That was the case until transport and communications became faster and more reliable.Organised retailing
the furthest shop would have been from the original shop. The shopkeeper would price them (weighing them if necessary).
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. Today. The groceries were stacked on shelves allowing customers to walk around and browse. satisfy and retain customers. retailers have realised that it is possible to offer them products and services through more than one channel.
3. collecting their shopping in a basket that was supplied.com. Oxford Book store had opened it first store in Kolkata long ago and over a period of time spread itself and opened outlets in Mumbai and bengaluru also. The booklovers were happy with the online presence of oxford bookstore’s products. In the year 2000. inventory management. The shopkeeper would only need to tot up the final bill at the end of the process and transfer the goods from the basket to the customer and receive payment. distribution and a procurement system. This new type of shopping was more efficient and many customers preferred it. Other countries slowly adopted this idea. warehousing. This organisation’s systems provided the solution to many retail activities right from point of sale to multichannel integration. this new concept started a rapid growth of selfservice stores in the United States. it started selling books and music titles over the internet (another channel).Organised retailing
These entrepreneurs noticed that their staff had to spend a great deal of time taking grocery orders from customers. OXFORD BOOKSTORE is being referred to as India’s Amazon. Slowly single channel retailers are going multichannel in order to attract. In order to tap their target customers’ needs. For instance. MEANING OF MULTICHANNEL RETAILING:
A multichannel retailer can be referred to as a retailer who sells merchandise or services through more than one channel. Although personal service stores remain to this day.
Types of channel: • • • Store channel Catalogue channel Internet channel
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Corporate retail chain: at time. 2. 3. Such a retailer may have his outlet in a suitable location and offer product mix suitable to his clientele. etc. Peter England. Store based retailing. Since they are many and company owned too. we will have to classify them on the basis of their size (small. a retailer can be classified as:
1) On basis of ownership. advertising and promotions. ambience. Basically.Organised retailing
TYPES OF RETAILERS In order to know about the type of retailers. These retail outlets will offer similar merchandise. Van Heusen. Service retailing. these retailers can enjoy bargaining power and economies of
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. Most of the neighbourhood or kirana stores are examples of an independent retailer.
b. Non –store retailing. Planet M etc. For example. retail formats can be classified as: 1.) national or international category. the biggies may have two or more outlets
being run under a common ownership. owner operated retail outlets. Independent retailer: who runs the retail outlet alone with a little help
provided by his relatives. scale or independent.
Franchising can either involve a product or trademark franchise or be a business format franchise. multiplexes. between the franchiser to carry out business in return for a fee or compensation.
c. These include:
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. they can practice cost-effectiveness in advertising and promotion. within this classification. At times.
d. as per a particular
business format. if retailers were to be classified on the basis of merchandise offered. they could be referred to as food oriented retailer and the general merchandise retailers.Organised retailing
scale with the suppliers. at airports etc. it is referred to as leased department. Similarly. However.Where only a fraction of their merchandise are sold.
2) Classification of retail outlet based on the merchandise offered: Broadly. cooperatives in India can be the Janata Bazaar (Bengaluru). large retail chains set up smaller retail outlets in high footfall areas such as malls. Franchising: a franchise is a contractual agreement.. department store. For instance. Apna bazaar shops (in Mumbai. we will classify them on the basis of the target market requirement to which they cater to.
e. Consumer cooperatives: a consumer cooperative is a retail institution
owned and run by its member customers.. Ahmadabad) and so on. Leased department stores: when a section of a department in a retail outlet
is leased or rented to an outside party.
c) Hypermarkets: the world hypermarket originated from the French word
hypermarche.e. Nilgiris. etc.
d) Speciality store: such stores specialise in offering a narrow product line
with deep assortments.ft. i.mt. high volume. Food bazaar.area) specifically targeted at customers who want to make their purchases frequently and quickly too. In India some of the supermarket stores examples can include Food World. 24x7 days a week and offer a limited range of convenience products such as bread. Typically these convenience stores operate for long number of hours.
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on service format basis. low margin. which implies a combination of a supermarket and a department store. This format was a forerunner during the grocery revolution and is designed so as to meet the customer needs of food. Wherein at least 35% of the selling space is exclusively reserved for selling non-grocery products. groceries and other non food items.
b) Supermarkets: these are big.000 sq. European Retail Digest has described a hypermarket as a retail store with sales of more than 2500 sq. such speciality stores. milk. low cost.000 to 8. specifically offer a particular or single product of durable goods such as home furniture and related household product or consumer electrical appliances and so on. More stores etc.Organised retailing a) Convenience stores:
these are relatively small local stores (probably
operating in around 3. Reliance Fresh.
The customer generally looks through the catalogue and then places order for the particular product (mentioned in the catalogue). The retailer makes arrangement for the product to be procured from the warehouses for customer inspection and purchase. jewellery. Telemarketing. etc. This also helps company spread its brands amongst masses.
merchandise with minor defects are placed here and sold at a price point which is much below the usual rates.
2) Non Store Retailing:
Another way of classifying retailers is by the way of non. Which are displayed on the catalogue shown to the customer. when the retailer directly sells to the consumer.store retailing. Men’s accessories. Here.
g) Catalogue retailers: catalogue retailer usually specialise in particular
products such as house ware. many general stores got converted into department stores as small towns became cities.
f) Department stores: when the organised retailing evolution was taking
place. we have viewed this type of retailing as direct selling. electronics items.
