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The Latin American Community in Canada: Strengthening Ties Through Better Integration

A Policy Discussion Paper by Derek Nawrot Prepared for MPA 848, Queens University: Immigration Policy in Canada
April 2012

Canada: A Leader in Hemispheric Immigration: In July 2009, Prime Minister Stephen Harper, speaking at the Fifth Summit of the Americas in Trinidad and Tobago, announced that Latin America would remain a foreign policy priority for Canada. He followed this up with a whirlwind visit to the continent in 2011; strategically planning his visit to include Brazil (the largest economy in Latin America and one of the worlds fastest growing), Colombia (source for the highest number of Permanent Residents in 2010 to Canada and partner in a recent free trade pact between the two countries), Costa Rica (Canadas largest trading partner in Central America) and Honduras (recently readmitted to the Organization of American States). 1 Canadian engagement in Latin America however surpasses the economic prosperity, democratic governance, and security interest objectives that Canadas foreign policy vision is based on. 2 Canada is, and continues to be, the northern cornerstone for Latin American hemispheric immigration; increasingly welcoming not only economically-minded Skilled Workers, but also Temporary Foreign Workers, especially in the agricultural sector, and Refugees. Today, over 11 percent of Canadian immigrants come from Latin America and the Caribbean, including Mexico, and Latin America is the 4th largest source of immigrants to Canada. 3 In addition, there are over 70 Latin America and Caribbean diaspora organizations operating across Canada. 4 Latin Immigrants in Canada: Issues and Challenges: Despite strong community-based organizations and flourishing cultural and culinary contributions to the country, as well as Canadians increasingly visiting Latin America, there continues to be a mostly undocumented divide between face-value interactions and the challenges the Latin American community faces, both in external and internal integration. This policy development paper will examine

1 2

Government of Canada Prime Minister of Canada, 2011a, Electronic resource Government of Canada DEFAIT, 2012a, Electronic resource 3 Houpt, S. The Globe & Mail, 2011, Electronic resource 4 Government of Canada DEFAIT, 2012, Electronic resource

some of these challenges and offer recommendations in order to better assist various levels of government in allowing Latinos to better participate and strengthen their place in Canadian society. For the purpose of this report, Latin American is defined as living in any of the Spanish speaking countries of South America, Mexico, and Central America. Countries such Belize, Guyana, French Guinea, and Suriname, although located in the geographic confines of Latin America, are not considered because of their official language use in English, French, and Dutch, and because they are economically, socially, and culturally more oriented towards the Caribbean or highly dependent on their original colonial founders. The Fire Down Below From refugees to Canadians: There has been relatively little analysis of the Latin American community in Canada. Much of the work has been based on demographic statistics that mention Latin American immigrants in comparison to international flows in Canada however there are still many gaps in both qualitative and statistical analyses. Encouragingly however, there have been a number of PhD dissertations which have examined social-economic characteristics and whose findings have been incorporated in this report. The immigration of Latin Americans to Canada has been identified in four major waves through to the 1980s: 1. the Lead Wave, 2. the Andean Wave, 3. the Coup Wave and 4. the Central American Wave.5 One could go further in identifying more current waves including that of Colombian refugees as well the current wave of Temporary Foreign Workers. Waves can mostly be defined along their geographic boundaries and motivations, which have evolved over the years in becoming more political and out of survival. The Coup and the Central American waves, also known as The Refugee Waves, are perhaps how Canadians commonly identify Latin American immigration flows; most likely because the driving events in sending countries
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Mata, F.G., 1985, p. 28

have been heavily publicized in Canadian media. These waves have lead to the organization of a number of different solidarity groups which assisted in the quick consolidation of mostly Chilean refugees escaping the Augusto Pinochet dictatorship. In a joint Canadian-Colombian funded study examining the forced migration of Colombians to Canada, it was found that the process of integration and setting up a new life plan for Colombian refugees who arrive in the city of Vancouver was affected by the persistence of reoccurring fear from the painful experiences lived in Colombia. As such, the fear is continually relived and leads to a distrust of other Colombians and people in general. For these refugees, relationships and social networks that are built are weak and temporary.6 A study on Hispanic immigrant womens adjustments to relocation in Toronto observed they often face language and cultural barriers while their unfamiliarity with Toronto's institutions, conventions, and employment processes makes them more vulnerable to exploitation. 7 Interviews with youths born in Latin America and now residing in Canada, or born in Canada to Latin American immigrant parents, showed that they employ a wide range of strategies in order to feel they belong and are safe. This includes identity shifting which is adopting a Latin American identity when speaking with their families or seeking a job with a Spanish-speaking employer, while in other contexts, preferring to adopt a mainstream Canadian identity. 8 In examining Latin Americans disintegration through the ethnic-based marketing practices of Canadian firms, The Globe & Mail, called the Hispanic community invisible and all but unknown and ignored.9 As such it has mostly been left up to the Latin community to define themselves through online forums such as Dilogos, which allow authors to contribute

