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Notes on Fluid Mechanics 3sem VTU

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A pipe is a closed conduit carrying a fluid under pressure. Fluid motion in a pipe

is subjected to a certain resistance. Such a resistance is assumed to be due to

Friction. In reality this is mainly due to the viscous property of the fluid.

Reynolds Number (Re)

It is defined as the ratio of Inertia force of a flowing fluid and the Viscous force.

Re=(Inertia force/Viscous force) =( V D/ )

Classification of pipe flow:

Based on the values of Reynolds number (Re), flow is classified as Follows:

Laminar flow or Viscous Flow

In such a flow the viscous forces are more predominent compared to inertia Forces.

Stream lines are practically parallel to each other or flow takes place In the form of

telescopic tubes. This type of flow occurs when Reynolds number Re< 2000. In laminar

flow velocity increases gradually from zero at the boundary to Maximum at the center.

Laminar flow is regular and smooth and velocity at any point practically remains constant

in magnitude & direction. Therefore, the flow is also known as stream Line flow.

There will be no exchange of fluid particles from one layer to another. Thus there

will be no momentum transmission from one layer to another. Ex: Flow of thick oil

in narrow tubes, flow of Ground Water, Flow of Blood in blood vessels.

Transition flow:

In such a type of flow the stream lines get disturbed a little. This type of flow

occurs when 2000< Re < 4000.

Laminar flow Transition flow Turbulent flow

Water

Dye

Glass tube

Hydraulic Grade Line & Energy Grade Line

A Line joining the peizometric heads at various points in a flow is known as Hydraulic

Grade Line (HGL)

Energy Grade Line (EGL)

It is a line joining the elevation of total energy of a flow measured above a datum, i.e.

EGL Line lies above HGL by an amount V

2

/2g.

Losses in Pipe Flow

Losses in pipe flow can be two types viz:-

a)Major Loss

b)Minor Loss

a)Major Loss: As the name itself indicates, this is the largest of the losses in a pipe. This

loss occurs due to friction only. Hence, it is known as head loss due to friction (h

f

)

b)Minor Loss: Minor losses in a pipe occurs due to change in magnitude or direction of

flow.

Minor losses are classified as (i) Entry Loss, (ii) Exit loss, (iii) Sudden expansion

loss (iv) Sudden contraction loss (v) Losses due to bends & pipe fittings.

Head Loss due to Friction

Consider the flow through a straight horizontal pipe of diameter D, Length L, between two sections (1) & (2)

as shown. Let P

1

& P

2

be the pressures at these sections. To is the shear stress acting along the pipe

boundary.

(1)

(1)

(2)

(2)

L

D

p

1

p

2

Flow (V)

From II Law of Newton

Force = Mass x accn. But acceleration = 0, as there is no change in velocity, however the reason

that pipe diameter is uniform or same throughout.

Applying Bernoullis equation between (1) & (2) with the centre line of the pipe as

datum & considering head loss due to friction h

f

,.

Substituting eq (2) in eq.(1)

From Experiments, Darcy Found that

( )

( ) ) 1 (

4

4

4 4

. .

0

0

2 1

0

2

2 1

0

2

2

2

1

+

D

L

P P or

DL

D

P P

DL x

D

P

D

P e i

forces

f

h

g

V p

Z

g

V p

Z + + + + +

2 2

2

2 2

2

2

1 1

1

2 1

Z Z

2 1

V V

Pipe is horizontal

Pipe diameter is

same throughout

) 2 (

2 1

f

h

P P

) 4 (

8

2

0

V

f

f=Darcys friction factor (property of the pipe materials Mass density of the liquid.

V = velocity

Equations (3) & (4)

But,

from Continuity equation

& (5) & (6) are known as DARCY WEISBACH Equation

Pipes in Series or Compound Pipe

D

1

, D

2

, D

3

, D

4

are diameters.

L

1

, L

2

,L

3

, L

4

are lengths of a number of Pipes connected in series

(hf)

1

, (hf)

2

, (hf)

3 &

(hf)

4

are the head loss due to friction for each pipe.

The total head loss due to friction h

f

for the entire pipe system is given by

or

D

V Lf

h

f

8

4

2

) 5 (

2

2

,

_

gD

fLV

h

g

f

) 6 (

8

5 2

2

,

_

D gh

fLQ

h

f

D2

D3

D4 D1

Q

L2 L4

L1

4 3 2 1

hf hf hf hf h

f

+ + +

5

4

2

2

4

5

3

2

2

3

5

2

2

2

2

5

1

2

2

1

8 8 8 8

D g

Q fL

D g

Q fL

D g

Q fL

D g

Q fL

h

f

+ + +

D

1

, D

2

and D

3

are the pipe diameters. Length of each pipe is same, that is, L

1

=L

2

=L

3

For pipes in parallel hf1=hf2=hf3 i.e

Equivalent pipe

In practice adopting pipes in series may not be feasible due to the fact that they may be of

unistandard size (ie. May not be comemercially available) and they experience other

minor losses. Hence, the entire system will be replaced by a single pipe of uniform

diameter D, but of the same length L=L

1

+ L

2

+ L

3

such that the head loss due to friction

for both the pipes, viz equivalent pipe & the compound pipe are the same.

For a compound pipe or pipes in series.

for an equivalent pipe

D

1

D

2

D

3

Q Q

Q

1

Q

2

Q

3

L = L

1

= L

2

= L

3

Pipes in Parallel

D

2

D

1

D

3

== Q D

L= L

1

+L

2

+L

3

L

1

L

3

Q

3 2 1

hf hf hf h

f

+ +

) 1 (

8 8 8

5

3

2

2

3

5

2

2

2

2

5

1

2

2

1

+ +

D g

Q fL

D g

Q fL

D g

Q fL

h

f

) 2 (

8

5

1

2

2

D g

fLQ

h

f

Or

5

3

3

5

2

2

5

1

1

5

D

L

D

L

D

L

D

L

+ +

5

1

5

3

3

5

2

2

5

1

1

'

+ +

D

L

D

L

D

L

L

D

Problems

1) Find the diameter of a Galvanized iron pipe required to carry a flow of 40lps of water, if the loss of head

is not to exceed 5m per 1km. Length of pipe, Assume f=0.02.

Solution:-

D=?, Q=40lps = 40x10

-3

m

3

/s

h

f

=5m, L=1km = 1000m. f=0.02

Darcys equation is

2) Two tanks are connected by a 500mm diameter 2500mm long pipe. Find the rate of

flow if the difference in water levels between the tanks is 20m. Take f=0.016. Neglect

minor losses.

Solution:-

Applying Bernoullis equation between (1) & (2) with (2) as datum & considering head

loss due to friction h

f

only,

Z

1

= 20m, Z

2

= 0 (Datum); V

1

=V

2

= 0 (tanks are very large)

p

1

=p

2

=0 (atmospheric pressure)

Therefore From (1)

20+0+0=0+0+0+h

f

Or, h

f

= 20m. But

mm m D 220 22 . 0

5

2

8

D g

fLQ

h

f

2

1

5 2

2500 016 . 0 8

5 . 0 81 . 9 20

'

x x

x x x

Q

lps m Q 8 . 434 sec / 4348 . 0

3

3) Water is supplied to a town of 0.5million inhabitants from a reservoir 25km away and

the loss of head due to friction in the pipe line is measured as 25m. Calculate the size of

the supply main, if each inhabitant uses 200 litres of water per day and 65% of the daily

supply is pumped in 8 hours. Take f=0.0195.

Solution:-

Number of inhabitants = 5million = 5,00,000

Length of pipe = 25km = 25,000m.

H

f

= 25m, D=?

Per capita daily demand = 200litres.

Total daily demand = 5,00,000x200= 100x10

6

litres.

Daily supply = 65/100 x 100x10

6

= 65,000m

3

.

Supply rate

4) An existing pipe line 800m long consists of four sizes namely, 30cm for 175m, 25cm

dia for the next 200m, 20cm dia for the next 250m and 15cm for the remaining length.

Neglecting minor losses, find the diameter of the uniform pipe of 800m. Length to

replace the compound pipe.

Solution:-

L=800m

L

1

=175m D

1

=0.3m

L

2

=200m D

2

=0.25m

L

3

=250m D

3

=0.20m

L

4

=175m D

4

=0.15m

For an equivalent pipe

D = Diameter of equivalent pipe = 0.189m less than or equal to 19cm.

'

5 2

2

8

D g

fLQ

h

f

5

1

2

2

25 81 . 9

) 1248 . 2 ( 000 , 25 195 . 0 8

'

x x

x x x

D

m D 487 . 1

'

+ + +

5

4

4

5

3

3

5

2

2

5

1

1

5

D

L

D

L

D

L

D

L

D

L

5) Two reservoirs are connected by four pipes laid in parallel, their respective diameters

being d, 1.5d, 2.5d and 3.4d respectively. They are all of same length L & have the same

friction factors f. Find the discharge through the larger pipes, if the smallest one carries

45lps.

Solution:-

D

1

=d, D

2

=1.5d, D

3

=2.5d, D

4

=3.4d

L

1

=L

2

=L

3

=L

4

= L.

f

1

=f

2

=f

3

=f

4

=f.

Q

1

=45x10

-3

m

3

/sec, Q

2

=? Q

3

=? Q

4

=?

For pipes in parallel hf

1

=hf

2

=hf

3

=hf

4 ,

i.e.

5

1

5 5 5 5

15 . 0

175

2 . 0

250

25 . 0

200

3 . 0

175

800

'

,

_

+ + +

D

5

4

2

4

5

3

2

3

5

2

2

2

5

1

2

1

D

Q

D

Q

D

Q

D

Q

( ) sec / 124 . 0 10 45

5 . 1

3

2

1

2

3

5

2

m x x

d

d

Q

'

,

_

( ) sec / 4446 . 0 10 45

5 . 2

3

2

1

2

3

5

2

m x x

d

d

Q

'

,

_

( ) sec / 9592 . 0 10 45

4 . 3

3

2

1

2

3

5

2

m x x

d

d

Q

'

,

_

6) Two pipe lines of same length but with different diameters 50cm and 75cm are made

to carry the same quantity of flow at the same Reynolds number. What is the ratio of

head loss due to friction in the two pipes?

Solution:-

D

1

=0.5m, D

2

=0.75m

L

1

=L

2

Q

1

=Q

2

(Re)

1

= (Re)

2

,

Reynolds number Re=

7) A 30cm diameter main is required for a town water supply. As pipes over 27.5cm

diameter are not readily available, it was decided to lay two parallel pipes of same

diameter. Find the diameter of the parallel pipes which will have the combined discharge

equal to the single pipe. Adopt same friction factor for all the pipes.

Solution:-

2 2 2

V D

2

2 2 2

1

1 1 1

V D V D

2 2 1 1

D V D V

2 1

75 . 0 5 . 0 V V

( )

2 1

( )

2 1

2 1

5 . 1 V V

gD

fLV

h

f

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

2

2

1

V

V

x

D

D

hf

hf

375 . 3

5 . 1

5 . 0

75 . 0

2

2

2

,

_

V

V

x

From Darcys equation

) 1 (

8

5 2

2

'

D g

fLQ

h

f

) 2 (

2

8

2

5 2

'

,

_

D g

Q

fL

h

f

Equating

8) Two reservoirs are connected by two parallel pipes. Their diameter are 300mm &

350mm and lengths are 3.15km and 3.5km respectively of the respective values of

coefficient of friction are 0.0216 and 0.0325. What will be the discharge from the larger

pipe, if the smaller one carries 285lps?

Solution:-

D

1

=300mm=0.3m, D

2

=-.350m

L

1

=3150m L

2

=3500m

F

1

=0.0216 f

2

=0.0325

Q

1

=0.285m

3

/sec Q

2

=?

For parallel pipes

5

1

5

4

275 . 0

'

D

m m D 275 . 0 205 . 0

or

'

'

5

2

2

2

2 2 2

5

1

2

2

1 1 1

8 8

D g

Q L f

D g

Q L f

h

f

2

1

5

1 2 2

5

2

2

1 1 1

2

'

D L f

D Q L f

Q

2

1

5

5 2

2

3 . 0 3500 0325 . 0

35 . 0 285 . 0 3150 0216 . 0

'

x x

x x x

Q

sec / 324 . 0

3

2

m Q

9) Consider two pipes of same lengths and having same roughness coefficient, but with

the diameter of one pipe being twice the other. Determine (I) the ratio of discharges

through these pipes, if the head loss due to friction for both the pipes is the same. (ii) the

ratio of the head loss due to friction, when both the pipes carry the same discharge.

Solution:-

f

1

=f

2

D

1

=2D

2

L

1

=L

2

(i)Given hf

1

=hf

2

Q

1

/Q

2

=?

From Darcys equation

(ii) Given Q

1

/Q

2,

hf

1

/hf

2

=?

10) Two sharp ended pipes are 50mm & 105mm diameters and 200m length are

connected in parallel between two reservoirs which have a water level difference of 15m.

If the coefficient of friction for each pipes of 0.0215. Calculate the rate of flow in each

pipe and also diameter of a single pipe 200m long which would give the same discharge,

if it were substituted for the Original two pipes.

Solution

D

1

=0.015m, D

2

=0.105m, L

1

=L

2

=200m

H=15m, f

1

=f

2

=0.0215,

a) Q

1

=?, Q

2

=?

(b) D=?, when Q=Q

1

+Q

2

a) For parallel pipes

656 . 5

2

2

5

2

2

2

5

2

1

2

1

,

_

,

_

D

D

D

D

Q

Q

03125 . 0

2

8

5

2

2

5

1

2

5

1

2

2

2 1 1

2

1

,

_

,

_

D

D

D

D

D g

Q L f

hf

hf

'

'

5

2

2

2

2 2 2

5

1

2

2

1 1 1

8 8

D g

Q L f

D g

Q L f

h

f

sec / 10 63 . 3

200 0215 . 0 8

05 . 0 81 . 9 15

3 3

2

1

5 2

1

m x

x x

x xh x

Q

'

sec / 023 . 0

200 0215 . 0 8

105 . 0 81 . 9 15

3 2

2

1

5 2

1

m

x x

x xh x

Q

'

2 3

2 1

m x Q Q Q + +

b)

5 2

2

8

D g

fLQ

h

f

( )

5

1

2

2

15 81 . 9

02684 . 0 200 0215 . 0 8

'

x x

x x x

D

cm m D 12 . 11 1112 . 0

11) Two pipes with diameters 2D and D are first connected in parallel and when a

discharge Q passes the head loss is H

1

, when the same pipes are Connected in series for

the same discharge the loss of head is H

2

. Find the relationship between H

1

and H

2

.

Neglect minor losses. Both the pipes are of same length and have the same friction

factors.

Solution

H

1

= head loss due to friction = h

f

= hf

2

i.e.

Case(iii)

12) Two reservoirs are connected by a 3km long 250mm diameter. The difference in

water levels being 10m. Calculate the discharge in lpm, if f=0.03. Also find the

percentage increase in discharge if for the last 600m a second Pipe of the same diameter

is laid parallel to the first.