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. For instance infant department. Automatic vending and Mail Order retailing. etc.Organised retailing e) Factory Outlets: This type of retail outlets are designed to cater the masses. Department stores as name suggests have various departments for various categories of merchandise.
which usually runs for a few days. which has a manager in overall charge. Through a campaign. The telecall operation works in the form of the call centre. In this case. It is one of the
major non-store retailing methods. with a supervisor handling each
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. it is a method by which the salesperson meets the consumer directly on a face-to face basis and tries to persuade them to purchase the product. Amway. Avaince (cosmetics from Hindustan liver) and Medicare(homecare and personal care products) Telemarketing: Telemarketing is a form of direct marketing. the marketer directly goes to the customer using telecom/IT facilities.Organised retailing
• • • • Direct selling:
Direct selling Telemarketing Automatic Vending Mail Order Retailing
a) Direct selling is also referred to as door-to-door selling. few supervisors and the required number of tele callers. Oriflame. Tupperware. Many tele-callers are hired for the tele-call operation. Some of the popular marketers who have opted for direct selling in India are Avon.callers are grouped into teams comprising of six or seven callers. The tele. As the terms indicates. contact is established with hundreds of prospects. Telemarketing is usually carried out through specific campaigns.
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. airports and primarily contain hot drinks such as tea or coffee.Organised retailing
such team. For instance. This is a non-store format. The tele-callers are imparted training for the job to be carried out. vending machines from cafe coffee day/ Nescafe and Bru are seen at airports and multiplexes. which see a lot of floating population such as multiplexes. railway stations. The tele-callers sit in front of a computer terminal and a fresh data as the tele talks progress. It is a very convenient form of retailing for the retailer. where merchandise or services are stored in a machine and dispensed to customers when they make payment by using credit card or deposit money(or cash). Automatic vending: This can also be referred to as vending machine retailing. which are sent mail order forms via which the particular product from the catalogue can be purchased. Mail order retailing: This type of retailing does away with personal selling and store operations. He will use a customer database specifically aimed at a particular targeted market. Vending machines are conveniently placed at locations.
half of the planned amount is already
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. These include the corporatebacked hypermarkets and retail chains.Organised retailing 4. It plans to invest US$ 6 billion in the Indian retail market. Retail market in the organized sector in India is growing can be seen from the fact that 1500 supermarkets. income tax. Most of the organized retailing in India have started recently and is concentrating mainly in metropolitan cities. those who are registered for sales tax. This change has come in the consumer due to increased income. that is. medium. and also the privately owned large retail businesses. In 2005. etc.5% of the total revenues. ORGANISED RETAILING IN INDIA Indian organized retail market is growing at a fast pace due to the boom in the India retail industry. The growth in the Indian organized retail market is mainly due to the change in the consumers behaviour. WHAT IS ORGANISED RETAILING?
Organised retailing refers to trading activities undertaken by licensed retailers. Many Indian companies are entering the Indian retail market which is giving Indian organized retail market a boost. Traditionally the retail industry in India was largely unorganized. Now the consumer wants to shop at a place where he can get food. and shopping all under one roof. and patterns of demography which are favourable.000 billion accounting for about 10% to the country's GDP. comprising of drug stores. changing lifestyles. entertainment. the retail industry in India amounted to Rs 10. The organized retail market in India out of this total market accounted for Rs 350 billion which is about 3. 325 departmental stores. and small grocery stores. One such company is the Reliance Industries Limited. and 300 new malls are being built. This has given Indian organized retail market a major boost.
both as a global base and as a domestic market. India represents an economic opportunity on a massive scale. keeping in mind group’s scenario to scale up its consumer business. Growing consumer credit will also help in boosting consumer demand.Organised retailing
invested. located in residential areas. It also has entered areas of financial services and telecom space. The structure of retailing will also develop rapidly. and announced development plans project at least 150 new shopping malls. Retail growth in the coming five years is expected to be stronger than GDP growth. A number of global retail giants such as Carrefour and Metro AG are also planning to set up shop in India. which in turn will be supported by favourable demographic patterns and the extent to which organized retailers succeed in reaching lower down the income scale to reach potential consumers towards the bottom of the consumer pyramid. The number of department stores is growing much faster than overall
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. Indian Retail sector consists of small family-owned stores. At present the organized sector accounts for only 5-6% of the total market although this is expected to rise by 20 to 25%. with a shop floor of less than 500 square feet. Pantaloons is another Indian company which plans to increase its retail space to 30 million square feet with an investment of US$ 1 billion. Indian organized retail market is increasing and for this growth to continue the Indian Retailers as well as government must make a combined effort. Shopping malls are becoming increasingly common in large cities. driven by changing lifestyles and by strong income growth. Bharti (Airtel) has already established a JV with global giant Wall-mart (for cash-n-carry format).
The next cycle of change in Indian consumer markets will be the arrival of foreign players in consumer retailing. Supermarkets have been taking an increasing share of general food and grocery trade over the last two decades. Indian companies know Indian markets better. Although FDI remains highly restricted in retailing.
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retail. That will be the coming struggle. the power to drive down prices. but foreign players will come in and challenge the locals by sheer cash power. at an annual 24%. most companies believe that will not be for long.