6 7

Alcal, P.R. et al. 2007, p. 97 Barragan, J. 2001, p. 30 8 Simmons, A. & Carrillos, L. (2009). p. 2 9 Houpt, S. The Globe & Mail, 2011, Electronic resource

views on the experiences of Latin Americans in Canada, and the Hispanic Development Council, a Toronto-based community organization which strives to enhance the capacity of Latin Americans to fully participate within Canadian society. Latin Americans in Canada: A current perspective: The federal governments only in-depth look at Latin Americans in Canada, The Latin American Community in Canada, was published in 2007 and based on findings from the 2001 Census. Therefore it is necessary to bring this information somewhat up-to-date using the 2006 Census, as well as Citizenship and Immigration Canada data, to garner a better perspective of the Latin American community. The key findings from this section are summarized in Appendix 1. Although it is difficult to estimate the true number of Latin Americans in Canada, for reasons that will be discussed under Recommendation #1, it was estimated in 2007 to be approximately 700,000, or 2.2% of the total Canadian population. 10 From 2001-2010, the sending countries have been consistent in the number of Permanent Residents (PR) in the order of Colombia, Mexico, Brazil, and Peru. Together these countries account for approximately 70% of all PR to Canada.11 From a regional perspective and immigrant category, numbers of Economic and Family Class immigrants have remained constant during the same time period. In 2001, Family Class immigrants from South and Central America accounted for approximately 15% of all immigrants in this category. In 2010, they accounted for the same amount. There has been a slight increase in Economic immigrants, which in 2010 accounted for approximately 6.5%; up from approximately 4.5% in 2001. The largest proportion increase has been in the Refugee category, in which the region accounts for approximately 18% of all refugees, almost double from 9.5% in 2001. These are mostly from Mexico due to a

10 11

Schugurensky, D. & Ginieniewicz, J., 2007, Electronic resource. Government of Canada Citizenship and Immigration, 2011b, Electronic resource

continuing internal crisis in that country as well as easier possibilities to secure a Canadian entryvisa, and Colombia, which also experienced internal crisis mostly through the start of the 2000s. Although this report mostly concerns itself with PR, a short mention should be made regarding Temporary Residents (TR). TR have increased from approximately 10% to 14% as a regional total between 2001-2010.12 In terms of sending countries, it is quite different. Mexico continues to dominate the flow of TR, accounting for approximately 68% of all Latin American countries. The next three are Guatemala, Brazil, and Chile. However employment factors vary significantly. Guatemalans workers are typically seasoned agricultural workers whereas Brazilians are likely to be coming into highly skilled, managerial and technical positions, due to recent Brazilian acquisitions of Canadian companies. 13 1415 Ontario and Quebec continue to be the preferred destinations for Latin American PR however, from 2001-2010, there have been increases to all provinces with the exception of Ontario, which continues to see its arrivals decline. In 2001, 86% of PR settled in Ontario or Quebec. In 2010, this number was down to 79%.16 Similar to settling patterns of other immigrants, 63% of all Latin Americans in Canada reside in Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.17 Almost all Canadians of Latin American origin can carry on a conversation in at least one official language. In 2001, 94% of all those who reported they had Latin American origins said they could speak either English, French or both, while only 6% reported they could not speak either official language.18
12 13

Government of Canada Citizenship and Immigration, 2011b, Electronic resource Government of Canada DEFAIT, 2012b, Electronic resource 14 Austen, I., 2006, Electronic resource 15 Business News Americas, 2001, Electronic resource 16 Government of Canada Citizenship and Immigration, 2011b, Electronic resource 17 Government of Canada Statistics Canada, 2007, p. 10 18 Government of Canada Statistics Canada, 2007, p. 12