Solution

Applying Bernoullis equation between (1) & (2) with (2) as datum and

considering head loss due to friction h

f

5 2

2

5 2

2

) 2 (

8

8

D g

fLQ

D g

fLQ

h

f

+

'

,

_

+

5 5 2

2

2

2

1

1

1 8

D g

fLQ

H

) 4 (

8 0312 . 1

5 2

2

2

D g

xflQ x

H

2

5 2

5 2

2

2

1

8 0312 . 1

8 02256 . 0

flQ x

D g

x

D g

xflQ x

H

H

021876 . 0

0312 . 1

02256 . 0

2

1

H

H

71 . 45

1

2

H

H

Or

f

h

g

V p

Z

g

V p

Z + + + + +

2 2

2

1 2

2

2

1 1

1

m h h

f f

10 0 0 0 0 0 10 + + + + +

5 2

2

8

D g

fLQ

h

f

Case (ii)

Change in discharge =

( )

2

1

5 2

3000 03 . 0 8

10 25 . 0 81 . 9

'

x x

x x x

Q

sec / 03624 . 0

3

m Q

3 2 1

orhf hf hf h

f

+

( )

'

+

5

2

1

5

2

1

2

25 . 0

2 / 600

25 . 0

2400

81 . 9

03 . 0 8

10

Q Q

x

x

2

1

66 . 6472 10 Q

sec / 0393 . 0

3

1

m Q

( ) Q Q Q

1

( ) 03624 . 0 0393 . 0

sec / 10 066 . 3

3 3

m x Q

100

1

x

Q

Q

% increase in discharge =

% 46 . 8 100

03624 . 0

10 066 . 3

3

x

x

MINOR LOSSES IN PIPES

Minor losses in a pipe flow can be either due to change in magnitude or direction of flow.

They can be due to one or more of the following reasons.

i)Entry loss

ii)Exit loss

iii)Sudden expansion loss

iv)Sudden contraction loss

v)Losses due to pipe bends and fittings

vi)Losses due to obstruction in pipe.

Equation for head loss due to sudden enlargement or expansion of a pipe

Consider the sudden expansion of flow between the two section (1) (1)& (2) (2) as

shown.

P

1

& P

2

are the pressure acting at (1) (1) and (2) (2), while V

1

and V

2

are the velocities.

From experiments, it is proved that pressure P

1

acts on the area (a

2

a

1

) i.e. at the point

of sudden expansion.

From II Law of Newton Force = Mass x Acceleration.

Consider LHS of eq(1)

Consider RHS of eq(1)

Mass x acceleration = x vol x change in velocity /time

=volume/time x change in velocity

Substitution (ii) & (iii) in eq(i)

Both sides by (sp.weight)

Applying Bernoullis equation between (1) and (2) with the centre line of the pipe as

datum and considering head loss due to sudden expansion h

L

only.

( ) ) (

2 1

iii V V xQx

( ) ( )

2 1 2 1 2

V V pQ p p a

( ) ( )

2 1 2 2 1

V V V p p

or

zontal pipeishori C Z Z

2 1

In Eq(V) h

L

is expressed in meters similarly, power (P) lost due to sudden expansion is

Equations for other minor losses

Loss due to entrance and exit

Loss due to bends & fittings

Problems

g

V p

Z

g

V p

Z

2 2

2

2 2

2

2

1 1

1

+ + + +

( ) ( )

g

V V V V V

h

L

2

2

2

2

2

1 2 1 2

+

g

V V V V V

h

L

2

2 2

2

2

2

1

2

2 2 1

+

g

V V V V V

h

L

2

2 2

2

2

2

1 2 1

2

2

+

g

V V V V

h

L

2

2

2 1

2

1

2

2

+

( )

g

V V

h

L

2

2

2 1

g

V

h

L

2

5 . 0

2

2

Sudden contraction loss

g

V

h

exit L

2

2

g

KV

h

L

2

2

K=coefficient

1) A 25cm diameter, 2km long horizontal pipe is connected to a water tank. The pipe

discharges freely into atmosphere on the downstream side. The head over the centre line

of the pipe is 32.5m, f=0.0185. Considering the discharge through the pipe

Applying Bernoullis equation between (A) and (B) with (B) as datum & considering all

losses.

2) The discharge through a pipe is 225lps. Find the loss of head when the pipe is

suddenly enlarged from 150mm to 250mm diameter.

Solution :

D

1

=0.15m, D

2

= 0.25m Q=225lps = 225m

3

/sec

Head loss due to sudden expansion is

3) The rate of flow of water through a horizontal pipe is 350lps. The diameter of the pipe

is suddenly enlarge from 200mm to 500mm. The pressure intensity in the smaller pipe is

15N/cm

2

. Determine (i) loss of head due to sudden enlargement. (ii) pressure intensity in

the larger pipe (iii) power lost due to enlargement.

Solution

Q=350lps=0.35m

3

/s

D

1

=0.2m, D

2

=0.5m, P

1

=15N/cm

2

h

L

=?, p

2

=?, P=?

From continuity equation

( )

g

V V

h

L

2

1 2

g

X

D

Q

D

Q

2

1 4 4

2

2

2

1

,

_

2

2

2

2

1

2

2

1 1

2

16

,

_

D D g

Q

m h

L

385 . 3

2

2 2 2

2

25 . 0

1

15 . 0

1

81 . 9 2

225 . 0 16

,

_

x x

x

Applying Bernoullis equation between (1) (1) and (2) (2) with the central line of

the pipe as datum and considering head loss due to sudden expansion h

L

only.

4) At a sudden enlargement of an horizontal pipe from 100 to 150mm, diameter, the

hydraulic grade line raises by 8mm. Calculate the discharge through the pipe system.

Solution

Applying Bernoullis equation between (1) & (2) with the central line of the pipe as

datum and neglecting minor losses (h

L

) due to sudden expansion.

From continuity equation

L

h

g

V p

Z

g

V p

Z + + + + +

2 2

2

2 2

2

2

1 1

1

( ) ntal pipehorizo Z Z 0

2 1

463 . 4

62 . 19

78 . 1

81 . 9

0

62 . 19

14 . 11

81 . 9

150

0

2

2

2

+ + + + +

p

2 2

2

/ 67 . 16 / 68 . 166 cm N m kN p

L

Qh P

463 . 4 35 . 0 81 . 9 x x

kW P 32 . 15

( )

) 1 (

2

2

2 1

g

V V

h

L

) 2 ( 10 8 ,

3 1

1

2

2

1

]

1

,

_

,

_

+

m x

p

Z

p

Z Given

L

h

g

V p

Z

g

V p

Z + + + + +

2 2

2

2 2

2

2

1 1

1

Discharge

5) Two reservoirs are connected by a pipe line which is 125mm diameter for the first 10m

and 200mm in diameter for the remaining 25m. The entrance and exit are sharp and the

change of section is sudden. The water surface in the upper reservoir is 7.5m above that

in the lower reservoir. Determine the rate of flow, assuming f=0.001 for each of the

types.

Solution

From continuity equation

Applying Bernoullis equation between (1) & (2) in both the reservoirs with the water in

the lower reservoir as datum and considering all losses

2

2

1

2

4

15 . 0

4

1 . 0

xV

x

V

x

2 1

25 . 2 V V

s m

x

V / 25 . 0

1274 . 0

10 8

2

1

3

2

,

_

25 . 0

4

15 . 0

4

2

2

2

2

x

x

V

D

Q

2

2

1

2

4

2 . 0

4

125 . 0

V

x

V

x

2 1

56 . 2 V V

{ } 1 434 . 2 243 . 5 2768 . 3

62 . 19

5 . 7

2

2

+ + +

V

( ) ( ) ( )

'

+ + + +

g

V

g

V V

g

V x x

g

V

2 2

56 . 2

2

56 . 2 10 01 . 0

2

5 . 2 5 . 0

} 0 0 5 . 7

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

FLOW MEASUREMENTS

Flow Through Orifices

An orifice is an opening of any cross section, at the bottom or on the side walls of a

container or vessel, through which the fluid is discharged. If the geometric characteristics

of the orifice plus the properties of the fluid are known, then the orifice can be used to

measure the flow rates.

Classification of orifices

Flow through an orifice

As the fluid passes through the orifice under a head H, the stream lines converge and

therefore the jet contracts. The stream lines which converge are mostly those from near

the walls and they do so because stream lines cannot make right angled bend in motion.

This phenomenon occurs just down stream of the orifice, and such a section where the

area of cross section of the jet is minimum is know as VENA CONTRACTA.

The pressure at Vena Contracta is assumed to be atmospheric and the velocity is assumed

to be the same across the section since the stream lines will be parallel and equally

spaced. Downstream of Vena contracta the jet expands and bends down. Figure shows

the details of free flow through a vertical orifice.

Applying Bernoulli's equation between (B) & (C) with the horizontal through BC as

datum and neglecting losses (h

L

)

( ) s m V / 6 . 4 16 . 21 2

1

2

sec / 1445 . 0 6 . 4

4

2 . 0

2

2

m x

x

Q

'

Based on shape circular

triangular rectangular

Based on size

Small orifice

(when the head

over the orifice is

more than five

times its size I.e.

H>5d, Large

orifice

Based on shape of

the u/s edge

Sharp edge

Bell mouth

Based on

flow Free

Submerge

d

V V V

2 1

, 0

Velocity V in Eq(1) is known as TORRICELLIS VELOCITY.

Hydraulic Coefficients of an orifice

i)Coefficient of discharge (C

d

): It is defined as the ratio of actual discharge (Q

act

) to the

theoretical discharge (Q

th

)

Value of C

d

varies in the range of 0.61 to 0.65

ii) Coefficient of Velocity (C

v

): It is defined as the ratio of actual velocity (V

act

) to the

theoretical velocity (V

th

).

Value of C

v

varies in the range of 0.95 to 0.99

Coefficient of Contraction (C

c

): It is defined as the ratio of the area of cross section of

the jet at Vena of cross section of the jet at Vena Contracta (a

c

) to the area of the orifice

(a).

Value of C

c

will be generally more than 0.62.

Relationship between the Hydraulic Coefficients of an orifice

From continuity equation

Actual discharge Q

act

= a

c

x V

act

Theoretical discharge Q

th

= a x V

th

Equation for energy loss through an orifice

Applying Bernoullis equation between the liquid surface (A) and the centre of jet and

Vena Contracta (C) and considering losses (h

L

).

,

_

th

act

V

V

V

C

,

_

a

a

C

c

C

Torricellis equation

Equation for Coefficient of Velocity (C

V

) (Trajectory method)

Consider a point P on the centre line of the jet, such that its horizontal and vertical

coordinates are x and y respectively.

By definition, velocity

Since, the jet falls through a vertical distance y under the action of gravity during this

time (t)

Equating equations (1) & (2)

, H Z

A

, 0

A

V

) ( 0 city actualvelo p p

B A

L

h

g

Va

H + + + + +

2

0 0 0 0

2

)

2

(

2

g

Va

H h

L

gH C ButV

V a

2

) (

2

V L

HxC H h

) 1 (

2

V L

C H h

t

x

V

a

a

V

x

t

Or

Or

But

2

1

2

,

_

g

y

V

x

a

gH C V

V a

2

2

1

2

2

,

_

g

y

gH C

x

V

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2 2 y

g

x

H g

x

C

V

Hy

x

C

V

2

1

1

]

1

yH

x

C

V

4

2

Or

Problems

1. The head of water over the centre of an orifice 30mm diameter is 1.5m. If the

coefficient of discharge for the orifice is 0.613, Calculate the actual discharge.

Solution:

d=30mm = 3x10

-3

H=1.5m

C

d

=0.613

2. Compensation water is to be discharge by two circular orifices under a constant head

of 1.0m, measured from the centre of the orifices. What diameter will be required to give

a discharge of 20x10

3

m

3

per day? Assume C

d

for each notch as 0.615.

Solution: d=? H=1m. Q

total

= 20x10

3

m

3

/day C

d

=0.615.

we know

3. A jet of water issuing from an orifice 25mm diameter under a constant head of 1.5m

falls 0.915m vertically before it strikes the ground at a distance of 2.288m measured

;

th

act

d

Q

Q

C

gH xa C

d

2

s m x Q

act

/ 10 35 . 2

3 3

lps Q

act

35 . 2

s m / 1157 . 0

3

gH a C Q

d act

2

1 81 . 9 2

4

615 . 0 1157 . 0

2

x x x

xd

x

mm m d 5 . 232 2325 . 0

horizontally from the Vena Contracta. The discharge was found to be 102lpm. Determine

the hydraulics coefficients of the orifice and the head due to resistance.

Solution: d=25mm=25x10

-3

H=1.5m, y=0.915m, x=2.288m

Q

act

=102lpm = 102/60 = 1.7lps = 1.7x10

-3

m

3

/sec, C

d

=?, C

c

=?, h

L

=?

4. The head of water over a 100mm diameter orifice is 5m. The water coming out of the

orifice is collected in a circular tank 2m diameter. The time taken to collect 45cm of

water is measured as 30secs. Also the coordinates of the jet at a point from Vena Contract

are 100cm horizontal and 5.2cm vertical. Calculate the hydraulic coefficients of the

orifice.

Solution:

D=100mm=0.1m, H=5m

Q

act

= Area of collecting tankxheight of water collected / time

X=100cm = 1m, y=5.2cm = 0.052m

C

d

=?, C

v

=?, C

c

=?

5. The coordinates of a point on the jet issuing from a vertical orifice are 0.4m & 0.003m.

Neglecting air resistance, determine the velocity of the jet and the height of water above

the orifice in the tank.

Solution.

s m x

x

/ 0471 . 0

30

45 . 0

4

2

3

2

98 . 0

5 052 . 0 4

1

4

2 2

,

_

,

_

x x yH

x

C

v

605 . 0

5 81 . 9 2 1 . 0

4 0471 . 0

2

'

,

_

x x x

x

Q

Q

C

th

act

d

618 . 0

98 . 0

605 . 0

V

d

C

C

C

C

X=0.4m, y=0.3m, V=? H=?

Assume

We know

6. A vertical orifice is fitted 0.2m above the bottom of a tank containing water to a depth

of 2m. If G=0.98. What is the vertical distance from the orifice of a point on the jet 0.6m

away from the Vena Contracta?

Solution

Head over the orifice H=(2-0.2)=1.8m

C

V

=0.98, y=?, x=0.6m

7. A closed tank contains water to a height of 2m above a sharp edged orifice 1.5cm

diameter, made in the bottom of the tank. If the discharge through the orifice is to be 4lps.

1

V

C

yH

x

C

V

4

2

,

_

2

2

2

2

2 2

1 03 . 0 4

4 . 0

4

4

x x yxG

x

H

x yHxG

H=1.33m

mm m

x x

y

xyx

or

yH

x

C

V

52 052 . 0

98 . 0 8 . 1 4

6 . 0

8 . 1 4

6 . 0

) 98 . 0 ( ,

4

2

2

2

2

2

,

_

Workout the pressure at which air should be pumped into the tank above water. Take

C

d

=0.6.

Solution

Q=4lps = 4x10

-3

m

3

/s

D=1.5x10

-2

m, C

d

=0.6

P

A

=?

Total head over the orifice

8. A closed tank contains 3m depth of water and an air space at 15kpa pressure. A 5cm

diameter orifice at the bottom of the tank discharge water to the tank B containing

pressurized air at 25kpa. If C

d

= 0.61 for the orifice. Calculate the discharge of water

from tank A.

Solution

d=5cm = 5x10

-2

m C

d

=0.61.

Total head over the orifice

H=1.9806m

9. A tank has two identical orifices in one of its vertical sides. The upper orifice is 4m

below the water surface and the lower one 6m below the water surface. If the value of C

v

for each orifice is 0.98, find the point of intersection of the two jets.

Solution.

3 3 3

/ 10 772 . 11 / 772 . 11 m kN x m N

air

,

_

A

p

h H

gH a C Q

d act

2

( )

,

_

3

2

2

3

10 772 . 11

2 81 . 9 2

4

10 5 . 1

6 . 0 10 4

x

P

x x x

x

x x x

A

) ( / 83 . 0

2

Gauge m kN P

A

( )

'

+

'

+

81 . 9

25 15

3

B A

p p

h H

Given C

v

is same for both the orifices

from figure

Substituting eq(1) in eq(2) and simplifying

Again

10. Two orifices have been provided in the side of the tank, one near the bottom and the

other near the top. Show that the jets from these two orifices will intersect a plane

through the base at the same distance from the tank if the head on the upper orifice is

equal to the height of the lower orifice above the base. Assume C

v

to be the same for

both the orifices.

