Page 1




(~-H" )


English Translation of



Page 2

© Department of Development ofPunjabi Language
Punjabi University, Patiala





ISBN : 81-302-0075-9

Year : 2006 Copies: 1100 Price : Rs.8001-

Laser Setting:
Advanced Centre for Technical Development ofPunjabi Language, Literature and Culture Punjabi University, Patiala. Published by Dr. Param Bakhshish Singh, Registrar, Punjabi University, Patiala and printed at Mis Anand Sons, Delhi.

Page 3

Dedicated to
Captain Amarinder Singh

of The House of Patiala Honourable Chief Minister of Punjab

Page 4

Swam Singh Boparai
Kirti Chakra, Padma Shri Awardee

Vice-Chancellor Punjabi University, Patiala

Project Co-ordinator
Dhanwant Kaur
Professor and Head Department of Development of Punjab,i Language Punjabi University, Patiala

Editorial Board
Prem Singh
formerly Professor of Linguistics, Delhi University, Delhi

Tejwant Singh Gill
formerly Professor of English, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

Gurkirpal Singh Sekhon
formerly Professor of English, Punjabi University, Patiala

Page 5

Advisory Board
Bhai Ashok Singh Bagrian Major A. P. Singh S. P. S. Virdi Param Bakhshish Singh Indu Banga Jodh Singh Jaswinder Singh B. S. Sandhu

Major Gurmukh Singh Mohinder Singh Bajaj Amarjeet Singh Ohawan Hina Nandrajog Madan Lal Hasija Gurdial Singh Aarif Navrattan Kapoor Harwinder Kaur Grover T.O. Joshi Ved Agnihotri Gurwinder Kaur Kuljeet Kapoor

(G- 3"' ~~)
(Jf 3"' lftT, lTfr;:pfu 3"' Ws"r)
(lR" 3"' ffifT"??)

(ll'1tt 3"' fffiro)

(fH<mIT 3"' fl:r8ltnf)

(fft=fT"e 3"' !f8"3TO)

(!fffif 3"' ~) (iforg 3"' fi(FH2d~(')')

(fi(a- 3"' It'!)

Copy Editor
GlIrkirpal Singh Sekhon

lnderj it Kaur Satnam Singh

Digitilization by
GlIrpreet Singh Lehal

Rajinder Singh Bharti

Title Designer
Hatjit Singh

Page 6

Punjabi University, Patiala feels highly honoured in presenting the first volume of the Encyclopcedia ofThe Sikh Literature, the English version of Gurushabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh by Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha. Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha was the most erudite Sikh scholar. Bhai Sahib's erudition, vision, hard work and devotion are unmatched. Mahan Kosh, his magnum opus, over which he spent fifteen years bears eloquent testimony to his great qualities. Visualized by him as the Encyclopcedia of The Sikh Literature, it comprises the exposition of 64,263 terms, relating in the first instance to Gurmat and Gurbani. He embellished his exposition with illustrations richly drawn from seminal Sikh sources. To his exposition, so opulently illustrated, Bhai Sahib sought to provide a wider perspective. Terms relating to the ancient Hindu scriptures, masterpieces of Sanskrit literature, the Indian systems of prosody, music and medicine are explicated with as much authority. Mahan Kosh, prepared in 1926 and published in 1930, is the 12 th in the history of encyclopredias in the world. Yet the world is unaware that a Sikh scholar did this pathbreaking scholarly work single handed at that time, when no modern research facilities were available. Magnificent source of profound and varied knowledge, Mahan Kosh has remained shrouded in mystery, particularly for people in India and abroad, not well-versed in the Punjabi language. For enabling them to make the best use ofthis vast reservoir of knowledge, Punjabi University Patiala has embarked upon its English translation. This stupendous project has been made possible by the liberal grant so magnanimously sanctioned by Captain Amarinder Singh, the Chief Minister of Punjab. Major A.P. Singh, grandson ofBhai Kahan Singh, has used his tremendous persuasive skills in arranging resources for the purpose. Eight decades back, Patiala State had rendered a great service by bearing all expenses of publication of Mahan Kosh in Punjabi. The name ofthe House ofPatiala figures a second time in bringing this store of knowledge in English version before the whole world.

Vice-Chancellor Punjabi University, Patiala

Swam Singh Boparai
Kirti Chakra, Padma Shri Awardee

Page 7

This volume ofthe Encyclopcedia of The Sikh Literature is the English version ofthe first volume of Gurushabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh popularly known as Mahan Kosh, Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha's creation of 1930 in four volumes. Mahan Kosh is the greatest work of scholarship till today published in Punjabi. Since the publication of its first edition, it has often been cited as the most authoritative reference work in the academic world. It is hard to think of a more cherished source of knowledge and general information about Sikhism. It presents the most comprehensive attempt to consolidate, authenticize and synthesize the knowledge of Sikh literature. It sets a trend in making an organized and systematic access to Sikh literature, philosophy, history, culture, Punjabi language as well as other ancient languages. Comprising 64,263 entries on seminal words drawn from all fields ofknowledge, Bhai Sahib put in rigorous work for fifteen years to explicate them. It is beyond human power to imagine the labour gone into the composition ofthis enormous work. The way this Encyclopredia has selected, organized, preserved and disseminated knowledge, is marvellous. It is an eloquent witness to the extraordinary phenomena of the genius of a race, the exquisite sensibility of a highly evolved and unique personality and the ethos of a particular epoch. What Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha did, was nothing short of a miracle. The Encyclopcedia of The Sikh Literature was designed to provide comprehensive and authentic version about the growth and development of Sikh literature. Sikh scriptures, Guru Granth Sahib, Dasam Granth, writings by Sikh savants form the kernal of this huge writing. No source of philosophical, historical or lexicographical skill has been spared to fulfil the purpose. To explicate the meanings of seminal words, illustrations are drawn from original sources. To my mind, the scope ofthis unimaginably grand work goes beyond these realms of knowledge. Hindu scriptures, literary epics, myths and chronicles have also been explained with equal authority. Thereby, Bhai Sahib's memorable work achieves cross-cultural proportions. To the discerning eye, the notes reveal a striking continuity of tradition from ancient to modern times. Etymologies or word-histories give interesting insights into the richness and versatility ofPunjabi language. There is no discounting ofBhai Sahib's understanding and felicity of expression. It is with great pleasure that Punjabi University, Patiala presents the translation ofthis wealth ofknowledge, to the English speaking public. We believe that the scope ofthis work is global, and reflects the needs ofthe present-day world at large. In an informal meeting with Major A.P. Singh and myself the novel and significant

Page 8


Encyclop<edia of The Sikh Literature

idea of this project was first mooted by Sardar Swarn Singh Boparai, Vice-Chancellor, Punjabi University, Patiala. Sardar Swarn Singh Boparai has an excellent futuristic vision of Punjab, Punjabi and Punjabiyat in the fast changing world. While conceptualising this project, the Vice-Chancellor held that the rich cultural heritage ofthe Punjab should be presented and projected for global requirements. Convinced ofthe validity ofthis project, I discussed it with scholars of Sikh philosophy, history, literature and language. All praised the proposal and recommended its urgent need. Some highlighted the hardships as well. They underlined how much intellectual acumen was required. We weighed the pros and cons ofour capacities and resources. After detailed deliberations with officials and scholars, we decided to take up this challenging task. We submitted the proposal to the Department ofHigher Education, Government ofPunjab for financial help. The Department cautioned us about the numerous difficulties the proposed project entailed and directed us to submit some specimens oftranslation. We did the job and the concerned officials got convinced of our capacity and commitment and the grant was sanctioned without any delay. With such an ambitious project in hand, it was necessary to plan it with requisite care. Sardar Swarn Singh Boparai, our Vice-Chancellor not only encouraged us but guided us in this venture. He took the responsibility ofseeing that the project picked up momentum and got all support from the administration. As a first step, we identified prominent scholars, to serve on the Advisory Board. These distinguished scholars drawn from the fields of religion, philosophy, history, science, language, literature and culture, were gracious enough to advise and help us for finalizing the modalities of the project. They laid down guidelines which were crucial in devising the methodology. The Advisory Board was ofthe considered opinion that the translation of Gurushabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh (Published by Sudarshan Press, Hall Bazar, Amritsar under an arrangement with Lala Dhani Ram Chatrik) must be authentic in letter and spirit. The important guidlines laid down by the Advisory Board were: 1. To preserve the authenticity and spirit of Mahan Kosh, the original text will be kept unaltered, and unedited. No editorial activity regarding addition, deletion, correction or updating will be taken up. II. The different categories into which the original text is classified i.e. the seminal word, its grammatical form, etymology, variant meaning, usage in quotations, bibliographical entry of the quotation etc., will be accurately identified. 111. The English version of Mahan Kosh will embrace the original Gurmukhi alphabetical order of the words. The Roman transliteration of the seminal word will follow the Gurmukhi word and will be placed in parenthesis. Transliteration will be done in accordance with its spellings and not pronunciation.

Page 9



The etymological words will be kept in the original script (i.e. Persian, Devnagari, Roman). v. Only original quotations will be transliterated. VI. Footnotes will be given as in the original text. Vll. Equivalent computer fonts will be prepared from Gunnukhi fonts used in Mahan Kosh. The Advisory Board, played an important role in framing tihis project and identifying the team. I am grateful to all the respected members of the A.dviisory Board for their valuable guidance and support. The Editorial Board was entrusted the task of maintaining the authenticity, standardisation and uniformity oftranslation. We were fortunate to have Dr. Prem Singh, a linguist of great repute, Dr. Tejwant Singh Gill, a Professor of English, renowned translator and scholar of English and Punjabi literature and Dr" Gurkirpal Singh Sekhon, Professor of English and British trained linguist, in the Editorial Board. The efforts of the Editorial Board have gone a long way iin awarding final shape to the translated version. After rigorous discussions, its members: laid down the parameters for maintaining uniform standard oftranslation. While editing the text they worked like missionaries. We accepted the hand-written copies from the translators. The editors vetted, copyedited, supplied missing information on their o\vn, got the material typeset and monitored till its final stage. It is worth noting that the translated text has gone through so many proofreadings before it was finalized for print order, The Editorial Board held eighteen sittings to discuss the keys and lay down rules for maintaining uniformity. For the translators, two workshops: were organized. With the sane advice ofthe senior scholars and the collective wisdom ofthe experts working in the field, we laid downsome rules which are given in the Editors' Note. The contribution of the Editorial Board is remarkable indeed. In this volume, the translation aspect of the text, has been vetted wholly by Dr. Tejwant Singh Gill. Transliteration and the related linguistic exercise has been performed by Dr. Gurkirpal Singh Sekhon. My special thanks go to both of them for their tireless contribution. They have put in enormous amount ofwork with commendable coordination. Dr. Gurkirpal Singh Sekhon was assigned the additional job of giving print order for the whole text. He has been tireless in this regard as welL The translators took on the challenging task and worked enthusiastically to complete it. It was impossible to evolve a flawless and perfect model for such a tough and complicated text dealing with numerous subjects i.e. religion, history, philosophy, literature, music, medicine and art, etc. There is no aspect oflij~:::, that this Encyclopredia has not covered. Its scope is so wide and treatment is so intensive: that no scholar can claim complete authority over the knowledge it conveys. This volume is a collective