Finally, the Ethnic Diversity Survey found that in 2002, 82% of those who reported Latin American origin said they had a strong sense of belonging to Canada while 57% said that they had a strong sense of belonging to their ethnic or cultural group; which may suggest the ability to identity shift as discussed previously. 19 At the same time, approximately 1 in 4 Latin Americans had experienced some amount of discrimination or unfair treatment.20 Policy recommendations: The following are policy recommendations based on current challenges facing Latin Americans in Canada: Recommendation #1: In order to best identify the Latin American community in Canada, the National Household Survey (in lieu of the Census) should categorize Latin Americans as Latin American-Spanish (including Mexico, Central America), with the option to be more specific, and Latin American Brazilian in the Socio-cultural section. Why this is necessary: Part of the difficulty in establishing the true number of Latin Americans in Canada is due to Statistics Canada struggle in defining this ethnicity in censuses. According to the initial data from the 2001 Canadian Census, approximately 212,000 people of Hispanic origin were living in Canada. However, upon a request from the Hispanic Canadian Congress, Statistics Canada re-analyzed the data using a new definition of "Hispanic." The qualifying criteria set for the new definition were any person who listed at least: a) ethnic origin linked to a Spanish-speaking country; b) Spanish as a first language; and c) birth (either their own or their parents') in a Spanish-speaking country. Under this new calculation, Statistics Canada more than doubled its original estimation to find the number of Hispanics at 520,260.21 The problem with this new definition is that it included immigrants from Spain and excludes Brazilians. In the subsequent 2006 Census and 2011 National Household Survey (in
19 20

Government of Canada Statistics Canada, 2007, p. 17 Ibid. 21 Schugurensky, D. & Ginieniewicz, J., 2007, Electronic resource

lieu of the Census), the ethnicity was changed to Latin American to include Brazilians and with the option to be more specific. The current National Household Survey (NHS) will potentially provide no clearer picture of the Latin American population. It asks the respondent to voluntarily identify languages that are spoken most often and on a regular basis at home if not English or French; however the respondent has to physically write Spanish or Portuguese. Furthermore, Latin American is provided when asking the ethnicity however this is a broad geographic region that persons may not identify with nor see themselves as belonging to.22 For example, when completing the Canadian Census, many Euro-Latin Americans have probably reported their European ethnicity as primary (e.g., Polish-Argentineans, German- Chileans, etc.).23 Although a further recommendation might be for the NHS to specify language options for respondents, Recommendation #1 allows a better understanding from previous censuses by defining Latin American, including those from Brazil, and also avoids any potential confusion from Mexicans or Central Americans, who may not identify with the term Latin American. Potential issues: Difficulties may arise due to confusion amongst those ethnicities from countries (namely Guyana, French Guinea, and Suriname) which are physically located in Latin America but not oriented towards Latin America through the Spanish or Portuguese languages. This issue is further exacerbated because under the ethnicity question, there is no clear category for these respondents (as well as those from Caribbean nations). This is significant given that there are approximately 61,000 Guyanese in Canada. 24 Including an ethnicity category Caribbean might

22 23

Government of Canada Statistics Canada, 2010, Electronic resource Mata, 1987 cited in Recalde, A., 2002, p. 19. 24 Government of Canada Statistics Canada, 2006, Electronic resource

be appropriate, as culturally Guyana has identified with this area,25 however this could also likely lead to confusion as to what constitutes Caribbean. A further challenge is allowing Euro-Latin Americans, with Latin American origins, to identify themselves as primarily Latin American. If these Euro-Latin Americans were completing a census in their country of origin, for example Argentina or Colombia, many would identify themselves as white. There is the possibility they will continue to define themselves as White, and not Latin American. A survey conducted by the Pew Hispanic Center in the United States found that 36% of Hispanic adults surveyed considered themselves as White. 26 Although this is difficult to prevent, results of the current NHS should be examined to see those respondents who identified themselves as White and whose language at home is Spanish or Portuguese. If the results are significant, future NHSs should be adjusted. Recommendation #2: Increase multicultural grants and contributions for projects that will bridge the Latin American community with Canada. Why this is necessary: Social capital refers to the networks of social relations that may provide individuals and groups with access to resources and supports.27 The challenge of socio-cultural integration for the Latin American community consists of being able to preserve their cultural, social, and linguistic identity while at the same time participating fully in Canadian life. 28 In a recent study measuring various ethnicities social and cultural integration in Canada, it was found that Latin Americans are among the least integrated.29 There are a number of possible reasons including insecurity of the increase in globalization and new ways of doing business,