2 2

2

2

1 1

2

1

4 4 H y

x

H y

x

) (

4 4

2 1

2 2

2

1 1

2

1

x x

H y

x

H y

x

) 1 ( 5 . 1 6 4

2 1 2 1

y ory y y

( )

) 2 ( 2

4 6

2 1

2 1

+

+

y y

y y

m y

y

y y

4

2 5 . 0

2 5 . 1

2

2

2 2

+

gives

H y

x

C

V

2 2

2

2

4

m x

x x

x

6 . 9

6 4 4

98 . 0

2

2

2

Vena contracts)

Solution.

To show that x

1

=x

2

when H

1

=y

2

from figure y

1

=[y

2

+(H

2

-H

1

)---(1)

Problems on Orifices

A 4cm dia orifice in the vertical side of a tank discharges water. The water surface in the

tank is at a constant level of 2m above the centre of the orifice. If the head loss in the

orifice is 0.2m and coefficient of contraction can be assumed to be 0.63. Calculate (I) the

values of coefficient of velocity & coefficient of discharge, (ii) Discharge through the

orifice and (iii) Location of the point of impact of the jet on the horizontal plane located

0.5m below the centre of the orifice.

Solution

Head loss

2 2

2

2

1 1

2

1

1

4 4

,

2

H y

x

H y

x

C C Given

V

V

Or

Or

2 2

2

1 2 1 1 2

H y H H H H y +

0 ) (

1 2 2 2 1

2

1

+ H H y H H H

0 0

0 ) ( ;

2 2 2 2 2

2

2 2 1

+ y H y y H y y H

substituting

,

_

g

Va

H h

L

2

2

,

_

81 . 9 2

2 2 . 0

2

x

Va Or

Coefficient of Velocity

Coefficient of discharge

(ii) Discharge through the orifice

(iii) Coefficient of velocity

An orifice has to be placed in the side of a tank so that the jet will be at a maximum

horizontal distance at the level of its base. If the depth of the liquid int the tank is D, what

is the position of the orifice? Show that the jets from the two orifices in the side of the

tank will intersect at the level of the base if the head on the on the upper orifice is equal

to the height of the orifice above the base.

Solution:

943 . 0

246 . 6

943 . 5

V

V

C

a

v

C v d

xC C C 63 . 0 949 . 0 x

598 . 0

d

C

gH a C Q

d act

2

2 81 . 9 2 04 . 0

4

598 . 0

2

x x x x x

yH

x

C

v

4

2

2

4 x yHC

V

x

Jet

Orifice

D

h

y

By definition, Velocity V=x/t

But

and

For x to be maximum

Vt

gH V 2

2

2

1

gt y

2

2 2

1

) (

,

_

gH

x

g H D

( ) H D H x 4

2

) ( 4 H D H x

Or

0

dH

dx

0 ) 2 ( 4 H D

2 / D H

We know, x=Vt,

1

2gH V

2

2

2

1

gt H y +

2

1

2 2

1

1

1

]

1

gH

x

g

FLOW THROUGH PIPES

Definition of flow through pipes

A pipe is a closed conduit carrying a fluid under pressure. Fluid motion in a pipe

is subjected to a certain resistance. Such a resistance is assumed to be due to

Friction. In reality this is mainly due to the viscous property of the fluid.

Reynolds Number (Re)

It is defined as the ratio of Inertia force of a flowing fluid and the Viscous force.

Re=(Inertia force/Viscous force) =( V D/ )

Classification of pipe flow:

Based on the values of Reynolds number (Re), flow is classified as

Follows:

Laminar flow or Viscous Flow

In such a flow the viscous forces are more predominent compared to inertia

Forces. Stream lines are practically parallel to each other or flow takes place

In the form of telescopic tubes.

This type of flow occurs when Reynolds number Re< 2000.

In laminar flow velocity increases gradually from zero at the boundary to

Maximum at the center.

Laminar flow is regular and smooth and velocity at any point practically remains

constant in magnitude & direction. Therefore, the flow is also known as stream

Line flow.

There will be no exchange of fluid particles from one layer to another.

Thus there will be no momentum transmission from one layer to another.

Ex: Flow of thick oil in narrow tubes, flow of Ground Water, Flow of

Blood in blood vessels.

Transition flow:

In such a type of flow the stream lines get disturbed a little.

This type of flow occurs when 2000< Re < 4000.

Turbulent Flow: This is the most common type of flow that occurs in nature( flow in rivers, pipes).

This flow will be random,erratic,unpredictable. Thus motion of fluid particles result in eddy currents

& they mix up. Streamlines are totally disturbed or cross each other.

The velocity changes in direction and magnitude from point to point.

There will be transfer of momentum between the particles as they are continuously colliding with

each other.

There will be considerable loss of energy in this type of flow.

This type of flow cannot be truly mathematically analysed and any analysis is possible by stastical

evaluation.

For this type of flow in a pipe Re> 4000.

(REYNOLDS EXPERIMENT:Refer Fig.(1)

Hydraulic Grade Line & Energy Grade Line

A Line joining the peizometric heads at various points in a flow is known as Hydraulic

Grade Line (HGL)

Energy Grade Line (EGL)

It is a line joining the elevation of total energy of a flow measured above a datum, i.e.

.

2

2

g

V p

Z + +

2

/2g.(Refer Fig.(2))

Losses in Pipe Flow

Losses in pipe flow can be two types viz:-

a)Major Loss

b)Minor Loss

a)Major Loss: As the name itself indicates, this is the largest of the losses in a pipe. This loss

occurs due to friction only. Hence, it is known as head loss due to friction (h

f

)

b)Minor Loss: Minor losses in a pipe occurs due to change in magnitude or direction of flow.

Minor losses are classified as (i) Entry Loss, (ii) Exit loss, (iii) Sudden expansion loss (iv)

Sudden contraction loss (v) Losses due to bends & pipe fittings.

Head Loss due to Friction (DARCY-WEISBACH Equation)

Consider the flow through a straight horizontal pipe of diameter D, Length L, between two sections (1) & (2)

as shown in fig.(3). Let P

1

& P

2

be the pressures at these sections. o is the shear stress acting along the

pipe boundary.

From II Law of Newton

Force = Mass x accn. But acceleration = 0, as there is no change in velocity,

however the reason that pipe diameter is uniform or same throughout.

( )

( ) ) 1 (

4

4

4 4

. .

0

0

2 1

0

2

2 1

0

2

2

2

1

+

D

L

P P or

DL

D

P P

DL x

D

P

D

P e i

forces

Applying Bernoullis equation between (1) & (2) with the centre line of the pipe

as datum & considering head loss due to friction h

f

,.

f

h

g

V p

Z

g

V p

Z + + + + +

2 2

2

2 2

2

2

1 1

1

2 1

Z Z

Pipe is horizontal

2 1

V V

Pipe diameter is same throughout

) 2 (

2 1

f

h

P P

) 3 (

4

4

0

0

l

D h

or

D

L

x h

f

f

) 4 (

8

2

0

V

f

f=Darcys friction factor (property of the pipe materials

Mass density of the liquid.

V = velocity

Equations (3) & (4)

L

D h

V

f

f

4 8

2

or ,

D

V Lf

h

f

8

4

2

But,

) 5 (

2

2

,

_

gD

fLV

h

g

f

2

4

D

Q

V

) 6 (

8

5 2

2

,

_

D gh

fLQ

h

f

& (5) & (6) are known as DARCY WEISBACH Equation

Pipes in Series or Compound Pipe

D

1

, D

2

, D

3

, D

4

are diameters.(fig.4)

L

1

, L

2

,L

3

, L

4

are lengths of a number of Pipes connected in series

(hf)

1

, (hf)

2

, (hf)

3 &

(hf)

4

are the head loss due to friction for each pipe.

The total head loss due to friction h

f

for the entire pipe system is given by

4 3 2 1

hf hf hf hf h

f

+ + +

5

4

2

2

4

5

3

2

2

3

5

2

2

2

2

5

1

2

2

1

8 8 8 8

D g

Q fL

D g

Q fL

D g

Q fL

D g

Q fL

h

f

+ + +

Pipes in parallel

D

1

, D

2

and D

3

are the pipe diameters.(Fig.5)

Length of each pipe is same, that is, L

1

=L

2

=L

3

For pipes in parallel hf1=hf2=hf3

i.e

) 1 (

8 8 8

5

3

2

5

2

2

5

1

2

5

3

2

2

3

5

2

2

2

2

5

1

2

2

1

3 2 1

3 2 1

D

Q

D

Q

D

Q

or

D g

Q fL

D g

Q fL

D g

Q fL

From continuity equation Q= Q

1

+Q

2

+Q

3

--------(2)

Equivalent pipe

In practice adopting pipes in series may not be feasible due to the fact that

they may be of unistandard size (ie. May not be comemercially available)

and they experience other minor losses. Hence, the entire system will be

replaced by a single pipe of uniform diameter D, but of the same length

L=L

1

+ L

2

+ L

3

such that the head loss due to friction for both the pipes, viz

equivalent pipe & the compound pipe are the same (Fig.6).

For a compound pipe or pipes in series

3 2 1

hf hf hf h

f

+ +

) 1 (

8 8 8

5

3

2

2

3

5

2

2

2

2

5

1

2

2

1

+ +

D g

Q fL

D g

Q fL

D g

Q fL

h

f

for an equivalent pipe ) 2 (

8

5

1

2

2

D g

fLQ

h

f

5

3

3

5

2

2

5

1

1

5

D

L

D

L

D

L

D

L

+ +

or

5

1

5

3

3

5

2

2

5

1

1

'

+ +

D

L

D

L

D

L

L

D

PROBLEMS

1) Find the diameter of a Galvanized iron pipe required to carry a flow of 40lps of water, if the loss

of head is not to exceed 5m per 1km. Length of pipe, Assume f=0.02.

Solution:-

D=?, Q=40lps = 40x10

-3

m

3

/s

h

f

=5m, L=1km = 1000m. f=0.02

Darcys equation is

5

2

8

D g

fLQ

h

f

'

f

h g

fLQ

D

2

2

8

5

1

2

2 3

5 81 . 9

) 10 40 ( 1000 02 . 0 8

'

x x

x x x x

D

mm m D 220 22 . 0

2) Two tanks are connected by a 500mm diameter 2500mm long pipe. Find the rate of flow if the

difference in water levels between the tanks is 20m. Take f=0.016. Neglect minor losses.

Solution:-

Applying Bernoullis equation between (1) & (2) with (2) as datum & considering head loss due to

friction h

f

only, (Fig.7).

) 1 (

2 2

2

2 2

2

2

1 1

1

+ + + + +

f

h

g

V p

Z

g

V p

Z

Z

1

= 20m, Z

2

= 0 (Datum); V

1

=V

2

= 0 (tanks are very large)

p

1

=p

2

=0 (atmospheric pressure)

Therefore From (1)

20+0+0=0+0+0+h

f

Or, h

f

= 20m.

But

5

2

8

D g

fLQ

h

f

2

1

5 2

2500 016 . 0 8

5 . 0 81 . 9 20

'

x x

x x x

Q

lps m Q 8 . 434 sec / 4348 . 0

3

3) Water is supplied to a town of 0.5million inhabitants from a reservoir 25km away and the loss

of head due to friction in the pipe line is measured as 25m. Calculate the size of the supply main,

if each inhabitant uses 200 litres of water per day and 65% of the daily supply is pumped in 8

hours. Take f=0.0195.

Solution:-

Number of inhabitants = 5million = 5,00,000

Length of pipe = 25km = 25,000m.

H

f

= 25m, D=?

Per capita daily demand = 200litres.

Total daily demand = 5,00,000x200= 100x10

6

litres.

Daily supply = 65/100 x 100x10

6

= 65,000m

3

.

Supply rate sec / 1248 . 2

60 60 5 . 8

000 , 65

3

m

x x

Q

'

'

5 2

2

8

D g

fLQ

h

f

5

1

2

2

25 81 . 9

) 1248 . 2 ( 000 , 25 195 . 0 8

'

x x

x x x

D

m D 487 . 1

4) An existing pipe line 800m long consists of four sizes namely, 30cm for 175m, 25cm dia for the

next 200m, 20cm dia for the next 250m and 15cm for the remaining length. Neglecting minor

losses, find the diameter of the uniform pipe of 800m. Length to replace the compound pipe.

Solution:-

L=800m

L

1

=175m D

1

=0.3m

L

2

=200m D

2

=0.25m

L

3

=250m D

3

=0.20m

L

4

=175m D

4

=0.15m

For an equivalent pipe

'

+ + +

5

4

4

5

3

3

5

2

2

5

1

1

5

D

L

D

L

D

L

D

L

D

L

5

1

5 5 5 5

15 . 0

175

2 . 0

250

25 . 0

200

3 . 0

175

800

'

,

_

+ + +

D

D = Diameter of equivalent pipe = 0.189m less than or equal to 19cm.

5) Two reservoirs are connected by four pipes laid in parallel, their respective diameters being d,

1.5d, 2.5d and 3.4d respectively. They are all of same length L & have the same friction factors f.

Find the discharge through the larger pipes, if the smallest one carries 45lps.

Solution:-

D

1

=d, D

2

=1.5d, D

3

=2.5d, D

4

=3.4d

L

1

=L

2

=L

3

=L

4

= L.

f

1

=f

2

=f

3

=f

4

=f.

Q

1

=45x10

-3

m

3

/sec, Q

2

=? Q

3

=? Q

4

=?

For pipes in parallel hf

1

=hf

2

=hf

3

=hf

4

i.e.

5

4

2

4

5

3

2

3

5

2

2

2

5

1

2

1

D

Q

D

Q

D

Q

D

Q

( ) sec / 124 . 0 10 45

5 . 1

3

2

1

2

3

5

2

m x x

d

d

Q

'

,

_

( ) sec / 4446 . 0 10 45

5 . 2

3

2

1

2

3

5

2

m x x

d

d

Q

'

,

_

( ) sec / 9592 . 0 10 45

4 . 3

3

2

1

2

3

5

3

m x x

d

d

Q

'

,

_

6) Two pipe lines of same length but with different diameters 50cm and 75cm are made to carry

the same quantity of flow at the same Reynolds number. What is the ratio of head loss due to

friction in the two pipes?

Solution:-

D

1

=0.5m, D

2

=0.75m

L

1

=L

2

Q

1

=Q

2

(Re)

1

= (Re)

2

,

?

2

1

hf

hf

Reynolds number Re=

V D

2

2 2 2

1

1 1 1

V D V D

2 2 1 1

D V D V ( )

2 1

( )

2 1

2 1

75 . 0 5 . 0 V V

2 1

5 . 1 V V

From Darcys equation

gD

fLV

h

f

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

2

2

1

V

V

x

D

D

hf

hf

375 . 3

5 . 1

5 . 0

75 . 0

2

2

2

,

_

V

V

x

7) A 30cm diameter main is required for a town water supply. As pipes over 27.5cm diameter are

not readily available, it was decided to lay two parallel pipes of same diameter. Find the diameter

of the parallel pipes which will have the combined discharge equal to the single pipe. Adopt

same friction factor for all the pipes.

Fig.(8)

Solution:-

) 1 (

8

5 2

2

'

D g

fLQ

h

f

) 2 (

2

8

2

5 2

'

,

_

D g

Q

fL

h

f

Equating

'

,

_

'

5 2

2

5 2

2

2

8

8

D g

Q

fL

D g

fLQ

5 5

1

4

1 1

D D

or

5

1

5

4

275 . 0

'

D

m m D 275 . 0 205 . 0

8) Two reservoirs are connected by two parallel pipes. Their diameter are 300mm & 350mm and

lengths are 3.15km and 3.5km respectively of the respective values of coefficient of friction are

0.0216 and 0.0325. What will be the discharge from the larger pipe, if the smaller one carries

285lps?

Solution:-

D

1

=300mm=0.3m, D

2

=-.350m

L

1

=3150m L

2

=3500m

F

1

=0.0216 f

2

=0.0325

Q

1

=0.285m

3

/sec Q

2

=?