Page 10


Encyclop<edia of The Sikh Literature

endeavour put in by an excellent team oftranslators. An open call to scholars in the field and experts in the art oftranslation was made to assist the project. I am proud to say that senior scholars offered their services for this prestigious cause. The list of the translators to this volume is appended alongwith. I want to express my deep gratitude and sincere thanks to all the translators. It is worth to mention that the major part of the translation ofthis volume was done by the late Major Gurmukh Singh, a lexicographer of great dedication and compiler of the highly acclaimed Punjabi-English Dictionary, earlier published by Punjabi University, Patiala. He showed examplary commitment to this formidable task. He started his work on the very first day we organized a meeting of scholars (including Major Gurmukh Singh) to discuss the feasibility of the project and kept on working till last breath of his life. He translated all words ofthe first three Gurmukhi characters (i.e. "§-, "f and 1:) included in this volume. He completed the assignment, enshrined the papers in a file for handing them over to me. That very evening, he breathed his last, thereby putting Punjabi University under a debt ofgratitude to him. This Volume has been completed in a period oftwo years. The Advisory Committee of University Scholars met on May 12,2004 to discuss its viability and opined that the project could actually start only when the Editorial Board laid down the guidelines. The Advisory Board met four times and final ized the guidelines in a workshop held on September 13,2004 in the University Campus. Hence, it has taken exactly two years to complete this task. Taking into account the magnitude of the work, we can proudly say that this project has been completed in a record time. The credit for its successful completion in record time goes to the commitment and dedication of all those who were involved in it, the Advisory Board, the Editorial Board, the translators, the keyboarders, the proofreaders, the secretarial staffand all the well-wishers. The honourable Chief Minister of Punjab, Captain Amarinder Singh has been kind enough to lend valuable support to this project. The Punjab Government, under his dynamic and visionary leadership, has liberally sanctioned a grant of rupees forty one lacs. Almost eight decades back, the Patiala State had fulfilled its obligation by bearing all expenditure for its publication. By undertaking to bring out its English version, the esteemed Chief Minister has repeated his predecessors' feat with added glory. Punjabi University has the honour to dedicate the English version of Gurushabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh to the worthy Chief Minister. With his acumen and sharp wisdom, Sardar Swam Singh Boparai has initiated many visionary projects in Punjabi University, Patiala. The present one is the most prestigious academic endeavour. It embraces global dimensions. It was just not possible to complete this task in such a short span oftime without his patronizing persuasion, valuable guidance and administrative support. He has remained sensitive to the travails of the team and

Page 11



moved in to aid its completion. As the co-ordinator ofthe project, I felicitate him and owe him a deep debt of gratitude. Major A. P. Singh, a kin to Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha is an enthusiastic supporter and has done a lot for this project. My sincere thanks are due to him for his extensive efforts in initiating and getting this project started. The Department of Advanced Centre for Technical Development of Punjabi Language, Literature and Culture headed by Dr. Gurpreet Singh Lehal was extremely helpful in offering digitilization services to this project. Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha had created almost nineteen new fonts in Gurmukhi to meet the needs ofPersian and Sanskrit sources of Mahan Kosh. The Romanisation of Gurmukhi script needed many more fonts. The Department was very helpful in meeting all the computer problems. Mr. Rajinder Singh and Ms. Bharti under the guidance of Dr. G.S. Lehal very successfully keyboarded the text. Mr. Rajinder Singh has worked hard to consolidate the entire material into a coherent form worthy ofpublication. His contribution is highly appreciated. I am thankful to the department ofAdvanced Centre of Technical Development ofPunjabi Language, Literature and Culture for the sincere and timely cooperation. I wish to express my warm appreciation for the great assistance rendered in proof reading and editing by Mrs. Inderjit Kaur and Mr. Satnam Singh.. Without their remarkable expertise this volume would not have acquired the required standard. I would like to thank the Publication Bureau ofPunjabi University, Patiala headed by Dr. Satish Sharma, for its timely help. S. Harjit Singh's artistic and technical aid should be appreciatively acknowledged. I also want to express my gratitude to all the well wishers ofthis project. Everybody in the academics or in the administration, when asked for help, responded with enthusiasm and generosity. I am indebted to my senior faculty members and colleagues for their sincere advice and unfailing support. lowe profuse thanks to all the administrative staff ofthe department, Mrs. Harsharan Kaur in particular, for clerical contribution tirelessly rendered, without any reservation, whatsoever. This translated volume is a work of pioneering nature. Inspite of rigorous efforts put in for achieving uniformity in approach, presentation, translation and transliteration, some lapses might have remained. Nevertheless the Encyclopa~dia ofThe Sikh Literature will fulfil the intended purpose cmd prove to be a magnificient tool ofreference-work for scholars all over the world. Its publication will definitely widen the horizons, the study ofPunjabi literature, language and culture have so for claimed.. This will be of immense help to the Punjabi Diaspora as well as scholars of English who would like to study Sikh literature, history and culture. I, sincerely, believe that this prestigious publication will encourage academic and research work in the field of various kinds of studies relating to Sikhism, history, culture, language and literature ofPunjab. This wonderful store ofknowledge

Page 12


Encyclop<edia of The Sikh Literature

and wisdom will acquire altogether a new dimension and meaning across lands, languages, literatures and cultures. With a deep sense of gratitude and ardent hope, I feel elated and elevated while presenting this monumental work to the readers, researchers and scholars.

Department of Development of Punjabi Language Punjabi University, Patiala. September 12, 2006

Dhanwant Kaur
Professor & Head

Page 13

This is the first volume ofthe English version ofBhai Kahan Singh Nabha's Mahan Kosh, also termed by him as Encyclopredia ofThe Sikh Literature, published in four volumes. The first volume, spread over 760 pages, explicates words and tenus begiIming with the first four characters ofthe Punjabi script in sequential order. Sticking to the sequential order observed by Bhai Sahib in the original, the English version maintains that without any diminution and diversion. All care is taken to maintain the authenticity ofthe original text. Each word, phrase and sentence ofBhai Sahib, figuring at whichever place in the entry, is translated into English. Quotations, given by Bhai Sahib from variegated sources and documents are transliterated in specially evolved symbols. For transliterating them, a methodology was devised, and to avoid any vagary, every effort was made to stick to rules so devised. After several deliberations, the choice ofsymbols for transliteration was decided for reasons ofconvenience and clarity ofusage. The detail ofthis methodology goes as under: SYMBOLS FOR TRANSLITERATl[ON
~, u

~, ==









'" 1?t, E

>:tf, -



fu, fI

'it, -'1

'" "8", e



ak tr e



-- ' - -- --






gh ~r jln.
~T >



--- f---- f----f-.

I). (')

























Page 14


Encyclopredia of The Sikh Literature

1. 2. 3. 4. Transliteration ofquoted material, long passages or short lines, is within double quotes. In Gurmukhi orthography, there are 10 vowels: 3 short, and 7 long. The short vowels are: >x/- [<'I], fulf- [I], and fI/~ [u]. The long vowels are: lW/-T [a], -a/-I [i], fI/= [u], E/~ [e], »t/ :: [f], ~/~ [0], and nV:: [::J]. Gurmukhi symbols before the 'slashes' in 2) and 3) are used syllable-initially or as second part ofa diphthong, and those after the slashes, called M [l<'lga] , are hooked to the Gurmukhi consonant symbols. Final consonant in a syllable is always d-free, that is ?:fCBT [muk ta]. In qa [k<'lr] and~, 'q-' is ~ [<'Ikarat] and '0' is'ljCiBT [mukta]. ~ [<'Ikarat] means that the consonant symbol includes <'I, and'!::fC.ET [mukta] means that the consonant in question is <'I-less. To put in other words, <'I is neither marked nor pronounced after the last consonant of a syllable. Short vowels, I and u, are not normally pronounced ifhooked to the final consonant ofa word. All long vowels, on the contrary, are pronounced in all positions. Since the three short vowels are not pronounced after the last consonant of a word (even though I and u are marked in Gurmukhi as also in transliteration), they do not constitute the nucleus ofthe last syllable. The nucleus of the last consonant of a word to which a long vowel is hooked is the long vowel itself. In all other cases - that is, where a short (unpronounced) vowel is hooked to the last consonant - the d preceding the final consonant constitutes the nucleus. In view ofsomewhat Sanskritized and Persianized vocabulary of Punjabi, a number of words may have conjunct consonants like ~ [knpa], ~ [svEjivni], 1:!1f[khadya], Ol;f [r<'lkhya] etc. formed by adding halfletters to the preceding consonant. Similarly, there are quite a few cases of consonant clusters like.'UQF.f [h<'ln?], ~ [h<'lst], ~ [b<'lhI$t], fum [bIstl, ~ [k<'lrm], O@f [g<'lrml, ffif8" [s<'Irb], Rat [s<'Ird] occurring finally in a written word, though it cannot be denied that most Punjabis declusterize these consonants by interposing a d in between them exactly as Gurmukhi orthography demands. But a few hyper-sensitive and sophisticated speakers prefer d-Iess pronunciations in such cases. We follow lhe practice of declusterization of the consonants by inserting a d between them. We also find occasional use ofvIsdr<'lg [g] and udat U symbols in Gurbani as in


6. 7. 8.
9. 10. 11. 12.




Page 15

Editors' Note


~g [dnratdI).dh], ~ [b;5n h I].

16. In the case of two abutting consonants, the first consonant is the arresting (closing) consonant ofthe first syllable, and the second consonant is the releasing (initiating) consonant of the next syllable. In such a situation no d intervenes between the two consonants. Remember: there is no d marked in between two consonants in transliteration when the former closes a syllable and the latter starts the next. 17. Taking this view, it is possible to posit a syllable structure for PWljabi : (C) (C) V (C), which gives us the following syllables: 1. V [w]; 2. VC [~]; 3. CV [w]; 4. cvc [ito]; 5. ccv [1ft]; 6. CCVC [fq-3"]. 18. The commonest syllables are the first four: V; VC; CV and CVe. The last two occur with varying degree of frequency depending on a number offactors. 19. In our transliteration, nasalization is marked only when the original text demands it. In no case, do we supply nasalization on our own. A tilde /- / is used for nasalization in Punjabi. It appears over the vowel carrying nasalization: <fu" /kat/ ... >mI /ab/ 20. All quoted material including long passages/stanzas in the Mahan Kosh is transliterated. 21. Head word(s) of every entry is/are transliterated immediately after it/them within square brackets. Cross-references in the 1l1ahan Kosh are not tramsliterated, only the Gurmukhi form is given as it is. Transliteration follows only the headwords. Words written in Devnagari, Arabic/Persian scripts are retained as such to the extent possible, but wordsfrom Sanskrit/Hindi, and Persian/Arabic written in Bhai Kahan Singh s modified Gurmukhi script are transliterated within the framework ofthe rules devised for transliteration of Punjabi words as given above, irrespective of current practices adopted for their transliteration in respective languages. 22. When two Gurmukhi vowel symbols are hooked to the same consonant, the one hooked over the consonant precedes the one hooked below the consonarlt in transliteration:

1jtfo ~~ nfQ

l:fTfu1 I

bhukhe pritI hOUVE anu khaI.

FRJfu" trfunfr

~ B~

SdrdI).I pdIa nandk souhela

l;;IOfu (')('iT ~ ~tit

sdhdS murdtI ndna ek touhi. 23. A voiced aspirated consonant (~ bhdra) is distinguis:hed from a voiced consonant

Page 16


Encyclop<edia of The Sikh Literature

followed by 'h' sound thus: ~ kab-hu. By retaining voiced aspirated consonants in our transliteration, we have only tried conservatively to trudge a relatively safe track.

