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Sub: Submission of Internal Assignment as part of Course requirement 1. What do you understand by Information processes data?

Ans. Data are generally considered to be raw facts that have undefined uses and application; information is considered to be processed data that influences choices, that is, data that have somehow been formatted, filtered, and summarized; and knowledge is considered to be an understanding derived from information distinctions among data, information, and knowledge may be derived from scientific terminology. The researcher collects data to test hypotheses; thus, data refer to unprocessed and unanalysed numbers. When the data are analysed, scientists talk about the information contained in the data and the knowledge acquired from their analyses. The confusion often extends to the information systems context, and the three terms maybe used interchangeably. 2. What are the uses of Executive Information Systems?

Ans. 1) EIS provide immediate and easy access to information reflecting the key success factors of the company and of its units. 2) "User-seductive" interfaces, such as color graphics and video, allow the EIS user to grasp trends at a glance. Users time is at a high premium here. 3) EIS provide access to a variety of databases, both internal and external, through a uniform interface-the fact that the system consults multiple databases should be transparent to the users. 4) Both current status and projections should be available from EIS. It is frequently desirable to investigate different projections; in particular, planned projections may be compared with the projections derived from actual results. 5) An EIS should allow easy tailoring to the preferences of the particular user or group of users (such as the chief executive's cabinet or the corporate board). 6) EIS should offer the capability to "drill down" into the data: It should be possible to see increasingly detailed data behind the summaries. Executive information systems are a superior tool for exercising the control function of management. Thanks to these systems, many an executive has been able to widen his or her span of management control-in other words, to expand the number of people reporting directly to him or to her.

3. How do you retrieve information from manual system?

Ans. Manual filing systems satisfy many personal needs for organizing and retrieving information. Nevertheless, in these systems we typically can store information in only one location (unless we reproduce copies). Not only do computerized system assist in storing information, but they may also facilitate its retrieval by supporting quick, repeated searches of data, potentially at multiple or offsite locations. For example, individuals or companies that require patent information for scientific inventions can use software to perform sophisticated and rapid patent searches. 4. What are the challenges of information management?

Ans. Operational-level information systems support the conduct of business with data processing. The primary objective of management-oriented MIS components is to improve the effectiveness of managerial decision making by providing appropriate informational support. What do we mean when we demand quality information? The attributes we are talking about are summarized in table 4.1. The table is, indeed, a summary: for a detailed listing of thirtyfour attributes of quality information Many attributes of information are relative to the decision-making situation (or problem) in which the information will be used. Information should be complete, yet concise, with only relevant items brought to bear in the decision situation. Relevance provides the main protection against information overload. Determining what information is needed is the crucial aspect of the information systems planning and analysis. Note the distinction between accuracy and precision. Suppose that, based on accurate figures rounded off to the next million dollars, last year's quarterly sales were Rs. 505, Rs. 610, Rs. 408, and Rs. 456 million. If we report that average, quarterly sales for the year were Rs. 494, 750,000, our figure is accurate, but the precision we selected is inappropriate. The figure of Rs.495 million better reflects the precision (degree of exactness) of the underlying data. Many considerations influence the choice of the appropriate form in which information will be presented to a manager. Generally, the higher the management level, the less detailed-and thus more summarized-the information should be. Certain information should not be quantified (expressed in numbers); if qualitative ("soft") information is presented numerically, it may create a false impression of reliability.

The "battle of the printout" is a well-known deadlock situation in a meeting where several managers offer conflicting information. Information for a decision must be obtained in a consistent fashion. Group decision support systems; offer a partial solution to the problem. Most of the data captured by TPS relates to various aspects of the organization itself.
5. Explain the different components of MIS.