Common sense says that perhaps it will help the economy.let’s take Delhi. Anyway main points to look out for are: 1. For example. IMPACT OF ORGANISED RETAILING ON OUR
ENVIRONMENT (PEST) While there is a lot of debate going on the impact of organised retailing on unorganised sector. There is hectic activity in the sector in terms of expansion. Political Even though the government is yet to give the sector an Industry status and we see aggressive political protests. entry of
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. there is little we know of how it will impact our economy in general. In Delhi & NCR. In Mumbai. Decision on FDI 2. Government’s stand for foreign players Economical Although the organised retail sector constitutes only 4-5% of the USD 350 billion Indian retail market. the Government is releasing unused textile mill land for retail development.Organised retailing
5. the Government has released large tracts of land for retail development.0 billion. to over USD 30.from USD 12-15 billion currently. it is expected to grow 400%. some aspects of the Government’s policy have been favourable on other fronts. NCR and Mumbai.
international brands and retailers as well as focus on technology. A great aggregation is also taking place now. the tempting value proposition and an inviting atmosphere is making them purchase these items. And today sachets hold 76% of the total shampoo market in India. That means at least 60% more demand generation
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. All these present a tremendous opportunity in this new high growth industry
The important thing is that the growth of this sector will create a totally new demand in our economy. operations and processes. prior to the entry of Velvet which later transformed the industry landscape. and the systems assist you in this because no one is bothered.No one was catering to the huge demand of affordable hair care solution.. helping the manufacturers to come out with new and innovative products. You can go and buy as much low quantities that you want. Without the new stores the same money would have been sitting idle in some bank lockers. Imagine what happened in the Shampoo sachet market in India. But now the money is out in market. Households across India are now exposed to products and services they had never seen before.
farmers are getting better prices for their
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. In addition to this. emergence of a larger middle and upper middle classes and the substantial increase in disposable income has changed the nature of shopping in India from need based to lifestyle dictated. availability of cheap finance and a drop in interest rates have changed consumer markets. as a result.Organised retailing
Social There has been a demographic shift in India. facilities like credit friendliness. Organised retail increases the efficiencies in the agriculture sector by removing intermediaries in the food chain.
seeds. The private retail players can actually introduce new technology. In the last four years. an estimated two crore traders have been rendered jobless due to the opening of big shopping malls in the country. Technological With increasing competition.7% closures were attributed to competition from modern retail. Using these technologies retailers can actually gain key insights to further gain market share and increase revenue Indian retailer would feel the need for technology only when he wants to grow beyond a certain point. Ecommerce.Organised retailing
produce. Today’s global retail business strategies utilize technology. However there is no evidence of a decline in overall employment in the unorganised sector as a result of the entry of organised retailers. This is largely due to India’s socio-cultural heterogeneity and consumer choice. The ‘kirana’ store and the paan shop are seen as part of community life. According to the survey. and thus encourage farmers to improve their productivity. Large retailers like Wal-Mart can never impact small kirana stores in India. with 90% of sales in India done through them
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. This is one of the reasons why the traditional grocery is here to stay. the unorganised sector witnessed a closure rate of 4. slimmer profit margins and diminished returns-cost cutting at every point of value chain has become important.2% of which only 1. Unorganised retail is feeling the heat of the emergence of the organised retail due to the changing trends of the Indian consumers. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Point of Sale (POS) systems are all vital to retail businesses. The consumer wants small retail. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software.
refers to the traditional formats of low-cost retailing. food etc. addressing the needs of the population in the area and
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. or the slightly more organised medical store and a host of other small retail businesses in apparel. These include the corporate retail formats of the exclusive brand outlets.Organised retailing
6. income tax. hypermarkets. As explained in earlier chapter Organised retail sector refers to the sectors undertaken by licensed retailers. hardware shop at the corner of your street selling everything from bathroom fittings to paints and small construction tools.
MEANING OF UNORGANISED RETAILING: Unorganised retailing. & mobile vendors. that is. those who are registered for sales tax. departmental stores and shopping malls. electronics. owner manned general stores. convenience stores. hand cart and pavement vendors. for example. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ORGANISED AND UNORGANISED RETAILING So the Indian retail industry is divided into two sectors.organised and unorganised.
WHAT IS UNORGANISED RETAILING? The small local stores have dominated Indian retailing over the decades and are present in every village and local community. paan/beedi shops. etc. supermarkets. the local kirana shops.
Many of them also sell fruits like bananas and a range of toiletries and cosmetics like soaps. shampoos. soft drinks. A little larger format is the neighbourhood grocery store that focuses on grains. Every fair sized village is likely to have at least one grocery store. chocolate.
India like most other countries has a very large network of local stores. You will find these in almost every village and locality. The distribution networks of brands extend right up to this point to stay in touch with customer needs and preferences. toothpastes and some creams. The retail industry in rural India has typically two forms: "Haats" and "Melas". The new addition of the past decade is to have a telephone booth that lets locals and travelers make national and international telephone calls. Procter &
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. snacks and toiletries besides other home essentials. Besides this these stores stock and offer small eats and soft drinks including biscuits. It is not really a network since each store is individual or family owned and has no connection with the other. These small stores cater to the needs of their own local population and travellers who stop by for a smoke or a snack. a fruit and vegetable shop and a paan and cigarette shop. bread and baked products. It does however represent a network since large consumer product companies like Unilever. This network is very large and spread all across India. sweets. Fruits and vegetables that are perishable are usually maintained and offered by exclusive vegetable stores and not by the normal groceries. A lot of them function as paan and cigarette outlets with tea and coffee sometimes also offered.Organised retailing
being the point of contact with the consumer. foods.