SOME OTHER RULES Translation: We have provided within single quotes translation only for references which Bhai Sahib Kahan Singh has translated, and to the extent he has done it. Punctuation: Following Bhai Kahan Singh's punctuation may seem difficult to follow, but consistency, uniformity and editorial convenience suggested that we deviate from it to the minimum extent possible. Proper Nouns: All proper nouns in the body ofthe running text have their usual roman spellings without an 'a', that is a schwa [a] after last consonant as per Punjabi practice, ie, Shiv, Ram, Krishan, Dev, Nanak. Footnotes: Footnotes are retained at the end ofthe relevant pages and not absorbed in the body ofthe text. This is to ensure that we stayed as close to Bhai Sahib as possible. Addendum: It was considered best to incorporate the addenda in the last Volume. Special Symbols: Like I S... for metre are retained. TRANSLITERATED PASSAGES FOR REFERENCE

9.~Flf3nttr atJ3T ~ ~ ~ ~ 1jOB ~ M

qJO lJR'fu11 I It=lYl I

satInamu karta purakhu nIrbhau nIrVfru akal muratI ajuni sfbh~ gur prasadL

l)fTfu ~

tJOTTfu" ~ I I

adI sacu jugadI sacu.
~"§ft ~ ~

WIT m~119.11

hf bhi sacu nanak hosi bhi sacu.

HB- Hfu n
~ ~

;=t Htft (?l:f ~II SOCl: SOCI na hovai je sad lakh var.


n ~;=t wfu oor ~ ~II

CUPf cup na hovai je laI raha IIv tar. ~ Wl:f n ~ ;=t W ~ "§POll bhukhIa bhukh na utri je b~na puria bhar.
Fl"JA" ~

m "JfJ 3' ft:or n tffi

orfu I I

sahas sIanpa lakh hohI ta Ik na calf nalI.

-Jm ~ ¥ gZ If#511

kIV saCIara hoif kIV kUrf tUtf palL

hukamI rajai call).a nanak lIkhIa naIL

Page 17

Editors' Note
~ fFrq




SUl)H: sIdh pir sunnath.

t:TO"B ~ »fTCXTH11

SUl)IE dhClrCltI dhClvCll akas.

SUl)IE dip 10Cl patal. ~ tifun~ ~II SUl)IE pOhI nCl sClkE kalu.


fuaTrEr 11

nanClk bhClgta sClda vIgasu.
~:tl:f l.fTlf --:; :
(Xl" '()lFf lit II

SUl)IE dukh pap ka nasu.
II ~ II sClloku.

~ oro -- -=

lfT<'ft fu3r lfT3T t:TO"B HU3" I 1 -

pClVCll)U guru pal)i pIta mata dhClrCltI mClhCltu. ~ wfo·~ ~ ~ ~ 11cJ1C? HdTgII dIVClSU ratI dUI dai daIa khelE sClgCll jClgCltU. ~~~mJ1j~11 cagIaia bUrIaia vaCE dhClrClmu hCldUrI. am-it l'>flif »fTl.Iit -a- ~ -a- ~ 1I kClrmi apo apl)i ke nefE ke dUrI.

fi:J7ft 01IJ


crrE ~ urfi;)11

jIni namu dhIaIa gCle mClsClkCltI ghaII.

3" lj1:f ~ <Bt §it ~I 1911

nanClk te mukh ujle keti chuti naII.

fufu 'EJTGIT dTfu>w
~ ..

Sdle I f€


~ RTfi:;

oft>w ~ I

phIrI baba gClIa bClgdadI no bahClrI jaI kia Clsthana.

arw ~ Olf =-

tfIT ~ lfta'"eT(jT1 =
ffiJ'T?iT I

fu3t war f<wrfi:r cmr Bfa J11-fTfo N

Iku baba Clkal rupu duja rClbabi mClrdana.

dIti bag nIvaj kClrI sf.mI SClmanI hoa jClhana. Bn tffa "i'iOICft ~ -eftr tfRr ~ ~I sunI munI nClgri bhCli dekhI pir bhIa hcrana.



cmr ~ ~ ~ l-IJ13l7iTl

vekhE dhIanu lClgaI kClrI Iku phClkiru vClqa mClstana.

Page 18


Encyclopredia of The Sikh Literature

~ fufda tH3dAd ~ GOITg fc:m"aT l.llful?fIOT I puclna phirIkE d<'ls<'ltgir k<'lun ph<'lkiru krska gh<'lrIana. ('il(')q afu" fuftr nflfu>w ~ GOITg W ~I nan<'lk k<'llI vrcr ara r<'lbu ph<'lkiru rko p<'lhrcana. uofu l'>flCir'Ff ~ fufi:r t=fl?iT I dh<'lr<'ltr akas c<'lhl1 drsr jana.

Jllia ~ e:mta- ~ ~
S<'llok bh<'lg<'lt k<'lbir jiu ke.


rk oakar s<'ltrgur pr<'lsadI. e:mta- }Rft ~ 0R('iT ~ 011j I I k<'lbir meri srm<'lrni r<'lsna UP<'lrI ramu. »fTfu ~ FlCJlli ~ 3T ~ lJ5 fuJrtr I 1911 adr jugadi s<'lg<'ll bh<'lg<'lt ta ko sukhu brsramu.


~ (JH~(JI§ II ~ fAdtiC'i(JI§ 11=;1 II

k<'lbir meri jatr k<'lu s<'lbhu ko h<'lsnehar.

fuR "fITf3" ~ ft:R:r

b<'llIhari rs jatr k<'lu jrh j<'lpro srrj<'lnhar.

~ ~ funrr CNfu WJT ~ M'~fCJ tiliI I k<'lbir 9<'lgm<'lg kra k<'lrhr k<'lha 9ulavhr jiu. FRm lJl=f ~ ~ QT)f ()T)f I I::! I I s<'lr<'lb sukh ko narko ram nam r<'lSU piou. ~ cfuo ~ cf~ ~ ~ ~ ~II k<'lbir kac<'ln ke kU9<'l1 b<'lne UP<'lrI Ial j<'lrau. tfu:lfu tri.t cxri'i" ~ ~ J-Ifo nrtiT ~ I 18 I I dis-In dadhe kan jru jrn" m<'lnr nahi nau. ~»tw~ lWg if ~ ~ "frfull k<'lbir rsa eku adhu jo jivat mrrt<'lku hoI. ~ "frfu -a- q]7) ~ R3" ~ 3"3" Ftn:1 Itll I nrrbhr hor kr gun r<'lvr j<'lt pekh<'lu t<'lt SOl. ~ ;:rr fu?l "d"€r HW ~ ~ ~ II k<'lbir ja drn hdU mua pachr bh<'lra <'lnadu. Hfu ~ l.W l'}[TlfC'iT Raft ~ cIT~ I IE II mohr mrlIo pr<'lbhu apna sagi bh<'lj-hr goubfdu. ~ m 3" iJ)-f ~ iJ)-f 3ft:r ~ RW ~I I bbir s<'lbh te h<'lm bure h<'lm t<'ljr bh<'llo s<'lbhu koI.

ocr lMI


Page 19

Editors' Note


ft:W> ~ cxfu ~
~ ~

~ <Jl-fTaT -Ftful I? I I

jInI ESa k:>n bujhIa mitu hamara SOL


i3c? rn Fl'Hfu ~


pharida je ja!).a tIl thone s;:}malI buku bhari.


~ ~ ~~ -ESr~ or-ITIIBII ~~ ~

je ja!).a sahu n;:}qhra til thora ma!).u kari.


Lftit ~
~ "fIQ!

-6fu"1 Itil I

je ja!).a laru chIj!).a piqi pal gaqhI.

3- ~ H orfu -&


tE jevaqu mE nahI ko sabhu jagu qItha h;:}qhI.


~ ~ ~ ~ fulj "0 W:rll

pharida je tu akalI latiphu kale lIkhu na lekh.
~ rdldl~'(')

Hfu fi:rg


cxfu ~IIE II
)-fTij" liffHll

apanre guivan mahI suu nlvil kan dekhu.

H 3-


"f3<r 0

pharida jo tE maranI mukia tInha na mare ghumI.

UJfu ~

tro"f3<r -e- ~fHll?11
'tit fi:J€"11 -

apanrE ghan jaiE pEr tInha de cUmI.

W 3"€t -

~ ~ ~ 3" QaT =

pharida jil tau khata!). vel til tu rata duni SIU.

itfu W ~ ~ C?fu>wll t: II

marag savai nihI ja bhana ta ladIa. ~ ~ tr Efl>w -er;ft "fu,ft ~I I dekhu pharida ju thia dari hoi bhur.
~ ~
~ ~

»rWw fusr crfu»rr ~II ~ II

ag-hu nera aIa pIcha rahIa dun. ft:r Efl>w HaG "fu,ft fuB I I dekhu pharida jI thia sakar hoi VISU.
~ ~ ~ fu1]119011


sai bajh-hu ap!).e veda!). kahiE kISU. ~ >'>ftit -e-fu ~ "J.]""fu" "J.]""fu" ~ cfu"11 pharida akhi dekhI pati!).ia SU!).I SU!).I rine k;:}n.
FITl:f ~ ~"JQ ~ "?ol19911

sakh pak;:}di aia hor karedi v;:}n.

cxrm ft::r01 0 ~ ~ ~ WEll

pharida kaH jIni na raVIa dhauli raVE koI.

Page 20


Encyclopredia of The Sikh Literature


wm ~ ~ ~ o?w Drel 19:;?1 I
wful?fT fi.Rn.J
('j ~

kan si'ii SIU pIrahri ragu navela hoI.

H ~ Fl'W ~II

apl)a Ian pIramu na lagai je lacE sabhu koI.

i1.RJtr flP'ww l:fR}f cxr H ~ 3- ~I 19~ I I
ft:rQ ~ ~ }ffu»rr R ~ H fug"11
FRJfe>w R tM ~ afuQI19811

ehu pIramu pIala khasam ka jE bhavE tE deL

pharida jInh 10Il) jagu mohn se IOIl) mE qIthu.
~ ~ ('j

kajal rekh na sahdIa se pakhi SUI bahIthu.

ag Hfu ~

~ CWfO


0(84 ('j ca-II

deh SIva baru rnohI IhE subh karman te kab-hu na taro. ('j ~ 1?ffuit t=ra" ;::pfu ~ fr;J:ffi qfu »n]C'ft tfur ~ I I na qara an so jab jaI lara nISCE kan apuni jit kara. ~ fRcf 5- ~ tIT }-f() -& fu"J Wffif ~ q]7l ~ ~ II aru sIkh h::> apne hi man ko Ih lalac hau gun tau ucro. t=ra" ~ oft ~ fritro ~ l'>ffo tIT cro H 31f tJ5" ~ II jab av ki audh nIdan banE atI hi ran mE tab jujh mara.

ifu" ~ ifa ~ ifu" ~

~II bhaqI jamiE bhaqI nfrniE bhaqI magal)u viahu. iag~~~~~11 bhaq-hu hOVE dosti bhaq-hu calE rahu.
~ ljW ~ ~

ifu" ~


bhaqu mua bhaqu bhaliE bhEqI hOVE baqhanu.

it ~ J-f"tT l?fTl:Mf fi:rQ ffi.rfu QTHT?i I I
SO kIO mada akhiE jItu jam-hI rajan.
~tIT~€LIH~~('j~11 .... ....::: ....

bhaq-hu hi bhaqu UpjE bhaqE bajhu na koI.


ffi3T f.tfull

nanak bhaqE bahra eko saca SOL
~ E ~ ljCffir l.RJOTl I lEt det un h mukan parna. fi:rQ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~II j+_tu dap tum h hE brahmal) jal)a.