Ans. The physical components of MIS comprise the computer and communications hardware, software, database, personnel, and procedures. Almost all organizations employ multiple computer systems, ranging from powerful mainframe machines (sometimes including supercomputers) through minicomputers, to widely spread personal computers (also known as microcomputers). The use of multiple computers, usually interconnected into networks by means of telecommunications, is called distributed processing. The driving forces that have changed the information processing landscape from centralized processing, relying on single powerful mainframes, to distributed processing have been the rapidly increasing power and decreasing costs of smaller computers. Though the packaging of hardware subsystems differs among the three categories of computers (mainframes, minicomputers, and microcomputers), all of them are similarly organized. Thus, a computer system comprises a central processor (though multiprocessors with several central processing units are also used), which controls all other units by executing machine instructions; a hierarchy of memories; and devices for accepting input (for example, a keyboard or a mouse) and producing output (say, a printer or a video display terminal). The memory hierarchy ranges from a fast primary memory from which the central processor can fetch instructions for execution; through secondary memories (such as disks) where on-line databases are maintained; to the ultra high capacity archival memories that are also employed in some cases. COMPONENT DESCRIPTION Hardware Multiple computer systems: mainframes, minicomputers,

personal computers Computer system components are: central processor(s), memory hierarchy, input and output devices Communications: local area networks, metropolitan area networks, and wide area networks Systems software and applications software Organized collections of data used by applications software Professional cadre of computer specialists; end users in certain aspects of their work Specifications for the use and operation of computerized information systems collected in user manuals, operator manuals, and similar documents

Software Database Personnel Procedures

Multiple computer systems are organized into networks in most cases. Various network configurations are possible, depending upon an organization's need. Fast local area networks join machines, most frequently clusters of personal computers, at a particular organizational site such as a building or a campus. The emerging metropolitan area networks serve large urban communities. Wide area networks connect machines at remote sites, both within the company and in its environment. Through networking, personal-computer users gain access to the broad computational capabilities of large machines and to the resources maintained there, such as large databases. This connectivity converts personal computers into powerful workstations. Computer software falls into two classes: systems software and applications software. Systems software manages the resources of the system and simplifies programming. Operating systems (UNIX, for example) control all the resources of a computer system and enable multiple users to run their programs on a computer system without being aware of the complexities of resource allocation. Even if you are just using a personal computer, a complex series of actions takes place when, for example, you start the machine, check out its hardware, and call up a desired program. All of these actions fall under the control of an operating system, such as DOS or IBM OS/2. Telecommunications monitors manage computer communications; database management systems make it possible to organize vast collections of data so that they are accessible for fast and simple queries and the production of reports. Software translators-compilers or interpreters, make it possible to program an application in a higher-level language, such as COBOL or C. The translator converts program statements into machine instructions ready for execution by the computer's central processor. Many categories of applications software are purchased as ready-to-use packages. Applications software directly assists end users in their functions. Examples include generalpurpose spreadsheet or word processing programs, as well as the so-called vertical applications serving a specific industry segment (for example, manufacturing resource planning systems or accounting packages for small service businesses). The use of purchased application packages is increasing. However, the bulk of applications software used in large organizations are developed to meet a specific need. Large application systems consist of a, number of programs integrated by the database.

To be accessible, data items must be organized so that individual records and their components can be identified and, if needed, related to one another. A simple way to organize data is to create files. A file is a collection of records of the same type. For example, the employee file contains employee records, each containing the same fields (for example, employee name and annual pay), albeit with different values. Multiple files may be organized into a database, or an integrated collection of persistent data that serves a number of applications. The individual files of a database are interrelated. Professional MIS personnel include development and maintenance managers, systems analysts, programmers, and operators, often with highly specialized skills. The hallmark of the present stage in organizational computing is the involvement of end users to a significant degree in the development of information systems. Procedures to be followed in using, operating, and maintaining computerized systems are a part of the system documentation.
6. Write a note on Ethical and Social issues with E-Commerce.

Ans. 1. Internet can be used in illegal ways, as there are no laws related to its use. Many servers contain illegal, immoral, defamatory information (which cannot be legally communicated using facilities like TV, radio, etc.). 2. There is minimal or no control over the Internet (unlike telephone, radio, TV, etc.). Limited banning of material in Internet is not possible i.e. all-or-none rule. 3. Free speech advocates say that screening of incoming material is the responsibility of the receiving end 4. There is no law against Spamming i.e. sending unsolicited mail 5. Massive flaming of large quantity of e-mail to one address. The question arises Is sending/receiving large quantity of mail ethical?