For parallel pipes

'

'

5

2

2

2

2 2 2

5

1

2

2

1 1 1

8 8

D g

Q L f

D g

Q L f

h

f

2

1

5

1 2 2

5

2

2

1 1 1

2

'

D L f

D Q L f

Q

2

1

5

5 2

2

3 . 0 3500 0325 . 0

35 . 0 285 . 0 3150 0216 . 0

'

x x

x x x

Q

sec / 324 . 0

3

2

m Q

9) Consider two pipes of same lengths and having same roughness coefficient, but with the

diameter of one pipe being twice the other. Determine (I) the ratio of discharges through these

pipes, if the head loss due to friction for both the pipes is the same. (ii) the ratio of the head loss

due to friction, when both the pipes carry the same discharge.

Solution:-

f

1

=f

2

D

1

=2D

2

L

1

=L

2

(i)Given hf

1

=hf

2

Q

1

/Q

2

=?

From Darcys equation

'

5 2

2

8

D g

fLQ

h

f

5

2

2

2

2 2 2

5

1

2

2

1 1 1

8 8

D g

Q L f

D g

Q L f

656 . 5

2

2

5

2

2

2

5

2

1

2

1

,

_

,

_

D

D

D

D

Q

Q

(ii) Given Q

1

/Q

2,

hf

1

/hf

2

=?

03125 . 0

2

8

5

2

2

5

1

2

5

1

2

2

2 1 1

2

1

,

_

,

_

D

D

D

D

D g

Q L f

hf

hf

10) Two sharp ended pipes are 50mm & 105mm diameters and 200m length

are connected in parallel between two reservoirs which have a water level

difference of 15m. If the coefficient of friction for each pipes of 0.0215.

Calculate the rate of flow in each pipe and also diameter of a single pipe

200m long which would give the same discharge, if it were substituted for the

Original two pipes.

Solution

D

1

=0.015m, D

2

=0.105m, L

1

=L

2

=200m

H=15m, f

1

=f

2

=0.0215, a) Q

1

=?, Q

2

=? (b) D=?, when Q=Q

1

+Q

2

a) For parallel pipes

'

'

5

2

2

2

2 2 2

5

1

2

2

1 1 1

8 8

D g

Q L f

D g

Q L f

h

f

sec / 10 63 . 3

200 0215 . 0 8

05 . 0 81 . 9 15

3 3

2

1

5 2

1

m x

x x

x xh x

Q

'

sec / 023 . 0

200 0215 . 0 8

105 . 0 81 . 9 15

3 2

2

1

5 2

2

m

x x

x xh x

Q

'

b)

( ) sec / 02684 . 0 0232 . 0 10 63 . 3

2 3

2 1

m x Q Q Q + +

5 2

2

8

D g

fLQ

h

f

( )

5

1

2

2

15 81 . 9

02684 . 0 200 0215 . 0 8

'

x x

x x x

D

cm m D 12 . 11 1112 . 0

11) Two pipes with diameters 2D and D are first connected in parallel and

when a discharge Q passes the head loss is H

1

, when the same pipes are

Connected in series for the same discharge the loss of head is H

2

. Find the

relationship between H

1

and H

2

. Neglect minor losses. Both the pipes are of

same length and have the same friction factors.

Solution (Fig.9)

H

1

= head loss due to friction = h

f

= hf

2

i.e.

'

5 2

2

1

) 2 (

8

D g

fLQ

h

f

) 1 (

) (

8

5 2

2

2

2

'

D g

fLQ

h

f

) 2 (

2 1

+ Q Q Q

Q Q Q +

2 2

66 . 5 Q Q

66 . 6

1

2

) 3 (

02256 . 0 8 66 . 6

1

8

5 2

2

5 2

2

1

,

_

D g

Q fLx

D g

Q fL

H

Case(iii)

2 1 2

hf hf H +

5 2

2

5 2

2

) 2 (

8

8

D g

fLQ

D g

fLQ

h

f

+

'

,

_

+

5 5 2

2

2

2

1

1

1 8

D g

fLQ

H

) 4 (

8 0312 . 1

5 2

2

2

D g

xflQ x

H

2

5 2

5 2

2

2

1

8 0312 . 1

8 02256 . 0

flQ x

D g

x

D g

xflQ x

H

H

021876 . 0

0312 . 1

02256 . 0

2

1

H

H

or

71 . 45

1

2

H

H

12) Two reservoirs are connected by a 3km long 250mm diameter. The

difference in water levels being 10m. Calculate the discharge in lpm, if f=0.03.

Also find the percentage increase in discharge if for the last 600m a second

Pipe of the same diameter is laid parallel to the first.

Solution

Applying Bernoullis equation between (1) & (2) with (2) as datum and

considering head loss due to friction h

f (Fig.11)

f

h

g

V p

Z

g

V p

Z + + + + +

2 2

2

1 2

2

2

1 1

1

m h h

f f

10 0 0 0 0 0 10 + + + + +

5 2

2

8

D g

fLQ

h

f

( )

2

1

5 2

3000 03 . 0 8

10 25 . 0 81 . 9

'

x x

x x x

Q

sec / 03624 . 0

3

m Q

Case (ii)

3 2 1

orhf hf hf h

f

+

3 2 1

orhf hf hf h

f

+

(Fig.12)

( )

'

+

5

2

1

5

2

1

2

25 . 0

2 / 600

25 . 0

2400

81 . 9

03 . 0 8

10

Q Q

x

x

2

1

66 . 6472 10 Q sec / 0393 . 0

3

1

m Q

Change in discharge = ( ) Q Q Q

1

( ) 03624 . 0 0393 . 0 sec / 10 066 . 3

3 3

m x Q

% increase in discharge =

100

1

x

Q

Q

% 46 . 8 100

03624 . 0

10 066 . 3

3

x

x

MINOR LOSSES IN PIPES

Minor losses in a pipe flow can be either due to change in magnitude or direction

of flow. They can be due to one or more of the following reasons.

i)Entry loss

ii)Exit loss

iii)Sudden expansion loss

iv)Sudden contraction loss

v)Losses due to pipe bends and fittings

vi)Losses due to obstruction in pipe.

Equation for head loss due to sudden enlargement or expansion of a pipe

Consider the sudden expansion of flow between the two section (1) (1)& (2) (2)

as shown in Fig.13

P

1

& P

2

are the pressure acting at (1) (1) and (2) (2), while V

1

and V

2

are the

velocities.

From experiments, it is proved that pressure P

1

acts on the area (a

2

a

1

) i.e. at

the point of sudden expansion.

From II Law of Newton Force = Mass x Acceleration. ---------------(1)

Consider LHS of eq(1)

( ) ) (

1 2 1 2 2 1 1

i a a p a p a p forces + +

( ) ) ( ,

2 1 2

ii p p a forces or

Mass x acceleration =

Substitution (ii) & (iii)

( ) ( )

2 1 2 1 2

V V Q p p a

or, ( ) ( )

2 1 2 2 1

V V V p p

Both sides by (sp.weight)

( )

) (

2 1 2 2 1

iv

g

V V V p p

,

_

Applying Bernoullis equation between (1) and (2) with the centre line of the pipe

as datum and considering head loss due to sudden expansion h

L

only

g

V p

Z

g

V p

Z

2 2

2

2 2

2

2

1 1

1

+ + + +

zontal pipeishori C Z Z

2 1

L

h

g

V V p p

,

_

2

2

2

2

1 2 1

( ) ( )

g

V V V V V

h

L

2

2

2

2

2

1 2 1 2

+

g

V V V V V

h

L

2

2 2

2

2

2

1

2

2 2 1

+

g

V V V V V

h

L

2

2 2

2

2

2

1 2 1

2

2

+

g

V V V V

h

L

2

2

2 1

2

1

2

2

+

OR

( )

g

V V

h

L

2

2

2 1

In Eq(V) h

L

is expressed in meters similarly, power (P) lost due to sudden

expansion is

) (vi Qh P

f

Equations for other minor losses (Fig.14 a,b,c)

Sudden contraction loss

g

V

h

L

2

5 . 0

2

2

g

V

h

entry L

2

5 . 0

2

g

V

h

exit L

2

2

g

KV

h

L

2

2

K=coefficient

Problems

1) A 25cm diameter, 2km long horizontal pipe is connected to a water tank. The

pipe discharges freely into atmosphere on the downstream side. The head over

the centre line of the pipe is 32.5m, f=0.0185. Considering the discharge through

the pipe

Applying Bernoullis equation between (A) and (B) with (B) as datum &

considering all losses.(Fig.15)

exitloss ss frictionlo entryloss

g

v p

Z

g

V P

Z

B B

B

A A

A

+ + + + + + +

2 2

2 2

g

V

gD

fLV

g

V

g

V

2 2 2

5 . 0

2

0 0 0 0 5 . 32

2 2 2 2

+ + + + + + +

'

+ + + 1

25 . 0

2000 0185 . 0

5 . 0 1

2

5 . 32

2

X

g

V

2

67 . 7 5 . 32 V

s m V / 06 . 2

4

2

D

Q

sec / 101 . 0 06 . 2

4

25 . 0

3

2

m x x

lps Q 101

2) The discharge through a pipe is 225lps. Find the loss of head when the pipe is

suddenly enlarged from 150mm to 250mm diameter.

Solution: D

1

=0.15m, D

2

= 0.25m Q=225lps = 225m

3

/sec

Head loss due to sudden expansion is

g

X

D

Q

D

Q

2

1 4 4

2

2

2

1

,

_

2

2

2

2

1

2

2

1 1

2

16

,

_

D D g

Q

2

2 2 2

2

25 . 0

1

15 . 0

1

81 . 9 2

225 . 0 16

,

_

x x

x

m h

L

385 . 3

3) The rate of flow of water through a horizontal pipe is 350lps. The diameter of

the pipe is suddenly enlarge from 200mm to 500mm. The pressure intensity in

the smaller pipe is 15N/cm

2

. Determine (i) loss of head due to sudden

enlargement. (ii) pressure intensity in the larger pipe (iii) power lost due to

enlargement.

Solution : (Fig.16)

Q=350lps=0.35m

3

/s

D

1

=0.2m, D

2

=0.5m, P

1

=15N/cm

2

h

L

=?, p

2

=?, P=?

From continuity equation

s m

x

x

D

Q

V / 14 . 11

2 . 0

35 . 0 4 4

2 2

1

1

s m

x

x

D

Q

V / 78 . 1

5 . 0

35 . 0 4 4

2 2

2

2

( ) ( )

mofwater

x g

V V

h

L

463 . 4

81 . 9 2

78 . 1 14 . 11

2

2

2 1

Applying Bernoullis equation between (1) (1) and (2) (2) with the central line of

the pipe as datum and considering head loss due to sudden expansion h

L

only.

Power lost

L

h

g

V p

Z

g

V p

Z + + + + +

2 2

2

2 2

2

2

1 1

1

( ) ntal pipehorizo Z Z 0

2 1

463 . 4

62 . 19

78 . 1

81 . 9

0

62 . 19

14 . 11

81 . 9

150

0

2

2

2

+ + + + +

p

2 2

2

/ 67 . 16 / 68 . 166 cm N m kN p

Power lost

L

Qh P 463 . 4 35 . 0 81 . 9 x x

kW P 32 . 15

4) At a sudden enlargement of an horizontal pipe from 100 to 150mm, diameter,

the hydraulic grade line raises by 8mm. Calculate the discharge through the pipe

system.

Solution

( )

) 1 (

2

2

2 1

g

V V

h

L

(Fig.17)

) 2 ( 10 8 ,

3 1

1

2

2

1

]

1

,

_

,

_

+

m x

p

Z

p

Z Given

Applying Bernoullis equation between (1) & (2) with the central line of the pipe as

datum and neglecting minor losses (h

L

) due to sudden expansion.

L

h

g

V p

Z

g

V p

Z + + + + +

2 2

2

2 2

2

2

1 1

1

0

2

2

1

2

2 1

1

2

2

'

,

_

,

_

+

L

h

g

V V p

Z

p

Z

From continuity equation

2

2

1

2

4

15 . 0

4

1 . 0

xV

x

V

x

2 1

25 . 2 V V

( ) ( )

0

81 . 9 2

25 . 2

81 . 9 2

25 . 2

10 8

2

2 2

2

2

2

2 3

'

+

x

V V

x

V V

x

0 1274 . 0 10 8

2

2

3

V x

s m

x

V / 25 . 0

1274 . 0

10 8

2

1

3

2

,

_

Discharge 25 . 0

4

15 . 0

4

2

2

2

2

x

x

V

D

Q

s m x / 10 428 . 4

3 3

or

lps Q 425 . 4

5) Two reservoirs are connected by a pipe line which is 125mm diameter for the

first 10m and 200mm in diameter for the remaining 25m. The entrance and exit

are sharp and the change of section is sudden. The water surface in the upper

reservoir is 7.5m above that in the lower reservoir. Determine the rate of flow,

assuming f=0.001 for each of the types.

Solution

From continuity equation

2

2

1

2

4

2 . 0

4

125 . 0

V

x

V

x

2 1

56 . 2 V V

Applying Bernoullis equation between (1) & (2) in both the reservoirs with the

water in the lower reservoir as datum and considering all losses

ansionloss sudden ss frictionlo entryloss

g

V p

Z

g

V p

Z

B B

B

A A

A

exp

2 2

2 2

+ + + + + + +

( )

'

+ + + + + + +

g

V V

g

V fL

g

V

2 2 2

5 . 0

0 0 0 } 0 0 5 . 7

2

2 1

2

1 1

2

1

( ) ( ) ( )

'

+ + + +

g

V

g

V V

g

V x x

g

V

2 2

56 . 2

2

56 . 2 10 01 . 0

2

5 . 2 5 . 0

} 0 0 5 . 7

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

{ } 1 434 . 2 243 . 5 2768 . 3

62 . 19

5 . 7

2

2

+ + +

V

( ) s m V / 6 . 4 16 . 21 2

1

2

sec / 1445 . 0 6 . 4

4

2 . 0

2

2

m x

x

Q

'

Additional Problems

Flow through Pipes

1) Water flows upwards through a vertical pipeline. A mercury manometer

connected between two points 10m apart shows a reading of 40cm of mercury

when discharge is 450lpm. If the friction factor is 0.02. Determine the size of the

pipe.

2) A town having a population of 1.2lakhs is to be supplied with water from a

reservoir 4km away, and it is stipulated that half the daily supply at the rate of

140lpcd should be delivered in 8 hours. Determine the size of the concrete pipes

to be laid, if the available head is 12m K for concrete pipes = 0.3mm.

3) Two reservoirs are connected by three pipes of same length laid in parallel,

and the diameters are D, 2D & 3D respectively. If the coefficients of friction of all

the three pipes is same, and the discharge in the smallest pipe is 30lps,

determine the flow rates in the other two pipes.

4) Two reservoirs are connected by a long pipes 300mm, diameter carrying

150lps. If another pipe of the same material is to be laid in parallel to carry twice

this discharge, what should be its diameter? Neglect minor losses.

5) Three pipes are connected in parallel between two points and the total

discharge is 3 cumecs. If the pipes are of length 1200m, 1400m & 1600m

diameter 1m, 0.8m & 1.2m respectively, and friction factor is the same for all the

pipes, determine the discharge in each pipe and the pressure difference required

to maintain the flow, assuming f=0.02.

6) A 450mm concrete pipe 1800m long connects two reservoirs whose difference

in water level is 15m. What is the discharge? If another concrete pipe line

300mm diameter is introduced in parallel what would be the percentage increase

in discharge and the discharge in each pipe. If the parallel pipe is introduced.

a)In the first half of the length. b)In the second half of the length

c)In the middle one third of the length. Assume f=0.03 for all pipes and same

difference in the reservoir levels.