Page 21

Editors' Note


jInhi eko seVIa puri matI bhai.

l-hf QTH QTH m-r tri ~ ~II
m;'ltr;'l ram ram nam;'l dhyan;'l sarbatr purnah.
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ FPft:r FlHHWII

akarJ);'l karotI akhadyI khady;'l asajy;'l sajI samjaya. ~ ~ FRJfe ~ ftJarfV ~ ufu ~II trahI trahI saranI suami bIgyaptI nanak han narhClrah.
HOCf ttf
.... ,,.....Ul....• ....-ri'l-

4 Q I :YI1' all


'Q"illf ~ ;S de: ~ I I



sarab dokh par;'ltIagi sarab dharam dnr;'ltal.).ah.
~ WQ" ~ ~

HFBfcx ~~ II

labdhel.).I sadh s;'lgel.).I nanek mastakI lIkhyal.).ah.

hoyo hE hovato haral.). bharal.). sapural.).ah.
~ 3Fj


t=P"€t ~ (')

ftlt3" I I

nIhphal;'l tasy janmasy javad braham na bIdate.


~ q]Q ~ ~ ~II

sagra sasarasy gur parsadi tarhI ke.

fi-RB M

mf ~


afo"3T ~ wJll

mnat moha alap budhya racatI banIta bInod saha. Ufo ~.~ ~ R?iH ~ HUT ~II ghor dukhya anIk hatya janam dandra maha bIkhyada.

Page 22

Abbreviations used in Mahan Kosh


Abbreviations used in the English Version

~. Preposition.






dSp110 dkal dj dje



1'iIH tRur.
»fQ. ~.

tFIHOf"Ef. tFIHOftr. orw nrtr -et cror, tFIHOftr. 1'iIH tRur -et cror, tFIHOftr. ~. ~ -et ~. Onomatopoeia. »!d3" ~ -et cror, tFIHOftr.
~ aftfu,
»tcN'5'l H3 F3,

drl1Jt asa

nrrw. nf.

nrrw iJTOI".

nfatm ~.
HclHF'3 31 ~. ~ FlO (Fjl(:)).




Sdnama sdmudrmdtl1dn

tFIHOftr. mft:a" ~ -et cror, tRHO!tr.
~. ~. Pronoun.

sdlol1 Sdva sdveye sar






3"3t 1WGt, wci'oT iJTOI". ft:fcit ~.





1JuT iJTOI".
"lJOOf ~ -et cror, Ftoo iJTOI".
~~. mi. Noun.
~ Fjl(:).


surdj sor

Ro. R.



Page 23




~'Ef MJ ~ ~


fl.& R 99


fucfl»fT 00. h<Jkay<Jt
h<Jjare 10 h<Jnu





fcT. tit.
~. ~. ~.


~(Hebrew) ~


H He
k<Jss<Jp k<Jcch k<Jlki k<JlI 52 Poets






~war. ~qfu, Jtt~m~~.

qfu l.l::1.



kan keda






fc3'w ~ mre-. Verb. fgRo ~ -et 0fElT, ~. fc3'w ~. Adverb.
ReB ofl3'r mre-. l:flc:ffi -et HfuHr, ~.
~ ~

krrs<Jn adv xa xam g<JU


o®ft oral.
q@tre' ~}f ~.
C!J Sl


qrgtre'. qrfu E. Q.I"fu 90.

r~(V)i H m

C!J Sl F~(V)iH

l.fl3'F.ITtft ~. ~ l.fl3'F.ITtft ~.

GV6 GV 10
guj g5Q


WFRft war.



gyan C<JU c<Jrrtr Cdup<Ji


~. ~~, ~'Ef.



E:03t ~, tmfi[ef.
B-ifu:r ~ -et ~ n8

-et 0fElT,


c:Jbis cJc;fi 1 cJQi2 caQi 3 cJdr

tfit 9. tfit ::1.


J~tlrd~ ~, ~.

tfm ?l.

#it -et~,



-et 0fElT,



trn -et !31W.

C b

Page 24


Encyclopredia of The Sikh Literature


R01-fFITcft ~ HC'l9" fRur tft ~. R01-fFITcft ~ ~ m.

j;:Jg MatI j;:Jnmej;:Jy j;:Jf;:JT j;:JIJdh;:JT jfdgi jeja jet


trtJTf3". 'R"i'i'lft1liT.


orR ~ Ci!EfT; ~. lJIl:iI"Ifu ~ Ci!EfT, ~.

O'W ~ ~ Ci!EfT, ~.

mfuo ~ ~ Ci!EfT,


ftRaft. furr. #3".

fc3"3" ~ it! ~ tft.
f'R'ur tft, f'ol"R i)Ht ~ Q"BOT, fffi:r m

~'d"OT. ~'d"OT. ~~ ~


jJgnama tocji

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~fow €T ~ ~~. zgj- 'd"OT.
~ -grw. fu(J ~ ~ ~ ~ tfOTit = fu;ft ~.
~ (lTHT.


t;:Jnama tIl{;jg








d;:Jtt dIlip digo

~l:iI" ~ ~ Ci!EfT, ~tf.
O'W ~ ~ Ci!EfT, ~tf.
~ ~.
e~dlQldl 'd"OT.




(~ ~

tft ~ :ar;;rW).

dev dh;:Jna dh;:JnJt;:Jr

l:Ii'i'FRit 'd"OT.
~3ftr ~ ~ Ci!EfT, ~.


"[fI:J, HFIt"d".

Verbal root.

n;:Jsih;:Jt n;:Jt n;:JTsfgh n;:Jrnaray;:Jl) n;:JTav




~ ~ ~ Ci!EfT, ~.
Od" ~ ~ ~ Ci!EfT, ~.

Od"~~Ci!EfT, ~.


par;:Js prich;:Jt



l.RJl3"QT}f ~, ~.

tjdlS3d 1ft.

O'W ~ ~ Ci!EfT, ~.

Page 25


PI par<}s Pg Pu Po


trlf7jTEf~, \:Fl$.




~r, or:;rro't or.;rro

iffi. tnj.

fflur fg3".

PP sui pr<}bha Pkt PPP prrthu P






1j1tfto i~, ffiltTO 030 fi:fur fg3". OTW fl:r1I "ffi aw, ~.
~ elTflT.


W1r. French.
"l'ff\'3" (~F8)
~. ~O'af.
~ ~. "§JTJ'IT.

b<}sat Bg bav<}n bIha bIla



00. fuw.


-at. ro.




3"' trfuW.

ben bera bano br<}h<}m bh<}gtavli BG BGK bher


"ffi aw, ~"Ef.



m ~. ~ 1ft ~ oJ"Ef "fl"l"fua" "ffi a'S.
~ ~ ~"ffi aw, ~.



m m m


H?IT fflur Fit fcr3". ~ Fit t'1>W ~. ~ Fit ~ cmfo.


~ (~) O'af.

HQ. HQ'O"i'T.

l.fT3F.IYtit (~). >ffl- ~ "ffi -&R-Fc. mr »WOTO "ffi 0lW, ~. 1-IQfFrftifu". HQ ~ o"!i1 -e-r 1jtfaT, ~.

m<}go m<}cch m<}nu m<}nuraj M m<}la




R. WdltiT.


"Itafl3". "ffi "§JTJ'IT.

ma sag
Mg majh


Page 26


Encyclop:edia of The Sikh Literature
WQ13T tIT mP", ~.

Hitfr3r. wo.


maru mali





mohni yudhIsfdr G

Huol. ~ FaRed -&. -afu3".

}Jfuo't ~

tIT mP", ~. ortlT ~ tIT mP", ~.

iiiforor Hat.
ortlT ~

~"EL ~Ef.

cpd, ety
rdhIt rdghu ram ramav rudr L

tIT mP",



~ ~

tIT mP",


~ ~ -er~, ~Ef.


Latin. .., ..,

Nco "§l"lW.
• C?Ci[T ~""tIT
0( A cl(')I~3.

VdQ. vdrah

~. ~. ~.



tIT mP", tIT mP",




~ -::).

~ ~.

ft1F1 oror tIT ~ ~ ~ ~ 1'lEt ~ »far "OJl'. ft1F1 oror tfl»lt ~ 3" ~ ~ (J(')' W 1'lEt nfor. 9--::) -~ rn (J(')', l?fFt tit »f3' ffif »fTfu fu?l+ Fh:hft.
~1'lEt~? ~.
~. Adjective.







tIT 'O(W, ~Ef.





~ (H"§OT ~~ ~-e- ~

tit am).


tIT F!"3'FIEt.

vamdn 1 var2 var3 var 7 adj VISdn VN part Vj vrfd

Page 27

For writing in the standard language of a country, there is no need to form new letters. Whichever letters the scholars ofthe language have formed, those perform the whole task. While writing in a foreign language, the task gets tough. No wonder there is an urgent need to form new letters. For writing in Punjabi, the Gurmukhi letters are so flawless that no new formations are required. ~~ ~

H- 'F.l'Olo












ffTO (<J1'JIl?)








rr-ft:rqQ t.r- j:rR:m

- 'tJff1
-~:cr ?iH:


:ar-~ ~-~tf






tl"F.lif w. 4

IThis 'r' is marked over a character. 2This is called vIsdrga. 3This marks a d-Iess consonant. 4This sign stands for a vowel sound in between [I] and [e].

Page 28

After going through Pandit Tara Singh's Guru Granth Kosh in Sammat 1955 (1898 AD) and Bhai Hazara Singh's Sri Guru Granth Kosh in 1957 (1900 AD), I got the idea to especially prepare a useful good lexicon by including words which have appeared in Guru Granth Sahib and arranging them in the order of characters and vowel symbols. I For making this idea a success, I commenced a special study of Sri Guru Granth Sahib which took me five years to complete. As I started arranging the words in order and saw the Encyclopredia Britannica, I thought that there should be a similar reference book for Sikh literature which might properly distinguish all words contained in Sikh religious literature. During Sammat 1963 (1906 AD), I studied Dasam Granth, and after that works ofBhai Gurdas, Bhai Nand Lal, Sarab Loh Prakash, Guru Sobha, Anecdotes by Bhai Mani Singh, Gurupad Prem Prakash, Hukamnamas, commentaries on Gurubani and several historical treatises. Having read them, I noted down words and after pondering over all aspects of etymology and semantics2 and after discussing them from time to time with learned men, I succeeded in discovering their actual and suggestive meanings. Due to several reasons, following the death of Maharaja Hira Singh of Nabha on May 10, 1912, I gave up service ofthe State; I went to Kashmir to spend the summer, and there on 20 th May after ardas started writing Gurushabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh. It was completed on February 6, 1926. The completion ofthe book was followed by concern about its publication. Maharaja Brijendra Singh of Faridkot who had promised its printing and publication, had expired, and Maharaja Ripudaman Singh ofNabha, who for one and a half year had been giving ample funds for my staffand had sanctioned large amount of money for the printing ofthe book, abdicated and went away from Nabha. The Administrator ofthe state declared treasury as empty and declined to get the book published. At last in consultation with some friends, it was decided that five hundred customers should be found each ofwhom would pay halfthe price ofthe book in advance thus enabling it to be sent for publication. For this purpose one thousand specimen booklets were got printed and distributed as also advertisements were issued to newspapers. Only for two lIn Pandit Tara Singh's Kosh, thus is the order in which words begin and end: $ , 'Fl'fu3r, ~, FfeT, Fl<Ji'IFlHlfi:r, mo, RJ-!17), FRrll... etc. In Bhai Hazara Singh's Kosh, words observe this order as Ba-, ~, ~, ~, Bur, ~, ~, ~, ~, fu:rr3', ~, €coo. etc.
2"akaki;;a pun yogyata sanIdhan pahIcan. tatparay CJtho mIlE, hOVE $abadgyan."-Bhai Gulab Singh Ji. In this connection, See f{fu 4.