25 26

Janki, M., 2004, p. 1 Taylor, P. et al., 2012, Electronic resource 27 Policy Research Initiative, 2005, p. 6 28 Schugurensky, D. & Ginieniewicz, J., 2007, Electronic resource 29 Wong, L. 2011, Electronic resource

difficulties in settlement and adjusting to life in Canada, and economic uncertainty and the fear of marginalization.30 Culture as a soft-power is typically referred to as a diplomatic tool. 3132 However the concept of diplomacy can also be extended to community interactions and cultural exchange can serve to build bridges between diverse communities. Especially in Toronto and Montreal, where large Latin American communities exist, there are a number of cultural programs that seek to bring Latin American culture to Canadian attention while acting as catalysts in building sociocultural integration in a soft manner. Examples of these include: Free weekly summer festivals organized by the Harbourfront Centre in Toronto which focus on programming from various Latin American nations and feature artists from these countries as well as Canadian-Latin American artists (In 2011, festivals focused on Mexico and Colombia and in 2010 on Brazil) 33; The Dos Mundos (Two Worlds) radio program run through the University of Torontos CIUT, which is broadcast in English but features mostly Latin music and promotes local Latin American-Canadian musicians and artists. The founder, Sergio Elmer, also promotes concerts featuring international and local artists and the audience is a strong mix of Latin Americans and non-Latin Americans. 34 Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver host annual Latin American film festivals that feature films subtitled in English and French. In 2011, as part of the celebration for the City of Vancouvers 125th anniversary, the Vancouver festival presented a series of short films

30 31

United Nations, The., 1994, p. 4 Potter, E., 2005, p. 2 32 Nye, J., 2008, p. 95 33 Harbourfront Centre, 2012, Electronic resource 34 Dos Mundos Radio, 2012, Electronic resource

showcasing creative works by Vancouver-based filmmakers of Latin American descent.35 The Multiculturalism Program, administered through Citizenship and Immigration Canada, provides financial assistance (grants and contributions) to not-for-profit organizations, non-federal public sector institutions, regional and municipal governments, Aboriginal organizations and band councils and individuals through project funding.36 However in 2009-10, the Multiculturalism Program provided only $4 million in funding to 14 projects. Although it is beneficial to support large programs, more funds should be devoted to smaller programs. One way of doing this is working with Heritage Canada to ensure that a set amount of budgeting is set aside for programs that support multiculturalism. Harbourfront Centre, for example, was the beneficiary of $650,000 from Heritage Canada over the 2009-2010 seasons.37 However programs like Dos Mundos and the film festivals should also be allocated funding, even if it is a smaller amount. This recognizes the importance of these agents in building socio-cultural capital amongst the greater community as well as forums for Latin Americans, and other ethnicities, to interact with Canadians. A sub-recommendation would be for Heritage Canada to assist community-based organizations by providing a one-stop website of all grant monies available; both from the federal government as well as provinces, municipalities and smaller arts councils. Potential issues: Funding is increasingly difficult to secure given current government reductions in spending. Although a lack of funding can be challenging to mitigate, programs should be encouraged to utilize the community in trying to get access resources pro-bono. For example, through the provision of free or low rent space or advertising, volunteers, etc. With decreased funding also comes more competition between human service providers as well as increased
35 36

Vancouver Latin American Film Festival, 2011, Electronic resource Government of Canada Citizenship and Immigration, 2011c, Electronic resource 37 Government of Canada Canadian Heritage, 2009, Electronic resource

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demands for accountability including the monitoring of service provision, performance measurement, and program evaluation.38 As such, organizations, especially those that focus on the Latin American community, should be encouraged to submit joint funding applications as well trying to bring together various organizations under an umbrella. These partnerships could also be extended to the non-Latin American community. So for example, hold the Latin American film festivals at the same time as like-minded events at Harbourfront. Or, partner with the Toronto International Film Festival to have a special focus on Latin American films. This will also allow organizations to share resources which can help those smaller organizations to learn about devising proper performance measures and evaluations. Recommendation #3: Local governments should be encouraged to work with Latin American community organizations in strengthening ties with settlement organizations in promoting greater civic participation and citizenship, especially amongst vulnerable populations. Why this is necessary: Citizenship education and the encouragement of active civic participation are one of the few direct strategies that a host country can use to prepare immigrants to participate politically and economically and instil a sense of belonging in Canadian society. 39 Although Latin Americans are a diverse community within Canada, this diversity is often found to be accompanied by alienation, isolation, mistrust, and fragmentation. As such, the Latin American community in Canada is found to suffer double-fragmentation. Not only have most activities developed inside each national or ethnic micro-community (which number approximately 21 nationalities and more than 45 ethnic groups), but also each national or ethnic micro-community has fragmented into different sub-groups that rarely interact with each other.40 In addition, there are certain demographics that require special needs. For example, Latin
38 39

