Town of Enviroville, Ontario Briley Chemical Production Site A Proposal for Brownfield Redevelopment

Environmental Planning
PLE515 Prof. P. Nichols October 28, 2009


Nawa Akram Wendy Choi Nathalie Guennel Devand Jagroop

Table of Contents
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 Introduction Remediation Options Physical Plan 1 3 9

Michal Kuzniar Nolan Moss Derek Nawrot

Recommendations for Future Development 12 Economic Rationale Environmental Outreach Why Us? 14 16 19

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Proposal The proposal for the redevelopment of the Briley Chemical Production Co. brownfield site poses a significant redevelopment opportunity for the Town of Enviroville. Such a development has the potential to create quite an extraordinary urban environment that would not only benefit new residents but the surrounding neighbourhoods and filter throughout the region as a whole. Our goal is to create a new urban space that will provide a variety of multi-family housing complexes, services, businesses and recreational opportunities. The purpose of this proposal is, in addition to presenting our idea, to ensure that the potential of this redevelopment is guided by smart planning practices and produces a sustainable modern community design. 1.2 An Industrial Neighbourhood The Briley facility was a large, privately owned site established in 1903. As the name entails, the firm manufactured a number of toxic chemical compounds for a wide range of industrial companies. As a result of the 1930s Great Depression in the United States, the firm’s prime market, the firm experienced financial difficulties which lead to its bankruptcy in 1934. The site was used periodically during the 1940s and 1950s, however has remained vacated. Originally the site housed a large factory (150,000 square feet), several smaller storage buildings and housing for the company’s extensive staff and their families. All housing and storage facilities have fallen into disrepair and are unsalvageable. The original factory is heavily damaged, but its foundations remain sound. The soil in portions of the site contain a variety of contaminates. Environmental assessment specialists have reviewed the entire site and have determined that two specific portions of the site, those which formerly housed the storage facilities, will require soil remediation in order to allow the overall site to be redeveloped. In total, 18 acres of the site will require soil remediation. The remediation does not require the demolishing of the original factory. 1.3 Mission Statement To create a high quality, vibrant, environmentally friendly, and profitable development plan for the Briley brownfield site. 1.4 Vision The Briley site redevelopment will strive to create an energetic, attractive, and safe addition to the community that will further enhance the surrounding areas. The development will reflect best practices in planning and design and create a new centre for business, research and development, and the arts, while still respecting its industrial history. The new site will integrate and foster vital retail and commercial businesses that compliment Enviroville’s current commercial district, located to the south of the site, as well as provide pedestrian linkages.


1. 5 Objectives The following are the objectives we hope to achieve with our proposal: • • • • • • • • • • • • To provide a cleaner, healthier, safer and more liveable environment for Enviroville; To create a mixture of commercial and residential development that connects the main streets to the waterfront; To encourage a development with affordable housing on appropriate remediate properties; To clean up and return the Briley site to productive uses; To protect the natural resources of the site from any further environmental degradation; To protect cultural assets; To provide more open space within the Briley site; To establish a community participation throughout the decision-making process; To develop an Urban Core Area that links the three distinct urban districts and increases opportunities in employment, economic activity and investment; To develop a plan that aligned with provincial and municipal legislation and requirements; To develop an attractive waterfront community that is accessible to the public with open space; and, To encourage the design and construction of environmentally high perfor mance buildings (LEED designation).


2.0 Remediation Options
Since a considerable part of the property (18 acres) does not meet applicable site condition standards or any property specific standards set through risk assessment, site remediation will be required. Soil Remediation research consists of a better understanding of the nature of contaminated soils and sediments and the risks they pose, the best technologies for dealing with soils and sediments, and reasonable approaches to problem management (Interuniversity Consortium “Chemistry for the Environment”, 2006). Remediation has the potential of retaining infrastructure and saving development funds by eliminating the need for infrastructure construction. The appropriate procedures and activities for the remediation of any property must be determined by specific circumstances related to that property: 1) 2) 3) Identification of Assessment Options Design and Implementation Confirmatory Sampling