Page 29



hundred copies did the customers come forward over nine months. J Having been disappointed by the public, I appealed to the Sikh Maharajas, requested them to buy three hundred copies and favour me by assisting in the profitable venture. Maharaja Bhupendra Singh ofPatiala called me to Chail on October 1, 1927 and issued an order that he would meet all expenditure on the Mahan Kosh, and that it would be published by the State ofPatiala and that all advance payment received from the prospective buyers be returned forthwith. This was done and the printing ofthe book commenced at Sudarshan Press Amritsar on October 26, 1927 and ended on April 13" 1930. 2 The contents ofthis Mahan Kosh (Encyclopa:dia ofThe Sikh Literature) the readers will know themselves by reading it, butto mention them briefly in the introduction seems appropriate indeed: (1) Included are words from all well-known books ofprose and verse whichrelate to Sikhism. (2) Not only the alphabetical order ofwords, but that ofthe vowel symbols has also been maintained, like -- ~ [dO], ~ [duSdr], '1?i~5' [duhdth], ~ [duhar], ~ [dukh], ~ [dukhdd]" ~ [dUgU!)], ~. [dughdt], ~ [dUCdr], ~ [duchdk] ... "l?ffuJ?fT?) [dIan], ~ [die], >m=f [dS], l?fA'U" [asdh], l1fR3" [asdt], 'JoiIR3T [dsta], l?fFlfEr [dsathI], Y.f!Hfl.::ra", [dsthIr] })fFI(') [aSdn], })11FIlf [dSdP], ~ [dsbab], >m=Il-RTEr [dsmardth], })fRJ,T(') [dsman], lifF.f~ [c'$rdphi]' lm=v [dsa], lifRTW [dsaqa],))fRTLf [dsadh], l?fFfTa' [dsar],})ff]:r [dSI], l'Jfft:r::3' [dSJ:t], l1fFftH [dsis], l?fFfuf [dsim], ~ [dsil], })1B" [dSU], l?fl3fu [d$UCI], l'>fcra- [asur], >111J"W [dsua], ~ [dSUt], I?iRcf [dsekh], }'>fH [dSE], :~ [dsok], »fRtJ [dSOC], })fFfcf [dsakh]. »l"F1clB [dsag2lt], ~ [;:lsabh;:lv], >m:ft [dssi], l?flJ [;:lSSU],3 :v.H~~ [a$ro] etc. (3) Meanings ofwords have been clarified by mentioning their roots and derivation. In this regard, readers are required to keep in mind that in Sanskrit 1708 roots have resulted in lacs of words. On further investigation, it seems valid to hold that betwixt the roots and the words formed therefrom, supreme is the conceived meaning. From vr~' is derived })ff]:r [dSI]. The root means 'to cut'. On this basis, })ff]:rcan without any problem be used for~T [kuhara], ~ [chdvhi] or Zor" [toka]l, but by extension this word has been used by scholars for a sword too. (4) If a word has several meanings" its components are given and with examples their meanings are classified. See ffif, ~Jfu, qI}-f, "CJli3", ~, <%, ft~~, ~r, mf, BTQ, ~... etc. (5) If a noun relates to a Puran, Simriti or ShastaI', its fulll detail is provided. See ~, ~, 8(,)clHG, CITR, 'H(')"({, ycJlj, l.ffc:rB, Hg, HQ, {;:rcrr:;:~cu... etc. IOrder for seventy copies was placed by Sardar Bahadur Sardar Dharam Sirlgh, a go·-,v-er-n-m-en-t-c-on~t-ra-ct-o-r.
21 spent 28 years in identifying words,. explicating them and checking their proofs. JConj unct characters come after matras., that is why words Iike nfl:ft and }~ folll ow f~ [tIppi] (nasal ization) as a conjunct character will come after a character with an >'>ffl::rc:< [adhIk] if they were written using Sanskrit pattern: amft, 3TB:):, , conjunct characters not being there [hal] sign has occasionally been used

Page 30


Encyclop<edia of The Sikh Literature

(6) Briefreferential detail is given to explain words relating to history.

See~, ~

~, ~, uW0l3d ' fe, ufdIiJ~, ~ ~ ~, it, ~... etc. (7) Full location of gurdwaras, alongwith historical account, is given. See >?1rfi:fS..-tl M(,)-:r1dI=d, ,.rl=:~ ~.~ t Tt1Ilj~Ha, ~, ~, Bl-fO('Cf, ()'()IO{Tn'()', ~ , ~ , ~... e c. (8) Full specification is provided ofwords relating to geography. See tI'tr, cxrar,~, ~ t ItC':>l, l.ItJTM", ~, ~ ... e c. (9) Full effort has been made to explain botanical names deriving from Latin. See ~, >?10l 'H8M, 3"dTd", f'3"M"q,~, ~... etc. (10) Elucidation is given ofwords concerning science. See lif~, ftrt:rffi, ~... etc. (11) Correct forms are given of historical names which with the passage oftime and colloquial pronunciation have so changed that it is difficult to specifY their original or real formations, as in case of~ [adrahman], >?1~3aMI [abutbela], "8t:r ~ [khoj janavar], ~ Her [tatihri ~ekh], Her (jUH [~ekh braham], ~ [Q-habai], "ffiit l?fl::f3"d" [lOl).i akhtar]. .. etc. (12) Religious terms relating to Islam, Christianity, Parsees, have been distinguished and explained in full. See fuRwl-r ~ ~, fEt:ftM", E1w, Elt", 'd'H, ~, ~, Rd'JT3", ())-fTf.f, If'cIFft, GfdH3 1, tr&R, lfW... etc. (13) At several places, maps, sketches and images have been provided to facilitate their understanding. See >?1fStlM(')dld, ~, ~, R'tf, ~ Lfgt, fRuI, R'ffi, ~'1-ri+ t ()'()o{Ll q I, ~ , "M'U"d'"... e c. (14) Thorough research has been undertaken in the case of musical terms. See JIB, '1JO, (STG, fSM''i!M, ~, ~, "dTdT... etc. (15) Words appearing as riddles have been elaborately explained. See ~t=JT mr ?i"'"a- FKI, ~ U"d" U"d", f1:l t:t'iil rat l.1trroo, ftnJHJjsfu3" WO»ffu... etc. (16) Detail is given about words relating to medicines and diseases. See -j:h;, Rfol.rr3", ~, ~,ti'i!'fe('), '3TLf, t 'dJl(')l, ~, fi-raoft... etc. (17) Pronunciation ofwords taken from Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, etc. has been clarified by putting them in the source language. It is also essential to tell the readers that words of different languages which after absorption by the Punjabi language have totally changed their form and meaning, should in their present form and meaning be taken as correct. It is not proper to call them incorrect and relegate them to their fonner shape. I
'n 'n



IWith the passage oftime. spellings of words change in all the languages. However, current orthography doesnot regard obsolete spellings wrong as in Ramayan: ~ for~, ~ for ~.,; ~ for
~; ~ for ~; d\>1T for~; ~ for~. Similarly, in old English words: aboute

(about); bricke (brick); Cabull (Kabul); gode (good); hande (hand); heuen (heaven); hight (height); hys (his); lande (land); Londinium (London); Noapolis (Naples); nyght (night); preue (prove); speche (speech); tonne (ton); trouthe (truth) etc. are not incorrect.

Page 31



Scholars have divided words into eight categories, viz, "2~ [tatsam], })fO[f ~ [aradh tatsam], ~ [tadbhav], ft-ffF.I3" [mI$rIt], »fQ:c~ [anukara!).], <;rfuqfo [pratIdhvanI], ~ [saketak], and ~ [S~k$Ipt]. (a) ~ (unaltered) are those words which after absorption into Punjabi/other languages retain their original form and meaning. For example ~ [uttam], ~ [udal'], ~<...[C{IO [upkar], ~ [upma], ~ [;m~t], }iIWfT(') [apman], »f3" [~t], nfo [~n], ~ [Iccha], B1:f [sukh], lJOfq [sugadh], Ft-~ [seva], 00 [hath], (ffi [hal], ti'R [h~s], qar [katha], ofR? [kil] , ~ [kot], ~ [glJl)] , fB3r [efta], tfBc;s[c~cal], t=raT3' [jagat], HflJ [jap], t=fT"O [jar], 3H" [teD, 3l~ [tol], tTH [das], tTO [dan], ft?> [dIn], "00 [dhan], p.r [dhup],?i'}f [nam], :nlt:J" [nic], l..l"N [pal], lft5 [pul], VWt [prasad], ~ [pra!).], Gc;) [phal], m» [bal], "a-uo [b~dhan], ~ [bhajan], wa [bharl, ~ [bhog], lffi [mall], ~ [mItT], Hu [moh], ~ [m~gal], ~ [m~tr], OR [ras], ~ [ra!).] , CJB" [rath], Cf'tP" [raja], 2"1..1" [rup], fu.r [rom], ~ [10k], ~ [lobh], ~~ [vastu] etc. are from Sanskrit; ~ [ummat], »f}-fl(')3" [amanat], ~ [amir], J1.l<E [:)[at], R"i')"t: [sanad], Rmr [sabab], ~ [sardar], RWH [salam], ~ [haveli], fill..B [h:rmat], -5c? [hJl], ~ [kabab], ~ [kamal], on-ft [kami], f,5[3T8" [kItab], ~ [kursi], 9JOTU [gunah], tn-fi') [caman], ;::rtJ1?) [jahan], t-.ffi1T [jalsa], t=fT(') [jan], fT:rcJro [jIgar], ;:::far [j~g], 3N [til'], '-..:JFI"3l"Q [dastar], taOfl(J [dargah], toi=rr [darja], t:Qt [darad], furs- [dII], & [din], ~ [divan], ~ [deg], ~C's~s [d:llat], r;fua- [nahn], mrt [narad], (W)-f [naram], 7l?8" [navab], ~ [nok], ~f3" [nJbat], at [b~d], HtOW [madrasa], J--RJt: [marad], 'H'C? [mal], ~ [murdar], cra1TI [murabbi], tRftt [murid], }fmp- [morca], HR [rmj] , -H-3" [mJt]. .. etc. are from Persian/Arabic; and >?-[1..fu;) [apil], Ff~ [sakul], ~ [soc;l.a], a'WFl' [kalas L ~ [kalar], cxrfffi:r [kalIj], ~ [kes], -&z [kot], chfc [karat], <N-~' [k~p51~ar], illH [gem], -am[gol], era- [tai], ZfoR [tEnIs], ~JW [tn:mve], i~'cQO [c;l.aktar], fua [nIb], ~ [palic;], i:ffi [polo], "q~ [prophEsar], ~rc [but], afdHcd [bErIstar], -a-crfcfaT [borq.:rg], l--fTHCd" [mastar], Nt:!" [mEc], }f;~:d" [motar] ... etc. are from English. (b) })fO[f~(half-altered) are those which have somewhat changed in writing and pronunciation, but not much in their shape, for example lftJT [ucca], ~ [ujjal], ~ [uddam], »rcNr [akas], lifOTH [ag~m], ~:J [anItt], fuqio- [Ikat], FII-I-a'Er [samrathh], ~ [suraj], ffiioT [s~jog], ~ [kalol], orcA [karaj], Wr [kos] , fcrr>wo [gIan], fufu" [ChItI], fuo [chIn], Hl-f [jam], ~~ [jE], [jog], Btlr [jodha], "tful?fT [daIa],~" [duar], ~ [n:rdIa],?5<! [nE!:)], ~!o [pun], ~ [purakh], ~ [pranmukhI], wmr [bahar], ftfttcrr [bIjog], ~~ [brahma!).], ~ [bhagat], ~ [bhE],"~ [marjada], l-fTft:»p- [maIa], Q"f3" [rat], ~ [lacchmi], ~ [va!).aj], ~ [varkha], Wfuw [vIddIa] ... etc. are from Sanskrit;