Kettner, P. et al., 2008, p. 4 Armony, V. et al., 2004, p. 20 40 Schugurensky, D. & Ginieniewicz, J., 2007, Electronic resource

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American women, as other immigrant women, tend to rely extensively on service provision mostly because they are the primary caregivers in charge of their families daily needs and health. Also, Latin American youth form a special needs group in terms of their need for language instruction and assistance in the education system; considering their relatively low levels of achievement, significant rates of high-school dropout, as well as issues of delinquency and street gangs. 41 There is active civic participation of Latin Americans in Toronto through organizations such as the Hispanic Development Council, the Centre for Spanish-Speaking People, the Latin American Coalition Against Racism and economically through the Toronto Hispanic Chamber of Commerce. Although the Centre for Spanish-Speaking People does offer settlement services, the other organizations that do not should look to work with settlement agencies at bridging newcomers into civic society from the start of the residency in Canada. As local governments are the closest to the communities, they have the opportunity to interact with members in unique and personable ways. For example, they can approach organizations such as those listed above and enter into dialogue about how to create opportunities to engage and bridge newcomers and vulnerable populations into the community. Potential issues: It may be difficult to identify newcomers who do not use settlement services. A study in York Region found less than a third of the recent immigrants have used settlement services. 42 Reasons include changes in service provision, including a decline in the quality and quantity of programs, the introduction of new eligibility criteria, and less accessible language instruction through reduced or eliminated funding.43 It will not be easy to access the roughly 2/3 that do not utilize settlement services, including those vulnerable populations. This necessitates
41 42

Veronis, L., 2006, p. 135 Lo, L., 2010, p. 20 43 Veronis, L., 2006, p. 133

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stronger participation of community organizations which can use their networks and members, for example, to advertise settlement services, identify newcomers, etc. The diversity of the Latin American community will be challenging to unite. Such is the importance of broader organizations which advertise themselves as Latin American and do not direct themselves towards a specific country or audience. Perhaps a step in the right direction could come through the billing of larger events directed at the Latin American-Canadian community, which would welcome artists and demonstrations from many countries, as opposed to, for example, Harbourfronts current practice of having a Mexican or Colombian weekend. Furthermore, funding could be earmarked for events which look to incorporate the broader community. Conclusion: The challenges, both internally and externally, facing the Latin American community although not largely documented, are well-documented and clear. Although the community grows stronger by the day, as do Canadians knowledge of Latin America, partly due to engagement through cultural activities, there are major hurdles to conquer. There is no one level of government or organization that can accomplish this progress will have to come through partnering. Although only a start, the policy recommendations within this report attempt to build on existing foundations to ensure that the Latin American-Canadian community continues to be strengthened and grow most importantly through the increase in the sense of belonging and contributions that Latin Americans have in their new society. Contact: Derek Nawrot d.nawrot@queensu.ca