2.1 Identification of Assessment Options This involves looking at a number of factors such as the object to be managed/cleaned (e.g. soil or water), the contaminant(s) that are in the area of concern, and the distribution of contaminants within the object. There are three approaches to managing contaminated soil/materials: on-site (in-situ) treatment, on-site containment/isolation and removal for off-site (ex-situ) treatment or disposal (Ministry of Environment, 2004). Through previous assessments, it was conclusive that the medium that was contaminated is in a solid state as contaminants have most likely been absorbed into the soil. The soil will have to be treated on-site or excavated and treated off-site (Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, 2009). It can be assumed that the type of contaminants that are in the 18 acres of contaminated soils are compounds made of Nonhalogenated Volatile Organic Compounds or Inorganics, since the original use of the industrial land site was as a chemical factory. After establishing the compounds that are present on the site, we look at the different types of remediation processes that can be used whether in-situ, containment or exsitu. In-situ involves no excavation of the contaminated soil and has the advantage of being less expensive. The disadvantages are a longer time to effect treatment to the desired limits and there is less certainty about the uniformity of treatment because of the inherent variability in soil difficulty in the monitoring progress (Lodolo, 2009). The ex-situ approach involves excavating a contaminated area and treating the material on the same site (in-situ, on-site) or transporting it to a remote site for cleaning (ex-situ, off-site) (Lodolo, 2009). It is more complicated and expensive and can lead to off-site contamination if not handled properly, however the process takes the bulk of contaminants away before they can spread further. It also allows homogenization of the contaminated soil before treatment and ensures monitoring so that soils are cleaned to the desired limits within a relatively short time (Lodolo, 2009). Viable options include In-situ treatments such as Bioventing, Enhanced Bioremediation and Soil Flushing whereas an ex-situ treatment would be Biopiles.


2.2 Options for Soil Remediation This involves the detailed design and implementation procedures that take into consideration the results of the Identification of Assessment Options. Consideration must be given to the time required to initiate and complete the site cleanup, the need for public information/communication, the development of a health and safety plan, the tendering process for construction and other activities, procedures for managing clean soil, contaminated soil and any waste materials encountered at the site, procedures for managing and monitoring incoming fill materials, on-site supervision, monitoring and documenting of the cleanup work and the need for, and requirements to obtain, any necessary regulatory approvals (Ministry of Environment, 2004). The following methods are available: 1. Bioventing Bioventing combines soil venting, which removes volatile components from the soil, with bioremediation which uses the oxygen from the vented air for biodegradation of the remaining organic contaminants (Lee, 1993). The volatilization of low molecular weight, high vapour pressure compounds can be maximized using a greater volume of air or short travel distances between injection and extraction wells (Dupont, 1991). The bioventing process can be maximized by using lower air flow rates, longer flow paths and optimizing conditions for microbial growth through the addition of moisture and inorganic nutrients (Lee, 1993). An in situ bioventing system consists of essentially the same components as a soil venting system: a blower and a series of air induction (influent) and venting (effluent) wells (Hinchee, 1991). Advantages that bioventing has over more conventional technology (Bhandari, 2007): • Uses readily available equipment; easy to install; • Creates minimal disturbance to site operations; can be used to address inac cessible areas (e.g. under buildings); • Requires short treatment times: usually 6 months to 2 years under optimal conditions; • Cost competitive: $45-140/ton of contaminated soil; • Easily combinable with other technologies (e.g., air sparging, groundwater extraction); and • May not require costly off-gas treatment Disadvantages associated with bioventing (Bhandari, 2007): • High constituent concentrations may initially be toxic to microorganisms; • Not applicable for certain site conditions (e.g., low soil permeabilities, high clay content, insufficient delineation of subsurface conditions); • Cannot always achieve very low cleanup standards; and • Permits generally required for nutrient injection wells (if used); A few states also require permits for air injection 2. Enhanced Bioremediation Enhanced bioremediation is a process in which indigenous or inoculated micro-organisms (e.g., fungi, bacteria, and other microbes) degrade (metabolize) organic