Page 32


Encyclopredia of The Sikh Literature


and Rtitt [sdhid], R'<N [sClkkClr], J1iiT [sClja], FRfa3" [sClrbClt1, ~ [sahClb], RT'tft [sadi], Ft3ro [sEtan], ~ [hCljar],. ~ [hajClr], aRT'ffi [kClsai], cmw [kClbja], ~ [kClrClj], ara1t1 [kagClj], l:fFl}f [khClsClm], qj'FfT [gussa], t:Rfl::fT [cClrkha], ~ [jClrurClt], Ro [jor], 3W [tClma], 3'w [tosa], 7id"fTQT [ndgara], artr [baj], HO¥ [mClnjur], fffirt:r [IIhaj]' .. etc. are from Arabic-Persian; and l?-fliCT}-f [Clstam], ~ [ClphsClr], ~ [sClkfq], ~ [bptan], ~ [kClrabin], ~ [kunm], ~ [jClrnd] , ~ [tIkkClS], [tErn], fu"a'Rft [qIgri], t:illft [ddresi], ~ [pCltlun], trac [pClret], ~ [pIst;)l], ~ [bEra], [botCll], fHc [mft], l-fu;J [mil], m:rHC [rCljmClt], oi:tc [rClpot], ~ [rClphCll] etc. are from English. ~ (evolved) are those words which, come from Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian and English, and have altogether changed their former shape. The following will make it amply clear:



~~ ~~

~Hi'i10( ~dIM<t'

"SIr pdhI usnik-hI nik bClnai."-NP "bIkhu kClqhE mukh uglare."-m 4 var gau I. "dUt jCll).eda jaI."~m I var ram I. "naVdl).U purClbu Clbhicu."-tukha chat m 4. "sClukClnI ghClr ki k;:lt tIagi."-asa m 5. "SCltI nIrCltI bujhE je kOI."-sukhmdni. "jIu k;:lcCln kothari eClno, kClbro hot phIro ."-sar m 5. "ClsmanI kIara chIkIonu."-var ram 3. "khClrbaru khira."-BG "khIma vIhul).e khClpIge khuhCll).I lClkh Cls;:lkh."-oakar. "nCl gCllli gakhiE."-BG "gusai! pClrtapu tuharo qitha."-sar d m 5. "kClmdl dIIPClt hE SE hdtha VIC I gulalu."-m 4 var sri. "ghClSI c;:ldClnu jClSU ghClsIa. "-kalI m 4. "jahClrnClvi tClpe bhClgirClthI al).i;"-mala m 4. "jo gur gope apl).a, su bhClla nahi."-m 4 var gau I. "chClnIchClr van SClUl). sasClt bicaru."-bIla m 3 var 7. "kurClm sClke nalI jClvai."-asa m 4. "jIu kusti tClnI jok."-sar surdas. "Ihu jiu mClchli, jhivdru tnsna kalu."-m I var ram 1. "chike pdr teri bClhutu qithI."-basat kabir. "mokh tCltbfd mClhI jan nIrdhar hE."-NP "tdpClr jhar vIchaI."-BG "kajCll har tClmol rds."-var maru 2 m 5.



ato~ ~

~ ~

~ ~ ~ ~ ~







ill~ ~




~ ~~3T ~ ~




Page 33








l{F3~ FR(')l




"kIt-hi kamI na dhaulhar jIto han Insrae."-suhi m 5. "put pota parota natta."-BG "nanak pclIapE' karhu kIrpa."-bIla chJt m 5. "sagal parachat lathe."-sol' m 5. "parOSal).I puchIle nama."-sol' namdev. "masi :lr m:lsa jag VIVIdh vJ:khyata hE'."-BGK. "kInhi laug supari."-keda kJ'bil'.

Arabic-Persian Punjabi







~Cf11B ~~ ~~

oafto 31ft8t



otftfu" ?iHFit ?iB
8rlal ' dl



Example "kausE' sapat payala."-bhE'l' namdev. "galhu kavaI kholI pahInai."-BG "kunsa kini tin prabina."-GPS. "khusre kIa gharvasLJ?"-m 1 val'majh. "jin khurgir sabhu pavIt hahL"-m 4 val' SOT. "CUl).I vakhI kaqhe jajmaIIa."-val' asa. "marhate dakhl).i kIye tagir."'--PPP "satIgoru pura karE' tabibi."--BG "tIsu maIa sagI na talka."-mal'u solJze m 5. "mE' gur mIl I uc dumalra."-sl'i m 5 pE'paI. "gur ke sabadI najikI pacha~lhu.'>-marusolahe m 3. "us di namosi hal). lagi."-JSBB. "us di nit badli vekhke."-JSBB. "nugadi modak adIk brfd."--GPs. "kIUkar:E paIa hOI bajgari."--BG "bio pUChI na maslatI dhar:~."-g5<;i' m 5.
"Ina ffiasitI SIr nae?"-pl'abha kabil'. "brfd majur lage tab aI."-GPs. "pathyo matbar take pas."-GPS "anIk musaddi karte kar."-GPS "na jaIu leph tulaia."-vaq alahaI)i In J.

HFftfaHfJd l-fl'3'BO


~ ~



Similar is the rule applicable to tadbhav words from English, Portuguese and French languages - ~-Adjutant; ~-Orderly; ~-Hospital; (iO-fl';~-Command;~­ Colonel; ~R-Cartouche; ~-Commandant; dl~l~lMI--Grenadier; fa'ra:r-Gaiters; ~-Bull's eye; tdm)-Dozen; ~-Battalionor Platoon; 1~~-Padre; ~-Flanne1; '8CO-Bouton; HH-Madam; ~-;-Reporter;~-Recruit; i~~-Lieutenant; 'We-Lord; ~-Lantern ... etc.

Page 34


Encyclop<edia of The Sikh Literature


~ (mixed) words are those which have come into being through a combination oftwo or more languages, for example~3N [a:r:tiale tir] , wFi:mfflur [sahIb sIgh], Bta"F.!O 1{H [sudar~an prEs], B~Q [sultanpur],clo(l0(3dlf~ [hakikatraI] , tJfu eft i:[;ft [han ki p::Jri], QdIMla\:!d [huglib~dar], ~ [kubo1],

tjIMH'O('fMti [khalsakahj), ~ fflur [gurbakha~ sIgh], ~ [], rl'dti(,)dld [jarajnagar], Jj1:jfMHdl~ [muxhsgarh ], ~ [relgaq.c:l.i], ~ [layalpur] ... etc. (e) ~ (imitation) words are fonned by imitating some sound, for example Hi" Hi" [sa sa], B B [su su], ~ ~ [ta:r:t ta:r:t], Z Z [te tel, QTcl" QTcl" [thah thah], 5" 5" [the the], ~ ~ [], ~ ~ [q.3 c:l.3], ~ [dhar~ml ... etc. (t) ~ (resonance) words are formed by juxtaposing words of similar sound such as c:i:c ~ [katt vaq.q.h], ~ ~ [kha:r:ta da:r:ta], l.fTit"l:J"T<it [pa:r:ti q.ha:r:ti], %~ [puri uri],}-fTO~ [marq.har] ... etc. 1 (g) ~(allusive) words are those which by referring to certain traits or qualities carry special meaning such as ullu (owl) for a stupid person, or an~d for marriage. (abbreviated) words are fonned by shortening others such ~aba from ~adba~, (h) sudi from ~ukal dI:r:t, badi from bahul dI:r:t. (18) Literary terms are provided detailed definition and explication, See~, l?fOlfFI", ~, FfTQ, ~, ft:rgtrtr, Eifu"Gr, t!Rror, ~, ~, ~, ~, ~... etc. (19) Errors committed by historians have been rectified with full evidences, See tilJ!fRur, ~, -mat etc. (20) Words relating to rituals are explained in full. See ~ (i§I(i<t', "iJOWtJ""(fO ~, 3"it ~, l.fTit ~... etc. (21) Difficult words, phrases or lines are indicated by the first word ofthe line followed by the remaining a couplet or quatrain. See ~ HtM- ~., >m:IH ~., Bcx l-RB ~ ~, 3tH ~ »@ l./ftr fFrg., ~., l.ffuw ~ ~ wEt. etc. (22) Certain lexicographers and scholars not understanding the grammatical rules of Prakrit and Punjabi grammar applicable to derivations from Sanskrit have given wrong meanings contrary to context. These words have been corrected so as to be in accordance with Gurbani. See B?l9, ~ 2, l..fOllQ 3, l.[Ij'"M" 2, ~... etc. Some additional words have been given against lexicographical traditions so (23) that semi-literate scholars do not misinterpret Gurbani wilfully by ~oing against the scriptural texts. For instance ~ [caUrI] after ~ [caur], ~ [rInhI] after ftf"q [rInh] have been separately put. Similarly See qrfu, t=rflr, Hfo, Hurfu... etc. 2 IRuralites, use onomatopoeic words as edt cit3-a't. tSt 1fClT. o;ff BeT... etc. 2[, myself, have heard certain scholarly persons pronounce R ~ as ~ and ~ "8'""cI<JT ~ 1:fTfuw as ~ Ci1<JT<3" () 'l:fTfu»rr. Through mispronuciation they play havoc with meanings.




Page 35



(24) New letters have been devised to transliterate in Punjabi the words of Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian so as to enable their correct pronunciation. 1 Historians of languages know that a word after entering another language becomes a part of that language. To relegate such Punjabi words back to their original form would be a hostile act against the mother tongue. See illustrations under heading seventeen ofword-distinctions and altered words. (25) At the end of the illustrations, information is provided about poets and their writings. 2 A list of symbols used has been given in the beginning of the book under the head' ABBREVIATIONS' To give detail of obstacles and disappointments faced during the preparation and publication of this book would lessen the enthusiasm of the writers. However it is also necessary to mention in passing that our community has very little regard for work ofthis kind. Not many know how such works are written and what benefit can to be drawn from them. I am highly indebted and grateful to those votaries ofknowleclge who provided me help in this venture, especially reverend Bhai Bishan Singh Ji, Mahant Gurdwara Baba Ajapal Singh, Nabha, who took great pain in writing in order the words noted by me from numerous volumes, Pandit Krishandas Shastri Udasin, professor Teja Singh, M.A., Khalsa College and Bhai Dharmant Singh who gave valuable suggestions during the revision. Raja Sir Daljit Singh of Kapurthala and Sardar Mukand Singh Engineer Simla spared time to write on 'rags', Bhai Mohan Singh Vaid ofTam Taran and Bhai Dharam Singh Ji Vaid ofBudiala, helped in writing about diseases. Sardar Nand Singh Ramgarhia of Simla contributed a lot in the preparation ofmaps of gurdwaras, Maulana Maulavi Hakim Mirza Muhammad Nazir Sahib Asshe, Munshi Fazil took the trouble of replying to historyrelated queries, Late Dhani Ram 'Chartik', Printer Sudarshan Press Amritsar, not behaving like a businessman but as a votary ofknowledge, published it, excellently with enthusiasm and devotion. Last of all, I am grateful to the court ofPatiala entitled to blessing from Satguru and honour from Sikh Panth through the benevolence of which this book has reached the readers. 3 I am highly indebted to those scholars whose histories, glossaries, dictionaries etc. have been helpful in this endeavour ofmine. 4
'See under 'New Letters'. 2Suc h quotations as carry no names of authors at the end are mine. JDue to the publication of 1000 copies instead of 500 as envisaged eadier, the increase of pages from 3000 to 3338 and the retention of scholars for supervision, the price has been increased to Rs. 110/from the initial one of Rs. 70/-. It does not include any payment to the author for devoting so much time to the project. 4The names of books are not listed to avoid increase in size.