7) A 450mm, concrete pipeline 200m long connects two reservoirs whose

difference in water levels is 15m. What is the discharge?

a)What is the percentage increase in discharge if another pipe line of the same

diameter is introduced is parallel for the second half of the length?

b)If a 30% increase in discharge is desired, what diameter pipe should be

introduced in parallel for the second half of the length? Assume f=0.03 for all the

pipes and the difference in reservoir levels same in the both the cases. Neglect

minor losses.

8) Two pipes of 5cm diameter and 10cm diameter are connected in series. They

have the same length and friction factor. If the head loss in the 10cm pipes is 1m,

what is the head loss in the 5cm pipe? If the discharge through the 10cm pipe is

10lps, what is the discharge through the 5cm pipe?

P1 V1

P2

V2

flow

Area = a1

Area = a2

9) A pipe has D=40cm, L=10m, f=0.02. What is the length of an equivalent pipe

which has D=20cm and f=0.02.

10) An 8cm diameter pipe carrying water has an abrupt expansion 12cm

diameter at a section. If a differential mercury manometer connected to upstream

and downstream sections of the expansion indicate a gauge reading of 2cm.

Estimate the discharge in the pipe.

11) When a sudden contraction form 50cm diameter to 25cm is introduced in a

horizontal pipe line the pressure changes from 105kps to 69kps. Assuming a

coefficient of contraction of 0.65, calculate the flow rate. Following this

contraction if there is a sudden enlargement to 50cm and if the pressure in the

25cm diameter section is 69kps, what is the pressure in the 50cm section?

12) Three pipes A, B & C with details as given in the following are connected in

series.

Calculate a) the size of a pipe of length 125m and f=0.020, equivalent to the pipe

line ABC b) the length of an 8cm diameter (f=0.015) pipe equivalent to the pipe

line ABC.

13) A horizontal pipe line carrying water at 0.03 m

3

/s reduces abruptly from 15cm

to 10cm diameter. Taking contraction coefficient C

C

=0.60. Determine the

pressure loss across the contraction. How this pressure loss compares with the

loss that would result if the flow direction is reversed?

14) Two pipes of diameter 40cm and 20cm are 300m each in length. When the

pipes are connected in series and the discharge through the pipe line is 0.1m

3

/s ,

find the loss of head incurred. What would be the loss of head incurred. What

would be the loss of head in the system to pass the same total discharge when

the pipes are connected in parallel, take f=0.03 for each pipe.

(P.S: FOR ANSWERS TO THE ABOVE PROBLEMS, DOWNLOAD THE

CONTENTS OF SESSION-9, VTU.AC.IN (E-LEARNING).

1 2

V1

V

entry

V

Fitting collar

V

entry

Fig.13

Fig 14.(a)

Fig 14.(b)

Fig 14. (c)

Fig 15

V2

exit

exit

V1

V2

flow

V1

V2

flow

Z1+p1/ Z2+p2/

Fig 17

Fig 16

1

1

2

2

1

1

2

2

Q

P2

FLOW MEASUREMENTS

Flow Through Orifices

An orifice is an opening of any cross section, at the bottom or on the side walls of

a container or vessel, through which the fluid is discharged.

If the geometric characteristics of the orifice plus the properties of the fluid are

known, then the orifice can be used to measure the flow rates.

Classification of orifices

Based on shape: circular, triangular, rectangular

Based on size :Small orifice (when the head over the orifice is more than five times its size I.e. H>5d,

Large orifice

Based on shape of the u/s edge :Sharp edge, Bell mouth

Based on flow: Free, Submerged

Flow through an orifice

As the fluid passes through the orifice under a head H, the stream lines converge

and therefore the jet contracts. The stream lines which converge are mostly

those from near the walls and they do so because stream lines cannot make right

angled bend in motion. This phenomenon occurs just down stream of the orifice,

and such a section where the area of cross section of the jet is minimum is know

as VENA CONTRACTA.

The pressure at Vena Contracta is assumed to be atmospheric and the velocity

is assumed to be the same across the section since the stream lines will be

parallel and equally spaced.

Downstream of Vena contracta the jet expands and bends down.

Figure(18) shows the details of free flow through a vertical orifice.

Applying Bernoulli's equation between (B) & (C) with the horizontal through BC

as datum and neglecting losses (h

L

)

L

h

g

V p

Z

g

V p

Z + + + + +

2 2

2

2 2

2

2

1 1

1

;

2 1

Z Z

,

1

H

p

V V V

2 1

, 0

0

2

0 0 0 0

2

+ + + + +

g

V

H

) 1 ( 2 gH orV Theoretical velocity

Velocity V in Eq(1) is known as TORRICELLIS VELOCITY.

Hydraulic Coefficients of an orifice

i)Coefficient of discharge (C

d

): It is defined as the ratio of actual discharge (Q

act

)

to the theoretical discharge (Q

th

).

,

_

th

act

d

Q

Q

C .

Value of C

d

varies in the range of 0.61 to 0.65

ii) Coefficient of Velocity (C

v

): It is defined as the ratio of actual velocity (V

act

) to

the theoretical velocity (V

th

).

,

_

th

act

V

V

V

C Value of C

v

varies in the range of

0.95 to 0.99

Coefficient of Contraction (C

c

): It is defined as the ratio of the area of cross

section of the jet at Vena of cross section of the jet at Vena Contracta (a

c

) to the

area of the orifice (a).

,

_

a

a

C

c

C

Value of C

c

will be generally more than 0.62.

Relationship between the Hydraulic Coefficients of an orifice

From continuity equation

Actual discharge Q

act

= a

c

x V

act

Theoretical discharge Q

th

= a x V

th

th

act c

th

act

V

V

x

a

a

Q

Q

or

c c d

xC C C

Equation for energy loss through an orifice

Applying Bernoullis equation between the liquid surface (A) and the centre of jet

and Vena Contracta (C) and considering losses (h

L

).

L

C C

C

A A

A

h

g

V p

Z

g

V p

Z + + + + +

2 2

2 2

, H Z

A

) ( 0 atmosphere p p

B A

, 0

A

V ) ( 0 city actualvelo p p

B A

L

h

g

Va

H + + + + +

2

0 0 0 0

2

)

2

(

2

g

Va

H h

L

gH C ButV

V a

2

Torricellis equation

) (

2

V L

HxC H h

) 1 (

2

V L

C H h

Equation for Coefficient of Velocity (C

V

) (Trajectory method)

Consider a point P on the centre line of the jet, such that its horizontal and

vertical coordinates are x and y respectively.

By definition, velocity

t

x

V

a

or,

a

V

x

t

Since, the jet falls through a vertical distance y under the action of gravity during

this time (t)

2

2

gt

y or

) 2 (

2

2

1

,

_

g

y

t

Equating equations (1) & (2)

2

1

2

,

_

g

y

V

x

a

But ,

gH C V

V a

2

2

1

2

2

,

_

g

y

gH C

x

V

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2 2 y

g

x

H g

x

C

V

Hy

x

C

V

2

or

1

1

]

1

yH

x

C

V

4

2

Problems

1. The head of water over the centre of an orifice 30mm diameter is 1.5m. If the

coefficient of discharge for the orifice is 0.613, Calculate the actual discharge.

Solution: d=30mm = 3x10

-3

H=1.5m

C

d

=0.613

;

th

act

d

Q

Q

C

th d act

xQ C Q

gH xa C

d

2

( ) 2

1

3

5 . 1 81 . 9 2

4

) 10 30 (

613 . 0 x x x

x

x x

s m x Q

act

/ 10 35 . 2

3 3

or

lps Q

act

35 . 2

2. Compensation water is to be discharge by two circular orifices under a

constant head of 1.0m, measured from the centre of the orifices. What diameter

will be required to give a discharge of 20x10

3

m

3

per day? Assume C

d

for each

notch as 0.615.

Solution: d=?H=1m. Q

total

= 20x10

3

m

3

/day C

d

=0.615.

60 60 24

1

10 20

2

1

3

x x

x x x Q

act

s m / 1157 . 0

3

we know gH a C Q

d act

2

1 81 . 9 2

4

615 . 0 1157 . 0

2

x x x

xd

x

mm m d 5 . 232 2325 . 0

3. A jet of water issuing from an orifice 25mm diameter under a constant head of

1.5m falls 0.915m vertically before it strikes the ground at a distance of 2.288m

measured horizontally from the Vena Contracta. The discharge was found to be

102lpm. Determine the hydraulics coefficients of the orifice and the head due to

resistance.

Solution: d=25mm=25x10

-3

H=1.5m, y=0.915m, x=2.288m

Q

act

=102lpm = 102/60 = 1.7lps = 1.7x10

-3

m

3

/sec, C

d

=?, C

c

=?, h

L

=?

976 . 0

5 . 1 915 . 0 4

288 . 2

4

2 2

x x yH

x

C

V

( )

638 . 0

5 . 1 81 . 9 2 10 25

4 10 7 . 1

2

3

3

'

x x x x x

x x

Q

Q

C

th

act

d

999 . 0

976 . 0

638 . 0

,

_

v

d

C V C d

C

C

C xC C C

( )

2

1

v L

C H headlossh

( )

2

976 . 0 1 5 . 1 mm m h

L

2 . 71 0712 . 0

4. The head of water over a 100mm diameter orifice is 5m. The water coming out

of the orifice is collected in a circular tank 2m diameter. The time taken to collect

45cm of water is measured as 30secs. Also the coordinates of the jet at a point

from Vena Contract are 100cm horizontal and 5.2cm vertical. Calculate the

hydraulic coefficients of the orifice.

Solution:

D=100mm=0.1m, H=5m

Q

act

= Area of collecting tankxheight of water collected / time

s m x

x

/ 0471 . 0

30

45 . 0

4

2

3

2

X=100cm = 1m, y=5.2cm = 0.052m

C

d

=?, C

v

=?, C

c

=?

98 . 0

5 052 . 0 4

1

4

2 2

,

_

,

_

x x yH

x

C

v

605 . 0

5 81 . 9 2 1 . 0

4 0471 . 0

2

'

,

_

x x x

x

Q

Q

C

th

act

d

618 . 0

98 . 0

605 . 0

V

d

C

C

C

C

5. The coordinates of a point on the jet issuing from a vertical orifice are 0.4m &

0.003m. Neglecting air resistance, determine the velocity of the jet and the height

of water above the orifice in the tank.

Solution.

X=0.4m, y=0.3m, V=? H=?

Assume

We know

yH

x

C

V

4

2

,

_

2

2

2

2

2 2

1 03 . 0 4

4 . 0

4

4

x x yxG

x

H

x yHxG

H=1.33m

s m x x x gH G V / 115 . 5 33 . 1 81 . 9 2 1 2

6. A vertical orifice is fitted 0.2m above the bottom of a tank containing water to a

depth of 2m. If G=0.98. What is the vertical distance from the orifice of a point on

the jet 0.6m away from the Vena Contracta?

Solution

Head over the orifice H=(2-0.2)=1.8m

C

V

=0.98, y=?, x=0.6m

mm m

x x

y

xyx

or

yH

x

C

V

52 052 . 0

98 . 0 8 . 1 4

6 . 0

8 . 1 4

6 . 0

) 98 . 0 ( ,

4

2

2

2

2

2

,

_

1.5cm diameter, made in the bottom of the tank. If the discharge through the

orifice is to be 4lps. Workout the pressure at which air should be pumped into the

tank above water. Take C

d

=0.6.

Solution: (fig.19)

Q=4lps = 4x10

-3

m

3

/s

D=1.5x10

-2

m, C

d

=0.6

P

A

=?

3 3 3

/ 10 772 . 11 / 772 . 11 m kN x m N

air

Total head over the orifice

,

_

A

p

h H

gH a C Q

d act

2

( )

,

_

3

2

2

3

10 772 . 11

2 81 . 9 2

4

10 5 . 1

6 . 0 10 4

x

P

x x x

x

x x x

A

) ( / 83 . 0

2

Gauge m kN P

A

8. A closed tank contains 3m depth of water and an air space at 15kpa pressure.

A 5cm diameter orifice at the bottom of the tank discharge water to the tank B

containing pressurized air at 25kpa. If C

d

= 0.61 for the orifice. Calculate the

discharge of water from tank A.

Solution: fig(20)

d=5cm = 5x10

-2

m C

d

=0.61.

Total head over the orifice

( )

'

+

'

+

81 . 9

25 15

3

B A

p p

h H

H=1.9806m

9806 . 1 81 . 9 2

4

05 . 0

61 . 0 2

2

x x x

x

x gH a C Q

d act

lps s m x Q

act

47 . 7 / 10 47 . 7

3 3

9. A tank has two identical orifices in one of its vertical sides. The upper orifice is

4m below the water surface and the lower one 6m below the water surface. If the

value of C

v

for each orifice is 0.98, find the point of intersection of the two jets.

Solution.

yH

x

C

V

4

2

Given C

v

is same for both the orifices

2 2

2

2

1 1

2

1

4 4 H y

x

H y

x

) (

4 4

2 1

2 2

2

1 1

2

1

x x

H y

x

H y

x

) 1 ( 5 . 1 6 4

2 1 2 1

y ory y y

from figure(21)

( )

) 2 ( 2

4 6

2 1

2 1

+

+

y y

y y

Substituting eq(1) in eq(2) and simplifying

m y

y

y y

4

2 5 . 0

2 5 . 1

2

2

2 2

+

Again gives

H y

x

C

V

2 2

2

2

4

m x

x x

x

6 . 9

6 4 4

98 . 0

2

2

2

10. Two orifices have been provided in the side of the tank, one near the bottom

and the other near the top. Show that the jets from these two orifices will

intersect a plane through the base at the same distance from the tank if the head

on the upper orifice is equal to the height of the lower orifice above the base.

Assume C

v

to be the same for both the orifices.

Solution.

To show that x

1

=x

2

when H

1

=y

2

from figure(22)

y

1

=[y

2

+(H

2

-H

1

)---(1)

2 2

2

2

1 1

2

1

1

4 4

,

2

H y

x

H y

x

C C Given

V

V

or

2 2 1 1

4 4 H y H y

] ) ( [

2 2 1 1 2 2

H y H H H y +

2 2

2

1 2 1 1 2

H y H H H H y +

0 ) (

1 2 2 2 1

2

1

+ H H y H H H

substituting

0 0

0 ) ( ;

2 2 2 2 2

2

2 2 1

+ y H y y H y y H

11. A 4cm dia orifice in the vertical side of a tank discharges water. The water

surface in the tank is at a constant level of 2m above the centre of the orifice. If

the head loss in the orifice is 0.2m and coefficient of contraction can be assumed

to be 0.63. Calculate (I) the values of coefficient of velocity & coefficient of

discharge, (ii) Discharge through the orifice and (iii) Location of the point of

impact of the jet on the horizontal plane located 0.5m below the centre of the

orifice.

Solution

2 2 9.81 2 V gH x x

6.264 / V m s Head loss

2

2

L

Va

h H

g

_

,

2

0.2 2

2 9.81

Va

x

_

,

5.943 /

a

V m s

Coefficient of Velocity

5.943

0.943

6.246

a

v

V

C

V

Coefficient of discharge

d v C

C C xC 0.949 0.63 x 0.598

d

C

(ii) Discharge through the orifice

2

act d

Q C a gH

2

0.598 0.04 2 9.81 2

4

x x x x x

3

4.707 10 / 4.71 x m s lps

(iii) Coefficient of velocity

2

4

v

x

C

yH

or

2

4

V

yHC x

2

4 0.5 2(0.949) x x x 1.898 x m

12. An orifice has to be placed in the side of a tank so that the jet will be at a

maximum horizontal distance at the level of its base. If the depth of the liquid int

the tank is D, what is the position of the orifice? Show that the jets from the two

orifices in the side of the tank will intersect at the level of the base if the head on

the on the upper orifice is equal to the height of the orifice above the base.