contaminants found in soil and/or ground water, converting them to innocuous end products. Nutrients, oxygen, or other amendments may be used to enhance bioremediation and contaminant desorption from subsurface materials (Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, 2009). Advantages of Enhanced Bioremediation (Vidali, 2001): • More acceptable by the public since it is a natural process. The microbes increase in numbers when the contaminant is present and decrease in numbers when contaminant declines; • It is useful for the complete destruction of a wide variety of contaminants; • Contaminants do not have to be transferred from one environmental medium to another; • Can be carried on site without any disruption of activities; and • Proves less expensive than other technologies. Disadvantages of Enhanced Bioremediation (Vidali, 2001): • It is limited to compounds that are biodegradable; • Products of bioremediation may be more toxic than the parent compound; • There are site factors that are required for better successes such as microbial populations, suitable growth conditions and appropriate levels of nutrients and contaminants; • More research needed to establish bioremediation technologies that are appropriate for sites with complex mixtures of contaminants that are not evenly dispersed in the environment; • Takes longer than other treatment; and • Evaluation performance is difficult. 3. Soil Flushing Soil flushing involves extracting contaminants from the soil with water or other suitable aqueous solutions, by passing the extraction fluid through in-place soils using an injection or infiltration process (Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, 2009). Extraction fluids must be recovered from the underlying aquifer and, when possible, they are recycled. Cosolvent flushing involves injecting a solvent mixture (e.g., water plus a miscible organic solvent such as alcohol) into either vadose zone, saturated zone, or both to extract organic contaminants (Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, 2009). Cosolvent flushing can be applied to soils to dissolve either the source of contamination or the contaminant plume emanating from it. The cosolvent mixture is normally injected upgradient of the contaminated area, and the solvent with dissolved contaminants is extracted downgradient and treated above ground. The duration of soil flushing process is generally short- to medium-term (Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, 2009). Advantages of Soil Flushing (Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, 2009): • The target contaminant group for soil flushing is inorganics including radioactive contaminants; • The technology can be used to treat VOCs, SVOCs, fuels, and pesticides, but it may be less cost-effective than alternative technologies for these contaminant groups;


• •

The addition of environmentally compatible surfactants may be used to increase the effective solubility of some organic compounds; and The technology offers the potential for recovery of metals and can mobilize a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants from coarse-grained soils.


Disadvantages of Soil Flushing (Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, 2009): • Low permeability or heterogeneous soils are difficult to treat; • Surfactants can adhere to soil and reduce effective soil porosity; • Reactions of flushing fluids with soil can reduce contaminant mobility; • The potential of washing the contaminant beyond the capture zone and the introduction of surfactants to the subsurface concern regulators. The technology should be used only where flushed contaminants and soil flushing fluid can be contained and recaptured; and • Aboveground separation and treatment costs for recovered fluids can drive the economics of the process. 4. Biopiles Biopiles reduce the concentration of petroleum constituents in excavated soils through the use of biodegradation. This technology can be performed onsite and involves heaping contaminated soils into piles and stimulating aerobic microbial activity within the soils through the addition of oxygen, minerals, nutrients, and moisture (Joint Service Pollution Prevention Oppurtunity Handbook, 2002). The enhanced microbial activity results in the breakdown of the petroleum constituents in the soil. The biopile technology requires the use of pumps to force air throughout the pile (Joint Service Pollution Prevention Oppurtunity Handbook, 2002). To prevent the leaching of contaminants into underlying soil or groundwater, biopiles should be constructed in impermeable containers. Higher molecular weight petroleum constituents (e.g., heating and lubricating oils) require a longer degradation period (Joint Service Pollution Prevention Oppurtunity Handbook, 2002). The typical height of biopiles varies between 3 and 10 feet (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1994). Additional land area around the biopile(s) will be required for sloping the sides of the pile, for containment berms, and for access (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1994). The length and width of biopiles is generally not restricted unless aeration is to occur by manually turning the soils. In general, biopiles which will be turned should not exceed 6 to 8 feet in width (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1994). Advantages of Biopiles (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1994): • Relatively simple to design and implement; • Short term treatment, usually 6 months to 2 years under optimal conditions; • Cost competitive: $30-90/ton of contaminated soil; • Effective on organic constituents with slow biodegration rates; • Requires less land areas; • Can be designed to be a closed system: vapour emissions controlled; and • Can be engineered to be potentially effective for any combination of site conditions and petroleum products.

