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Table of Contents 

Institute of Charted Financial Analyst of India

Final Evaluation for management thesis On Information Technology Security & Risk Management of Information Technology Systems Submitted To Mrs. Ekta Jain By Mr. Amit Ganesh Takkar (7NBMT029) SEM IV Second Year MBA 2007-09

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I (Amit Ganesh Takkar) student of ICFAI National College Thane (MBA Sem 4) hereby declare that the Final report is submitted by me in the academic year 2007-09. The Information submitted is true and original to
the best of my knowledge and available Information from Internet and other sources.

Amit Ganesh Takkar

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This is to certify that Mr. Amit Ganesh Takkar student of Sem-4 has satisfactorily completed the Final Evaluation Report titled “Information
Technology Security & Risk Management of Information
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Technology Systems.” &

that this interim report represents his bonafied work during the year 2007-09.

( Mrs .Ekta Jain)

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I am grateful to all the people who have contributed towards the completion of the project. I would like to thank all of them who have helped me for giving me the opportunity to work on this project. I would also like to take this opportunity to thank who gave me support throughout the project research and providing me with useful information.

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Table of Contents
Sr. No 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 4 Contents Introduction Overview Background Purpose Scope Methodology Organization IT Security Competency Area Data Security Data Forensics Enterprise Continuity Incident Management IT Security Training & Awareness IT System Operation & Maintenance Network Security & Telecommunications Personal Security Physical & Environment Security Procurement Regulatory & Standard Compliance Risk Management Strategic Management System & Application Security IT Security Essential Body of Knowledge Data Security Data Forensic Enterprise Continuity Incident Management IT Security Training &Awareness IT Systems Operations and Maintenance Network Security & Telecommunications Personal Security Physical & Environment Security Procurement Regulatory & Standards Compliance Risk Management Strategic Management System & Application Security Security Roles, Competencies & Functional Prespectives
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4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 5 6 7 8

Chief Information Officer Digital Forensics Professional Information Security Officer/Chief Security Officer IT Security Compliance Professional IT Security Engineer IT Systems Operations & Maintenance Professional IT Security Professional Physical Security Professional Privacy Professional Procurement Professional IT Security Role, Competency & Functional Matrix Case Study(1):
Case Study(2):

Appendix: List of Acronyms

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  1 Introduction :­  

Over the past two decades, the evolution of technology has quickened society’s  transformation to a digital environment. These advances have been nonlinear  and sometimes chaotic leading to disparities in the composition of the  information technology (IT) workforce. The Variation in training, expertise,  acumen, and experience is a natural consequence and is found in the myriad  of recruiting, education, and retention practices of employers. Since the very  beginning of the digital revolution, public and private organizations, leaders,  and experts have dedicated significant resources to developing the IT security  field of practice, yet disparities remain. Now more than ever, IT securities  professionals must be prepared to meet the challenges that exist today and in  the future. The convergence of voice and data communications systems, the  reliance of organizations on those systems, and the emerging threat of  sophisticated adversaries and criminals seeking to compromise those systems  underscores the need for well trained, well equipped IT security specialists.  Furthermore, the interconnectedness of government and industry through  shared infrastructures and services demonstrates the need for a universal  understanding across domains of the required roles, responsibilities, and  competencies of the IT security workforce. IT security must be a fundamental  strategic driver of an organization’s business or mission because it protects  against theft and hostile acts, has the potential of enhancing productivity, and  can improve organizational function and design. As the IT security field  matures, it requires qualified professionals to support increasingly  sophisticated security demands. In response to this challenge, the Department  of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division (DHS­NCSD) worked  with academia, government, and private sector experts to develop a high level  framework that establishes a national baseline representing the essential  knowledge and skills that IT security practitioners should possess to perform. 
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DHS­NCSD developed the IT Security Essential Body of Knowledge (EBK): A  Competency and Functional Framework for IT Security Workforce  Development as an umbrella document that links competencies and functional  perspectives to IT security roles fulfilled by personnel in the public and  private sectors. Potential benefits of the IT Security EBK for professional  development and workforce management initiatives include: • Articulating the functions that professionals within the IT security  workforce perform, in a context­neutral format and language. • Promoting uniform competency guidelines to increase the overall  efficiency of IT security education, training, and professional  development, and. • Providing a content guideline that can be leveraged to facilitate cost­ effective professional development of the IT workforce, including future  skills training and certifications, academic curricula, or other affiliated  human resource activities.  The IT Security EBK reflects the vast contribution of resources to date and  builds directly upon the work of established references and best practices  from the public and private sectors, which were used in the development  process and are reflected within the content of this document. The EBK is not  an additional set of guidelines, and it is not intended to represent a standard,  directive, or policy by DHS. Instead, it further clarifies key IT security terms  and concepts for well­defined competencies, identifies notional security roles,  defines four primary functional perspectives, and establishes an IT Security  Role, Competency, and Functional Matrix. This effort was launched to  advance the IT security training and certification landscape to help ensure  that we have the most qualified and appropriately trained IT security  workforce possible.

  1.2 Background :­  

The President’s Critical Infrastructure Protection Board (PCIPB) was  established in October of 2001 to recommend policies and to coordinate 
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programs for Protecting information systems for critical infrastructure, such  as the electrical grid and telecommunications systems. PCIPB was responsible  for performing key activities such as: collaborating with the private sector  and all levels of government, encouraging information sharing with  appropriate stakeholders, and coordinating incident response. All of these  activities involve IT security and require qualified professionals to support  increasingly complex demands.  Knowing that IT security workforce development was an issue requiring a  focused strategy, the PCIPB created the IT Security Certification Working  Group (ITSC­WG). This group was tasked to examine possible approaches to  developing and sustaining a highly skilled IT security workforce, such as  establishing a national IT security certification process. In 2003, the President  released the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace, which provides direction  for strengthening cyber security. The National Strategy was created to  “engage and empower Americans to secure the portions of cyberspace that  they own, operate, control, or with which they interact.” It acknowledged that,  “securing cyberspace is a difficult strategic challenge that requires  coordinated and focused effort from our entire society, the Federal  government, State and local governments, the private sector, and the  American people.” DHS­NCSD was also established in 2003 to act as a  national focal point for cyber security, facilitate the implementation of the  National Strategy, and coordinate cyber security efforts across the Nation.   A key recommendation from the PCIPB’s ITSC­WG work is addressed in the  National Strategy as the foundation for recommendations on IT security  certifications, listed in Priority III of the Strategy. Specifically,  action/recommendation (A/R) 3/9 states:   DHS will encourage efforts that are needed to build foundations for the   development of security certification programs that will be broadly accepted by   the public and private sectors. DHS and other federal agencies can aid these   efforts by effectively articulating the needs of the federal IT security community.  DHS­NCSD established the Training and Education (T/E) Program to lead  this effort, among others, in the area of IT security workforce development. 
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  1.3 Purpose:­  

The IT Security EBK acknowledges the vast contribution of various  stakeholders to IT security training and professional development and seeks  to articulate a path to better align those efforts within a unifying framework.  For instance, over the last several years, the T/E Program has worked with  DoD, academia, and private sector leaders in the IT and information security  fields to arrive at the conclusion that while many worthwhile, well­regarded  IT security certifications exist, these certifications have been developed  according to varying criteria based on the focus of each certifying  organization and its own market niche. It is challenging to identify, with certainty, which certifications validate which  workforce competencies and which certifications would be the best choice to  confirm or build the strengths of those individuals serving in various IT  security roles. Resolving these concerns has been the goal of the T/E  Program’s certification­related work. As a result of this complexity and  uncertainty, in 2006 the T/E Program assembled a working group from  academia, the private sector, and the Federal government to develop a  competency­based, functional framework that linked competency areas and  functions to IT security roles fulfilled by personnel regardless of sector. The  EBK framework provides the following outcomes:  Articulates the functions that professionals within the IT security workforce  perform, in a common format and language that conveys the work, rather  than the context in which work is performed (i.e., private sector, government,  higher education); Provides a reference against which to compare the content  of IT security certifications, which have been developed independently  according to varying criteria; Offers one way to further substantiate the wide  acceptance of existing certifications so that they can be leveraged  appropriately as credentials; and Provides a content guideline that can be  used to facilitate cost­effective professional development of the IT workforce,  including skills training, academic curricula, or additional human resource  activities. 
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The IT Security EBK is a resource that can be used by organizations for workforce  development and planning, by certification consumers for personal development,  and by other groups as they find it useful within their programs. This draft  document is not mandated by existing policy and it should be viewed as a  complement to existing, widely­used models for describing IT security processes  such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) or Committee on  National Security Systems (CNSS) guidance on IT security training. These resources  were used, along with other widely accepted references from the public and private  sectors, during the development process and are reflected within the content of this  document. The IT Security EBK framework is intended to conceptualize IT security  skill requirements in a new way to address evolving IT security challenges. DHS­NCSD provides the IT Security EBK as a product for use across the public and  private sectors. It will be revised over time, with input from subject matter experts  (SMEs), to ensure it remains a useful, contemporary resource for the community.

  1.4 Scope:­  

The development of the competency and functional framework was an iterative  process involving close collaboration with SMEs from academia, industry, and  government. Figure 1­1 identifies the process followed in preparing the Framework  and each step is described below, followed by a description of the IT Security EBK  review cycle. Figure 1­1: Competency and Functional Framework Development Process 
   Step 1  : Develop Notional Competencies Using DoD Information Assurance 

  1.5 Methodology:­  

Skill Standard (IASS). The DoD IASS was a core document used to shape the  competency areas and functions captured in the IT Security Competency and  Functional Framework. The IASS was developed by the Defense­wide IA  Program (DIAP) as part of the DoD 8570­Workforce Improvement Program.  DHS­NCSD participated in working groups conducted by DoD in a similar  effort of culling public and private sector resources; DoD’s goal for its own 
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workforce through the IASS is similar to the national level goal of the IT  Security EBK: “to define a common language for describing IA work  and work components, in order to provide commercial certification providers  and training vendors with targeted information to enhance their learning  offerings.”  The DoD IASS describes IA work within DoD according to 53 critical work  functions (noted as CWF in Figure 1­1), each of which contains multiple  tasks. To begin creating a framework for DHS­NCSD, the DoD IASS  document was reverse­engineered to arrive at a set of technical competency  areas to which the 53 critical work functions and tasks aligned. Each technical  competency area was given a functional statement/definition to clarify the  boundaries of what would be included in each area.    Step 2  : Identify Functions/CWFs and Map to Competencies. Once the  competencies were developed, the critical work functions were remapped  according to the competency area structure. A multitude of IT security  documents were then analyzed to identify additional functions associated with  each competency area. These documents included NIST standards, CNSS  role­based training standards, International Organization for  Standardization (ISO) standards, widely­used private sector models such as  Control Objectives for Information and related Technology (COBIT), Systems  Security Engineering (SSE) Capability Maturity Model (CMM), and others.  Data was captured as functions rather than as job tasks, so that the  terminology and procedural specificity of the sector from which the data was  gathered could be replaced by more general language that would apply to all  sectors.    Step 3  : Identify Key Terms and Concepts per Competency Area. This step of  development entailed identifying key terms and concepts that represent the  knowledge required of professionals to perform the functions within each  competency area. The key terms and concepts from all of the competency  areas make up the Essential Body of Knowledge (EBK) for IT security (refer  to Section 3) which reflects the set of terms, topics, and concepts that one  should be familiar with to be a conversant generalist in the IT security field. 
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The scope of professional responsibility of practitioners performing IT  security functions varies considerably, and knowledge of key terms and  concepts is fundamental to performance. Therefore, individuals should know,  at minimum, the key terms and concepts that are part of the competencies to  which their role is mapped. In nearly all cases, each key term or concept was  assigned to only one competency. In some instances, concepts with wider  impact across IT security were included in multiple competencies (e.g.,  privacy).     Step 4:   Identify Notional IT Security Roles. After the competencies were  adequately populated with functions based on source document analysis, a set  of notional roles performed by individuals in the IT security field were  identified. Again, roles were chosen rather than job titles to eliminate sector­ specific language and to succinctly capture the multitude of IT security  positions in a way that would allow the practitioner to easily identify his or  her role. For example, an IT Security Compliance Officer is defined as a role,  while the applicable job titles might include auditor, compliance officer,  inspector general, or inspector.    Step 5  : Categorize Functions by Perspective (Manage, Design, Implement, or  Evaluate). After roles were identified, the competencies were revisited and the  work functions within each competency were divided into four functional  perspectives. It is important to note that the perspectives do not convey a  lifecycle concept of task or program execution, as is typical of a traditional  system development life cycle (SDLC). The functional perspectives are used to  segment the full set of functions within a competency area into four categories  containing functions of a similar nature. The functional perspectives are  defined as follows:  a) Manage: Functions that concern overseeing a program or technical  aspect of a security program at a high level and ensuring its currency  with changing risk and threat.  b) Design: Functions that concern scoping a program or developing  procedures and processes that guide work execution at the program  and/or system level. 
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c) Implement: Functions that concern putting programs, processes, or 