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. Colgate-Palmolive. Cadbury. While it is commonly believed that the new retail chains will drive these small stores out of business. They also have a very good understanding of requirements of the local population and have very low overheads enabling them to offer the best price for their products. They offer credit to the local population and help out in times of crisis.Organised retailing
Gamble. They are points of news and connection. Coca Cola.
These small stores are very personal and have strong relationships with the local population. reality points the other way and it is likely that these stores will continue even in the next two decades of growth. Pepsi and ITC uses them as their final point of retail to the consumer.
Eventually the government supported the rural retail and many indigenous franchise stores came up with
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. These stores used to cater to the local people.Organised retailing
EVOLUTION OF RETAIL SECTOR IN INDIA
The origins of retailing in India can be traced back to the emergence of Kirana stores and mom-and-pop stores.
An important point here is that customers' requirements are catered to by trained staff. etc. Shopping malls emerged in the urban areas giving a world-class experience to the customers. this would finally lead to more of consolidation.the owner. etc. Today. mergers and acquisitions and huge investments. Raymonds. technology. style and speed. all the work was done manually. The evolution of the sector includes the continuous improvement in the supply chain management. This later changed to bigger shops run by one man with a few employees. It is something that offers a customer more control. however. The economy began to open up in the 1980s resulting in the change of retailing. Planet M and Music world in Music. Previously. more sophistication seeped into this sector and department stores came into being. there was an explosion of shopping malls and plazas where customers interacted with professionals and not with just one single person . Crossword in books entered the market before 1995. distribution channels. customers used to go to kirana stores to purchases their necessities. With the passage of time new entrants moved on from manufacturing to pure retailing. The first few companies to come up with retail chains were in textile sector. S Kumar's.
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. Bombay Dyeing. organized retailing has become an experience characterized by comfort. back-end operations. Beginning in the mid-1990s. convenience and choice along with an experience. for example. Here. Eventually hypermarkets and supermarkets emerged. Retail outlets such as Food world in FMCG. The retail sector is presently undergoing a transition in India.Organised retailing
the help of Khadi & Village Industries Commission. Gradually. Later Titan launched retail showrooms in the organized retail sector.
Shoppers' Stop. With consumer sentiment positive during most of 2004. start-up of new-generation shopping malls. clothing and lifestyle. the Government's intention of allowing a certain level of foreign direct investment in retail and the formation of a retailers' association.
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ORGANISED retailing got a leg up during 2004 with the opening of new format stores. The year also saw a rapid scaling up of operations by players such as Pantaloon’s Big Bazaar. it led to substantial spending across a number of categories such as consumer durables. automobiles and telecom products. Lifestyle. Trent (Tata Sons’ Subsidiary) opened the first Star India Bazaar while new-generation shopping malls such as InOrbit in Mumbai and Forum in Bangalore opened their doors.
Mr Kishore Biyani of Pantaloons launched his new-format shopping mall called Central. rapid growth of existing players. Westside (Trent) and RPG's Spencer's.
Mr. Understood consumer psyche and put their preferences right in front of consumers thus making every stake holder happy.Organised retailing
7. Following diagram explains the chain of Information which retailers enhance Manufacturers---
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. he is rightly known as father of modern retailing in India. Biyani needs very little introduction. He being a pure retailer justified the name and meaning of retailer.
Biyani and followed by others.
As a result consumers are encouraged to buy more and with better performance manufacturer awards retailer with healthy margin. everything comes at a cost.
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. Organized retailing made things simple for itself but complex for masses (middle class people). tailor made for consumer preferences. Customer was made the king but truly said by someone.
This simple technique was adopted by Mr.
Manufacture’s make what information retailers provided them with.Organised retailing
Healthy margin and high volumes encourages retailers to constantly peep into consumer insights so that they are satisfied.
Blue Diamond. They have mastered the art of retailing so much so that they indirectly dominate the customers as well as the manufacturer. It is said that. A study reveals more than 40% of brands in central and pantaloons (both future group) are privately held. right from the time he first started. given by Kishore Biyani: We like being simple Speed is the essence of everything We like to learn while we execute We like thrift We believe that customers are always right
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1. brands and private labels that consumer have got no choice but to adhere to them and buy them. M square. Biyani showed amazingly accurate perception of the Indian consumer -especially in the retail space. Urban Yoga. he and his companies have come a long way. 4. Bare Denim. Planet Sports. Some of them are Lee cooper. Therein lays the secret of his success. Coming back to Kishore Biyani. From a position when he was almost looked down upon as a trader who wouldn’t amount to much to his current position as the Group CEO of the rapidly growing Futures Group. These are Pantaloons genes. 5. 3. he re-wrote the retail script in India. etc.
. 2. He perhaps understands the psyche of his typical customers more than anybody else.Organised retailing
For instance Pantaloons Retail has so many subsidiaries.
efforts and research
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. Pune. even in cities like Mumbai. 9. 7. Big bazaar has special days like “Wednesdays” or 1st of every month were Big bazaar provides customers with great deals of discounts. 12. Malad. Indians were and still are accustomed with “haats” and weekly bazaars. Same goes with his daughter AashnaBiyani. 10. the post she handles is Chief innovative officer. a western suburb in Mumbai is famous for its “somvari bazaar”. 8. Every week on Monday this area is flooded with traders and customers. Such kind of thinking.