Disadvantages of Biopiles (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1994): • Concentration reduction more than 95% and constituent concentrations less than 0.1ppm are difficult to achieve; • May not be effective for high constituent concentrations; • Presence of significant heavy metal concentrations may inhibit microbial growth; • Volatile constituents tend to evaporate rather than biodegrade during treatment; • Requires a large land area for treatment; • Vapour generation during aeration may require treatment prior to discharge;and • May require bottom linear leaching from the biopile is a concern 2.3 Bioventing - Our Recommendation The best of the four remediation options is Bioventing, according to the table and research done: 1. Development status: It is well documented and well understood and implemented at a number of sites; 2. Treatment training: It is stand alone technology and not too complex to understand; 3. Operation and maintenance Intensive: Low degree of O and M intensity; 4. Capital Investment: There is a low degree of capital investment needed; 5. System Reliability Maintainability: It has high reliability and low maintenance; 6. Relative costs: Low degree of general costs relative to other options; 7. Time: This may take 1-3 years; 8. Availability: There are more than 4 vendors who can design and construct and maintain this technology; and 9. Contaminants Treated: Of the contaminants, it is very effective against the non ha logenated VOC’S
NonhalogenatedVOC’s Rating Codes Above Average Average Below Average Level of Effectiveness, highly dependent upon specific contamination and its application Soil, Sediment, Bedrock, and Sludge 3.1 In Situ Biological Treatment 4.1 Bioventing 4.2 Enhanced Bioremediation 3.2 In Situ Physical/Chemical Treatment 4.7 Soil Flushing 3.4 Ex Situ Biological Treatment (assuming excavation) 4.11 Biopiles Figure 1: TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES SCREENING MATRIX, Excerpt from: Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable: Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix and Reference Guide 2009 NonhalogenatedSVOC’s Relative Overal Cost & Performance
System Reliability &


Development Status


Relative Costs






Treatment Train



Figure 2: Definition of Symbols Used in the TTSM Excerpt from: Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable: Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix and Reference Guide 2009



3. 0 Physical Plan
3.1 Location and Surroundings The Briley site and its associated facilities encompass 38 acres of land. The site is rectangular in nature and is surrounded by three distinct urban districts and by a large lake on its fourth side. The lake forms the eastern edge of the site, to the south is the town’s commercial district, a large university and smaller R&D (research and development) facilities form the western boarder, and the town’s residential district forms the northern edge of the site.


Town of Enviroville, Ontario Briley Chemical Production Co. Site

Factory Site Residential District Commercial District R&D Facility Large University Large Lake

1000 Feet

Figure 3: The sites location within the three distinct urban districts.

3.2 Objective Our objective is to create and implement policies that aim to encourage best practice sustainable developments which: • Are appropriate to their context in respect of scale and compatibility with their surroundings; • Secure positive improvements to the landscape, biodiversity, streetscape or place where they are located; • Create safe environments where crime and disorder or fears of crime do not undermine quality of life; • Encourage strong and positive relations between people from different back grounds within neighbourhoods; • Make efficient and prudent use of natural resources; and • Address the needs of social and public services. 9