policy into action within an organization, either at the program or  system level.  d) Evaluate: Functions that concern assessing the effectiveness of a  program, policy, or process in achieving its objectives. 
   Step 6  : Map Roles to Competencies to Functional Perspectives. The final step 

in developing the competency and functional framework was to map roles to  appropriate sets of competencies and to identify the specific functional  perspective that contains the work that the role would perform. This activity  created the IT Security Role, Competency, and Functional Matrix, as  illustrated in Section 5. A conceptual, visual depiction of the mapping is  shown in Figure 1­2. When a role is mapped to a competency, and to a  functional perspective within that competency, it means that the role  performs all of the functions within the perspective. For example, an IT  Security Professional who develops procedures related to incident  management is mapped to a Design function within the Incident Management  competency area and would perform the work within the Design functional  perspective. The premise behind the mapping and the competency and  functional framework is that work conducted by the IT security workforce is  complex, and not all work in a given area is performed by a single role. By  contrast, the work—from creating the strategy for a component of the IT  security program, to developing a program’s procedures and scope, to  performing hands­on implementation work, to evaluating the work’s  effectiveness—is performed by a team of individuals with different  responsibilities and spans of control. Instead of all roles being responsible for  knowing all areas of IT security and being able to perform all job tasks,  individual roles are associated with a subset of competencies to represent the  work performed as part of the IT security team. The type of work performed  is resolved through the four functional perspectives by role across a series of  technical competency areas. It is these functions that an individual should be 

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evaluated on if a role­based certification truly measures the ability of a given  individual to perform.  Figure 1­2: Roles to Competencies to Functions Mapping Diagram Review  Cycle. The conceptual framework was shared with focus groups comprised of  SMEs representing the private sector, government, and academia. The focus  groups analyzed the framework to ensure that the competencies, key terms  and concepts, and the roles were complete and fully incorporated all aspects  of the IT security discipline. Feedback was incorporated into a draft  framework, which was then presented to another larger working group. The  working group, which included both IT security generalists and SMEs  representing specific roles, reviewed the functional perspectives for each  competency and role mapping. This information was compiled to create the  first draft in December 2006. DHS­NCSD introduced the first draft to a  broader audience of SMEs in January 2007, including members of the  Federal training and education community. This activity was followed by a  series of supplementary role­based focus groups to ensure that the respective  competencies and functional perspectives fully represent the specific role  types. A broader review process will continue through Fall 2007, leveraging  professional associations, industry conferences, sector­specific organizations,  and the Federal Register for public review and comment. DHS­NCSD will  then aggregate the additional input into the IT Security EBK and a final  product is expected to be released in Winter 2008. The IT Security EBK: A  Competency and Functional Framework for IT Security Workforce  Development will then be reevaluated to ensure relevancy and timeliness  approximately every two years. 

  1.6 Organization:­  

The remaining sections of this document are organized as follows: 

  Section 2: IT Security Competency Areas.   

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This section contains the fourteen competency areas, along with their  functional statements/definitions and all work functions categorized by four  functional perspectives as Manage, Design, Implement, or Evaluate.    •   Section 3: The IT Security Essential Body of Knowledge.    This section contains a full, consolidated list of the terms and concepts  associated with each IT security competency area. Key Terms and Concepts  identify the knowledge that professionals should know to be conversant in the  field of IT Security and to perform required work functions.

  Section 4: IT Security Roles, Competencies and Functional Perspectives.   

This section includes a listing of the ten roles that characterize the IT security  field, as well as the related functional perspectives and competencies. Sample job  titles are identified for each role to clarify which job titles align with which role and  to allow the individual consumer to identify where his or her role may fit within the  framework. 

•   Section 5: IT Security Role, Competency, and Functional Matrix.    This section contains a visual depiction of the relationship between roles,  competencies, and functions clarifying the competencies and perspectives associated  with each role.    Appendix: List of Acronyms.   This section lists and defines all of the acronyms contained in the IT Security  EBK. 

  IT Security Competency Areas (Definitions and Functions).    This section contains the fourteen competency areas, along with their  affiliated functional statements/definitions and all work functions categorized  as Manage, Design, Implement, or Evaluate.
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∇  2.1 Data Security:­  
It refers to the application of the principles, policies, and procedures necessary to  ensure the confidentiality, integrity, availability, and privacy of data in all forms of  media (electronic and hardcopy) throughout the data life cycle. 

Ensure that security classification and data management policies and guidance are  issued and updated Specify policy and coordinate review and approval Report  compliance to data security policies Provide oversight Implement appropriate  changes and improvement actions as required 

  2.1.1 Manage:­  

Develop the data security policy using data security standards, guidelines, and  requirements that include privacy, access, incident management, disaster recovery,  and configuration Identify and document the appropriate level of protection for the  data Specify information classification, sensitivity, and need­to­know requirements  by data or data type Create data user authentication and authorization system data  access levels and privileges. Develop acceptable use procedures in support of the  data security policy. Develop sensitive data collection and management procedures  in accordance with standards, procedures, directives, policies, regulations, and laws.  Identify appropriate set of information security controls based on perceived risk of compromise to the data.

  2.1.2 Design:­  

Perform the data access management process according to established guidelines.  Apply and maintain data security controls and processes in accordance with data  security policy, guidelines, and requirements. Apply media controls and processes. Apply and verify data security access controls and privileges. Address alleged  violations of data security and privacy breaches. Apply and maintain privacy  controls in accordance with privacy guidance in accordance with standards,  procedures, directives, policy, regulations, and laws.

  2.1.3 Implement     :­ 

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Assess the effectiveness of the enterprise data security policies, processes, and  procedures against established standards, guidelines, and requirements and suggest  changes where appropriate. Evaluate the effectiveness of products and technologies  implemented to provide the required protection of data. Review alleged violations of  data security and privacy breaches. Identify improvement actions required to  maintain appropriate level of data protection.   It refers to the knowledge and understanding of digital investigation and analysis  techniques used for recovering, authenticating, and analyzing electronic data to  reconstruct events related to security incidents. Such activities require building a  digital knowledge base.  The investigative process is composed of three phases: acquire, analyze, and report.    Acquire the necessary contractual vehicle and resources, including financial  resources, to run forensic labs and programs. Coordinate and build internal and  external consensus for developing and managing an organizational digital forensic  program. Establish a digital forensic team, usually composed of investigators, IT  professionals, and incident handlers, to perform digital and network forensics. Provide adequate work spaces that at a minimum take in to account electrical,  thermal, acoustic, and privacy concerns (i.e., intellectual properties, classification,  contraband) and security requirements (including access control) of equipment and  personnel as well as provide adequate report writing/administrative areas  Implement appropriate changes and improvement actions as required

  2.1.4 Evaluate:­  

∇   2.2 Digital Forensics:­  

  2.2.1 Manage:­  

Create policies and procedures for establishing and/or operating a digital forensic  unit in accordance with standards, procedures, directives, policy, regulations, and  law. Establish policies for the imaging (bit for bit copying) of electronic media 
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  2.2.2 Design:­  

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Specify hardware and software requirements to support the digital forensic  program. Establish the hardware and software requirements (configuration  management) of the forensic laboratory. Develop policies for the preservation of  electronic evidence, data recovery and analysis, reporting and archival requirements  of examined material in accordance with standards, procedures, directives, policy,  regulations, and laws. Consider establishing examiner requirements that include an ongoing mentorship  program, competency testing prior to assuming individual case responsibilities,  periodic proficiency testing, and participation in a nationally recognized  certification program that encompasses a continuing education requirement Adopt or create a chain of custody procedures that include disposal procedures and  when required, the return of media to its original owner in accordance with  standards, procedures, directives, policy, regulations, and law.

Assist in collecting and preserving evidence in accordance with established  procedures, plans, policies, and best practices. Perform forensic analysis on  networks and computer systems and make recommendations for remediation  Apply, maintain, and analyze results from intrusion detection systems, intrusion  prevention systems, network mapping software, and other tools to protect, detect,  and correct information security­related vulnerabilities and events. Follow proper  chain­of­custody best practices in accordance with standards, procedures, directives,  policy, regulations, and law. Collect and retain audit data to support technical  analysis relating to misuse, penetration reconstruction, or other investigations.  Provide audit data to appropriate law enforcement or other investigating agencies to  include corporate security elements. Assess and extract the relevant pieces of  information from the collected data. Report contains complete and accurate findings  and the result of analysis of digital evidence to appropriate resources. Coordinate  dissemination of forensic analysis findings to appropriate resources. Provide  training, as appropriate, on using forensic analysis equipment, technologies, and  procedures, such as the installation of forensic hardware and software components.  Acquire and manage a Standard Operating Environment (SOE) (baseline standard) 
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  2.2.3 Implement:­    

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of company or agency computer footprint. Coordinate applicable legal and  regulatory compliance requirements. Coordinate, interface and work under the  direction of appropriate corporate entities (e.g., corporate legal, corporate  investigations) with regard to investigations or other legal requirements, including  investigations that involve external governmental entities (e.g., international,  national, state, local)

Ensure the effectiveness and accuracy of forensic tools used by digital forensic  examiners and implement changes as required. Assess the effectiveness, accuracy  and appropriateness of testing processes and procedures that are followed by the  forensic laboratories and teams and suggest changes where appropriate. Assess the  digital forensic staff to ensure that they have the appropriate knowledge, skills, and  abilities to perform forensic activities. Validate the effectiveness of the analysis and  reporting process and implement changes where appropriate. Review and  recommend standard validated forensic tools. Assess the digital forensic laboratory  quality assurance program, monitor, peer review process, audit and proficiency  testing procedures and implement changes where appropriate. Examine penetration  testing and vulnerability analysis results to identify risks and implement patch  management. Identify improvement actions based on the results of validation,  assessment, and review.

  2.2.4 Evaluate:­  

Refers to the application of the principles, policies, and procedures used to ensure an  enterprise continues to perform essential business functions after the occurrence of  a wide range of potential catastrophic events. For the purposes of the IT Security  EBK, Enterprise Continuity relates to IT assets and resources and associated IT  security requirements. 