Page 36


Encyclopredia of The Sikh Literature

Subject to forgetfulness and little knowledge, I shall heartily thank by speech and writing those who would take the trouble ofpointing out any errors to be found here.
Nabha 1 Baisakh, Sammat Guru Nanak 461, Vikrami 1987 13 April 1930

Servant ofthe lovers of knowledge

Kahan Singh

Page 37

Page No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Akalbunga - Sri Amritsar Ji Darbar Baba Attalrai Ji-Sri Amritsar Sant Atar Singh Ji Mastuana Sardar Sir Atar Singh, Bhadaur Map of Abchal Nagar Takhat Sri Abchal Nagar (Hazoor Sahib) Sri Harimandir - Amritsar J i Sri Amritsar City Khalsa College, Amritsar Ji Map of Amritsar Weapons of Sri Dashmesh Ji atTakhat Kesgarh Sahib Takhat Kesgarh Sahib - Sri Aiiandpur Map of Anandpur Name of Weapons and their pictures in serial order Gurdwara Fatehgarh Sahib - Sirhind Map of Sirhind - Fatehgarh Musical Instruments Saragarhi Memorial- Sri Amritsar Birds of prey Lion, Tiger Leopard, Panther Map of Sultanpur

116 125 125 171 172 187 188 189 190

247 248
249 331-4 409 410 450



Page 38


<!! 9 ,~ dd(')lad


ij- [ural the first vowel letter ofPunjabi script, pronounced with lips. From ij- are formed

~ [usga] See »rrf(J1T.

~ [usat] Skt ~ n?J'Sl, vr to heat, burn. One

who eats junk and digests it with the heat of its stomach is a camel; one with a long neck. p / , 1 • "ture usat mala mahI bhela."-bher kabir. See~. 2 Skt BFc. a lip. "phark;"lt usat ru nEll."--datt. 'Lips and eyes flutter with an ge r.' See "€i1=rz an cI l'l{r/-a-. ~ [ustan] Skt~r~ n throwing, forsaking. Fr, ~-Cif}ffi, $-~, ~-»rql~,~­ "Ik paI).i VIC ustiahI."-var sor ill 3. 'Some are thrown in water.' ~, ~-~, ~-~ and ~ for~, etc. ~' [0] part a word indicating interrogation, ~ [ustar] See ~fRG. ~?;on [ustaru HEll] IDa (lips) and ?;on anger, prohibition or warning. (eyes). See ~ 2. ~ [uastua], ~ [uastva] sen 'You are because of ura.' ura indicates you, your. ~ [ustiahI] See ~7i". -gyan. See its complete meaning under~. ~ [ustaQ] Skt ?Jfi:rwm n an act of sitting in ~l1fT [ua] pron that, a form of ~'{J. It is an the dark i.e. insistence on doing a job without oblique form of third person pronoun. "ua thinking. 2 turbulence. 3 a slander. 4 a scramble. ausar kE hau baIIjai."-sar m 5. "ua ka ~tu na S Skt ~ adj indignant. 6 Some scholars take this word as originating from ~FIC-»hr, an janE kou." -ba VeW. "ua te u tamu ganau impossibility as is laying an egg. by a camel. c~Q.ala."-ba van. ~ [uahI] his, to him. "uahI jape bIn ubar ~ lustral a came:l, an ostrich. See~. na hou."_bavan. ~ [ustri] adj concerning a camel. See ~T ~ [UI] pron a form of ftJ, which means ~. 2 Skt ~ n a female camel. 'he, she, or that'. "UI sukh kaslu baran ~ B>f'HT [ustri damama] n a kettle-drum mounted on a camelback. "mace kop kEkE su sunavat."-sar m 5. 2 See €re. ustri damarne."-can tr 405. ~ [us]pron a form offtJ, which means 'he, she, or that'. "us uparI hE marag mera." ~ [usat]..;;....-'f n buttocks, rump. 2 to throw, haul. -suhi [arid. 2 S n sunshine, sunlight. 3 Skt?J'Sl, ~"fI"3'1f'i') [usat khan], ~Ff3l:[l(') [usat xvan] (vr to heat, burn, kill) from which are derived lIn the Hindu scriptures the camel is an impure animal and riding it causes impurity. See manu SImntI Ch I2 ~ 20 J words such as~, ~, ~. ~ [usa1a}.a], ~ [usakna] See~. 2 to and atn sImnl:I S 293. According to Islam, the camel is a draw a long deep breath, breathe deeply, sigh. sacred animal and worthy of sacrifice. See <Jt:r.

vowel symbols _, =, ", ~ [5k~r, dulf'kar, hora and kamra respectively]. ~ [u] Skt?J n Brahma. 2 Vishnu. 3 Shiv. 4 part wonderment, astonishment. S a vocative. 6 also, again. 7 in old Punjabi, ~ is also used in place of ",~, H, "lif, ~ and, as for example ~ forcxa-, ~-Ril, $-»hr, mFt-w"f, mI-

Page 39



P Ijlr; n a part of food that is thrown away like the bone of meat or stone of fruit. "usatkhan go~at magzhr pun."-NP. ~ [ustat], ~ [ustatr] SkI ~ n praise, a eulogy. "ustatr kahanu na jar mukhhu tuharia."-phunhe m 5. See~. ~H3fd~:iI'H fcf~ [ustatr vyaj nidal SkI P§ f3'i!:il i H f?R'r n a censure under the garb of praise. 2 a rhetorical form. See 'i!:iI'HfC'fi'!'. ~ [ustara] P 37' n a razor. Sk/~. ~ [usatvar] P Jly.-I adj firm, strong. 2 honest, firm in religious belief. ~ [usta] P 1;-1 n a translation of the Zoroastrian scripture also called Zend Avesta. See tR 3. 2 short form of~. ~ [ustad] P )1;-1 n a teacher, an instructor. 2 Guru Nanak Dev. "trn ustad panahr."-var
maru 2 m 5.
~ [u~tur] See~. ~ [ustotr] SkI Ji~ n praise, a eulogy. 2 a

hymn in praise of someone; a psalm. See 1J. In Punjabi it is also pronounced as ~ [astotr]. ~ [usan] Skl-::JmT adjwarm, hot. 2 n summer. "usan sit karta kare."-brla m 5. 3 an onion, silver. 4 in the Purans. the name ofa narticular

tail (cypress scouiosus), holerhera antidy senterica, frageria vesca, and creeper patha in equal measures; pound and boil them in the proportion of half a pound of water for I tola of the pounded mixture. When half the water has evaporated, add one tola of lump sugar. Administered to the patient after sieving, it brings him relief. Alternatively, a pounded mixture of oldenlandin bifora, bElsa, karu, wormsood, coriandrum stivum (coriander seeds), myrtle, all in equal measure, is beneficial. The patient is required to avoid hot condiments, pickles and liquor. "sital jvar aru usantap bhan chai rag aru sanrpat gan."-carrtr 405. 2 sunstroke. ~ [usna] SkI -::r~ adv with pleasure. 2 at once, immediately. 3 n ~. Shukrachary, mentor of the demons. See lJC3'. ~ [usnak] A .:;.l;? plural of~. virtues, moral excellences. 2 adj virtuous, morally upright. "kat sughar usnak."-NP 3 P w=ro'(')TO!'beautiful. See~. 4 shrewd, sagacious.

fi:fur [usnak SIgh] a resident of Sirhind

who was a whisk-holder in the service ofGuru

Page 40


breath, long breath, sigh. "cot suheli sel ki lag<}t leI usas."-s kabir. "p;'lthnIharE kamIni locan bh<}rile usasa."-giw kabir. ~ [usah] SkI ~ n zeal, courage. 2 an enterprise. ~ [usahi] Skt~ adj zealous, enthusiastic. 2 enterprising. ~ [usaI,l] SkI ~ n the end. 2 a result, consequence, an outcome. 3 consciousness, awareness. 4 ~ timely sense of means to be employed. ~ [usarI,la], ~ [usaranu] Skt~-~ ~ n making, constructing. 2 the act of placing one above another. "jo usare so c;l.hahsi tIsu bInu <}v<}ru n<} kOI."-o.§kar. ~ [usari] n the process of constructing, building. See ~. ~ [usaru] adj a mason, builder. ~ [usarede] adv in the act ofconstructing or building. 2 adj (those) who build. "kothe m;'lc;l.<}p maria usarede bhi g<}e."-s ftfJ:r [USI] to or for him/her. See ~H. "tEsa suv<}raI,l tEsi USI mati."-sukhmani. ~ [u1?inar] SkI n a place inhabited by those who fulfil desires; Gandhar Deslh. 2 son of King Mahamana and father of Shivi, a Chandarvanshi king. 1 "g<}yo usinar bhupatI pas."-GPs. See~. ~ [U1?ir] Skt n the scented root ofAndropogon muricatus a grass plant, used for making fans and straw screens, also used to make perfumes and numerous medicines. See 1:fl1. ftJJ [usu] See f2R. "usu asthan ka n<}hi bInas." -sukhmani. ~ [usul] A Jyoi plural of~. n a tenet, principle. 2 a doctrine, an outcome. 3 a root, a base. ~ [usei] See ~. ~ [uses] Skt \3'6t§~cmi n a sigh, cold breath.
IFor Ushinar's tale, See Mahabharat part one, p. 131.

"nares ji uses li."'--ramav. 'King Dashrath heaved a sigh.' ~ [usena] to heat, warm, foment. 2 to cook, boil, "bfjnadI bhune bhije pise J usei bIbIdhaniE."-BGK 'meals of different kinds, roasted, soaked, ground, or boiled.' ~ [u1?tra] See ~lc. ~ [ust<}tI] See tjlm·. "bvan bIdhI USt<}tI kariE?"-saveye sri mukhvak m 5. ~ [uh] pron he, she, they. "uh tau bhut bhut kan bhagi."-suhi ravTdas. 2 part expressive of grief, surprislc and fear. 3 a vocative pointing to some one or something. ~ [uhda] A ul n a rank, post, position. 2 a responsibi lity. ecle1e1ij [uhdadar]" ~ffir [uhdedar] P ./1)'4 n the holder of a rank. See~. ~ [uM] at that place, th(:re. See ~cli. ~ [uhi]pron the same, that. "jahI dekho, uhi hE."-c5c;fi I. "uhi pio uhi khio."-gau m 5. fttff [uhi] at that vc~ry place. See~. ft1r [uhu]pron he. See ~~."'uhu sakatu bapura marI gaIa."-s kabir. ~ [ukasJQ.a], ~cmor [ukasna] Sk/~ v to rise or move upwards. "guru ke sar jIn ke lage nahI uksan pae."-GPs. 2 to flare up, shine. 3 to raise ht:ad. QaA'ee [uksaut] n .incitement, instigation. See

[uksauI,la] v to raise:, instigate, provoke. 2 abet. See ~F-J'. eaA'~e [uksavatl See I~*. ~ [ukat] Sk/~ adjsaid, mentioned. "sagal ukat upava."-sri am 5. 'All efforts mentioned above failed.' 2 SkI ;Y~21 n vital air, breath. 3 an utterance, at statement. "hano ukte tan khinsua."-gau m 5. 'failed to speak.' ~cf3T [ukta] n a speaker, talker. 2 a poet. eadi~C!i [uktauI,la] v to fail to speak, stop speaking. 2 to be iindifferent, to lose interest.