3.4 Key Elements of the Briley Site Proposal A) 5 acre urban park/ forest along the waters edge - The park will work as the linkage point for the paths located within the site. The open space will have washroom facilities that my double as change rooms within proximity to bicycle storage locations; B) Green building requirement - Requirements that developers must fulfill include, minimum energy performance, green roofs, waste management, LEED Gold Buildings, Energy Star appliances; C) 424 units of market and 140 units of affordable housing (25% of total units)The units will consist of 60 town houses and two high and two medium connecting multi-family complexes that will have retail/commercial spaces located at the street level. Providing opportunities for a wide range of tenure options in the delivery of housing; i.e., ensuring both affordable rental and ownership housing is provided. 25% of the new neighbourhood to be affordable housing, including both affordable ownership and affordable rental housing; D) Restoration of factory - The factory will be converted into an art and adventure centre. It will provide art studio space to local are and community organizations. Offices will be located on the upper levels of the building. There will be a restaurant were visitors can discover food that has been grown on site in the garden; E) Pavilion - Located next to the factory will be a Pavilion a covered outdoor space that will act as a place for gatherings, festivals, plant nurseries and the farmers market. It will have children and youth programming designed to connect them with nature in the city and in the colder months it will be set up for skating; F) Natural connectivity - Paths will be incorporated into the site and will connect to the surrounding neighbourhood; G) Streetscapes - The majority of the streets will be pedestrian or mixed pedestriancyclist. Those streets where cars are allowed will have wide sidewalks at street level as well as appropriately sized bicycle lanes. Pocket parkettes will dot the street sides so as not to overwhelm pedestrians as well as to provide breathing space. Trees and landscaping will be provided on all or most streets, as well as durable, stylized street furniture. All street surfaces will be permeable or semi-permeable. H) Park space - There will be an abundance of open concept public space for public interaction. I) School and Community Centre - public locations where members of a community may gather for group activities, social support, public information, and other purposes.
*As depicted in Figure 4.










Figure 4: Concept Plan



4.0 Recommendations for Future Development
Our key recommendation for future policy amendments that would address similar brownfield redevelopment situations not only throughout the Town of Enviroville, but also throughout the Township of North Dumfries, is a Community Improvement Plan. 4.1 Community Improvement Plans A Community Improvement Plan (CIP) is a tool that allows a municipality to direct funds and implement policy initiatives toward a specifically defined project area (City of Kingston, 2005). A number of Ontario municipalities, including Kingston, Niagara Falls, Sarnia, etc. have introduced CIPs into their Official Plan. Section 28(2) of the Planning Act allows council, where there is a municipal Official Plan (OP) in effect, to designate the whole or any part of an area covered by the OP as a community improvement project area (Ontario Planning Act, 1990). Plans are intended to encourage redevelopment within defined municipal areas. Once implemented, the plan allows municipalities to provide tax assistance, grants, or loans to assist in the redevelopment of land/buildings within the defined area. (City of Kingston, 2005). This is discussed further in Section 5.0 Economic Rationale. 4.2 Purpose The purpose of the CIP is to allow the Township of North Dumfries to better identify lands for redevelopment and consolidate their efforts by amending their OP as such. In doing so, this will allow the municipality to pursue funding, of which the success of the program will be dependent, in order to redevelop derelict industrial buildings/ lands. 4.3 Rationale The rationale behind the CIP came with the realization for development of the Briley Chemical Production Co. Site in Enviroville. While the land sits vacant and underutilized, the city is losing the opportunity not only for potential economic gain but the creation of employment lands and a larger tax base, but also in lost social and cultural values. One of the objectives of the Town of Enviroville is to transform themselves into a centre for business, research, and development and the arts, while still respecting its history. The OP in Section 4.1.2 states that the Township will identify vacant industrial/ commercial land in addition to promoting new business development (Township of North Dumfries, 2008). In Section 7, it is states that the Township supports the identification and sensitive management of local heritage resources, by encouraging the restoration, protection, maintenance and enhancement of heritage resources (Township of North Dumfries, 2008). Subsequently, the Township also plans, as per Section 7.2, to publish an inventory of its heritage resources (Township of North Dumfries, 2008). Using the Briley Chemical project as an initial step, it makes sense for the Township to introduce a CIP as a logical extension of the goals of the OP. A CIP will also allow community participation through the commencement of a task force designed to promote a transparent process, citizen involvement and education, and civic pride.


4.4 Goals The goals of the CIP have been formulated in conjunction with the general direction of the Provincial Policy Statement and the policy goals of the Township of North Dumfries Official Plan. The specific goals and objectives for the CIP are as follows: • • • • • • A cleaner, healthier, safer and more liveable environment; An increase in employment, economic activity and investment; The rehabilitation of land for a new use; Better use of existing infrastructure, services and facilities; The redevelopment of currently underutilized or vacant lands; and, The encouragement of the design and construction of environmentally high performance buildings (LEED designation).