We like to think in terms of the majority of people We take pride in our core value of Indian-ness We believe in ourselves We do not like to blame others or external factors We like to think positively in every situation We like building and nurturing relationships We love to rewrite rules even as we retain our values
These rules clearly show us what sought of thinking went behind in Biyani’s mind while building India’s largest retail Chain. Some of the differentiating points are under lined. Biyani did exactly what Indians were accustomed to. For instance.Organised retailing
6. Biyani made business model to work in synchronization with Indian culture. She heads a team which looks into the consumer behaviors and consumer insights. 11. A newspaper article reveals that this team of future group is studying Indian houses to design furniture which suits them the best. we still have such weekly bazaars.
in other lines last five year have been a roller coaster ride for organized retail in India.Organised retailing
makes future group what it is. The country’s top business houses. The organized retail sector saw 10% decline in sales in 2008. Vendors on the other hand looked for other ways to make their brands popular amongst consumers and retailers. Organized retail in India in its old form actually dates back to the pre-independence times. both real estate and human resource costs were driven up due to this race. The Retail ride hit a pole around 2008. Global giants Wal-Mart. formats were changed and organizations were made leaner. food world. Reliance Industries and Aditya Vikram Birla Group to name a few have entered even as smaller aspirants made a beeline to find a toehold in retailing too. There were store closures. With the rush amongst the retailers to rapidly expand into the newer markets to get the first mover advantage. THE GREAT INDIAN TALE CALLED RETAIL
Last five years have seen lots of ups and downs for this industry.
8. margin free.
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. A detailed version on Future Group and its strategies is mentioned in coming chapters. etc. Carrefour. As a result the likes of Subhiksha and Vishal Retail went down and others were forced to rethink their strategies. Interestingly it was south India which took lead this time in formally setting up the first organized retail chains in the food and grocery segments in India with stores such as Nilgiri’s. The same wasn’t matched by higher footfalls. the Tata Sons. metro and Tesco made headlines in India.
Kumar’s group and the Raymonds group to name a few. the intervening years saw the entry of several premium brands like Giorgio Armani. However it was only in 2000 that the retail sector took off in terms of scale and growth with the entry of large business houses and development of new formats. With the FDI policy 2006 allowing single-branded foreign retailers to take up to 51% stake in joint ventures with local firms. This time around it was not the manufacturer who was looking for an alternate sales channel but pure-play retailers who entered the retail markets. And modern retail began to take shape. The rapid growth that followed soon attracted the luxury product segment. Towards mid 1990s. the S. etc. retailing (not organised retailing as we see today) was essentially dominated by manufacturers such as Bata. the international food retail brands made debut in India led by the likes of Mc Donald’s. to expand pan India presence for instance pantaloons.) Mostly through joint ventures. Post 1990 the business opportunities in organized retail sector seemed more lucrative. Government initiatives included super bazaar and mother dairy outlets. Versace. Gucci. Bombay dyeing.
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. shopper’s stop and lifestyle.Organised retailing
Even in later years.
Though the journey so far has been mixed.
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. Retail has undergone significant alignment during slow down. with a size of $500 billion and has been growing at 7% per annum. Organized retail just accounts for 5% of total sales and has been growing at healthy pace of 35% (compounded annual growth rate). RETAIL ROAD MAP India is the fifth largest retail market globally. which is resulting in increased sales growth and profitability.Organised retailing
9. organised retail is being tipped as one of the biggest gainers from
growing consumerism and rising affordability.
Music & gifts : Depot Health & Beauty Care: Star. it has more than 5 million sq. Collection-i Consumer Electronics : e-zone Shoes :shoe factory Books. Headquartered in Mumbai. Furniture Bazaar.ft Retail space located across the country.Organised retailing
10. It has the following retail segments:
Food & Grocery: Big Bazaar. Sitara E-tailing: Futurebazaar.
• • • • • • •
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.ft by the year 2010. It’s growing at an enviable pace and is expected to reach 30 million sq. Food Bazaar. MAJOR RETAILERS IN INDIA Future Group’s: Pantaloon is one of the biggest retailers in India with more than 450 stores across the country. Home solutions : Hometown.com Entertainment: Bowling Co. In 2001 future group launched country’s first hypermarket ‘Big Bazaar’.
Following article will show how Sahara group plans to start retail chain. Peter England are quite popular.000 crores by 2010 AV Birla Group: AV Birla Group has a strong presence in Indian apparel retailing (Madura Garments).Organised retailing
Tata Group: Tata group is another Major Player in Indian retail industry with its subsidiary Trent. More than 300 reliance Fresh stores and Reliance Mart are quite popular in the Indian retail market. Established in 1998.
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. it also acquired the largest book and music retailer in India ‘Landmark’ in 2005. Trent owns over 4 lakh sq. Van Heusen. The brands like Louis Phillipe. which operates Westside and star India Bazaar. It’s also investing in other segments of retail. ft space across the country. Allen solly. Even Sahara group is entering in to retail business. Reliance: Reliance is one of the biggest players in Indian retail industry. It’s expecting its sales to reach Rs 90.
First floor temptations Maximum impulsive buying happens on the ground floor. If it has only ladies products. the woman is bound to venture into the stores. A mall is cleverly designed to bring out the shopaholic in consumers. And once a costumer enters the shop they are most likely to come out with a bag or a two. the guy is most likely to refrain from entering. In addition a lot of stuff that can be bought instinctively is placed near the cash counter. TACTICS USED BY ORGANISED RETAILER MALL VISIT I visited Oberoi mall and found how retailers attract the consumers to buy more and observed various strategies adopted by them. Stores that only have women or kids apparels are generally on first or the second floor. It is observed that when couple enters into a mall.