∇   2.3 Enterprise Continuity:­  

Coordinate with corporate stakeholders to establish the enterprise continuity of  operations program. Acquire the necessary resources, including financial resources, 
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  2.3.1 Manage:­  

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to conduct an effective enterprise continuity of operations program. Define the  enterprise continuity of operations organizational structure and staffing model.  Define emergency delegations of authority and orders of succession for key  positions. Direct contingency planning, operations, and programs to manage risk Define the scope of the enterprise continuity of operations program to address  business continuity, business recovery, contingency planning, and disaster recovery  and related activities. Integrate enterprise concept of operations activities with  related contingency planning activities. Establish an enterprise continuity of  operations performance measurement program. Identify and prioritize critical  business functions. Implement appropriate changes and improvement actions as  required.

  2.3.2 Design:­  

1. Develop strategic policy for the organization’s continuity of operations. 2. Develop an enterprise continuity of operations plan and procedures. 3. Develop and maintain enterprise continuity of operations documentation such  as contingency, business continuity, business recovery, disaster recovery, and  incident handling plans. 4. Develop a comprehensive test, training, and exercise program to evaluate and  validate the readiness of enterprise continuity of operations plans,  procedures, and execution. 5. Prepare internal and external continuity of operations communications  procedures and guideline.

Execute the enterprise continuity of operations and related contingency plans and  procedures. Control access to information assets during an incident in accordance  with the organizational policy. Execute crisis management tests, training, and  exercises and apply lessons learned from them.

  2.3.3 Implement:­  

  2.3.4 Evaluate:­  
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Review test, training and exercise results to determine areas for process  improvement and recommend changes as appropriate. Assess the effectiveness of the  enterprise continuity program, processes, and procedures and implement changes  where appropriate. Continuously validate the organization against additional  mandates, as developed, to ensure full compliance. Collect and report performance  measures and identify improvement actions.

Refers to the knowledge and understanding of the process to prepare and prevent,  detect, contain, eradicate, and recover, and apply lessons learned from incidents  impacting the mission of an organization.

∇   2.4 Incident Management:­  

Coordinate with stakeholders to establish the incident management program.  Establish relationships between the incident response team and other groups, both  internal (e.g., legal department) and external (e.g., law enforcement agencies,  vendors, and public relations Professionals). Acquire and manage the resources,  including financial resources, for the incident management functions. Ensure the  coordination between the incident response team and the security administration  and technical support teams. Apply lessons learned from information security  incidents to improve incident management processes and procedures. Implement  appropriate changes and improvement actions as required.

  2.4.1 Manage:­  

Develop the incident management policy. Identify the services the incident response  team should provide. Create incident response plans in accordance with security  policy and organizational goals. Develop procedures for performing incident  handling and reporting. Create incident response exercises and red teaming  activities. Develop specific processes for collecting and protecting forensic evidence  during incident response. Specify the incident response staffing and training  requirements. Establish incident management measurement program
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  2.4.2 Design:­  

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  2.4.3 Implement:­   

• Apply response actions in reaction to security incidents in accordance  with established policy, plans, and procedures.  • Respond to and report incidents.  • Assist in collecting, processing, and preserving evidence according to  standards, procedures, directives, policy, regulations, and law Monitor  the network and information systems for intrusions.  • Execute incident response plans Execute red teaming activities and  incidence response exercises. • Ensure lessons learned from incidents are collected in a timely manner  and are incorporated into plan reviews.  • Collect, analyze, and report incident management measures.

  2.4.4 Evaluate:­  

• Assess the efficiency and effectiveness of the incident response program  activities and implement changes as required. • Examine the effectiveness of red teaming and incident response tests,  training, and exercises. • Assess the effectiveness of communications between incident response  team and related internal and external organizations and implement  changes where appropriate. • Identify incident management improvement actions based on  assessments of effectiveness.

It refers to the principles, practices, and methods required to raise employee  awareness about basic information security, and to train individuals with  information security roles to increase their knowledge, skills and abilities.  Training activities are designed to instruct workers about their security  responsibilities and teach them about information security processes and  procedures so duties are performed optimally and securely within related 
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∇   2.5 IT Security Training and Awareness:­  

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environments. Awareness activities present essential information security  concepts to the workforce in order to change user behavior.     2.5.1 Manage:­    • Identify business requirements and establish the enterprise­wide policy  for the IT security awareness and training program. • Acquire and manage the necessary resources, including financial  resources, to support the IT awareness and training program. • Set operational performance measures for training and delivery and  ensure that they are met. • Ensure the organization complies with IT security awareness and  training standards/requirements. • Implement appropriate improvement actions as required.

  2.5.2 Design:­  

• Develop the security awareness and training policy. • Define the goals and objectives of the IT security awareness and  training program. • Work with appropriate security subject­matter experts to ensure the  completeness and accuracy of the security training program. • Establish a tracking and reporting strategy for IT security training and  awareness. • Establish a change management process to ensure currency and  accuracy of training and awareness materials. • Develop a workforce development, training, and awareness program  plan.


  2.5.3 Implement:­  

• Perform needs assessment to determine skill gaps and identify critical  needs based on mission requirements.

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• Develop new or identify existing awareness and training materials that  are appropriate and timely for the intended audiences. • Deliver awareness and training to the intended audiences based on  identified needs. • Update awareness and training materials when necessary. • Communicate the management commitment and importance of the IT  security awareness and training program to the workforce.

  2.5.4 Evaluate:­  

• Assess and evaluate the IT security awareness and training program  for compliance with corporate policy and measure performance of the  program against objectives. • Review the IT security awareness and training program materials and  recommend improvements. • Audit the awareness and training program to ensure that it meets the  organization’s stakeholder needs. • Ensure that information security personnel are receiving the  appropriate level and type of training. • Collect, analyze, and report performance measures.

∇  2.6  IT Systems Operations and Maintenance:­   
Refers to the ongoing application of principles, policies, and procedures to  maintain, monitor, control, and protect IT infrastructure and the information  residing on it during the operations phase of an IT system or application in  production.

  2.6.1 Manage:­   

• Establish the security administration program goals and objectives. • Monitor the security administration program budget. • Direct the security administration personnel. • Address security administration program risks.
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• Define the scope of the security administration program. • Establish communications between the security administration team  and other security­related personnel (e.g., technical support, incident  management). • Integrate the security administration team activities with other  security­related team activities (e.g., technical support, incident  management, security engineering). • Acquire the necessary resources, including financial resources, to  execute the security administration program. • Ensure operational compliance with applicable legislation, regulations,  standards, and policies. • Implement appropriate improvement actions, as required.

  2.6.2 Design:­  

• Develop security administration processes and procedures in  accordance with standards, procedures, directives, policy, regulations,  and laws. • Develop personnel, application, middleware, operating system,  hardware, network, facility, and egress security controls. • Develop security administration tests, test scripts, test criteria, and  testing procedures. • Develop security administration change management procedures to  ensure security policies and controls remain effective following a  change. • Recommend appropriate forensics sensitive policies into the enterprise  security plan.

  2.6.3 Implement:­  

Perform security administration processes and procedures in  accordance with standards, procedures, directives, policy, regulations,  and law.

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• Establish a secure computing environment by applying, monitoring,  controlling, and managing security controls. • Ensure that information systems are assessed regularly for  vulnerabilities and that appropriate solutions to eliminate or otherwise  mitigate identified vulnerabilities are implemented. • Monitor IT security performance measures to ensure optimal system  performance. • Perform security performance testing and reporting and recommend  security solutions in accordance with standards, procedures, directives,  policy, regulations, and law. • Perform security administration changes and validation testing. • Identify, control, and track all IT security configuration items. • Collaborate with the technical support, incident management, and  security engineering teams to develop, implement, control, and manage  new security administration technologies. • Monitor vendor agreements and Service Level Agreement’s (SLA) to  ensure that contract and performance measures are achieved. • Establish and maintain controls and surveillance routines to monitor  and control conformance to all applicable information security laws  and regulations.  

  2.6.4 Evaluate:­  

• Review strategic security technologies. • Review the performance and correctness of applied security controls in  accordance with standards, procedures, directives, policy, regulations,  and law and apply corrections as required. • Assess the performance of security administration measurement  technologies. • Assess system and network vulnerabilities. • Assess compliance with standards, procedures, directives, policy,  regulations, and law.

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Identify improvement actions based on reviews, assessments, and other  data sources.

∇  2.7 Network Security and Telecommunications:­  
Refers to the application of the principles, policies, and procedures involved in  ensuring the security of basic network services and data and in maintaining  the hardware layer on which it resides. These practices address perimeter  defense strategies, defense­in­depth strategies, and data encryption  techniques.

  2.7.1 Manage     :­ 

• Establish a network security and telecommunications program in line  with enterprise policy and security goals. • Manage the necessary resources, including financial resources, to  establish and maintain an effective network security and  telecommunications program. • Direct network security and telecommunications personnel. • Define the scope of the network security and telecommunications  program. • Establish communications between the network security and  telecommunications team and related security teams (e.g., technical  support, security administration, incident response). • Integrate network security and telecommunications program activities  with technical support, security administration, and incident response  activities. • Establish a network security and telecommunications performance  measurement program. • Ensure enterprise compliance with applicable network­based  standards, procedures, directives, policies, regulations, and laws.  • Ensure that network­based audits and management reviews are  conducted to implement process improvement.  • Implement appropriate improvement actions, as required. 
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  2.7.2 Design:­  

• Develop network and host­based security policies in accordance with  standards, procedures, directives, policies, regulations, and laws. • Specify strategic security plans for network telecommunications in  accordance with established policy to meet organizational security goals. • Develop network security and telecommunications operations and  maintenance standard operating procedures. • Develop network security test plans and procedures in accordance with  standards, procedures, directives, policies, regulations, and laws.  • Generate network security performance reports. • Develop network security and telecommunication audit processes and  procedures. 

  2.7.3 Implement     :­ 

• •

• • • •

Prevent and detect intrusions and protect against viruses. Perform audit tracking and reporting.  Create, develop, apply, control, and manage effective network domain  security controls in accordance with enterprise, network, and host­ based policies.  Test strategic network security technologies for effectiveness;  incorporate controls that ensure compliance with the enterprise,  network and host­based security policies.  Monitor and assess network security threats and issues. Gather technical data and monitor and assess network vulnerabilities. Correct network security vulnerabilities in response to problems  identified in vulnerability reports. Provide real­time network intrusion response. Determine whether or not antivirus systems are in place and operating  correctly.

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Ensure that messages are confidential and free from tampering and  repudiation. • Defend network communications from tampering and/or  eavesdropping.

  2.7.4 Evaluate:­  

• Perform a network security evaluation, calculate risks to the enterprise, and  recommend remediation activities. • Ensure that appropriate solutions to eliminate or otherwise mitigate  identified vulnerabilities are implemented effectively. • Arrange independent verification and validation of the network to assess full  satisfaction of functional requirements. • Compile data into measures for analysis and reporting.

  2.8Personnel Security     :­ 

It refers to methods and controls used to ensure that an organization’s selection  and application of human resources (both employee and contractor) are  controlled to promote security. Personnel security controls are used to prevent  and detect employee­caused security breaches such as theft, fraud, misuse of  information, and noncompliance. The controls include organization/functional  design elements such as separation of duties, job rotation, and determining  position sensitivity.

  2.8.1 Manage:­  

• Coordinate with IT security, physical security, operations security, and  other organizational managers to ensure a coherent, coordinated  approach to security across the organization.  • Acquire and manage the necessary resources, including financial  resources, to manage and maintain the personnel security program. 
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• Establish objectives for the personnel security program relative to the  overall security goals for the enterprise. • Ensure compliance through periodic audits of methods and controls. • Ensure personnel security is a component of enterprise continuity of  operations. • Direct the ongoing operations of the personnel security program. • Implement appropriate improvement actions, as required.