4.5 Amendment to the Official Plan It is our recommendation that Section 2.4.11 - Special Policy Areas, of the OP of the Township of North Dumfries be amended to include an addition section denoting the allowance of a Community Improvement Plan for the area.


5.0 Economic Rationale
Brownfields offer a unique opportunity for development and investment. In order to attract investment to these devalued lands, municipalities offer a myriad of incentives and discounts to increase the lands’ attractiveness. It also quells community concerns because the environmental risk is significantly reduced if not eliminated once remediated. Once redeveloped, the brownfield site provides a plot of land for future development to benefit the community as opposed to being a blight in the community eye. As such the stigma attached with contaminated lands can be overcome with new found value through remediation and development (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing - OMMAH, 2007). The ability to do so is offered to private sector investors through a Community Improvement Plan (CIP), which was previously discussed (OMMAH, 2007). These incentives allow for investors to clear the financial hurdles and to reduce any reluctance to develop on a brownfield site. The Briley site offers an opportunity for extensive development that can and will benefit the community, especially with regards to our plan for the corresponding development. Even in post remediation and after development there are the subsequent economic boosts of employment, businesses and municipal income from taxes (City of Ottawa, 2009). There are several types of incentives that are offered. Under a CIP a municipality may provide a grant to cover the costs of an Environmental Site Assessment or environmental remediation (OMMAH, 2007). As the cost of remidiation can be quite high, this offers an incentive to investors who would otherwise not want to finance the cost. nother example would be in the nature of property tax assistance, which would also help to minimize the costs of the remediation (Housing, 2007). A provincial tax incentive program, known as the Brownfield’s financial tax incentive program is a way to further offset remediation costs by matching the municipal segment of the property tax. This allows the municipality to have that portion of their property taxes on the remediation site cancelled for up to three years if approved by the Minister of Finance. After three years municipalities can apply for another three years (Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, 2009). As well, sites which are designated under the Ontario Heritage Act can apply for the Heritage Property Tax Relief Measure which can provide property tax reductions of up to 10% to 40% (Housing, 2007). Overall, the primary incentives are loans, grants, tax assistance, fee exemptions, and parkland dedications. Of this, grouping grants and tax assistance account for 33% each of the incentive usage (Figure 5). A well developed site will also raise the land values of the adjacent properties (Ottawa, 2009) There are many economic linkages that will become apparent from our proposal. Firstly, the residential areas will provide new customers for the proximate commercial areas. Second, increased residential will increase the municipal property tax base. This is further highlighted by increased property values for the adjacent area due to the high quality of liveability the new development will afford. Third, more investors will be enticed to develop and invest in the area if they see that it is successful. Fourth, the use of existing infrastructure can also be used as stimulus for possible investors, as they will not need to build and develop roadways, building space etc. Fifth, the strong environmental aspects of the site are incentives not only for businesses, but for people to reside in the area. Green roofs provide energy efficient buildings which save on energy costs for both residents and commercial businesses.



Figure 5 : OMMAH, 2007

YPE OF FINANCIAL INCENTIVE Former drycleaner located *Facade improvement within the downtown core grants being redeveloped into *Fesibility grants for commercial space. Phase II ESA



*Fesibility grants for Phase These grants can prove to be useful when it comes II ESA time to examine the extent of potential contamination on a property. Former mill location along Heritage Property Tax Relief the waterfront being restored to include new shops and residential units. Abandoned indusDevelopement trial warehouse charge discount. being redeveloped into a new industrial facility. Abandoned gas station being redeveloped into new town houses. * Incentives provided under a Community Improvement Plan (CIP)
Figure 6 : OMMAH, 2007