Solution: fig(23)

By definition, Velocity V=x/t

Vt

But

2 V gH and

2

1

2

y gt

2

1

( )

2 2

x

D H g

gH

_

,

or

( )

2

4 x H D H

or

4 ( ) x H D H

For x to be maximum

0

dx

dH

4( 2 ) 0 D H

/ 2 H D

We know, x=Vt,

1

2 V gH

2

2

1

2

y H gt +

2

1

1

2 2

x

g

gH

1

1

1

]

( )

2

1 2

4 (1) x H y H +

( )

2

1

4 / 2 (2) x H y L +

Equating (1) & (2)

1 1 2 1 2 2

4 4 4 4 H y H H H H yH + +

1 2 1 2

4 4 H y yH H H

13. Two tanks with orifices in the same vertical plane are shown in figure.

What should be the spacing x for the jets to intersect in the plane of the base?

Assume C

V

=0.98 for each orifices. x=?

Solution: fig(25)

2 2

1 2

1 1 2 2

(1)

4 4

x x

y H y H

Assuming the coefficient of velocity C

V

to be the same for both the orifices, we

have (CV

1

) = (CV

2

)

where

1 1

2 2 0.4 1.6 y H m

2 2

2 2 1.6 0.4 y H m

1 2

0.4 , 1.6 H m H m

2 2

1 2

4 1.6 0.4 4 0.4 1.6

x x

x x x x

2

1

1

1 1

4

V

x

C

y H

2

1

0.98

4 1.6 0.4

x

x x

1 2

1.568 x m x

[ ]

1 2

2 1.568 3.136 x x x x m +

14. A large tank has a circular sharp edged orifice 25mm diameter in the

vertical side. The water level in the tank is 0.6m above the centre of the orifice.

The diameter of the jet at Vena contracta is measured as 20mm. The water of

the jet is collected in a tank 1.2m long x 0.6m wide and the water level rised from

0.15 to 0.75 in 7 minutes. Calculate the orifice coefficients.

Solution: Dia of jet at vena contracta d

c

=20mm

Dia of orifice = d = 25mm

Head over the orifice H = 0.6m

Depth of water collected in the measuring tank h=(0.75-0.15)=0.6m

Depth of water collected in the measuring tank A = 1.2x0.6 = 0.72m

2

Time taken for collecting 0.6m of water t=7min=7x60=420sec

Therefore actual discharge Q

act

= Area of measuring tank x depth of water

collected / time taken

0.72 0.6

. .

420

act

Ah x

i e Q

t

_

,

3 3

1.0286 10 / x m s

2

th

Q a gH

( )

2

3

25 10

2 9.81 0.6

4

x

x x x x

3 2

1.684 10 /

th

Q x m s

Coefficient of discharge

act

d

th

Q

C

Q

3

3

1.0286 10

1.684 10

x

x

,

0.61

d

C

Coefficient of contraction

C

c

= area of jet at vena contracta / area of orifice

2

2

4

4

C

c

d

C x

d

2

2

20

0.64

25

c

d

d

_

_

,

,

We know, C

d

=C

c

xC

V

Therefore, Coefficient of velocity

0.61

0.64

d

V

c

C

C

C

0.953

V

C

Coefficient of resistance

2

1

C

V

C

C

_

,

2

1

1

0.953

_

,

0.1008

r

C

15. A jet of water issuing from a vertical orifice in a tank under a constant

head of 4m. If the depth of water in the tank is 12m, at what depth another orifice

to be mounted vertically below the former one, so that both the jets meet at a

common point on the horizontal at the bottom of the tank? Assume C

v

to be the

same for both the orifices = 0.98.

Solution: fig(26)

2 2

1 2

1 2

1 1 2 2

,

4 4

V V

x x

C C

y H y H

From figure, (y

1

-y

2

)=(H

2

-H

1

)

( ) ( )

1 1

12 4 8 y y H m

( ) ( )

2 2 2

12 y y H H m

Equating the values of C

V

2 2

1 2

1 1 2 2

4 4

x x

y H y H

1 1 2 2

4 4 y H y H

1 2

x x Q

1 1 2 2

y H y H

( )

2 2

8 4 12 x H H

2

2 2

12 32 0 H H +

2

2

12 12 4 1 32

2 1

x x

H

x

+ t

8 4 mor m

H

2

= 8m is the correct answer.

Hence, the second orifice should be 4m below the first orifice.

16.

Water is to be discharged by two circular orifices under a constant head of 1m

above their centres. What should be the diameter of the orifices to give a

discharge of 20Mlpd? Assume a coefficient of discharge of 0.62.

Solution.

Total discharge=20Mlpd

(million litres per day)

6

20 10

231.48

24 60 60

x

lps

x x

Therefore Discharge per orifices

231.48

115.74

2

Q lps

2

0.11574 / orQ m s

But,

2

d

Q C a gH

0.11574

0.62 2 9.81 1

a

x x x

' ;

2

0.04214m

1

2

2

4 0.04214

4

d x

a d

_

,

=0.2316m

Therefore, Diameter of each orifice d = 231.6mm

17. What is the discharge through the 60mm diameter orifice shown in figure,

assuming the oil level remains constant

Solution. Fig(27)

Head of the orifice H

100

2

0.9 9.81 x

_

+

,

13.326 H mofoil

2

d

Q C a gH

( )

3

0.65 60 10 2 9.81 13.326

4

x x x x x x

3

0.02972 / m s

29.72lps

18. What is the discharge through a sharp edged slot 0.2 long x 10mm wide

at the bottom of a tank 0.5m diameter with 3m depth of water constant?

Solution.

Head over the orifice H=(2-0.2)=1.8m

0.98, ?, 0.6

V

C y x m

2

4

V

x

C

yH

2

2

0.6

(0.98)

4 1.8 xyx

_

,

0.052 52 y m mm

19. A vertical orifice is fitted 0.2m above the bottom of a tank containing

water to a depth of 2m. If C

V

=0.98. What is the vertical distance from the orifice

of a point on the jet 0.6m away from the Vena contracta?

Solution.

10

0.61 0.2 2 9.81 3

100

x x x x x

_

,

3 2

9.36 10 / x m s

9.36 Q lps

20. The coordinates of a point on the jet issuing from a vertical orifice are

0.4m & 0.3m. Neglecting air resistances, determine the velocity of the jet and the

height of water above the orifice in the tank. Assume C

V

=0.98.

Solution.

X=0.4m, y=0.3m, V=?, H=?

2

4

V

x

C

yH

2

0.4

0.98

4 0.3 x xH

0.1388 H m

2 2 9.81 0.1388 1.65 / V gH x x m s

Mouth Pieces

A mouth piece is a short tube or pipe connected in extension with an orifice

Classification of Mouth Pieces

Depending on the position with respect to the tank: External, Internal

Depending on shape :Cylindrical,Convergent, Divergent

Nature of flow: Running Full,Running Free

External Cylindrical Mouthpiece fig(28)

It is a short pipe whose length is two or three times the diameter.

H=Head over the centre of the mouth piece

V

O

=Velocity of the liquid at Vena Contracta

a

c

=Area of flow at Vena Contracta

V

1

=Velocity of liquid at outlet

a

1

=Area of mouth piece at outlet.

C

c

=coefficient of contraction

Applying continuity equation between & (1) &(1)

a

c

c

c

=a

1

v

1

1

1 c

c

a

V V

a

1

0.62

c

ac

c coefficientofcontraction

a

1

1

(1)

0.62

c

V V

As the jet flows from to (1) (1) there will be loss of head due to sudden

enlargement of flow, and this value can be calculated from the relation.

( )

2

1

2

1

1

0.62

2 2

C

L

V

V

V V

h

g g

_

,

2

1

0.375

(2)

2

L

h V

g

Applying Bernoullis equation between (A) and (1) (1) with the centre line of the

mouth piece as datum and considering head loss h

L

due to sudden expansion.

2 2

1 1

1

2 2

A A

A L

p V p V

Z Z h

g g

+ + + + +

1

1

0, , 0( )

A

p pA

Z Z H atmosphericpressure

0( )

A

V Negligible

2 2

1 1

0.375

0 0 0 0

2 2

V V

H

g g

+ + + + +

2

1

1.375

2

H V

g

or

1

2

1.375

gH

V

1

0.853 2 (3) V gH

By definition, Coefficient of velocity

C

V

=Actual velocity/Theoretical velocity

0.853 2

. ,

2

V

gH

i e C

gH

0.853

V

C

At the exit of the mouth piece C

C

=1

1 0.853 0.853

d c v

C C xC x

Hence, for an external cylindrical mouth piece C

d

=(=0.853) is more than that of

an orifice.

Pressure head at Vena contracta

Applying Bernoullis equation between (A) & with the centre line of the mouth

piece as datum & neglecting losses.

2 2

2 2

c c A A

A c L

p V p V

Z Z h

g g

+ + + + +

, 0, 0, 0, ?

c

A A C L

P pA

H V Z Z h

2

0 0 0 0

2

c c

p V

H

g

+ + + + +

2

2

c c

p V

H

g

But,

2

1 1

1.375 ,

2 0.62

C

V V

H V

g

1

2

0.853 2

1.375

gH

V gH

0.853 2

&

0.62

C

gH

V

2

0.853 2 1

0.62 2

C

gH p

H x

g

_

' ;

,

1.893

C

p

H H

0.893

C

p

H

Negative sign indicates that the pressure at the Vena contracta is less than

atmospheric pressure or the pressure is negative

Problems

1. Find the discharge from a 80mm diameter external mouthpiece, fitted to a side

of a large vessel if the head over the mouth piece is 6m.

Solution.

( )

2

3

80 80 10

4

d mm a x x

3 2

5.026 10 x m

2

d

Q C a gH

For a cylindrical mouth piece C

d

=0.853

3

0.853 5.026 10 2 9.81 6 Q x x x x x

3

0.04652 / m s

46.52 Q lps

2. An external cylindrical mouthpiece of 100mm diameter is discharging water

under a constant head of 8m. Determine the discharge and absolute pressure

head of water at Vena contracta. Take C

d

=0.855 and C

C

for Vena contracta

=0.62. Take atmospheric pressure head =10.3m of water

Solution.

H=8m, Q=?, C

d

=0.855, C

c

=0.62

2

3 2

0.1

100 0.1 7.854 10

4

x

d mm m x m

10.3

a

p

mofwater

3

2 0.855 7.854 10 2 9.81 8

d

Q C a gH x x x x x

3

0.08413 / sec 84.13 Q m lps

We know

0.893 ( 0.62)

c

c

p

H whenC

0.893 8 7.144 ( )

c

p

x mofwater Gauge

c c c

p p p

absolute gauge

_ _ _

' ;

, , ,

(10.3 7.144)

3.156 ( ) m Abs

3. An external cylindrical mouth piece 60mm diameter fitted in the side of a tank

discharges under a constant head of 3m, for which C

V

=0.82

Determine i) the discharge in lps

ii) absolute pressure at Vena contracta

iii) Maximum head for steady.

Flow assuming that separation occurs at 2.5m of water absolute. Local

barometer reads 760mm H

g

.

Solution.

(i)Discharge(Q)

At the exit of the mouth piece C

C

=1

1 0.82

d c v

C C xC x

2

d

Q C a gH

( )

2

3

60 10

0.82 2 9.81 3

4

x x

x x x x

' ;

3

0.0178 / 17.8 m s lps

(ii) Absolute Pressure head at Vena contracta

Applying Bernoullis equation between (A) & with the centre line of the mouth

piece as datum and neglecting losses h

L

2 2

1

2 2

C C A A

A L

p V p V

Z Z h

g g

+ + + + +

2

0 0} {0 0

2

c C

p V

H

g

+ + + + +

2

(1)

2

C C

p V

H

g

+

From Continuity equation Q=aV

Q

V

a

( )

2

3

0.0178

0.62 60 10

4

C

C

Q

V

C xa

x x x

' ;

10.154 /

c

V m s

(1) FromEq

2

2

c c

p V

H

g

2

10.154

3

2 9.81 x

_

,

=2.255m of water (Gauge)

c atim c

Gauge

p p p

_ _

, ,

760

atm

p

mmofmercury

1 1 2 2

10.336 ( ) mofwater S H S H Q

( ) 10.336 2.555 7.781( )

c

abs

p

Absolute

_

,

(iii) H

max

for steady flow

Applying Bernoullis equation between Vena contracta and exit of the mouth

piece with the centre line of the mouth piece as datum & considering head loss

h

L

due to sudden expansion of flow.

2 2

1 1

1

2 2

c C

C L

p V p V

Z Z h

g g

+ + + + +

2

min 0.62, 0.375

2

C L

V

Assu gC h

g

( )

2

2 2

/ 0.62

0.375

0 7.836 0 0

19 62 2 2

V

V V

g g

+ + + +

2

7.836 1.2265

2

V

g

2

7.836

6.389

2 1.226

V

mofwater

g

_

,

2

V

weknowV C gH

2

2

1

2

V

V

H x

g C

max 2

1

6.389

0.82

H x

9.5mofwater

Alternatively,

0.82

c a

p p

H

-7.781=0-0.82xH

max

H

max

=9.49m of water

Submerged Orifice

A fully submerged orifice is one in which the entire outlet side or the downstream

side is completely under the liquid. It is also known as a drowned orifice.

Consider points (1) and (2) situated upstream of orifice and at the Vena contracta

respectively.

H1=Height of water above the top of the orifice on the upstream side.

H2=Height of water above the bottom level of the orifice.

H=Difference in water level

b=width of orifice

C

a

=Coefficient of discharge.

Height of water above the centre of orifice on upstream side

2 1 1 2

1

2 2

H H H H

H

_

+

' ;

,

Height of water above the centre of the orifice on the downstream side

1 2

2

H H

H

_

,

Applying Bernoullis equation between (1) and (2) with the horizontal passing

through (A) & (B) as datum and neglecting losses. (h

L

)

{

2 2

1 1 2 2

1 2

2 2

L

p V p V

Z Z h

g g

+ + + + +

1 1 2 2 1 2

1 2

0, ;

2 2

p H H p H H

Z Z H

+ + _ _

, ,

1

0 V

(negligible)

2

1 2 1 2 2

0 0 0 0

2 2 2

H H H H V

H

g

+ +

+ + + + +

2

2

2

V

or H

g

2

2 V gH

From continuity equation

Discharge Q

act

=C

d

xarea of orifice x velocity

( )

2 1

2

act d

Q C xb H H x gH

Large Rectangular Orifice

An orifice is said to be large when the head acting on it is five times the depth of

the orifice. Unlike in the case of a small orifice, the discharge cannot be

calculated from the equation

for the reason that the velocity is not constant over the entire cross section of the

jet.

Consider an elementary horizontal strip of depth dh at a depth h below the free

surface of the liquid as shown.

Area of the strip

Theoretical velocity through the strip 2gh

Discharge through the elementary strip 2 dQ bxdhx gh

Therefore through the entire orifice is obtained by integrating the above equation

between the limits H

1

= and H

2

.

2

1

. , 2

H

d

H

i e Q C xbx ghdh

1 2

2

1

2

H

d

H

C b g h dh

3 3

2 2

2 1

2

2

3

d

Q C b gx H H

1

1

]

Problems

1. Find the discharge through a fully submerged orifice of width 2m if the

difference of water levels on both the sides of the orifice be 800mm. The height

of water from the top and bottom of the orifice are 2.5m and 3m respectively.

Take C

d

=0.6

Solution.

For a submerged orifice.

( )

2 1

2

d

Q C b H H x gH

Where, C

d

=0.6, b=2m, H

2

=3m, H

1

=2.5m, H=800mm = 0.8m

( ) 0.6 2 3 2.5 2 9.81 0.8 Q x x x x x

3

2.377 / Q m s

2. Find the discharge through a totally drowned orifice 1.5m wide and 1m deep, if

the difference of water levels on both the sides of the orifice is 2.5m, Take

C

d

=0.62.