  2.8.2 Design:­   

• Establish personnel security processes and procedures for individual  job roles.  • Establish procedures to coordinate with other organizations to ensure  common processes are aligned. • Establish personnel security standards to which external suppliers  (e.g., vendors, contractors) must conform. 

  2.8.3Implement:­   

• Coordinate within the personnel security office or with Human  Resources to ensure that position sensitivity is established prior to the  interview process and that appropriate background screening and  suitability requirements are identified for each position. • Coordinate within the personnel security office or with Human  Resources to ensure background investigations are processed based on  the level of trust and position sensitivity.  • Review, analyze, and adjudicate reports of investigations, personnel  files, and other records to determine whether to grant, deny, revoke,  suspend, or restrict clearances consistent with national security and/or  suitability issues.  • Coordinate with physical security and IT security operations personnel  to ensure that employee access to physical facilities, media, and IT  systems and networks is modified or terminated upon reassignment,  change of duties, resignation, or termination.
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Exercise oversight of personnel security program appeals procedures to  verify that the rights of individuals are being protected according to  law.  • Periodically review the personnel security program for compliance with  standards, procedures, directives, policy, regulations, and law. 

   2.8.4 Evaluate:­   • Review the effectiveness of the personnel security program and  recommend changes that will improve internal practices and/or  security organization­wide. • Assess the relationships between personnel security procedures and  organization­wide security needs and make recommendations for  improvement. • Periodically assess the personnel security program for compliance with  standards, procedures, directives, policies, regulations, and laws.  

∇  2.9 Physical and Environmental Security:­  
Refers to the methods and controls used to proactively protect an organization  from natural or manmade threats to physical facilities and buildings, as well  as to the physical locations where IT equipment is located or work is  performed (e.g., computer rooms, work locations). Physical and  environmental security protects an organization’s personnel, electronic  equipment, and information.  

  2.9.1 Manage:­  

• Coordinate with personnel managing IT security, personnel security,  operations security, and other security program areas to provide an  integrated and coherent security effort.  • Acquire the necessary resources, including financial resources, to  support an effective physical security program.  • Establish a physical security performance measurement system.
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Establish a program to determine the value of physical assets and their  impact if unavailable. • Implement appropriate improvement recommendations, as required.
•    2.9.2 Design  :­  • •

• •

Identify the physical security program requirements and specifications  in relationship to the enterprise security goals. Develop the policies and procedures for identifying and mitigating  physical and environmental threats to information assets, personnel,  facilities, and equipment. Develop a physical security and environmental security plan, including  security test plans and contingency plans, in coordination with other  security planning functions. Develop countermeasures against identified risks and vulnerabilities. Develop criteria for inclusion in the acquisition of facilities, equipment,  and services that impact physical security.

  2.9.3 Implement:­   
• •

Apply physical and environmental controls in support of the physical  security plan. Control access to information assets in accordance with standards,  procedures, directives, policy, regulations, and law. Integrate physical security concepts into test plans, procedures, and  exercises.   Conduct threat and vulnerability assessments to identify physical and  environmental risks and vulnerabilities then update the applicable  controls as necessary. Review construction projects to ensure that appropriate physical  security and protective design features are incorporated into the  design.


  2.9.4 Evaluate     :­ 
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• Assess and evaluate the overall effectiveness of the physical and  environmental security policy and controls and make recommendations  for improvement.  • Review incident data and make process improvement  recommendations.  • Assess the effectiveness of physical and environmental security control  testing. • Evaluate acquisitions that have physical security implications and  report findings to management. • Compile, analyze, and report performance measures. 

∇  2.10 Procurement:­  
It refers to the application of principles, policies, and procedures required  planning, applying, and evaluating the purchase of IT products or services,  including "risk­based" pre­solicitation, solicitation, source selection, award,  and monitoring, disposal, and other post­award activities. Procurement  activities may consist of the development of procurement and contract  administration documents that include, but are not limited to, procurement  plans, estimates, requests for information, requests for quotes, requests for  proposals, statements of work, contracts, cost­benefit analyses, evaluation  factors for award, source selection plans, incentive plans, service level  agreements, justifications required by policies or procedures, and contract  administration plans.  

  2.10.1 Manage     :­ 

• Collaborate with various stakeholders (which may include internal  client, lawyers, Chief Information Officer (CIO), Chief Information  Security Officer, IT Security Professional, Privacy Professional,  Security Engineer, suppliers, and many others) on the procurement of  IT security products and services.
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• • • •

Ensure the inclusion of risk­based IT security requirements in  acquisition plans, cost estimates, statements of work, contracts, and  evaluation factors for award, service level agreements, and other  pertinent procurement documents. Ensure that suppliers understand the importance of IT security. Conduct detailed IT investment reviews and security analyses and  review IT investment business cases for security requirements.  Ensure that organization’s IT contracts do not violate laws and  regulations, and require compliance with standards when applicable. Specify policies for the use of third party information by  vendors/partners and connection requirements and acceptable use  policies for vendors that connect to networks. Implement appropriate improvement recommendations, if required.

   2.10.2 Design     :­ 

Develop contracting language that mandates the incorporation of IT  security requirements in information services, IT integration services,  IT products, and information security product purchases.  • Develop contract administration policies that direct the evaluation and  acceptance of  delivered IT security products and services under a  contract, as well as the security evaluation of IT and software being  procured. • Develop measures and reporting standards to measure and report on  key objectives in procurements aligned with IT security policies and  procedures.  • Develop a vendor management policy and associated program that  implements policy with regard to use of third party information and  connection requirement and acceptable use policies for vendors who  connect to corporate networks. Include due diligence activities to  ensure that vendors are operationally and technically competent to  receive third party information and to connect and communicate with  corporate networks. 
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   2.10.3 Implement:­   • Include IT security considerations as directed by policies and  procedures in procurement and acquisition activities.  • Negotiate final deals (e.g., contracts, contract changes, grants,  agreements) that include IT security requirements that minimize risk  to the organization.  • Ensure that physical security concerns are integrated into the  acquisition strategies.  • Maintain ongoing and effective communications with suppliers and  providers. • Perform compliance reviews of delivered products and services to  assess the delivery of IT requirements against stated contract  requirements and measures.    2.10.4 Evaluate:­   • Review contracting documents, such as statements of work or requests  for proposals, for inclusion of IT security considerations in accordance  with information security requirements, policies, and procedures.  • Assess industry landscape for applicable IT security trends, including  practices for mitigating security risks associated with global supply  chain management. • Review Memorandum of Agreements, Memorandum of  Understandings and/or Service.  • Level Agreements for agreed level of IT security responsibility. • Conduct detailed IT investment reviews and security analyses and  review IT investment business cases for security requirements. • Assess and evaluate the effectiveness of the vendor management  program in complying with corporate policy with regard to use of third  party information and connection requirement and acceptable use  policies for vendors who connect to corporate networks. 

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• Conduct due diligence activities to ensure that vendors are  operationally and technically competent to receive third party  information, to connect and communicate with networks, and to deliver  and support secure applications. • Evaluate effectiveness of procurement function at addressing  information security requirements through procurement activities and  recommend improvements.

∇  2.11 Regulatory and Standards Compliance:­  
Refers to the application of the principles, policies, and procedures that  enable an enterprise to meet applicable information security laws,  regulations, standards, and policies to satisfy statutory requirements, perform  industry­wide best practices, and achieve its information security program  goals.

• Establish and administer a risk­based enterprise information security  program that addresses applicable standards, procedures, directives, policies,  regulations and laws. • Define the scope of the enterprise information security compliance program. • Maintain the information security enterprise compliance program budget. • Organize and direct a staff that is responsible for information security  compliance, licensing and registration, and data security surveillance. • Ensure that all employees are informed of their obligations and are motivated  to comply with the applicable information security standards, procedures,  directives, policies, regulations, and laws. • Identify major enterprise risk factors (product, compliance, and operational)  and develop and coordinate the application of information security strategies,  plans, policies, and procedures to reduce regulatory risk. • Maintain relationships with all regulatory information security organizations  and appropriate industry groups, forums, stakeholders and organizations.
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  2.11.1 Manage     :­ 

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• Keep informed on pending information security changes, trends, and best  practices by participating in collaborative settings. • Secure the resources necessary to support an effective information security  enterprise compliance program. • Establish an enterprise information security compliance performance  measures program. • Implement appropriate improvements, as required.

  2.11.2 Design:­  

• Develop enterprise information security compliance strategies, policies, plans  and procedures in accordance with established standards, procedures,  directives, policies, regulations, and laws. • Specify enterprise information security compliance program control  requirements. • Author information security compliance performance reports, Document  information security audit results and develop remedial action policies and  procedures. • Develop a plan of action and associated mitigation strategies to address  program deficiencies. • Document compliance reporting process in a manner that produces evidence  that process exists.  

  2.11.3 Implement:­   

• Monitor and assess the information security compliance practices of all  personnel in accordance with enterprise policies and procedures. • Maintain ongoing and effective communications with key compliance  stakeholders. • Conduct internal audits to determine if information security control  objectives, controls, processes, and procedures are effectively applied and  maintained, and perform as expected.
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 •

Assess the effectiveness of enterprise compliance program controls against the  applicable laws, regulations, standards, policies, and procedures. • Assess the effectiveness of the information security compliance process and  procedures for process improvement and implement changes where  appropriate. • Compile, analyze, and report performance measures.  

  2.11.4 Evaluate:­   

  2.12 Risk Management:­   

It refers to the policies, processes, procedures, and technologies used by an  organization to create a balanced approach to identifying and assessing risks  to information assets and to manage mitigation strategies that achieve the  security needed at an affordable cost. 

• Establish a IT security risk management program based on the enterprise  business goals and objectives. • Advise senior management during the decision making process by helping  them understand and evaluate the impact of IT security risks on business  goals, objectives, plans, programs and actions. • Acquire and manage the resources, including financial resources, necessary to  conduct an effective risk management program. • Authorize operations to acknowledge acceptance of residual risk. • Implement appropriate improvement recommendations, as required.
 •

  2.12.1 Manage:­   

Specify risk­based information security requirements and a security concept  of operations. • Develop the policies, processes and procedures for identifying, assessing, and  mitigating risks to information assets, personnel, facilities, and equipment.
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  2.12.2 Design:­  

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• Develop processes and procedures for determining the costs and benefits of  risk mitigation strategies. • Develop the procedures for documenting the decision to apply mitigation  strategies or acceptance of risk. • Develop and maintain risk­based security policies, plans, and procedures  based on security requirements and in accordance with standards,  procedures, directives, policy, regulation and law.  

• Apply controls in support of the risk management program. • Provide input to policies, plans, procedures, and technologies to balance the  level of risk associated with the benefits provided by mitigating controls. • Implement threat and vulnerability assessments to identify security risks and  update the applicable security controls regularly. • Identify risk/functionality tradeoffs and work with stakeholders to ensure risk  management implementation is consistent with desired organization’s risk  posture.  
 •

  2.12.3 Implement:­  

  2.12.4 Evaluate:­   

• •

Assess the effectiveness of the risk management program and implement  changes where required. Review the performance of and provide recommendations for risk  management (security controls, policies/procedures that make up risk  management program) tools and techniques. Assess the residual risk in the information infrastructure used by the  organization. Assess the results of threat and vulnerability assessments to identify security  risks and update the applicable security controls regularly. Identify changes to risk management policies and processes to remain current  with emerging risk and threat environment.