6.0 Environmental Outreach Canadians are becoming increasingly concerned about their natural environments and are looking for ways to become active in sustaining them. The ‘A Practical Guide to Brownfield Redevelopment in Ontario’ (2007) observes that given the strategic locations of already built-up areas, redevelopment of brownfields can take advantage of existing infrastructure such as schools, community facilities, and transportation. Although the locations of these facilities will likely play a future role in the prosperity of the redeveloped site, they can also provide the citizens, especially youth, who can take an active part in the planning process. The participation of the community is important because the public input can provide new ideas, issues, and concerns that planners alone may not be able to provide. As well, if the community participates in the redevelopment process, they will feel more inclined to support the final project. Involvement of the community also makes the process more transparent, which is among the goals of the Town of Enviroville. The challenge leading to public participation in the planning process is that for brownfield redevelopment, there are many actors that play roles. Wigfall and Griswold (1999) identify the following: investors, developers, financial institutions, municipal/provincial officials, and community members. In developing our strategy for community involvement, it is important that each of the actors play a role. Our first suggestion is that a specific Task Force is formed to specifically address the Enviroville redevelopment, with this model being employed, after evaluation, for future redevelopment in the area. This Task Force should include at least two representatives from the list of actors involved. The job of the Task Force is to organize larger community meetings to solicit information and ideas from the community, explain the roles of the actors involved, organize outing to brownfield sites, etc. One of the first jobs will be to start bulletin boards in the surrounding area of the site to keep community members up-to-date with the plans. These should include not only factual information, but photos of the community meeting and especially, the organized outings. Community workshops should be designed to expose participants to issues surrounding community input, and provide strategies for engaging citizens through panel and roundtable discussions. It is important that community members firstly understand the positions of the actors involved. One of the key barriers as well is the language involved as many community members don’t understand what brownfields are.



Community Improvement Plan

Economic Benefits

Social Benefits The National Roundtable on Environment and Economy (NRTEE) found that social benefits can come in the form of the following: • neighbourhood, employment area and downtown revitalization; • improved aesthetic quality of the urban environment; • provision of affordable housing opportunities; • creation of recreational and public open spaces; • improved safety and security; and, • an increased sense of community participation and civic pride.

Environmental Benefits • Brownfield development to reduce the amount of Greenfield land consumed. • Reduce the distance between the location of employment areas and residential areas, and therefore transportation costs; and • Elimination of health/safety risks

Every $1 spent in the Canadian economy on Brownfield development generates approximately $3.80 in total economic output in all industries in the Canadian economy;

• Brownfield development can increase neighbourhood property values; and • Potential increase in property tax revenues to local and provincial governments.

Figure 7: Community Improvement Plan Chart

From there, we propose a 5step process excreted from the website aboutRemediation : Step 1 - Community Readiness The Community Readiness step increases awareness of the benefits and issues associated with brownfield redevelopment. This step assists the municipality in understanding why it is important to define brownfields based on the needs of their community and the rationale for taking on the challenge of sustainable community improvement and brownfields redevelopment. -Raise awareness -Public perception -Benefits of redevelopment -Brownfield redevelopment the rationale Step 2 - Evaluation The Evaluation Step provides the tools for determining the viability of the brownfields redevelopment project. This step summarizes: the market need; property valuation; site characterization; risk assessment; financial risks; governance structure, regulatory compliance, remedial options and public perception. Each brownfield property has its own risks and benefits that must be evaluated and assessed in terms of the local market drivers, such as economic, environmental, health and social. -Economic befits -Risk assessment -Legal framework


Step 3 - Transaction The Transaction Step focuses on: Engaging the stakeholders and the public; understanding the planning process; securing financing and investments; creating incentives; preparing implementation tools such as community improvement plans; obtaining approvals; and developing a marketing plan. -Prepare a community improvement plan -Secure finance and investment -Create financial incentives -Engage stockholders -Develop marketing plan Step 4 - Implementation The Implementation Step provides guidance regarding how to launch a brownfields marketing plan, identify developers, obtain proposals, engage stakeholders and public, start remediation and redevelopment of the brownfield sites into productive uses. -Launch the marketing plan -Identify interested developers -Obtain proposals and engage consultation -Begin the project Step 5 - Site Management The Site Management step emphasizes the importance of monitoring the remediation and redevelopment activity as well as showcasing the success of brownfield redevelopment projects achieved by the municipality. Managing the site during and after the redevelopment project is key to implementing a successful exit strategy for the municipality. - Monitoring stages - Showcase Success