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. they are most likely to stick to the ground floor. But if it has goods that cater to both their needs there is no chance that men can escape it. As for men. Also.Organised retailing
11. The reason is that when it comes to shopping. This is why most of the big brands are spread across the ground floor in a mall. this floor typically has unisex stores. women are most likely to walk extra mile to find the goods of their choice.
Usually the most essential items like wheat. In the other scenario if supermarkets have garments and accessories also than all FMCG products are displayed towards the end.
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. So as consumers stop and wait for your turn to pay. So while they are moving from one escalator to another they are most likely to be drawn toward an inviting piece of garment or accessories. they start throwing little things in their trolley. Also the entry and the exit point for some of the stores are not the same. The same logic is at work even when it comes to grocery shopping in a supermarket. The more consumers look around the more they are likely to pick up something. rice and vegetables are placed inwards in the store to make sure that the consumers have to go through a large part of the store and thus their chances of making instinctive purchase go up.so that while consumers negotiate their way through that maze they actually remember everything that they need in their house.
Why food court always on top? The food court are always on the top floor because the most of the people who come to the mall want to grab a quick bite so in the process of reaching the top floor they travel the length n the breadth of the mall. The big retail wants consumers to take good look at the entire mall and that is why there are multiple escalators in the mall.Organised retailing
Experts say that these things are there to tempt consumers to buying resulting into impulsive purchase.
Smell and sound are substantially more potent anyone had even dreamed of. consumers will already be surfing the products. there is very little chance that they will let go off the product As experts say it automatically sends their mind the message that next time they come here. And the next moment consumers will be at the cash counter. But once customers spot an additional “offer limited” tag. It is explained in detail in coming pages. People may get same product of some
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. Even before they think. Sainsbury’s (a big retailer) open brand of fresh chilled juice was sitting next to the Tropicana at about half the price. they can end up shopping more.Organised retailing
Good smell makes consumers buy more Aroma therapy not only pampers of the consumers but also coaxes then to loosen their purse strings more than they thought was possible. limited offer As we know sales and discounts are the best at driving customers to a store. Discounts. This is done because consumers will obviously prefer cheaper products than those expensive once. All this helps to improve people’s mood and therefore. they will not find the same deal. And that is the reason why lots of mall have a florist shop or a cookie store or for that matter even a shop selling perfumes near their entrance. Pushing private labels The in-house brands of retailers are usually placed next to products which are twice as expensive. In Dalston. So a pleasant smell possibly can help in quickening up the speed of people to their favorite store. and the concentrated juice was almost six times cheaper than the Tropicana.
Higher. the salesman unleashes all his charm to lure them into to trying them on. The margins in the accessory category are phenomenal compared to others which mean that the retailers will never want you to miss this section.margin product display The reason why there are watches and accessory counters near the entrance is because the retailers want to make sure that consumers don’t miss them. Then starts the big dilemma to buy or not to buy. They are also referred to as “gift products” and the moment consumers see’s them.Organised retailing
other brand at a far cheaper price. For instance in the chocolate section you will always find Cadburys and ferrero rochers of the world placed in the upper shelves. right at the eye level. So they end up taking an impulsive decision and buy that product without checking similar products. The other logic behind this is that these products top the list in impulsive buying. Product placements in categories were their brand loyalty is not strong will have a different section arrangement then the rest. but the thing is that they never bother to check. People will find “kismi bar” and “parle toffees” that go unnoticed.
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. as these goods have phenomenal margin. Extended version of private brands is given in coming pages. But once you have picked up and examined the expensive yet exotic chocolates they land straight into trolley.
Card are of various types: point cards.Loyalty card scheme operates by awarding points according to customer spend on each transaction. member-only deals. cheap and versatile. These points are used for giving discounts for future/current purchase at store where earned. They are durable. Specially coded credit/debit cards or other special scanner-readable cards are issued which are “swiped” at point of sale.
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. They are used to attract customers and in retaining them. They resemble to debit and credit cards of banks yielding credibility and value. coalition/multi retailer cards.
For example: Shoppers’ Stop’s customer loyalty program is called The First Citizen. It is a mechanism for identifying and rewarding loyal customers”. co-branded cards. rebates at some threshold level of spending and /or eligibility to participate in lucky draw. store cards etc.Organised retailing
LOYALTY CARDS Loyalty cards are most common in retailing. The program offers its members an opportunity to collect points and avail of innumerable special benefits. Gifts. contest.
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. Shoppers’ Stop has a database of over 2. SUCCESS STORIES
Future Group’s Pantaloons: Future Group makes every effort to delight its customers.
12. our multi-format retail strategy caters to the complete consumption needs of a wide cross-section Lifestyle Style Value Helping India Save Home for Every Occasion of Indian consumers. They operate some of India’s most popular retail formats.5 lakh members who contribute to nearly 50% of the total sales of Shoppers’ Stop. tailoring store formats to changing Indian lifestyles and adapting products and services to their desires.Organised retailing
Currently. Across value and lifestyle segments.
ft Retail space located across the country. In 2001 Pantaloon launched country’s first hypermarket ‘Big Bazaar’. It’s growing at an enviable pace and is expected to reach 30 million sq. Food Bazaar and KB’s Fairprice formats
Pantaloon is one of the biggest retailers in India with more than 450 stores across the country. their strategy is based on a deep understanding of Indian consumers. their formats are household names in more than 85 cities and 60 rural locations across the country
Future Group’s stores cover around 15 million square feet of retail space and attract around 220 million customers each year
Pantaloon Retail (India) Limited focuses on the lifestyle retail segment led by the Pantaloons and Central formats
Future Value Retail focuses on the value retail segment through the Big Bazaar. in every store format.