 2.13 Strategic Management:­ 
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It refers to the principles, practices, and methods involved in making  managerial decisions and actions that determine the long­term performance of  an organization. Strategic management requires the practice of external  business analyses such as customer analyses, competitor analyses, market  analyses, and industry environmental analyses. Strategic management also  requires the performance of internal business analyses that address financial  performance, performance measurement, quality assurance, risk management,  and organizational capabilities and constraints. The goal of these analyses is to  ensure that an organization’s IT security principles, practices and system  design are in line with the organization’s mission statement. 

  2.13.1 Manage:­  

• Establish an IT security program to provide security for all systems,  networks, and data that support the operations and business/mission needs of  the organization. • Integrate and align IT security, physical security, personnel security, and  other security components into a systematic process to ensure information  protection goals and objectives are reached. • Align IT security priorities with the organization’s mission and vision and  communicate the value of IT security within the organization. • Acquire the necessary resources, including financial resources, to support IT  security goals and objectives and reduce overall organizational risk. • Establish overall enterprise security architecture (EA) by aligning business  processes, IT software and hardware, local and wide area networks, people,  operations, and projects with the organization’s overall security strategy. • Acquire and manage the necessary resources, including financial resources,  for instituting the security policy elements in the operational environment. • Establish the organizational goals that are in accordance with standards,  procedures, directives, policies, regulations and laws. • Balance the IT security investment portfolio based on EA considerations and  enterprise security priorities.

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• Establish a performance management program that will measure the  efficiency, effectiveness, and maturity of the IT security program in support  of the business/mission needs of the organization. • Develop IT security program components and associated strategy to support  organization’s IT security program. • Develop information security management strategic plans. • Integrate applicable laws and regulations into the enterprise information  security strategy, plans, policies, and procedures.

  2.13.2 Design:­  

  2.13.3 Implement:­  

• Provide feedback to management on the effectiveness and performance of  security strategic plans in accomplishing business/mission needs. • Perform internal and external enterprise analyses to ensure the organization’s  IT security principles and practices are in line with the organizational  mission. • Integrate business goals with information security program policies, plans,  processes, and procedures. • Collect, analyze, and report performance measures. • Use performance measures to inform strategic decision making.  

• Determine if security controls and processes are adequately integrated into  the investment planning process based on IT portfolio and security reporting. • Review security funding within IT portfolio to determine if funding  accurately aligns with security goals and objectives and make funding  recommendations accordingly. • Assess the integration of security with the business/mission and recommend  improvements. • Review the cost goals of each major investment. • Assess the performance and overall effectiveness of the security program with  respect to security goals and objectives.
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  2.13.4 Evaluate:­   

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• Assess and refresh performance measurement program to ensure currency  with organization’s goals and priorities.

∇  2.14 System and Application Security:­  
It refers to the principles, policies, and procedures pertaining to integrating  information security into an IT system or application during the System  Development Life Cycle (SDLC) prior to the Operations and Maintenance  phase. The practice of these protocols ensures that the operation of IT systems  and software does not present undue risk to the enterprise and its information  assets. This objective is accomplished through risk assessment; risk  mitigation; security control selection, implementation and evaluation; and  software security standards compliance.  

  2.14.1 Manage:­   

• Establish the IT system and application security engineering program. • Acquire the necessary resources, including financial resources, to support the  integration of security in the SDLC. • Guide IT security personnel through the SDLC phases. • Define the scope of the IT security program as it applies to the application of  SDLC. • Plan the IT security program components into the SDLC.  

  2.14.2 Design:­   

• Specify the enterprise and IT system or application security policies. • Specify the security requirements for the IT system or application. • Author and IT system or application security plan in accordance with the  enterprise and IT system or application security policies. • Identify the standards against which to engineer the IT system or application. • Specify the criteria for performing risk­based audits against the IT system or  application. • Develop processes and procedures to mitigate the introduction of  vulnerabilities during the engineering process.
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• Integrate applicable information security requirements, controls, processes,  and procedures into IT system and application design specifications in  accordance with established standards, policies, regulations, and laws.  

  2.14.3 Implement:­   

• Execute the enterprise and IT system or application security policies. • Apply and verify compliance with the identified standards against which to  engineer the IT system or application. • Perform the processes and procedures to mitigate the introduction of  vulnerabilities during the engineering process. • Perform secure configuration management practices. • Validate that the engineered IT security and application security controls  meet the specified requirements. • Reengineer security controls to mitigate vulnerabilities identified during the  operations phase. • Ensure the integration of information security practices throughout the  SDLC process. • Document IT or application security controls addressed within the system. • Practice secure coding practices.

  2.14.4 Evaluate:­   

• Review new and existing risk management technologies to achieve an optimal  enterprise risk posture. • Review new and existing IT security technologies to support secure  engineering across the SDLC phases. • Continually assess the effectiveness of the information system’s controls based  on risk management practices and procedures. • Assess and evaluate system compliance with corporate policies and  architectures.

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• Assess system maturation and readiness for promotion to the production  stage. • Collect lessons learned from integration of information security into the  SDLC and use to identify improvement actions. • Collect, analyze, and report performance measures.

  3 The IT Security Essential Body of Knowledge:­   
Knowledge of key terms and concepts is the foundation for effective  performance of the functions associated with each of the technical  competency areas. Without requisite knowledge, it is virtually impossible to  perform work functions. The IT Security EBK lists all of the key terms and  concepts that have been identified for each competency area. At minimum,  individuals should know, understand, and be able to apply the key terms and  concepts that relate to the competencies to which their role is linked. Full  knowledge of all of the key terms and concepts is the foundation for  performance as a conversant IT security generalist. This section describes and  lists the 14 IT security competency areas with affiliated key terms and  concepts. 

∇  3.1Data Security:­   
It refers to the application of the principles, policies, and procedures  necessary to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, availability, and  privacy of data in all forms of media throughout the media (electronic  and hardcopy) throughout the data life cycle. Access Control   Aggregation   Antivirus Software Authentication Data Classification Discretionary Access Control Encryption Electronic Commerce
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Firewall Configuration  Information Classification Scheme  Mandatory Access Control  Need­To­Know No repudiation  Personally Identifiable  Information  Privacy  Privilege Levels  Public Key Infrastructure  Role­Based Access Control Rule­Based Access Control Secure Data Handling  Security Clearance  Sensitive Information  Sensitivity Determination  Sensitivity of Data  Steganography  System of Records  User Privileges  User Provisioning 

∇  3.2Digital Forensics:­   
It refers to the knowledge and understanding of digital investigation and  analysis techniques used for recovering, authenticating, and analyzing  electronic data to reconstruct events related to security incidents. Such  activities require building a digital knowledge base. The investigative process  is composed of three phases: acquire, analyze, and report.  • Bit­Stream Copy/Image • Chain of Custody  •  Cluster 
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 Computer Forensics   Copy/Image  Cyber  Laws/Guidelines/Policies   Digital Forensic Systems   Disk File System   Duplicate Image   Evidence Archival   Forensic Analysis   Forensic Labs  Integrity of Evidence   Intrusion Detection Systems   Intrusion Prevention Systems   Network Forensics   Network Monitoring   Persistent Data  Portable Media Forensics  Security Incident 

∇  3.3 Enterprise Continuity:­   
It refers to the application of the principles, policies, and procedures used to  ensure an enterprise continues to perform essential business functions after  the occurrence of a wide range of potential catastrophic events. For the  purposes of the IT Security EBK, Enterprise Continuity relates to IT assets  and resources and associated IT security requirements. Alternate Facility   Business Continuity   Business Recovery  Crisis Communication   Cyber Incident Response   Delegation of Authority   Disaster Recovery
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•  Disruption  •  Essential Functions  •  Information Technology  • Contingency Plan  •  Interoperable Communications  •  Occupant Emergency  •  Order of Succession  •  Preparedness/Readiness  •  Risk Mitigation •  Standard Operating Procedures  •  Tests, Training, and Exercises  •  Threat Environment  •  Vital Records and Databases 

∇  3.4 Incident Management:­   
It refers to the knowledge and understanding of the process to prepare and  prevent, detect, contain, eradicate, and recover, and apply lessons learned  from incidents impacting the mission of an organization.  Computer Security  Escalation Procedures   Incident Handling   Incident Records   Incident Response  Information Assurance Posture   Information Security Policy  Information System   Intrusion   Measures   Privacy (personally identifiable data)   Reconstitution of System   Risk   Risk Assessment 
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 Risk Management   Security Alerts   Security Incident   System Compromise   Threat   Threat Motivation  Unauthorized Access   User   Vulnerability 

∇  3.5IT Security Training and Awareness:­   
It refers to the principles, practices, and methods required to raise employee  awareness about basic information security, and to train individuals with  information security roles to increase their knowledge, skills and abilities.  Training activities are designed to instruct workers about their security  responsibilities and teach them about information security processes and  procedures so duties are performed optimally and securely within related  environments. Awareness activities present essential information security  concepts to the workforce in order to change user behavior. • Awareness  • End User Security Training  • IT Security Awareness Program  • Instructor Led Training (ILT) • Computer Based Training (CBT)  • Curriculum  • Learning Objectives  • IT Security Training Program  • Role­Based Training  • Training  • Instructional Systems Design (ISD)  • Web Based Training (WBT) • Learning Management System (LMS) 
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• • Needs Assessment 

∇  3.6 IT Systems Operations and Maintenance:­   
It refers to the ongoing application of principles, policies, and procedures to  maintain, monitor, control, and protect IT infrastructure and the information  residing on it during the operations phase of an IT system or application in  production.   Access Control   Antivirus Software   Backups   Configuration Management  Insider Threat   Intrusion Detection Systems   Intrusion Prevention Systems   Patch Management  Penetration Testing   Security Data Analysis   Security Measures   Security Reporting   System Hardening   System Logs   System Monitoring   Threat Analysis   Threat Monitoring   Vulnerability Analysis 

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∇  3.7Network Security and Telecommunications:­   
It refers to the application of the principles, policies, and procedures involved  in ensuring the security of basic network services and data and in  maintaining the hardware layer on which it resides. These practices address 

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perimeter defense strategies, defense­in­depth strategies, and data encryption  techniques.  Access Control   Biometrics Authentication   Configuration   Crypto security   Defense­in­Depth   Email Scanners   Emission Security   Encryption Technologies (e.g., Secure Sockets Layer [SSL], Transport Layer  Security [TLS])   Firewalls   Hubs   Internal and External Telecommunications Technology (e.g., Private Branch  Exchange [PBX] and Voice Over Internet Protocol [VOIP])   Intrusion Detection Systems   Intrusion Prevention Systems   Load Balancers   Network Architecture   Network Segmentation (e.g., Virtual Local Area Network [V­LAN],  Demilitarized Zone [DMZ])   Penetration Testing   Port  Routers  Switches   Threat   Transmission Security   Virtual Private Network   Vulnerability 

∇  3.8Personnel Security:­   
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It refers to methods and controls used to ensure that an organization’s  selection and application of human resources (both employee and contractor)  are controlled to promote security. Personnel security controls are used to  prevent and detect employee­caused security breaches such as theft, fraud,  misuse of information, and noncompliance. The controls include  organization/functional design elements such as separation of duties, job  rotation, and determining position sensitivity.  Background Checks/Background Investigation  Confidentiality   Human Resources   Insider Threat   Job Rotation   Nondisclosure Agreement   Position Sensitivity   SBI   Secure Employee Termination  Procedures   Security Breach  Security Clearance   Separation of Duties 