7.0 Why Us?
Our proposal demonstrates that we are able to turn the Briley site into a productive property. Not only will the final outcome be a significant community asset, but we are able to guide Enviroville’s citizens through the planning process so that they play a significant part in determining their future municipality. Our vision will be developed in accordance with community values garnered from this participation. The final product will be a multifaceted residential and community centre where arts and culture, environmental leadership, heritage preservation, and affordable housing are brought together to foster a strong sense of community. The factory restoration will be a dynamic and creative place, a home for experimentation and pride in culture and innovation that will be inclusive to all persons. It will present Enviroville as a model of a city that believes and works towards a sustainable future, provides a vigorous and rich cultural life, fosters natural heritage, offers innovative solutions for affordable housing and civic participation that works towards a commongrounds, and is ripe in attracting future investment. This proposal has met the objectives of Enviroville and conforms with the Official Plan of North Dumfries. It is both visionary in that it provides an exemplarily remediation process, environmentally progressive building practices, and the introduction of a Community Improvement Area, as well as realistic in that it is solidly grounded in policy.


AboutRemegiation (2009). Brownfield Toolbox. Retrieved October 14, 2009 from: Bhandari, A. (2007). Remediation Technologies for Soil and Groundwater. Environ mental Water Resources Institute. Dupont, R. R. (1991). Assessment of in situ bioremedial potential and the application of bioventing at a fuel contaminated site. In: In situ Bioreclamation Applications and Investigations for Hydrocarbon and Contaminated Site Remediation. Mas sachusetts. Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable. (2009, October 23). Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix and Reference Guide. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from FRTR: Hinchee, R. E. (1991). Enhanced biodégradation of petroleum hvdrocarbons: An air based in situ process. In: Innovative Hazardous Waste Treatment Technoloies Series, Volume 3 Biological Processes. Pennsylvania: Technomic Publishing Co. Interuniversity Consortium "Chemistry for the Environment". (2006, October 10). Soil Remediation Definition. Retrieved October 21, 2009, from INCA: http://www. Joint Service Pollution Prevention Opportunity Handbook. (2002, July). Biore mediation of Contaminated Soil: Biopiles. Retrieved October 21, 2009, from Kingston, City of. (2005). Community Improvement Plan (Brownfields). Retrieved October 14, 2009 from: brownfields/plan.asp Lee, M. a. (1993). Bioventing for in situ Remediation. Hydrological Sciences, 274. Lodolo, A. (2009). Further Description- Remediation Options Overview. Retrieved October 21, 2009, from EUGRIS- Portal for soil and water management in Europe: &eugrisid=22&Category=Content_Digests&Title=Remediation%20options%20 overview&showform=&ContentID=3&CountryID=0&ResourceTypes=&DocID= &Tools=Further%20Description North Dumfries, Township of. (2008). Township of North Dumfries Official Plan Consolidation. Ontario Ministry of Environment. (2004). Records of Site Condition: A Guide on Site Assessment, the Cleanup of Brownfield Sites and the Filing of Records of Site Condition. Ontario.


Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. (2009). Brownfields Financial Tax Incentive Program - Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. Re trieved October 22, 2009, from: ernment_programs_progdetails.asp?pID=75 Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. (2007). A Practical Guide to Brown field Redevelopment in Ontario. Queen’s Printer for Ontario. Ottawa, City of (2009). 1.2 The Rationale for Brownfields Redevelopment. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from: introduction/rationale_en.html Province of Ontario. (1990). Ontario Planning and Development Act. Retrieved Oc tober 14, 2009 from: rso-1990-c-o35.html United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1994). How to Evaluate Alternative Cleanup Technologies for Underground Storage Tank Sites: A Guide for Cor rective Action Plan Reviewers. Vidali, M. (2001). Pure and Applied Chemistry: Bioremediation: An Overview. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Wigfall, L. & Griswold, W. (2007). Community Participation in Brownfield Redevelop ment: A Collaborative Process Affecting the Interests of All Stakeholders. Re trieved October 15, 2009 from: sources/docs/compart.pdf


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