Pioneers in the India’s retail space. and making these products available in every city.
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. it has more than 5 million sq.Organised retailing
Building Dreams in a New India Digital Connecting the Youth of India As modern retail drives fresh demand and consumption in new categories. Headquartered in Mumbai. the products they want. Future Group offers innovative offerings at affordable prices tailored to the needs of every Indian household.ft by the year 2011. It has the following retail segments: • Food & Grocery: Big Bazaar. Food Bazaar.
800 sq.In 1992.com Entertainment: Bowling Co. Bombay Blues.Organised retailing
• • • • • • • • •
Home solutions : Hometown. Collection-i Consumer Electronics : e-zone Life Style: Brand Factory. Gelato. Central. Sitara E-tailing: Futurebazaar. a letter (first hand source) from Ashna Biyani. chief insights officer would also support this chapter. organized retailing in India. as a ready-to-wear men's wear store.
Shoppers Stop Shoppers' Stop started professional. Furniture Bazaar. ladies wear
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. ft. It was the only retailer to hire graduates and place them in front line selling activities and was also one of the first few retailers to recruit from business schools. etc)
An article would support how Future group uses consumer insights.. Pantaloons Shoes :shoe factory Books: Music & gifts : Depot Health & Beauty Care: Star. Copper Chimney. Food: Blue foods (Cream centre. In 1991. the first Shoppers' Stop outlet opened in an area of 2.
The stores are spread over 629. sale of gift hampers. Hyderabad. Delhi. footwear. Currently 1. Chennai. In response to the ever-growing customer base. All buyers who became members of this programme were entitled to special privileges and benefits. Shoppers' Stop redefined the shopping experience in India by introducing the 'everythingunder-one-roof' format coupled with the convenience of cash & carry from a customerfriendly display of merchandise. gift vouchers and dress kits. Pune. Shoppers' Stop runs a chain of departmental stores offering apparel. institutional sales were introduced for corporate clients. jewellery and home products. Gurgaon and Kolkata.471 sq. cosmetics and watches. ft of retailing space with an average footfall of 50. at Bangalore in 1995.
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. Shoppers' Stop launched the first retail loyalty programme in April 1994.805 employees man its fourteen departmental stores in Mumbai. Shoppers' Stop expanded operations outside Mumbai with its second store. 1994 saw the launch of 'STOP' . Shoppers' Stop was now a complete department store.000 customers per day across the chain. Jaipur.the first in-house brand of merchandise. accessories. It is a strategy. This was followed by a store in Hyderabad in 1998.Organised retailing
was added and in 1993 the kids' section and accessories including jewellery. which has made Shoppers' Stop into a Rs. In August 1993. Bangalore. 4 billion (2003/04) organisation today. Shoppers' Stop next entered the Northern markets of Jaipur and New Delhi in 1999.
13. Big Bazaar and many more have entered India since the modern format retail concept began. We shall discuss about two of the biggest failures in the history of Indian retail – Subhiksha and Vishal Retail. Subhiksha.
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. More.13. Vishal Retail. FAILURES Reliance Fresh.Organised retailing
The company has aggressive expansion plans and is expected to continue to lead the growth of the organised retailing in India projected at Rs. The expanding middle and upper classes has played a big role in the expansion of existing modern format stores and entry of new ones.500 billion (Industry projections as per the India Retail Review by Knight Frank). The biggest question is “Have all of these stores been successful?” The answer is a big NO. Spencer’s.
there are some points of similarity in their fall from glory which I would like to mention here –
Un-mindful expansion spree across different parts of the country Subhiksha didn’t realize that with this only a few stores would be profitable and generate positive cash flows. But I believe that they got greedy as they expected a market correction. Both of them are discount stores at prices which are much lower than other retail outlets. an IIM A and IIT Chennai alumnus with its first store at Chennai. But it went for short term debt which resulted in a big blow to their entire supply chain when the stores didn’t happen as intended. Subhiksha has closed down and Vishal is still in the market. Vishal expanded without having the proper capital. Ram Chandra Aggarwal set up his Vishal Garments Store in 1994 – three years before Biyani’s Pantaloon and seven years before setting up Vishal Retail. the entire supply chain got choked. IPO problem Subhiksha was thinking of going for an IPO in 2007 but shelved it in view of “uncertain market conditions”. Though.
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. Subramaniam. It moved across different sectors such as medicine. IT. It had 50 stores by then and was looking to expand to 130 stores in a year. Vishal on the other hand raised Rs 110 crore from an IPO in June 2007 which wasn’t enough to meet it scorching growth pattern.Organised retailing
Subhiksha was started by R. mobile etc very fast. They got the orders from the suppliers but when the stores didn’t work out. grocery.
the stocks were out. Vishal’s distribution center led model failed as it couldn’t build an IT network. This led to situations where sometimes the store had very high inventory and at others. Subhiksha closed down in 2009 amid allegations of defaults. Private Labels Vishal tried to develop private labels in almost every category but had limited scale to support them.Organised retailing
Both of them didn’t consolidate Subhiksha and Vishal instead of stabilizing and consolidating themselves first in different places and then moving to newer locations. This led to great dissatisfaction. tried to be the first in every town.
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. Buying at warehouses was mostly not aligned to what the customers needed and resulted in dead inventory. The people behind it are still struggling to come up with valid explanations.