∇  3.9Physical and Environmental Security:­   
It refers to the methods and controls used to proactively protect an  organization from natural or manmade threats to physical facilities and  buildings, as well as to the physical locations where IT equipment is located or  work is performed (e.g., computer rooms, work locations). Physical and  environmental security protects an organization’s personnel, electronic  equipment, and information.   Access Cards   Access Control   Biometrics   Defense­in­Depth 
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 Environmental Threat  Identification and Authentication  Inventory   Manmade Threat   Natural Threat  Perimeter Defense   Risk Management   Terrorism  Threat and Vulnerability Assessment 

∇  3.10 Procurement:­  
It refers to the application of principles, policies, and procedures required to  plan, apply, and evaluate the purchase of IT products or services, including  "risk­based" pre­solicitation, solicitation, source selection, award, and  monitoring, disposal, and other post­award activities. Procurement activities  may consist of the development of procurement and contract administration  documents that include, but are not limited to, procurement plans, estimates,  requests for information, requests for quotes, requests for proposals,  statements of work, contracts, cost­benefit analyses, evaluation factors for  award, source selection plans, incentive plans, service level agreements,  justifications required by policies or procedures, and contract administration  plans.  Acceptable risk  Acquisition   Acquisition Life Cycle   Award  Benchmarking  Business Impact   Category Management   Contract   Cost­Benefit Analysis   Cost Reimbursement Contract 
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 E­Sourcing   Estimation   Fixed Price Contract   Incentive Contract  Indefinite Delivery Contract  Performance­based Contracts   Prequalification   Regulatory Compliance   Request for Information   Request for Proposal   Risk Analysis   Risk­Based Decision   Risk Mitigation  Security   Security Measures   Service Level Agreement   Solicitation   Sole Source Justification   Spend Analysis  Statement of Objectives   Statement of Work   Terms and Conditions   Time and Materials Contract  Total Cost of Ownership

∇  3.11Regulatory and Standards Compliance:­  
It refers to the application of the principles, policies, and procedures that  enable an enterprise to meet applicable information security laws,  regulations, standards, and policies to satisfy statutory requirements, perform  industry­wide best practices, and achieve its information security program  goals.

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 Assessment   Auditing  Certification  Compliance   Ethics   Evaluation  Governance   Laws (including but not limited to Health Insurance Portability and  Accountability Act [HIPAA], Federal Information Security Management Act  [FISMA], Clinger­Cohen Act, Privacy Act, Sarbanes­Oxley, etc.)   Policy   Privacy Principles/Fair Info Practices   Procedure   Regulations   Security program   Standards (e.g., ISO 27000 series, Federal Information Processing Standards  FIPS])   Validation   Verification 

∇  3.12Risk Management:­   
It refers to the policies, processes, procedures, and technologies used by an  organization to create a balanced approach to identifying and assessing risks  to information assets and to manage mitigation strategies that achieve the  security needed at an affordable cost.   Acceptable Risk   Annual Loss Expectancy   Annual Rate of Occurrence  Asset Valuation  Benchmarking  Business Impact   Likelihood Estimation
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 Management   Risk Analysis   Risk Mitigation  Risk Treatment  Security   Security Measures   Single Loss Expectancy   Threat   Threat and Vulnerability  Assessment   Threat Modeling   Types of Risk  Vulnerability 

∇  3.13 Strategic Management:­   
It refers to the principles, practices, and methods involved in making  managerial decisions and actions that determine the long­term performance  of an organization. Strategic management requires the practice of external  business analyses such as customer analyses, competitor analyses, market  analyses, and industry environmental analyses. Strategic management also  requires the performance of internal business analyses that address financial  performance, performance measurement, quality assurance, risk  management, and organizational capabilities and constraints. The goal of  these analyses is to ensure that an organization’s IT security principles,  practices and system design are in line with the organization’s mission  statement.  Acquisition Management   Budgeting Process and Financial Management   Built­In Security   Capital Planning   Enterprise Architecture 
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 Enterprise Security   Performance Management   Strategic Planning   Strategic Resource and Investment Management 

∇  3.14 System and Application Security:­   
It refers to the principles, policies, and procedures pertaining to integrating  information security into an IT system or application during the SDLC prior  to the Operations and Maintenance phase. The practice of these protocols  ensures that the operation of IT systems and software does not present undue  risk to the enterprise and its information assets. This objective is  accomplished through risk assessment; risk mitigation; security control  selection, implementation and evaluation; and software security standards  compliance.  Accreditation   Application and Technical Security Controls   Application Development   Certification  Configuration Management  Process Maturity   Risk Mitigation  Secure Coding   Security Management   Security Testing and Evaluation  System Development Life Cycle   Risk Assessment   Secure System Design   Security Requirements Analysis   Security Specifications   Software Assurance   System Engineering 

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  4 IT Security Roles, Competencies and Functional    Perspectives:­ 

Ten roles have been identified to segment the multitude of job titles within the  public and private sector workforce into manageable functional groupings.  Each role represents a cluster of organizational positions/job titles that  perform similar functions in the workplace and therefore have the same IT  security competencies. 

∇  4.1 Chief Information Officer:­  
The Chief Information Officer focuses on the information security strategy  within an organization and is responsible for the strategic use and  management of information, information systems, and IT within that  organization. The CIO establishes and oversees IT security metrics program,  including evaluation of compliance with corporate policies and effectiveness  of policy implementation. The CIO leads the evaluation of new and emerging  IT security technologies.  ξ   Competencies:     Data Security: Manage  Enterprise Continuity: Manage  Incident Management: Manage  IT Security Training and Awareness: Manage  Physical and Environmental Security: Manage  Procurement: Manage, Design  Regulatory and Standards Compliance: Manage, Evaluate  Risk Management: Manage, Evaluate  Strategic Management: Manage, Design, Evaluate  System and Application Security: Manage  ξ   Example Job Titles:     Chief Information Officer (CIO) 

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∇  4.2 Digital Forensics Professional:­  
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The Digital Forensics Professional performs a variety of highly technical  analyses and procedures in collecting, processing, preserving, analyzing, and  presenting computer­related evidence, including but not limited to data  retrieval, breaking passwords, and finding hidden or otherwise “invisible”  information.  ξ   Competencies:    Digital Forensics: Manage, Design, Implement, Evaluate Incident Management: Implement IT Systems Operations and Maintenance: Design, Implement, Evaluate Network Security and Telecommunications: Design, Implement Procurement:  Evaluate  Risk Management: Implement ξ   Example Job Titles:    Digital Forensics Analyst  Digital Forensics Engineer Digital Forensics Practitioner  Digital Forensics Professional 

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The Information Security Officer/Chief Security Officer (ISO/CSO)  specializes in the information and physical security strategy within an  organization. The ISO/CSO is charged with developing and subsequent  enforcing of the company’s security policies and procedures, security  awareness program, business continuity and disaster recovery plans, and all  industry and governmental compliance issues.  ξ   Competencies:     Data Security: Manage, Design, Evaluate  Digital Forensics: Manage, Design  Enterprise Continuity: Manage, Evaluate  Incident Management: Manage, Design, Evaluate  IT Security Training and Awareness: Manage, Evaluate  Physical and Environmental Security: Manage, Evaluate
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∇   4.3 Information Security Officer/Chief Security Officer:­   

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 Procurement: Manage, Design, Evaluate  Regulatory and Standards Compliance: Manage, Design, Evaluate  Risk Management: Manage, Design, Evaluate  Strategic Management: Manage, Design, Implement, Evaluate  System and Application Security: Manage, Evaluate  ξ   Example Job Titles:    Chief Cyber Security Officer Chief Security Officer  Information Security Officer  Senior Agency Information Security Officer 

∇  4.4 IT Security Compliance Professional:­   
The IT Security Compliance Professional is responsible for overseeing,  evaluating, and supporting compliance issues pertinent to the organization.  Individuals in this role perform a variety of activities, encompassing  compliance from an internal and external perspective. Such activities include  leading and conducting internal investigations, assisting employees comply  with internal policies and procedures, and serving as a resource to external  compliance officers during independent assessments. The IT Security  Compliance Professional provides guidance and autonomous evaluation of the  organization to management.  ξ   Competencies:     Data Security: Evaluate  Digital Forensics: Evaluate  Enterprise Continuity: Evaluate  Incident Management: Evaluate  IT Security Training and Awareness: Evaluate   IT Systems Operations and Maintenance: Evaluate  Network Security and Telecommunications: Evaluate  Personnel Security: Evaluate  Physical and Environmental Security: Evaluate  Procurement: Evaluate
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 Regulatory and Standards Compliance: Design, Implement, Evaluate  Risk Management: Implement, Evaluate  Strategic Management: Evaluate  System and Application Security: Evaluate ξ   Example Job Titles:    Auditor  Compliance Officer  Inspector General  Inspector/Investigator  Regulatory Affairs Analyst 

∇  4.5 IT Security Engineer:­   
The Security Engineer applies cross­disciplinary IT security knowledge to  build IT systems that remain dependable in the face of malice, error, and  mischance. ξ   Competencies:     Data Security: Design, Evaluate  IT Operations and Maintenance: Design, Implement Network Security and Telecommunications: Design, Implement  Risk Management: Implement  System and Application Security: Design, Implement, Evaluate ξ   Example Job Titles  :  Requirements Analyst  Security Analyst  Security Architect  Security Engineer  Software Architect System Engineer 

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∇   4.6 IT Systems Operations and Maintenance Professional:­   

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The IT Security Operations and Maintenance Professional ensures the  security of information and information systems during the Operations and  Maintenance phase of the SDLC.  ξ   Competencies:     Data Security: Implement, Evaluate  Digital Forensics: Implement  Enterprise Continuity: Design, Implement  Incident Management: Design, Implement, Evaluate  IT Systems Operations and Maintenance: Manage, Design, Implement,   Evaluate  Network Security and Telecommunications: Manage, Design, Implement,   Evaluate  Procurement: Evaluate  Risk Management: Implement  System and Application Security: Implement  ξ   Example Job Titles:    Database Administrator  Directory Services Administrator  Network Administrator  Service Desk Representative System Administrator  Technical Support Personnel 

∇  4.7 IT Security Professional:­   
The IT Security Professional concentrates on protecting information and  information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption,  modification, or destruction to provide confidentiality, integrity, and  availability. ξ   Competencies:    •  Data Security: Manage, Design, Evaluate •  Enterprise Continuity: Evaluate •  Incident Management: Design, Evaluate
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• • • • •

• • • • •

 IT Security Training and Awareness: Design, Implement, Evaluate  Personnel Security: Design, Evaluate  Physical and Environmental Security: Design, Evaluate  Regulatory and Standards Compliance: Implement  Risk Management: Design, Implement, Evaluate ξ   Example Job Titles:    ISO  Information Security Program Manager  Information Systems Security Manager (ISSM)  Information Systems Security Officer (ISSO)  Security Program Director 

∇  4.8 Physical Security Professional:­  
The Physical Security Professional protects physical computer systems and  related buildings and equipment from intrusion and from fire and other  natural and environmental hazards. ξ   Competencies:     Enterprise Continuity: Design, Implement  Incident Management: Implement  Personnel Security: Evaluate  Physical and Environmental Security: Manage, Design, Implement, Evaluate   Procurement: Evaluation  Risk Management: Implement ξ   Example Job Titles:    Physical Security Administrator  Physical Security Officer 

• • • • • •

• •

∇  4.9 Privacy Professional:­   
The Privacy Professional is responsible for developing and managing an  organization’s privacy compliance program. The privacy professional  establishes a risk management framework and governance model to assure 
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the appropriate handling of Personally Identifiable Information (PII). The  privacy professional ensures PII is managed throughout the information life  cycle, from collection to disposal. 