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References: Alcal, P.R., Colorado, M., Daz, P., & Osorio, A. (2007). Forced migration of Colombians Colombia, Ecuador, Canada. Retrieved electronically from: http://www.ligi.ubc.ca/sites/liu/files/Publications/Jan2008_ColombianRefugeesCanada.p df Armony, V., Barriga, M., & Schugurensky, D. (2004). Citizenship Learning and Political Participation: The Experience of Latin American Immigrants in Canada. Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, 29(57-58), 17-38. Austen, I. (2006, Sept. 25). Brazilian Mining Company to Buy Inco of Canada. New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/25/business/worldbusiness/25canada.html Barragan, J. (2001). Hispanic Immigrant Women in Toronto's Labour Market. Diss. University of Toronto. Retrieved from: http://reel.utsc.utoronto.ca/relac/PDF/Barragan_hispanic.pdf Business News Americas, (2001, Aug. 3). Votorantim Completes Great Lakes Purchase for US$772mn. Retrieved from: http://www.bnamericas.com/news/infrastructure/Votorantim_Completes_Great_Lakes_P urchase_for_US*772mn Dos Mundo Radio. (2012). Radio homepage. Retrieved from: http://www.dosmundosradio.com/ Government of Canada Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. (2012a). Canada and the Americas: Priorities & Progress. Retrieved from: http://www.international.gc.ca/americas-ameriques/priorities_progresspriorites_progres.aspx?view=d Government of Canada - Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. (2012b). Canada Guatemala relations. Retrieved from: http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/guatemala/bilateral_relations_bilaterales/canada_g uatemala.aspx?lang=eng&view=d Government of Canada Prime Minister of Canada. (2011a). PM announces four-country visit to Latin America. Retrieved electronically from: http://pm.gc.ca/eng/media.asp?id=4221 Government of Canada Citizenship and Immigration. (2011b). Facts and Figures 2010. Government of Canada Citizenship and Immigration (2011c). Annual Report on the Operation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act 2009-2010. Retrieved from: http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/publications/multi-report2010/part1.asp

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Government of Canada Statistics Canada. (2010). 2011 National Household Survey Questions. Retrieved from: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/NHS-ENM/ref/Questionnaires/2011NHSENM-eng.cfm Government of Canada Canadian Heritage. (2009, May 29). The Government of Canada Supports Harbourfront Centre, DanceWorks, and Dance Immersion. Retrieved from: http://www.pch.gc.ca/eng/1294862446299/1294862446301 Government of Canada Statistics Canada. (2007). The Latin American Community in Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-621-x/89-621-x2007008-eng.pdf Government of Canada Statistics Canada. (2006). Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data. Retrieved from: http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/hlt/97562/pages/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo=PR&Code=01&Table=2&Data=Count&StartRec=1 &Sort=3&Display=All Harbourfront Centre. (2012). Past summer festivals. Retrieved from: http://www.harbourfrontcentre.com/summer/festivals.cfm Houpt, S. (2011, Nov. 17). Targeting Canadas invisible Hispanic community. The Globe & Mail. Retrieved electronically from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/industrynews/marketing/adhocracy/targeting-canadas-invisible-hispaniccommunity/article2240326/singlepage/ Janki, M., (2004). Country Study on Customary Water Law and Practices in Guyana. This paper was commissioned by IUCN under a joint FAO/IUCN research project investigating the interface of customary and statutory water rights, in progress. Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/legal/advserv/FAOIUCNcs/Guyana.pdf Kettner, P., Moroney, R., & Martin, L. (2008). Designing and Managing Programs: An Effectiveness-Based Approach 3rd Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications Lo, L., Wang, S., Anisef, P., Preston, V., & Basu, R. (2010). Recent Immigrants Awareness of, Access to, Use of, and Satisfaction with Settlement Services in York Region. CERIS Working Paper No. 79. Retrieved from: http://www.ceris.metropolis.net/Virtual%20Library/other/CWP79.pdf Mata, F. G. (1985). Latin American Immigration to Canada: Some Reflections on the Immigration Statistics. Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, 20, 27-42 Nye, J. (2008). Public Diplomacy and Soft Power. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 616(1), 94-109