Poor inventory management Subhiksha had a bad history of credit defaults and this led to supply breakages. non – wages payments and bankruptcy.
Middle East and CIS. Product line consists of :
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. They still need an infusion of about Rs 50 crore.Organised retailing
Vishal has brought down the rentals of the properties. Kewal Kiran Clothing Limited today is amongst the few large branded apparel manufacturers in India. Semi-formal and casual wear for men and women. About Kewalkiran clothing limitedKiller. Lawman. Incorporated in 1981. manufactures and markets branded jeans. Integriti – leading brands in India are under the ownership of KEWALKIRAN CLOTHING LIMITED. The company has sales in Asia. Easies. FIELD STUDY I got an opportunity to visit retail stores of KEWALKIRAN CLOTHING LIMITED (KKCL) and counters of its brand at various national sales stores. The company designs. Would the lenders give them?
14. decreased its expenses and closed down two dozen stores and warehouses and plans to close more.
Today "Killer" is one of the most successful and widely recognized brands in the Indian apparel industry. washes and cuts. Innovation has been the hallmark of Kewal Kiran Clothing Limited A marriage of design and technology. marketing and branding. They all have
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The company began as a manufacturer of men’s wear for reputed brands. As part of my observation I concentrated on: a) Consumer insights. latest fashion. the company introduced “Killer” the first international denim brand created in India. Consumer insights: There has been change in trend where in consumers are no more that price sensitive but demands quality over price. design. The company’s own R & D team working closely with designers is constantly innovating – creating an exciting array of product lines in a variety of fabrics. using the latest in technology and processes. The company is exposed to global standards in quality.Organised retailing
Jeans Trousers Shirts
Jackets Tee Shirts Cargos & Capris
Innerwear (briefs & vests) Shoes & socks Accessories like bags. finishes and fabrics. belts. Moreover he gets attracted to the product as it is displayed. The company’s own manufacturing and processing set up enables it to have a speedy ‘go-to-market’ time frame – from design to production. Now a day’s all consumers need branded products. caps. In 1989. the company has constantly introduced new fits. He does not mind paying premium if he gets right quality. etc. technology. b) Visual merchandising.
The salesperson was showing him various type of jeans and asked that guy as to what kind of jeans he wants.g. latest fashion. price to compete with foreign brands.Organised retailing
become brand conscious. I had visited various retail stores of KKCL as a mystery shopper. The guy said that he wants something of latest fashion and jeans of good quality. Visual merchandising
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. This shows us that people do not mind paying premium price if given good quality products. The jeans which the sales person was showing was expensive and over the budget of that guy.: I observed a guy in the retail store of KKCL he had come there to buy jeans and pair of tshirts. He compromised on price but he didn’t compromise on quality and brand. This change has taken place because of various foreign brands coming in and rising competition. I observed on what basis consumers make their buying decision. But the guy went ahead and bought jeans which were bit expensive. The retailers in India need to concentrate on quality. For e.
price and of latest fashion only its display will attract the shoppers to buy. It sets the context of the merchandise in an aesthetically pleasing fahion.Organised retailing
Which one of the above will you prefer?
From the above pictures the first picture will obviously attract a consumer to buy because the merchandise is appealing to the eyes of the customer. They go for window shopping.And because of this reason merchandise should be displayed in such a manner that shoppers are attracted to buy. not necessary for the purpose of buying but if at all they like something they will go ahead and buy at that moment (shoppers phenomenon). Now a day’s people have converted into shoppers. Even though the merchandise displayed is of good quality. presenting them in a way that would convert the window shoppers into prospects and ultimately buyers of the product.
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. Hence visual merchandising is very important in retail.
since opening up of FDI would get foreign players like
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. Experts feel the ratio of organised retail to unorganised would be 1:4 by 2015. FUTURE PROSPECT
As mentioned earlier organised retail sector in India is poised to grow at a very healthy rate.
Clearance of FDI norms(upto51%) in multi brand retail is considered as a win-win situation.Organised retailing
Besides these benefits FDI. They generally tend to buy in bulk. etc. look out for varieties. sugarcane.. coffee beans. ask for high discounts and hence look forward to organised retailer who is tailor-made for such classes of people. social lifestyle. tea. Example: wheat. Increase in competition have made customers the king and he demands more even if he is asked to pay premium prices. personal touch.
Since the job culture in India is developing the group of salaried people are also increasing. proximity to reach destination would keep the existence of unorganised
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. this would increase the competition between retailers which would indirectly benefit customers.Carrefour. which is proposed to be worked out in a regulatory framework would include benefits for Indian farmers and manufacturers since the clauses in FDI policy would make it mandatory for foreign players to purchase certain amount of goods from Indian farmers and manufacturers. Tesco.
With change in retail dynamics consumer mind sets and buying behaviour are also set to change infact have started changing..
This policy would also enhance the forex reserve holding and ease out the pressure which otherwise would have been developed since the outflow (to foreign nations) of money would have been increased.
Even though organised retail is poised to grow at very healthy rate but factors like slow infrastructure development.Organised retailing
Wal-Mart(which till date is present only in cash n carry format in India).
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. But as mentioned above the growth rate of organised would be much ahead of unorganised sector. Hence we can safely conclude that Modern as well Traditional retail would go hand in hand at least for a decade to come.Organised retailing
sectors (mom and pop stores) in India. Primary data and field study collected in this project “ORGANISED RETAILING” also highlights the above points and fore sees the future path for organised retailing in India.