ξ   Competencies:   
• • • • • •

• • • • •

 Data Security: Design, Evaluate  Incident Management: Manage, Design, Implement, Evaluate  IT Security Training and Awareness: Design, Evaluate  Personnel Security: Design, Implement  Regulatory and Standards Compliance: Manage, Design, Implement,   Evaluate  Risk Management: Manage, Design, Implement, Evaluate ξ   Example Job Titles:    Chief Privacy Officer  Privacy Act Officer  Privacy Information Professional  Privacy Officer  Senior Agency Official for Privacy 

∇  4.10 Procurement Professional:­  
The Procurement Professional purchases or negotiates for products (software,  hardware, etc.) and services (contractor support, etc.) in support of an  organization’s IT strategy. In the IT security context, procurement  professionals must ensure that security requirements are specified within  solicitation and contract documents and ensure that only products and  services meeting requirements are procured. The Procurement Professional  must be knowledgeable about their industry and own organization, and must  be able to effectively communicate with suppliers and negotiate terms of  service. ξ   Competencies:    •  Procurement: Manage, Design, Implement, Evaluate ξ   Example Job Titles:    • Acquisition Manager 
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• • • • •

Buyer  Contracting Officer  Contracting Officer’s Technical Representative (COTR)  Contract Specialist  Purchasing Manager 

  5 IT Security Role, Competency, and Functional Matrix:­   

The IT Security Role, Competency, and Functional Matrix provides a visual  representation of the linkage between roles, competency areas, and functions.  In this section, the IT Security Roles are broadly grouped into Executive,  Functional and Corollary categories. 

 6 Wayne State University implements Q1 Labs QRadar technology.
By Denise Dubie, Network World The IT security team at Wayne State University in Detroit wanted to get better visibility into the traffic crossing the urban institution's main and satellite locations. With some 33,000 students and 10,000 faculty, staff and employees using the network - which includes 10,000 internal and 50,000 external hosts - the team turned to network behaviour analysis (NBA) software from Q1 Labs. NBA tools monitor and analyse network traffic, looking for abnormalities and patterns that could indicate a zero-day attack, such as a server sending too many queries or one that is trying to connect to the Internet in the middle of the night. The products prove to be another layer of security: in addition to identifying top talkers on the network, NBA technology can help network and security teams detect undocumented vulnerabilities and symptoms of unknown threats, before the environment is impacted.

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"We have so many sources for network traffic and we needed better insight into the network," says Morris Reynolds, director of information security and access management at Wayne State. "We had a funding opportunity that enabled us to purchase the technology that would help us see what vulnerabilities were coming across our network and how we were at risk." The university implemented Q1 Labs QRadar technology, which is packaged as an appliance, in July 2007 and upon installation detected between 10 and 15 bot-controlled computers on the network. The security policy at the university cuts such computers off from the outside world and gives systems administrators four days to remediate the problems. Finding these vulnerabilities helps the security team spot potential vulnerabilities and monitor traffic sources. "Right off the bat, QRadar gave us a general idea of what was going on in our network. It broke down the traffic by applications - I think it can handle more than 1000 types of network traffic - and we were able to see which of our networks were most vulnerable and which had the most problems," says Graydon Huffman, Wayne State's senior systems security specialist responsible for QRadar. Reynolds adds that the information QRadar serves up from more than 50 devices (at a rate of 600 events per second) helps the security team protect the integrity of the entire network. It also provides data on the potential vulnerability to support their requests to other IT staff. Wayne State University is currently planning a move to a distributed deployment model to monitor university-wide inter-hub traffic, and has plans to expand the use of QRadar to its medical campus in 2009. "We want to give our systems administrators the best insight into their environments, so they can prevent issues before they happen," Reynolds says.

6.1 Cisco routers are out and Juniper gear is in at Amazing mail.

By Tim Greene, Network World US tossed its Cisco routers, switches and firewalls for Juniper gear and wound up saving enough in ongoing support costs that the project will pay for itself in eight months.

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The Arizona firm, which has about 90 employees spread over three sites, made the swap during the first quarter of the year with no interruption to its online custom printing and mailing operations, says Larry Prine, its lead systems administrator. There were some trade-offs, including that only certain models of the EX switches can be configured to act as part of a single logical switch, but the money the company saves on maintenance fees is worth it. "Cost savings - that was the motivation," Prine says. By cutting support costs from US$48,000 (around £25,600) for Cisco to less than $6,000 per year for Juniper and selling off the two-year-old Cisco hardware, will have the Juniper gear paid off by the end of this year, he says. Along with the cost savings comes the ability to switch WAN routers when one of the company's T-1 lines fails, something that was too complex for to get running on its Cisco routers, Prine says.
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Overall, he thinks the Juniper gear is more manageable because each switch, router and firewall works on the same operating system version as the rest, so any configuration changes need to be done just once for each. With Cisco, software versions could vary within device type, he says, requiring more administrative time. Prine swapped two Cisco Catalyst 6509 switches for four Juniper EX4200 switches. A Juniper SSG 140 security gateway and four SSG 320s replaced three Cisco ASA 5520 security appliances. Prine says Cisco didn't make any special efforts to retain's business. Juniper EX 4200 switches can be deployed in a virtual chassis that enables managing them as a single device, but that is not a feature of the EX 3200s, he says. So the two EX 3200s in his network are managed separately. In that sense, the Cisco equipment kind of had the advantage," Prine says.

∇ 6.2 The sweet smell of WAN acceleration
By Matt Hamblen, Computerworld US Glen Dalgleish, vice president of infrastructure services at global perfumer Coty, well remembers why he and his staff had implemented WAN acceleration technology last January: to improve download speeds for some 6,000 users world-wide.
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With the devices from Riverbed Technology in place, users in Europe or Asia could download a 50MB multimedia presentation on a hot new fragrance in less than five minutes - a big improvement over the 30 minutes it had taken before the acceleration fix. "It is extremely potent technology," Dalgleish said. "People were calling and saying, 'This can't be right.... Is something wrong? The downloads are too FAST.' With a smile, we said, 'It is what it is...'" Dalgleish, who started working for New York-based Coty nearly a year ago, credits Riverbed and Orange, the network provider that has worked with Coty for more than seven years, for the improvements. In all, Riverbed and Orange spent about $500,000 to install about 50 Riverbed Steelhead appliances of various sizes in offices around the globe. The devices talk to one big Steelhead at Coty's data centre in North Carolina, Dalgleish said. Coty expects its investment should be paid back in 18 months. The big advantage? Coty didn't need to expand network capacity to handle exploding amounts of video and other multimedia data, he said. While adding bandwidth might not be too expensive in New York, trying to boost throughput by even a modest amount in some countries in Eastern Europe can be exorbitant, he noted. With the Riverbed technology in place, the loading on some network links dropped from 90 percent to 60 percent.

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With the improved efficiency, Dalgleish has been able to remove about 12 caching servers around the world, saving money on the software licensing costs for those servers. Now, when a user needs a file, the data comes straight from the data centre, ensuring that they get the most recent version. One problem Dalgleish encountered involved several legacy applications that did not work with the acceleration software and would time-out. The applications were not mission critical and affected very few users, so they were excluded from the acceleration pathway and still transmit at their older, slower pace. Because the issue was minor, Dalgleish did not investigate the problem. Coty chose Riverbed's technology over several others, including Cisco, Dalgleish said. Orange had recommended Riverbed after using the technology itself; Dalgleish praised Orange for recognising that the acceleration market is growing and offers clear benefits for network users. "Because of what Orange did, it helps me want to stay with Orange," he said. Now, he wants to test Riverbed's Steelhead mobile application to provide optimisation to several hundred employee laptops. "You could use it from your hotel room," he said. We editorially select highlights of the latest, breaking IT news, most-read articles and expert insight, and deliver them to your inbox. Techworld’s RSS feeds send the latest industry news, reviews & analysis direct to your desktop! Coty's experience with acceleration is not unusual, analysts said. Since WAN optimisation technology began appearing five years ago, it has continued to gain popularity at least in part because of success stories like Coty's. "The market is still growing, and we have not seen a slowdown in end-user demand for WAN optimisation," said Robert Whiteley, an analyst at Forrester Research. "As IT [departments] look to trim the fat from budgets, they often turn to consolidation projects, which increases the need for WAN optimisation to accelerate connections to centralised data centre resources." Whiteley said Riverbed is in the top tier of WAN optimisation vendors, along with Cisco, Blue Coat Systems, Juniper Networks and Silver Peak System

∇ 6.3 How Wi-Fi eased the classroom crunch
Teachers need to take the Internet anywhere.
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By Peter Judge, Techworld Schools can be hesitant to use Wi-Fi, because they need to control the Internet access their children get - but for Heathland Comprehensive School in West London, blanket coverage was the best way to ease the pressure on the school's computer rooms.

In universities, adult pupils can be expected to provide their own laptops, and take care of themselves online, so it makes sense to cover the site with Wi-Fi. Secondary schools and below are less likely to go for full coverage, as their pupils require more supervision and can't be expected to provide hardware. School-level IT has generally been provided in special purpose computer rooms - but modern teaching increasingly requires Internet access, and this may have to change. "Learning isn't centred completely on computers," says Adam Urch, network manager at Heathland, "but our school is very tight on rooms, with around 95 percent of the rooms in use." The school, in Hounslow, West London, has 1850 pupils aged 11 to 18, 150 teachers and 200 support staff. In that situation, there is always someone in the computer room, and it's not possible to use it for a lesson which only needs access for ten minutes. In 2006, it was obvious that teachers and pupils need to be able to access the Internet from anywhere.

6.4 Is wireless best?

Wireless might seem to be the obvious answer, but Urch took some persuading. He was happy with the general performance of wireless, provided by some standalone Linksys Wi-Fi access points the school had bought on the high street, but these could only support about a dozen users at a time, and were awkward to use and unlikely to scale to larger coverage.

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Also, as well as supporting the current building, any wireless LAN would have to expand easily into new buildings that the school has planned.

 7 Use of Network Security in WNS
∇   7.1 Introduction:­  
WNS is a leading global business process outsourcing company. Deep  industry and business process knowledge, a partnership approach, comprehensive  service offering and a proven track record enables WNS to deliver business value to  some of the leading companies in the world. WNS is passionate about building a  market­leading company valued by our clients, employees, business partners,  investors and Communities.

  7.2Wireless Networks and Services Program (   WNS   )
Faculty handling the programme: Professor Djamal ZEGHLACHE

The Wireless Networks and Services program covers advances in wireless architectures with an emphasis on wireless networking and services. The program takes into account current technologies, the emergence of new devices and systems and the growth expected in wireless. Wireless technologies and services represent today one of the largest growth sector and market in the information technology and society and this is especially true with the emergence of sensor (e.g. Zigbee), mesh (e.g. WiMAX) and P2P networks in addition to the current cellular (such as GSM, IS-95, IS-136, GPRS, EDGE, UMTS, Cdma2000) and the wireless local access technologies (WiFi and Bluetooth as well as Ad Hoc networks). The number of wireless devices (including sensors and actuators) and nodes is expected to grow into billions worldwide while personal computers in the fixed infrastructure are not expected to exceed a billion. This expected massive introduction of nodes and devices will change the way wireless services are offered to end users and will broaden the scope and applicability of wireless to all the sectors of the information society. This evolution makes wireless networks much more complex. As multiple air interfaces, multiple access technologies and multiple service architectures compose the network, new capabilities and features are needed (to enable intelligent access network selection and the secure and spontaneous formation of personal area networks around the user) to provide context aware networking and to achieve adaptation of applications and services to ambient conditions.