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Policy Research Initiative. (2005). Social Capital as a Public Policy Tool Project Report. Ottawa: Policy Research Initiative. Potter, E. (2005). Canada and the New Public Diplomacy. Discussion papers in diplomacy. Retrieved from: http://ccges.apps01.yorku.ca/old-site/IMG/pdf/05_Potter.pdf Recalde, A. (2002). Recent Latin Americans in Vancouver: Unyielding Diverse Needs versus Insufficient Services. Research on Immigration and Integration in the Metropolis, Working Paper Series No. 02-19. Schugurensky, D. & Ginieniewicz, J. (2007). The Latin American community in Canada: Some challenges ahead. Dilogos, Summer 2007. Simalchik, J. (2004). Chilean refugees in Canada: home reinvented. Canadian Issues, March, 5256. Simmons, A. & Carrillos, L. (2009). Home and Heart: Identity Politics among Latino Youths in Toronto. Toronto: Centre for Research on Latin American and Caribbean, York University. Taylor, P., Hugo Lopez, M., Hamar Martnez, J., & Velasco, G. (2012). When Labels Dont Fit: Hispanics and Their Views of Identity. Report conducted for the Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2012/04/04/ii-identity-pan-ethnicity-andrace/ United Nations, The. (1994). Social Integration: Approaches and Issues. UNRISD Briefing Paper No. 1, World Summit for Social Development. Retrieved from: http://www.unrisd.org/80256B3C005BCCF9/%28httpAuxPages%29/510920DA18B35A 6880256B65004C6A7B/$file/bp1.pdf Vancouver Latin American Film Festival (2011). Fiesta 125! A Celebration of Latin American Culture in Vancouver. Retrieved from: http://www.vlaff.org/en/fiesta125 Veronis, L. (2006). Rethinking Transnationalism: Citizenship and Immigrant Participation in Neoliberal Toronto. PhD Thesis. Retrieved from: http://individual.utoronto.ca/veronis/Docs/PhDThesisVeronis06.pdf Wong, L. (2011). Measuring Social and Cultural Integration in Canada: The Creation and Application of an Index. Presentation at the Prairie Metropolis Centre, Edmonton Research Symposium, January 27, 2011. Retrieved from: http://pcerii.metropolis.net/2010%20Nodemeetings/Lloyd%20Wong%20%20PMC%20Node%20Presentation%20-Edmonton%20%282011%29.pdf

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Appendix A: Select Latin American Immigration data

Canada Permanent residents by category and source area Colombia Mexico Brazil Peru Venezuela El Salvador Argentina Ecuador Honduras Chile Guatemala Costa Rica Bolivia Paraguay Uruguay Nicaragua Panama, Republic of Total Latin America Total
By category and region Family Class South and Central America Total Economic Immigrants South and Central America Total Refugees South and Central America Total

2001 2,966 1,939 857 852 572 446 625 366 179 377 255 136 79 53 73 102 57 9,934 250,638
2001

2002 3,225 1,918 759 859 554 469 844 446 147 437 248 115 59 85 103 63 53 10,384 229,048
2002

2003 4,273 1,738 865 1,021 710 441 1,783 380 113 343 178 120 63 108 108 82 50 12,376 221,349
2003

2004 4,438 2,245 934 1,455 1,259 437 1,648 506 132 375 217 173 98 83 149 62 46 14,257 235,824
2004

2005 6,031 2,854 976 1,658 1,235 428 1,169 561 160 392 192 206 137 78 294 75 66 16,512 262,241

2006 5,813 2,830 1,209 1,479 1,221 421 894 620 160 452 215 320 149 105 202 90 72 16,252 251,642

2007 4,833 3,224 1,759 1,475 1,373 923 624 591 160 546 259 305 111 124 175 67 72 16,621 236,754
2008

2008 4,995 2,831 2,127 1,078 1,259 1,107 542 642 177 359 255 282 164 123 161 121 59 16,282 247,248
2009

2009 4,240 3,104 2,480 1,872 1,385 825 492 529 166 388 273 240 222 101 108 110 80 16,615 252,172
2010

2005

2006

2007

10,039 66,795

7,832 62,292

7,387 65,121

7,448 62,275

7,171 63,374

7,043 70,517

7,372 66,242

7,711 65,582

7,734 65,204

8,974 60,220 0.14902 12,148 186,913 0.064993 4,442 24,696

7,474 155,717

8,040 137,863

7,313 121,047

8,454 133,747

8,205 156,312

7,191 138,250

9,466 131,245

11,392 149,071

12,390 153,491

2,657 27,919

2,841 25,113

3,712 25,983

4,596 32,687

7,637 35,776

7,602 32,500

6,077 27,954

4,699 21,858

3,680 22,850

Destination of Latin American PR to Canada Place (PRs) 2001 2001 2010 Nova Scotia 84 0.4% 131 Other Atlantic 97 0.5% 148 Quebec 5553 27.5% 10,393 Ontario 11784 58.3% 12,032 Manitoba 267 1.3% 951 Sask 51 0.3% 237 Alb 1008 5.0% 2,501 BC 1362 6.7% 1,948 Territories 4 0.0% 13 Total 20210 100.0% 28354
Source: CIC, 2010

2010 0.5% 0.5% 36.7% 42.4% 3.4% 0.8% 6.9% 6.9% 0.0% 100.0%

Direction Increasing Same Increasing Decreasing Increasing Increasing Increasing Increasing Increasing

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