Solution.

b=1.5m, d=1m, H=2.5m, C

d

=0.62

2

d

Q C a gH

0.62 1.5 1 2 9.81 2.5 x x x x x

3

6.513 / Q m s

3. Find the discharge through a rectangular orifice 3m wide and 2m deep fitted to

a water tank. The water level in the tank is 4m above the top edge of the orifice.

Take C

d

=0.62.

Solution.

For a rectangular orifice

3 3

2 2

2 1

2

2

3

d

Q C b g H H

_

,

where

B=3m, C

d

=0.62, H

2

=(4+2)=6m, H

1

=4m.

3 3

2 2

2

0.62 3 2 9.81 6 4

3

Q x x x x x

_

,

4. A rectangular orifice 1m wide and 1.5m deep is discharging water from a

vessel. The top edge of the orifice is 0.8m below the water surface in the vessel.

Calculate the discharge through the orifice if C

d

=0.6. Also calculate the

percentage error if the orifice is treated as small.

Solution.

For a rectangular orifice.

3 3

2 2

2 1

2

2

3

d

Q C b g H H

_

,

3 3

2 2

2

0.6 1 2 9.81 2.3 0.8

3

x x x x x

_

,

3

arg

4.912 /

l e

Q m s

2

small d

Q C a gH

1.5

0.6 1 1.5 2 9.81 0.8

2

x x x x x

_

+

,

3

4.963 / sec

small

Q m

arg

arg

% 100

small l e

l e

Q Q

Error x

Q

4.963 4912

100

4.912

x

_

,

% error=1.04 %

Flow Over Notches & Weirs

A notch is an opening made in the side wall of a tank such that the liquid surface

in the tank is below the upper edge of the opening. Generally notches are made

of metallic plates and their use is limited to laboratory channels.

A weir is a masonry/concrete structures built across an open channel so as to

rise the water level on the upstream jside and to allow the excess water to flow

over the entire length onto the downstream side.

Classification

a) Depending on shape:

i) Rectangular

ii) Triangular

iii) Trapezoidal

b) Depending on the shape of the crest

i) Sharp crested

ii) Broad crested.

c) Depending on flow

i) Free

ii) Submerged

d) Depending on Ventilation

i) Fully aerated

ii) Depressed

iii) Clinging or Drowned.

Definition sketch of a Notch.(fig.31)

a)Flow over a Triangular Notch.

Figure(32) shows the details of flow over a V notch.

2=Central angle

H=Head over the notch

Consider an elemental strip of thickness dh at a depth h below the free

surface as shown. Discharge through the strip dq=area x velocity

2 2 dq xdhx gh

Discharge over the entire notch

0 0

2 2

Q H

dq xdhx gh

1

2

0

2 2

H

Q g xh dh

tan

( )

x

H h

or

( ) tan x H h

( ) ( )

1

2

0

2 2 tan

H

Q g H h h dh

1 3

2 2

0

2 2 tan

H

g Hh h dh

_

,

integrating

3 5

2 2

0

2 2

2 2 tan

3 5

H

Q g Hh h

' ;

5

2

2 2

2 2 tan

3 5

g H

' ;

( )

5

2

5 3

4 2 tan

15

g H

5

2

8

2 tan (1)

15

Q gH

5

2

8

2 tan

15

act d

Q C gH

d

C

=Coefficient of discharge

In deriving Eq(1), velocity of approach V

a

is neglected. If the head due to this

velocity of approach is considered,

then, ( )

5

5

2

2

8

2 tan (3)

15

act d a

Q C g H h ha

+

' ;

Problems

1. A triangular notch discharges 0.0110m

3

/s under a head of 0.2m. Find the

angle of the notch, if C

d

=0.626.

Solution.

3

0.0113 / , 0.2

0.626

d

Q m s H m

C

5

2

8

2 tan

15

d

Q C gH

( )

5

2

15 0.0110

tan

8

0.626 2 9.81 0.2

x

x x x

' ;

0

22.6

Therefore angle of the notch

0

2 45.2

2. A right angled triangular notch discharges 0.143m

3

/s. Find the head over the

notch if C

d

=0.6.

Solution.

0 0

3

2 90 , 45

0.143 / , ?

0.6

d

Q m s H

C

5

2

8

2 tan

15

d

Q C gH

0

15 0.143

8 0.6 19.62 tan 45

H x

x x

' ;

0.3995 399.5 H mm

3. 150lpm of water is expected to flow down an irrigation furrow. Design the

weir, if a minimum head of 100mm is desired. Assume C

d

=0.61.

Solution:

3 3

150

150 2.5 2.5 10 /

60

Q lpm lps x m s

100 0.1 , 0.61

d

H mm m C

5

2

8

2 tan

15

d

Q C gH

( )

3

5

2

15 2.5 10

tan

8

0.61 19.62 0.1

x

x

x x

' ;

0

0.5486 28.75

0

2 57.5 60 centralangle

Hence, it is suggested to use a 60

0

V notch.

4. Calculate the top width and depth of a triangular notch capable of discharging

700lps. The weir discharges 5.7 lps when the head over the crest is 7.5cm. Take

C

d

=0.62.

Solution.

3

700 0.7 / , ? Q lps m s H

3 3

1 1

5.7 10 / , 0.075 , 0.62

d

Q x m s H m C

5

2

8

2 tan

15

d

Q C gH

5 5

2 2

1

8 15

2 tan 2 tan

15 8

d d

Q

C gH x C gH

Q

5

2

1

0.075

Q H

Q

_

,

5

2

3

0.7

5.7 10 0.075

H

x

_

,

0.514 H m

Also,

5

2

8

2 tan

15

d

Q C gH

or

( ) ( )

1 5

2 2

15 0.7

tan

8

0.62 2 9.81 0.514

x

x x x

' ;

0 0

2.523

68.38 2 136.76 or

Top width of the notch =

0

2 0.514 tan 68.38

2.594

x x

metres

Figure(33) shows the details of the flow over a rectangular notch.

L=length of the notch

H=head over the notch

Consider a small strip of thickness dh at a depth h below the liquid surface

Discharge through the strip d

q

=areaxvelocity

2 dq Lxdhx gh

Total discharge

1

2

0 0

2

Q H

dq L g h dh

3

2

0

2

2

3

H

Q L g h

3

2

2

2

3

Q L gH

3

2

2

2 (1)

3

act d

Q C gLH

C

d

=Coefficient of discharge, its average value is about 0.62.

End Contraction

When the length of the weir(L) is less than the width of the channel (B), the

nappe contracts at the sides, and this is knows as end contractions.(fig34)

According to Francis, the effective length of flow over the notch is given by

Substituting this value in EQ(1) and simplifying

( )

2 3

2 0.1 (2)

3 2

d

Q C g L nH H

A notch without end contraction is known as a suppressed notch.

Velocity of approach (V

a

)

The total head over the weir will be the sum of static head (H) and velocity head

(h

a

), velocity head

2

2

a

a

V

h

a

is due to the

velocity of the liquid approaching the notch.

On similar lines, considering a strip of uniform thickness dh at a depth h below

the liquid surface.

Discharge through the strip d

q

=area x velocity. ( ) 2

a

dQ Lxdhx g H h +

Therefore Total discharge is given by

( )

1

2

0 0

2

Q H

a

dq L g H h dh +

( )

3

3

2

2

2

2

3

L g H ha ha

+

' ;

( )

3

3

2

2

2

2

3

d a

Q C gL H h ha

+

' ;

Empirical Formula

(i)Francis Formula ( ) ( )

3

3

2

2

1.84 0.1 Q L nH H ha ha

1

+

1

]

(ii)

(ii)

(ii)Bazins formula

3

2

0.003

0.405 2 Q L gH

H

_

+

,

(iii)

(iii)

(iii)Rehbock formula

( )

( )

3

2

0.053 0.011

0.403 2 0.0011

H

Q L g H

Z

1 +

+ +

1

]

Considering velocity of approach and End contraction, we have

( ) ( )

3

3

2

2

2

2 0.1

3

d a

Q C g L nH H h ha

+

' ;

Considering velocity of approach and End contraction, we have

( ) ( )

3

3

2

2

2

2 0.1

3

d a

Q C g L nH H h ha

+

' ;

5.Find the discharge over a rectangular notch of crest length 400mm. When the

head of water over the crest is 50mm. Take C

d

=0.6.

Solution.

3

2

2

2

3

d

Q C gLH

( )

3

2

2

0.6 2 9.81 0.4 0.05

3

x x x x x

3 3

7.92 10 / 7.92 Q x m s lps

6. A rectangular weir 9m long is divided into 3 bays by two vertical post each

300mm wide. If the head of water over the weir is 500mm, Calculate the

discharge, given C

d

=0.62.

Solution.

( )

3

2

2

2 0.1

3

d

Q C g L nH H

n=number of end contractions=6.

L=clear length of weir=9-3x0.3=8.1

( )

3

2

2

0.62 2 9.81 8.1 0.1 6 0.5 0.5

3

Q x x x x x x

3

5.05 / Q m s

7. The discharge over a rectangular weir is 0.4m

3

/s when the head of water is

0.20m. What would be the discharge if the head is increase to 0.3m?

Solution.

Q

1

=0.4m

3

/s H

1

=0.20m

Q

2

=? H

2

=0.3m

3

2

2 2

1 1

Q H

Q H

_

,

3

2

3

2

0.3

, 0.4 0.735 /

0.20

or Q x m s

_

,

8. A rectangular channel 6m wide carries a flow of 1.5m

3

/s. A rectangular

sharp crested weir is to be installed near the end of the channel to create a depth

of 1m upstream of the weir. Calculate the necessary height . Assume C

d

=0.62.

Solution: fig(35)

L=6m, Q=1.5m

3

/s, C

d

=0.62.

Y=(Z+H)=1m

Velocity of approach

V

a

= Discharge/area of flow in the channel

1.5

0.25 /

1 6

a

V m s

x

Head due to velocity of approach

2

2

a

V

ha

g

2

3

0.25

3.185 10

2 9.81

a

h x m

x

But,

( )

3

3

2

2

2

2 ( )

3

d a

Q C gL H h ha

+

' ;

( ) ( )

3 3

3 3

2 2

2

1.5 0.62 2 9.81 6 3.185 10 3.185 10

3

x x x x x H x x

+

' ;

0.266 H m , And height of the weir

( ) 1 0.266

0.734 Z m

2

1

0.05097

2 9.81

a

h m

x

( )

3

3

2

2

2

2 ( )

3

d a

Q C gL H h ha

+

' ;

( ) ( )

'

+ 2

3

2

3

05097 . 0 05097 . 0 2 . 1 81 . 9 2 6 . 0

3

2

645 . 2 xLx x x x

9. A rectangular sharp crested weir is required to discharge 2.645m

3

/s of wate

under a head of 1.2m. If the coefficient of discharge is 0.6 and the velocity of

approach near the weir is 1m/s. Find the length of the weir.

Solution.

Q=2.645m

3

/s H=1.2m

C

d

=0.6 V

a

=1m/s L=?

Head due to velocity of approach

2

2

a

a

V

h

g

( ) 1 0.266

0.734 Z m

3

/s of water

under a head of 1.2m. If the coefficient of discharge is 0.6 and the velocity of

approach near the weir is 1m/s. Find the length of the weir.

Solution.

Q=2.645m

3

/s H=1.2m

C

d

=0.6 V

a

=1m/s L=?

Head due to velocity of approach

2

2

a

a

V

h

g

2

1

0.05097

2 9.81

a

h m

x

( )

3

3

2

2

2

2 ( )

3

d a

Q C gL H h ha

+

' ;

( ) ( )

3 3

2 2

2

2.645 0.6 2 9.81 1.2 0.05097 0.05097

3

x x x xLx

+

' ;

1.076 107.6 L m cm

11. Water passing over a rectangular notch flow subsequently over a right

angled triangular notch. The length of the rectangular notch is 600mm and

C

d

=0.62. if the C

d

value for the V-notch is 0.60, what will be its washing head,

when the head on the rectangular notch is 20cm.

Solution.

Rectangular Notch.

L=600mm=0.6m

C

d

=0.62, H=0.2m

3

2

2

2

3

d

Q C gLH

( )

3

2

2

0.62 2 9.81 0.6 0.2

3

x x x x x

3

0.09825 / Q m s

0 0

2 90 , 45 , ?, 0.6

d

H C

Since the same discharge of 0.09825m

3

/s is passing over the V-

notch, we have

5

2

8

2 tan

15

d

Q C gH

( )

5

2

8

0.09825 0.6 2 9.81 tan

15

x x x x H

5

2

0.0693.

0.3438

H

H m

Types of Nappe

The equations derived for the discharge over notches were under the assumption

that pressure under the nappe is atmosphere. However, when the liquid if flowing

over the notch (suppressed), it touches the walls of the channel and the air gets

dissolved or entrained in water, continuation of this process results in a negative

pressure i.e. partial vaccum under the nappe. Finally the nappe gets deflected

closer to the weir wall.

The pressure on the inner side of the the nappe decides its type in the following

ways.

a)Free Nappe

In this type, the stream of water passing over the weir the springs clear of the

weir. (fig.36a)

b) Depressed Nappe

In this type, a partial vaccum is created between the nappe and the weir.

Discharge for such a flow situation is 8 to 10% greater than that with a free

nappe.(fig.36b)

c) Clinging Nappe

In this type the nappe totally adheres to the face of the weir. The discharge in this

case would be 20 to 30% more than that in a fully aerated nappe).(fig36c)

Ventilation of Weirs

The nappe emerging from a weir should be of a correct form, so that the

discharge equations derived for them are valid.

For accurate gauging of flow the nappe should spring clear or it should be free. In

other words the space between the weir and nappe should be maintained under

atmospheric conditions, particularly when the weir is suppressed.

In practice ventilation holes are made on the weir walls so that air circulates

freely between the weir and the nappe.

This is known as ventilation or ventilation of weirs.(fig36d).

Submerged Weir

A weir is said to be submerged when water level on both the upstream and

downstream sides are above the crest level of the weir as shown in figure (37).

H

1

and H

2

are the heads over the weir on the upstream and downstream sides.

In the case of submerged weir, it is necessary to derive the discharge equation

considering that the flow over the weir is a combination of a free weir and a

submerged orifice.

In other words, the flow Q

1

between H

1

and H

2

is considered as a free weir and

Q

2

between H

2

and the weir crest as a submerged orifice.

For a free weir ) 1 ( ) ( 2

3

2

2

3

2 1 1 1

H H g L Cd Q

For a submerged orifice. ) 2 ( ) ( 2

2 1 2 2 1

H H g LH Cd Q

) 3 (

2 1

+ Q Q Q

Cd

1

=0.58 and Cd

2

= 0.80 are usually considered for the weir and the orifice.

As in the earlier cases the head due to velocity of approach h

a

=Va

2

/2g can also

be considered.

In such a case ) 4 ( ) ( 2

3

2

2

3

2

3

2 1 1 1

+ ha ha H H g L Cd Q

) 5 ( ) ( 2

2 1 2 2 1

+ ha H H g LH Cd Q

In all the above equation L=length of the notch or weir.

Problems

1) A submerged weir 1m high spans the entire width of a rectangular channel 7m

wide. Estimate the discharge when the depth of water is 1.8m on the upstream

side and 1.25m on the downstream side of the weir. Assume C

d

=0.62 for the

weir.

Solution (fig.38).

Q

submerged weir

= Q

weir

+Q

submerged orifice

( ) ( )

2 1 2 2 1 1

2

2

3

2

3

2

H H g LH C H H x g L Cd

d

+

( ) ( ) 25 . 0 8 . 0 62 . 19 25 . 0 7 62 . 0

2

3

25 . 0 8 . 0 62 . 19 7 62 . 0

3

2

+ x x x x x x x x x

s m Q / 25 . 6

3

2) The upstream and downstream water surfaces are 150mm and 75m above the

crest of a drowned weir. If the length of the weir is 2.5m, find the discharge, the

coefficients of discharge for the free and drowned portions may be taken as 0.58

and 0.8 respectively. Allow for velocity of approach.