ξ Objectives:
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The expected evolution in wireless networks and technologies poses real challenges to the industry that tomorrow’s graduates must understand and be prepared to tackle when joining the research and development community. The objective of the Wireless Networks and Services education program at INT is to train students, in the wireless networking and services area, to become an active force in addressing these new technological challenges, the strategic objectives of the industry and the needs of the information and human society. This program consequently aims at providing in depth understanding of wireless networks and services architectures by providing students with the underlying background in radio propagation, in signalling and wireless systems fundamentals. Given this basic knowledge, the program will address wireless network architectures encountered in both cellular and short range wireless followed by an analysis and study of wireless services architectures in the NGN and NGI context (including paradigms available in working groups and standardisation bodies such as W3C, OMA, 3GPP and TISPAN). Emerging technologies and paradigms in wireless sensor networks, wireless personal area networks and pervasive networks and services widen the scope of the program and provide students with a longer term vision on the expected evolutions in wireless systems, networks, services and applications. In addition to acquiring knowledge in wireless networking and services in general, the students will in finebe able to: • Model, analyze as well as develop new and economically viable wireless networks and services architectures. • Specify and design mechanisms, protocols and procedures to achieve mobility management, Ensure security and privacy. • Integrate future mobile services and applications in current and emerging wireless networks VAP WNS (version 07.11a).

ξ Organisation:

The program consists of 6 essentially independent courses, since students with documented prerequisite knowledge can enrol in these courses. The program is scheduled during semesters S8 and S9 and each course corresponds to an in class teaching load of 45 Hours supplemented by 45 hours of personal work, for a total of 90 equivalent hours per course. The Wireless Networks and Services program is organized in the following Teaching Units: S8: - NET4508 : “Propagation et Signalisation” (Propagation and signalling in wireless environments and networks) NET4519 : Wireless Data Networks (short range wireless and wireless LAN and PAN for data and multimedia communications) S9: - NET5011 : Mobile Networks Architectures (wireless systems and networks architectures, physical and logical channel organization, protocols, procedures, mobility management, call and session establishment)

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NET5012 : NGN and Wireless Service Architectures (service architectures for multimedia wireless services including NGN, IMS and service oriented architectures) NET5013 :Service Discovery and Adaptation to Context (advanced service discovery protocols and framework to support wireless services & applications adaptation). NET5014 : Secure Pervasive Wireless Networks and Services (addresses security,mobility of nodes, services and applications in pervasive wireless environments). In addition to these courses a project, running throughout Semester S9, will be conducted by the students in small groups. The project will put into practice what has been learned in class and enable students to develop the invaluable research and development skills sought by the industry and the research community.

∇ 7.2 Security Concern for WNS:The proliferation of commercial activities over different networked systems  has brought security concerns on an unprecedented scale. From traditional  Internet­based applications to newly emerging ubiquitous services over 3G, Wireless  LAN, and mobile ad hoc and sensor networks, there is an increasing demand of  measures to guarantee the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of system  services. The main purpose of this workshop is to promote further research interests  and activities on network security. It is also aimed at increasing the synergy between  academic and industrial researchers working in this area. We are interested in  experimental, systems­related, and work­in­progress papers in all aspects of network  security.  The topics of interest include (but are not limited to):  • Novel and emerging secure architecture  • Study of attack strategies, attack modelling 

Case studies and analysis of actual attacks 

• Continuity of Operations during an attack

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• Key management • Trust management • Intrusion detection techniques • Intrusion response, alarm management, and correlation analysis • Study of tradeoffs between security and system performance  • Intrusion tolerance systems  • Secure protocols 

Security in wireless networks (e.g., ad hoc networks, sensor  networks, WiMAX, WPAN, etc.) 

• Battlefield wireless security solutions • Security issues in Software Defined Radios Authors are invited to submit full papers for presentation at the workshop.  Papers (no more than 8 camera­ready pages, in IEEE TRANSACTION format)  should describe original, previously unpublished work, not currently under review  by another conference, workshop, or journal. All accepted papers will appear in the  IEEE LCN conference proceedings. All paper submissions will be handled  electronically in EDAS. Manuscripts that are not compliant with the requirements  may be declined with the requirements may be declined without review.

  7.3 WNS    and CIMA partner with the Bucharest University of    Economics (Using IT Security for Enhancing Financial Skills  & Protecting Accounting Data)

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• Program aims to further excellence in finance and accounting skills  WNS (Holdings) Limited (NYSE:WNS), a leading provider of global business process outsourcing (BPO) services, and the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA), the only international accountancy body with a sole focus on business, today announced a partnership with the Bucharest University of Economics (ASE), a premier Romanian institution of higher education. In a move to promote excellence in financial management, CIMA has granted accreditation to the University’s two-year master’s degree in Accounting and Financial Techniques for Business Management (TECOFIG). This is the first accreditation CIMA has granted in Romania and recognizes the degree’s comprehensive grounding in management accounting. WNS will contribute business case studies from its operations and lectures given by its senior managers in order to provide insights into the rapidly growing BPO services industry. WNS will also offer scholarships and internships to TECOFIG students and the opportunity for graduates to join the company once they have successfully completed the program. TECOFIG graduates can choose an accelerated route to the CIMA qualification through exemptions from five of the Institute’s papers. Additionally, ASE will develop a new post graduate diploma which covers accounting content from the CIMA Certificate in Business Accounting. This program will be accessible to graduates of all disciplines who want to build a career in accounting and finance. “WNS sees immense potential for growth and scale in Romania. We are committed to developing talent locally and are pleased to announce this three-way partnership with ASE and CIMA,” said Akos Csernus,Head of Romanian Operations for WNS. “This initiative will provide an excellent education program for Romanian students seeking to pursue careers in management accounting and financial analytics.” Eastern Europe provides a strong combination of language skills and talent, and has emerged as a major provider of BPO services. BPO exports from the region total US $1 billion and employ approximately 30,000 FTEs. Finance and accounting (F&A) is the primary BPO service in the region, including processes ranging from transaction processing to high end analytics. “WNS is committed to nurturing leaders, and through our strategic relationship with CIMA, we ensure our employees gain internationally recognized training,” said Neeraj Bhargava, Group Chief Executive Officer. “As the first BPO provider to forge a strategic relationship with CIMA, we endeavor to educate, train and qualify world class professionals in order to provide high value services to our
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clients.” “Operating in over 161 countries, CIMA provides a global qualification certificate recognized by leading organizations around the world,” said Ray Perry, Director of Brand, CIMA. “CIMA values its strong relationships with global commercial organizations such as WNS and is delighted to partner with leading institutions such as the Bucharest University of Economics.” WNS launched its Bucharest delivery center in January of this year. The WNS facility serves as a nearshore delivery centre for global clients with European operations. The center provides multi-lingual services, focused on delivering finance and accounting and customer care services in French, German, Italian and Spanish. According to a TBR report on BPO Delivery from Eastern Europe published on June 17th 2008 WNS and CIMA partner with Bucharest University of Economics • September 18, 2008

About WNS

WNS is a leading global business process outsourcing company. Deep industry and business process knowledge, a partnership approach, comprehensive service offering and a proven track record enables WNS to deliver business value to some of the leading companies in the world. WNS is passionate about building a market-leading company valued by our clients, employees, business partners, investors and communities. For more information, visit

ξ About CIMA
CIMA (the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants) is a world leading professional institute that offers an internationally recognized qualification in management accountancy, focusing on accounting in business in both the private and public sectors. It is the voice of 164,000 students and members in 161 countries. CIMA is committed to upholding the highest ethical and professional standards of members and students, and to maintaining public confidence in management accountancy. For more information about CIMA, please visit


Safe Harbor Statement under the provisions of the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995

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This news release contains forward-looking statements, as defined in the safe harbor provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those that may be projected by these forward looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include but are not limited to technological innovation; telecommunications or technology disruptions; future regulatory actions and conditions in our operating areas; our dependence on a limited number of clients in a limited number of industries; our ability to attract and retain clients; our ability to expand our business or effectively manage growth; our ability to hire and retain enough sufficiently trained employees to support our operations; negative public reaction in the US or the UK to offshore outsourcing; regulatory, legislative and judicial developments; increasing competition in the business process outsourcing industry; political or economic instability in India, Sri Lanka and Jersey; worldwide economic and business conditions, including a slowdown in the U.S. and Indian economies and in the sectors in which our clients are based and a slowdown in the BPO and IT sectors world-wide; our ability to successfully consummate strategic acquisitions, as well as other risks detailed in our reports filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. These filings are available at We may, from time to time, make additional written and oral forward-looking statements, including statements contained in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission and our reports to shareholders. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which reflect management’s current analysis of future events. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

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  8 Appendixes: List of Acronyms  
  Acronym/  Definition  1.     A  ∇ A/R  Actions/Recommendations  2.     C  ∇ CBT  Computer Based Training  ∇ CIO  Chief Information Officer  ∇ CNSS  Committee on National Security Systems  ∇ COBIT  Control Objectives for Information and related Technology  ∇ COTR  Contracting Officer’s Technical Representative  ∇ CSO  Chief Security Officer  ∇ CWF  Critical Work Function  3.     D  ∇ DHS  Department of Homeland Security  ∇ DHS­NCSD  Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division  ∇ DIAP  Defense­wide Information Assurance Program  ∇ DMZ  Demilitarized Zone  ∇ DoD 
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Department of Defense  4.     E  ∇ EA  Enterprise Architecture  ∇ EBK  Essential Body of Knowledge 5.     F  ∇ FIPS  Federal Information Processing Standard  ∇ FISMA  Federal Information Security Management Act  6. H  ∇ HIPA  Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act  7.     I  ∇ IA  Information Assurance  ∇ IASS  Information Assurance Skill Standard  ∇ ILT  Instructor Led Training   ∇ ISD  Instructional Systems Design  ∇ ISO  International Standards Organization ∇ ISO  Information Security Officer  ∇ ISSM  Information Systems Security Manager  ∇ ISSO  Information Systems Security Officer  ∇ IT 
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Information Technology  ∇ ITSC­WG  Information Technology Security Certification Working Group   8.     L  ∇ LMS  Learning Management System 9.     N  ∇ NCSD  National Cyber Security Division  ∇ NIST  National Institute of Standards and Technology  10.     P  ∇ PBX  Private Branch Exchange  ∇ PCIPB  President’s Critical Infrastructure Protection Board  ∇ PII  Personally Identifiable Information  11.     S  ∇ SDLC  System Development Life Cycle  ∇ SOE  Standard Operating Environment  ∇ SSE CMM  Systems Security Engineering Capability Maturity Model  ∇ SSL  Secure Sockets Layer  12.     T  ∇ T/E  Training and Education (Program)  ∇ TLS 
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Transport Layer Security  13. V  ∇ V­LAN  Virtual Local Area Network ∇ VOIP  Voice Over Internet Protocol 14.     W ∇ WBT  Web Based Training 

8 Methodology:-

 Primary data is collected with the help of questionnaires, personal interviews etc.  Secondary data is collected from various websites, journals, magazines etc.

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9 Conclusion:-

The broadband future promises a digital world which we can imagine with a host of economic & social benefits accruing throughout the world. Yet reaching that future will require first acknowledging the scope of broadband challenge we face and responding decisively. By taking these steps we can accelerate down the path of our digital future. On the flip side though the security of our IT system becomes of paramount importance & protecting it from unauthorized copying, viewing or hacking becomes necessary.

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