Solution.

H

1

=1500mm=15m, H

2

=75mm=0.075m

L=2.5m, Cd

1

=0.58, Cd

2

=0.8

( ) ( )

'

+

2 1 2 2

2

3

2 1 1

2 2

3

2

H H g LH Cd H H g xLx xCd Q

( )

'

3

2

2

3

x x x x x

s m Q / 2698 . 0

3

Velocity of approach

softheweir u areaofflow

Q

V

a

/

s m

x

/ 719 . 0

15 . 0 5 . 2

2698 . 0

'

m

x g

V

h

a

a

00264 . 0

81 . 9 2

719 . 0

2

2 2

( )

'

+ +

+

0264 . 0 075 . 0 15 . 0 62 . 19 5 . 2 58 . 0

3

2

2

3

x x x

x x

Q

s m Q / 271 . 0

3

OGEE WEIR

When the weir is suppressed and its height is large, the nappe emerging out may

be subjected to the problems of ventilation. Hence, in such cases the weir profile

downstream is constructed conforming to the shape of the lower side of the

nappe. Such a weir is known as a spillway or ogee weir.

The cross section of an ogee weir will be shown(39). The coordinates of the

spillway profile can be worked out for the head H using the equation.

y H x

85 . 0 85 . 1

2

The u/s face of the spillway is generally kept vertical.

The discharge equation for an ogee weir will be

2

3

2

3

2

LH g C Q

d

Problem

1. Calculate the discharge over an ogee weir of 8.5m length, when the head

over the crest is 2.15m and C

d

=0.61.

Solution.

L=8.5m, H=2.15m, C

d

0.61

2

3

2

3

2

LH g C Q

d

2

3

) 15 . 2 ( 5 . 8 81 . 9 2 61 . 0

3

2

x x x x x s m Q / 27 . 48

3

A weir is said to broad crested when its width (parallel to flow) b is greater than

0.5xmaximum head acting on it (fig.40).

xH b e i 5 . 0 , . >

Let L=length of the weir

H=Head of water u/s of the weir w.r.t. the crest

h=Depth of water over the weir crest

V=Vel. Of flow over the weir

Applying Bernoullis equation between (1) and (2) with the crest of the weir as

datum & neglecting losses (h

L

)

g

V

h H

g

V p

Z

g

V p

Z

2

0 0 0

2

{ }

2

2

2

2 2

2

2

1 1

1

+ + + +

+ + + +

) 1 ( ) ( 2 h H g V

Discharge over the weir Q=area of flow over the weir x vel. of flow over the weir.

i.e. ) ( 2 ) ( h H g x hxL Q

Actual discharge ( ) ) 2 ( 2 h H g Lh C Q

d act

From Equation (2), we see that Q

act

is a function of h for a given value of H.

Q

is maximum when 0

dh

Q

( ) 0 2

1

'

h H h

h

( ) ( ) 0 2

1

2

1

'

h

h

h H h H

dh

hx

( ) ( ) ( ) 0 1

2

1

1

2

1

1

2

1

'

+

x

h H R H hx

0 ) (

) ( 2

2

1

2

1

'

h H

h H

h

( ) H h h H h 2 3 2

max

) (

3

2

orQ conditionf H orh

Substituting the value of h in eq(2) and simplifying.

( )

,

_

,

_

H H g x H L C Q

d act

3

2

2

3

2

max

3

2

3

2 H

g LHx C

d

( )

2

3

max

2

3 3

2

H g L C Q

d act

Problems

1. Determine the discharge over a broad crested weir 26m long, the upstream

level of water is measured as 0.5m above the crest level. The height of the weir

is 0.6m and the width of the approach channel is 36m. Take C

d

=0.9.

Solution.

For a broad crested weir. ( )

2

3

max

2

3 3

2

H g L C Q

d act

2

3

) 5 . 0 ( 62 . 19 26 9 . 0

3 3

2

x x x x

( ) s m Q

act

/ 105 . 14

3

max

Since, the width of the channel, we have to consider the velocity of approach V

a

,

_

hechannel Areaofflow

Q

V e i

a

int

, .

s m

x

/ 356 . 0

) 5 . 0 6 . 0 ( 36

105 . 14

,

_

+

3

2 2

10 466 . 6

81 . 9 2

356 . 0

2

x

x g

V

h

a

a

( ) ( ) 2

3

max

2

3 3

2

ha H g L C Q

d act

+

( )

2

3

3

10 466 . 6 5 . 0 62 . 19 26 9 . 0

3 3

2

+ x x x x x

( ) s m Q

act

/ 379 . 14

3

max

2. A reservoir discharges water at 60,000 m

3

/day over a broad crested weir, the

head of length of the weir, if C

d

=0.65.

Solution.

Q=60,000m

3

/day=60,000/24x60x60=0.694m

3

/s

H=500mm=0.5m C

d

=?, L=?

( )

2

3

max

2

3 3

2

H g L C Q

d act

B

A

y

C

R

x

'

2

3

) 5 . 0 ( 62 . 19 65 . 0 2

694 . 0 3 3

x x x

x

L

metres L 77 . 1

3. A channel of 45m

2

cross sectional area, discharging 50 cumecs of water is to

be provided with a broad crested weir. If the crest of the weir is 1.6m below the

upstream water surface, find the length of the weir, if C

d

=0.85.

Solution.

( ) ( ) 2

3

max

2

3 3

2

ha H g L C Q

d act

+

g

x

A

Q

g

V

whereha

a

2

1

2

2

2

,

_

m x 629 . 0

62 . 19

1

45

50

2

,

_

( ) 2

3

0629 . 0 6 . 1 62 . 19 85 . 0

3 3

2

50 + xLx x

L 1076 . 3 50

or m m L 1 . 16 089 . 16

Fig 18

Fig 19.

H

Vena contracta

Centreline of orifice

Air

Y2

H1=4m

O1

O2

Fig 21

Fig 22

h=2m

X1 = X2

Y

1

H2=6m

H1

Y1

X1=X2

Y2

H

X

Y

V

H3

y

H1

Y1

Fig 23

Fig 24

H2

Point of intersection of the jet

D

H2

X1=X2=X3

Y2

H1=0.6m

2m

Y1

H2=1.6m

Y2

X1 X2

Y=12m

H2=?

H1=4m

Y1

Y2

X1=X2

Fig 25

Fig 26

X=?

100 KN/m

2

Air

2m

Oil s=0.9

Fig 27

Fig 28

H

VENA CONTRACTA

MOUTH PIECE

H2

H1

H

1 2

H2

H

H1

h

b

d

dh

H

Flow Q

Apex or crest

Fig 29

Fig 30

Fig 31

Velocity of

approach Va

Channel Bed

Dead water

Z

Notch

Nappe

H

ha

dh

h

x

h

dh

H

L

Fig 32

Fig 33

Elemental Strip

B L

Flow

Notch

Side wall

y

H

Z

Nappe

Nappe

Fig 34

Fig 35

Fig 36. (a)

Fig 36. (b)

Fig 36 (c)

flow

Partially

Ventilated

Nappe

Ventilation holes

Q1

Q2 H2

H1

Weir

1.8m

H1=0.8m

1m

H2=0.25m

1.25m

Fig 36.(d)

Fig 37

Fig 38

Fig 39

Crest of ogee weir

H

v

h

flow

Channel bed

Fig 40

(Additional Problems)

1.Find the diameter of a sharp edged orifice sufficient to discharge 3x10

6

litres of

water per day. Under a constant head of 12m. Take C

d

=0.62

2.

2.A closed tank partially with water upto a height of 2m has an orifice of 2.75cm

diameter at its bottom. Determine the air pressure over the water surface for a

discharge of 5 lps, through the orifice, C

d

=0.62

Top surface of nappe

Concrete or masonry

Solid boundary coinciding with the

bottom surface of the nappe

weir

3. Water is discharged vertically upwards through a 5cm diameter orifice under a

pressure of 180N/cm

2

. C

V

for the orifice is 0.92. Determine the height to which

the jet will rise, when

i) there is no air friction

ii) when the friction produces a retardation of 2m/s

2

.

4. In performing an experiment to determine the different coefficients of a sharp

edged orifice, a jet of water issuing horizontally from the orifice of 2.5cm diameter

under a constant head of 1.5m fell through 0.9m vertically and struck the ground

at 2.3m horizontally from Vena contracta. The time required to discharge 91litres

of water was found to be 53 seconds. Find the values of C

d

, C

V

and C

C

for the

orifice.

5. A Jet of water issuing from a vertical orifice 0.025m diameter under a constant

head of 1.5m falls 0.915m vertically, before it strikes the ground at a distance of

2.288m, measured from Vena contracta horizontally. The discharge was found to

be 0.102 m

3

/min. Determine C

d

, C

V

, C

C

, & C

r

for the orifice.

6. The centre of an orifice is situated 60cm above the bottom of a vessel

containing water to a depth of 2.4m. Assuming C

V

=0.98. Estimate how far the

water in the jet issuing from the orifice in the side of the vessel will fall in moving

horizontally a distance of 1m from the Vena contracta.

7. A large tank has a circular sharp edged orifice 2.5cm diameter in a vertical

side at a depth 0.6m below the constant water level. The jet diameter at Vena

contract is found to be 2cm. The water is found to be 2cm . The water discharged

is collected in a vessel having the inside dimensions of 1.2m x 0.6m x 0.6m. The

time required to fill the vessel is 7minutes. Calculate C

d

, C

V

& C

C.

8. Oil of S=0.85 issues from a 5cm diameter orifice under a pressure of 12N/cm

2

.

The diameter of jet at Vena contracta is 4cm and the discharge is 20 lps. What is

the coefficient of velocity?

9. A rectangular orifice 0.9m wide, 1.2m deep is discharging water from a vessel.

The top edge of the orifice is 0.6m below the water surface in the vessel.

Calculate the discharge through the orifice if C

d

=0.6 and the percentage error if

the orifice is treated as a small orifice.

10. A closed tank contains kerosene S=0.8 to a depth of 3m. The top portion of

the tank contains air under a pressure of 27.5kpa. If a sharp edged circular orifice

of 3cm diameter C

d

=0.62 is provided at the bottom of the tank, estimate the

discharge through the orifice.

11. A standard mouthpiece 5cm in diameter discharges water. Determine the

maximum head under which the flow would take place without the occurrence of

separation at Vena contracta. The coefficient of discharge for the mouth piece is

0.8, separation occurs when the absolute pressure is 2.44m of water.

12. Find the discharge through an external cylindrical mouth piece of 10cm in

diameter flowing under a head of 3.5m. What is the pressure at Vena contracta?

Take C

C

=0.62.

13. Calculate the value of V - notch angel to discharge 400lps under a head of

0.6m, assuming C

d

=0.60.

14. During a test in a laboratory the water passing through a venturimeter is

made to flow over a 90

0

V notch. Diameter at inlet is 25cm an that at the throat is

10cm. The pressure difference is 0.34m when the head over the V-notch is

steady at 18.2cm. If C

d

for the venturimeter is 0.97, what is the coefficient of

discharge of the V-Notch?

15. Discharge varies in a rectangular channel from 0.0057 to 0.142 m

3

/s. At what

height should a 90

0

V-notch be placed above the bed of the channel, if the depth

should not exceed 1.2m, in the channel? What will be its depth for minimum

discharge?

16. A 90

0

V-notch is provided in a rectangular channel 1.5m wide in order to

measure the channel discharge the channel is designed to carry a maximum

discharge of 0.4m

3

/s. With a depth not exceeding 1.8m. Find the position of the

apex of the notch from the bed of the channel.

17. A sharp crested rectangular weir 1.5m long and 90cm high is installed in a

rectangular channel 1.5m wide. If the head on the weir is 30cm, find the

discharge

a)Neglecting velocity of approach

b)Considering velocity of approach

18.A cipolletti weir of 40cm bottom width is Installed in a channel 75cm wide &

45cm deep. If the head over the weir crest is 25cm, find the discharge over the

weir.

a)Neglecting vel. of approach

b)Taking vel. of approach.

19. A rectangular channel is 4.5m wide. Water flows at a depth of 1.2m at a

velocity of 90cm/s. A sharp crested weir is constructed across the channel and

the depth in the channel rises upto 1.75m. What should be the height of the weir?

20.Two 90

0

V notches & one cipolletti weir are to be used side by side to

measure a discharge of 0.85m

3

/s through a channel. If the head should not

exceed 30cm, what should be the dimensions of the weirs?

21. Find the discharge through a trapezoidal notch which is 1.2m wide at the top

and 0.5m at the bottom and is 40cm in height. The head of water on the notch is

30cm. C

d

for the rectangular portion is 0.62 while for triangular portion is 0.60.

22. A discharge of 1500m

3

/s is to pass over a rectangular weir. The weir is

divided into a number of openings each of span 7.5m. If the velocity of approach

is 3m/s, find the number of openings needed in order the head of water over the

crest is not to exceed 1.8m.

23. A rectangular channel 1.5m wide has a discharge of 200lps, which is

measured by a right angled V notch. Find the position of the apex of the notch

from the bed of the channel if the maximum depth of water is not to exceed 1m.

Take C

d

=0.62.

24

. During an experiment in a laboratory 0.9 litres of water is flowing per second

over a V-notch when the head is 5cm and 5 litres/sec, when the head is 10cm.

Determine the values of k & n in the equation Q=KH

n

.

25. A triangular weir has one side sloping at 45

0

and the other side Z(H):1V.

Calculate the values of Z which gives a discharge of 0.12m

3

/s under a head of

0.3m. C

d

=0.6

26. Water flows through a 90

0

V-notch with a free surface of water at a height of

10cm from the crest. The corresponding flow rate is 1000lpm. If the height above

the crest is increased by 50%, what would be the new flow rate?

27. A rectangular channel 6m wide carries a flow of 1.5m

3

/s. A rectangular sharp

crested weir is to be installed near the end of the channel to create a depth of

1m. Upstream of the weir, calculate the necessary weir height. Assume C

d

=0.62.

28. A suppressed weir having a crest length of 4m, discharges under a head of

40cm. The height of the weir crest above the channel bed is 1m. Find the rate of

discharge.

29. A rectangular sharp crested weir is required to discharge 645 m

3

/s of water

under a head of 1.2m. If the coefficient of discharge is 0.6 and the velocity of

approach near the weir is 1 m/s, find the length of the weir required.

30. A discharge of 1800m

3

/s is to pass over a rectangular weir which is divided

into a number of spans of 10m each. If the velocity of approach is 4m/s, find the

number of opening required such that the head over the crest does not exceed

2m.

31. A waste weir has to pass a flood discharge of 3m

3

/s. find the length of the

broad crested weir to suit the discharge such that the depth of water over the

weir crest will not be more than 42cm. Take C

d

=0.97.

32. A 3m wide rectangular irrigation canal carries water with a discharge of

6m

3

/s. what height of rectangular weir installed across the canal will raise the

water surface to a level of 2m above the floor?

33. A rectangular weir 0.75m high & 1.5m long is to be used for discharging

water from a tank under a head of 0.5m. Estimate the discharge a) when it is

used as suppressed weir. b) when it is used as a contracted weir. Take C

d

=0.61.

34. A trapezoidal sharp crested weir has a base width of 1.2m & side slopes of

1.5H to 1V. Calculate the discharge over the weir for a head of 35cm. Take

C

d

=0.62.

28. Calculate the bottom width and side slopes of a trapezoidal notch to

discharge 4m

3

/s at a head of 1.5m and 1.2m

3

/s at a head of 0.75. Assume

C

d

=0.63.35. A Cipolletti weir of crest length 0.6m discharges water under of

0.36m. Find the discharge over the weir if the channel is 0.8m wide & 0.5m deep.

Take C

d

=0.6.

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