Page 41



3 to be tired. "pachE bojh uktavdi."-BGK. ~ [ukta!).a], ~ [uktana] adj devoid of strength, weak. 2 with weak sight. "krtre rdtiane ukta!).e."-BG 'many suffering from nyctalopia, and weak vision.' 3 tired. 4 apathetic. 5 v to get tired. 6 to fluster. ~ [UkdtI] Skt ~ n a speech, remark. 2 a novel phrase. "UkdtI sIandp kIChu na jana." -asa m 5. 3 Skt ~~ n a scheme or plan; proposal. "apni ukdtI khdlavE bhojdn dpni UkdtI khelavr."-dhcma m 5. {IOlfafawR [ukdtIbIlas], ~Olf3f~M'H [UkdtIVIlas] a free translation of Durga's omnipotent power in Dasam Granth, Chandicharitar excels in marvellous quotes. Its first line reads "dth cadi CdrItr ukdtI bIlas."-dh<ma m 5. ~ [Ukdth] See ~ 2. ~ [ukdr]}, n a weight, load. 2 weightage, regard. "ukdr apno kyokdr khovhI."-GPS. 3 elderliness, reverence. 4 to spread, sprawl.

flies away. It keeps away from the odour of roses and does not get close to them. Snakes do not come where its feathers are burnt. In the past its feathers were stuck in arrows. See


~ [ukar] n the character€". 2 pronunciation

of €". 3 €"l'IfO(TO. "udstua ukara. "-gyan. meaning 'Through ura is the form of the ultimate realised.' 4 the Creator. "jajar ukar prdka:;; illItr."-NP 'The realisation of the Creator eliminates worldly bonds.' 5 immanent, latent with qualities. See

~ [ukdr!).a], ~ [ukdrna] Skt~ v

to cut, chop into bits. 2 to dig, scrape. ~ [ukled] Skt~ n vomit, puke causing nausea or sweat. ~ [Ukdrna] v to bend, bow. 2 to catch, pounce. {I0lTit [ukai] n an omission, oversight, a mistake. ~ [ukas!).a], ~ [ukasna] See ~. "sis ukasE UPdrI jOI."-GPs. ~ [ukab] A ",:""IP n a chasing and hunting bird, larger than a falcon but smaller than a vulture that has black eyes; an eagle. It is a foreign bird and does not lay eggs in the Punjab. It has a large head and heavy talons. An eagle can easily kill a fox or a rabbit. On seeing other hunting birds like hawks preying, it swoops on them, snatches their prey and

sen has form, is immanent. "kr ukards, kI nIkards."-gyan. 'is with and without form.' ~ [ukal] n a bad time, an evil hour. 2 the lack of something; destruction. "tretE cduthe Cdrd!). ukala."-BG ~ [ukera] n an engraver, inscriber. 2 adj engraved. "sIlpIn cItr vIsal ukera."-GPs. 'The craftsmen engraved a wide picture.' See fHm an d fi:Imit. ~ [ukk!).a] v to forget, err. ~ [ukkar] adj (one) who misses, fails or forgets to act. "guru te ukkar cela."-BG ~ [ukka] advoriginally, initially, completely. 2 adj altogether, overall. ~ [ukt] See ~. ~ [uktmillItta] See f~F.lRf~ (b). ~ [UktI] See~. ~ [ukhal], {IcmT [ukhli] Skt ~cm none whose face is skyward; a vessel of wood or stone with a deep pit in which grain is hulled, flailed or thrashed. 2 sockets of sense organs. "nau ukhal."-BG 29-10. 'nine openings ofthe human body.' 3 sense inhering the organs; socket ' . "nau ukhal VIC ukhli."-BG
'Nose, car, eye etc. arc limbs formed like sockets. In them, the faculty to smell, hear and see, operates as sense.

~ [ukards]

Page 42




[ukkhall).a] v to skin, scrape or remove the surface layer. "kuhI kuhI khall ukhall vIl).assi."-BG ~ [ukhama] v to become rootl-;5s. 2, to shift from a place. ~ [ukha] See ¥ 3.2, Dg night, W"Cf<!" [ukkhal).] v (~-1:fO(')) to dig up, excavate, to mine. "khan ukkhan kaqh al). de nIrmolak hira."-BG ~ [ugl).a], ~ [ugna] v to sprout, come out of the seed. 2 (for the sun) to rise, appear. ~ [ugar] See ~ and ~. ~ [ugral).] Skt ~ v to throw out eaten stufffrom the mouth, vomit. 2 (for a weapon) to come out of the scabbard with force. See {Jorfu. ~ [ugrahi] n collection; the act of raising, taking or receiving. ~ [ugan] adv with a jerk. 2 with a leap. "ur te ugan katari lagi."-c.~ritr 113. ~ rugal] Skt~. See ~. fI~ [ugall).a], fICJm?iT [ugalna] See fI01QC:. "blkhu kaqh£ mukh uglare."-var gau m 4. 'gurgled out of the mouth.' "ugal myan te kharag papate."-GPs. 'The sword leapt out of the scabbard and fell.' ~ [uglare] leaping out. See ~. ~ [ugli] See ~. ~ [ugval).], ~~ [ugvan] v to come out, sprout. "nau bije nau ugv£."-var ram 1 m 3. 2 to rise, appear, become manifest. "je sau cada ugavhI."-var asa m 2. 3 nearly morning, dawn. 4 the east, where the sun rises. "ugval).hu tE athvanhu."-var raITt 3. ~ [ugvada] rising, appearing. 2 n Arora, a resident ofChuhnian who became a disciple of Guru Arjan Dev and attained beatitude. "setha ugvada dou apar sabhaga tin.,"-GPS. fIOJTU [ugahJ See~. 2 n a witness. See


~ [ugahl):a], ~!~ [ugahnaJ Skt ~-1J1?Uf

v to collect, receive. 2 to deposit, realize. ~ [ugaha] a matnk metre of two lines, each having 26 matras with a mid pause after the fifteenth 'and the final pause after the next eleventh matra, the last two matras being guru and laghu. Example: "mE manI tan]: premu plram ka, atthe pahIr laganI. jan nanak kIrpa dhan prabh, satIgur sukkh]: VaSanI."I_Var gau 1 m 4. fI'arrfu [ugahI] n See ~r. 2 ~-C'f'IU a boat, ship. "cara)) tal£ ugahI b£SIO sramu na rahlo sarirI."-maru am 5. 'The passenger sat with the boat under his feet unmindful of the disrespect shown, rather he alleviated his fatigue.' ~ [ugahi] n evidence:; the statement of a witness. "IEke vaqhi dem: ugahi durmatI ka gab phaha he"--maru soJhe m 1. ~ Fffi'fu [ugal)a sara I J See ~. ~ [ugal).iJ a village in tehsil and police station Rajpura in Patiala state. It has a gurdwara dedicated to Guru Teg Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh. Pandit Tara Singh has referred to Ugani as Ugani Sarai. Two halls have been built in a single compound, the right hand one is in the memory of the ninth Guru and the left hand one in that ofthe tenth Gum. Maharaja Karam Singh of Patiala had got them constructed. The gurdwara has 20 bighas of land attached to it. Its sewadar is a baptized Singh.

In this the sign of adhak () has been used at two places, only to show the number of matHIS. In Gurbani, we should not add any sign on our own because expert granthis. while reciting, pay adequate ear to geminated words. In "kam
musla suphu galI."

[arid., the pronounciation of

"musalla" is evident enough.

Page 43


From Sarai Banjara railway station, a mile long path leads eastward to this place. ~ [ugathal a gal:lIk metre comprising four lines, each line organised as 151, 551, SIS, 5, with pauses after every five characters. Example: ajItt jItte, abah bahe, akhac;l khac;le, adah dahe, abhac;l bhac;le, ac;lag c;lage, amOn mOne, abhag bhage.1-ramav. ~ [ugadhl n a vafl.).Ik metre also named tIlkaria and ya$oda. It has four lines each organised as 151, 5, 5. Example: saban m::t:\a, udas bE:t:\a, kahyo kunari, kuvntIkari. 2-ramav. ~ [ugal:t:\al v See~. 2 to roll whatever is put into the mouth between tongue and palate; to ruminate; to chew the cud. I1dl i l'Se i(') [ugaldanl n a utensil in which whatever is being rolled in the mouth is spit; a spittoon, cuspidor. ~ [ugali] n rumination; the act of chewing the cud as goats and sheep do. W' [ugur] Skt ~ n a bud, sprout. "kallar khet na bij ugurE."-BG 'in saline barren field, the seed does not sprout.' ~ [ugrl Skt ~ adj frightening, fearful, terrible. "ugr pap sakat nar kine."-kalI am 4. 2 sharp, piercing. 3 irate. 4 strong, powerful. 5 n according to Manu, a kshatri offspring born to a shudar (low caste) woman; (in Aushnas Simriti) a Brahman's offspring born to shudar woman. 6 Shiv. ~ [ugrsen], ~ [ugrsE:t:\], ~ [ugrsm] Skt~ n one who has a strong army; son of
IExcitement of women is shown through the example of

2With tear filled eyes, King Dashrath said to Kekai. "0 false woman! you are an evil woman."

Ahuk born to Pavanrekha, husband ofKarani, father of Kans, elder brother of maternal grandfather of Krishan and elder brother Devki's father. Ugarsen brought up his niece as his own daughter and therefore Devki came to be known as Ugarsen's daughter. U garsen ru led over the kingdom of Mathura very efficiently, but his wicked son Kans dethroned him and himself became the king. Krishan killed his maternal uncle Kans and reinstated U garsen on the throne. Ugarsen was a devotee of the Creator. "ugrsE:t:\ kau raj abhE bhagtah jan dio." -s~Wtye m 1. "ugrsEn ki kanIka nam devki tas."--knsan. 2 a son of king Parikshit. 3 a devotee of Guru Amar Das whom the latter imparted religious instruction. "ugrsm aru ramu dipa."-GPs. ~ [ugrkarma] Skt -;:rn 91lf.:1,adj(one) who commits terrible deeds. 2 cruel, merciless. ~ [ugrdhanva], ~dJ1:ql [ugrdhanvi], I1djQ('):;l' [ugrdhanya] Skt~ adjwho wields a stiff bow, mighty bowman. "maha ugrdhanya bac;li phJj lEk"-ramav. 2 Indar. 3 Shiv. 4 Guru Gobind Singh. ~o.r [ugra] Skt n goddess Kali; Kalika. 2 a wrathful woman. "tumE log ugra atyugra bakhanE."-carrtr 1. 3 parsley seed. ~ [ugrayudh] according to Harivansh, a celebrated king. 2 dreadful arms, sharp weapons. ~ [ugru] n a devotee ofGuru Arjan Dev who re=ndered signal service during the raising of Amritsar. "bhai ugru aru kalyana."-GPs. ~ [ugre$l Skt n god of fierce people; lord of village-republics, Shiv. ~ [ugresujIara] sen ~-ilF.r-~. Ugarsen, the illustrious king. 2 majesty of king Ugarsen. "dvaravatI ugresujIara." -caritr 203.

Page 44

~t.l/C [ughat] S n cleanliness. 2 the idea of
~ [ucak] See tI;:rc~7)T. 2 n boredom, mental

becoming manifest. ~ [ughatat] being born, rising. See ~7). "ughatat tan tarJig rag atI."-hajart:! 10. ~ [ughatan], ~ [ughatna] SkI ~R v to reveal. "nfda kOI na sIjh:co, iO ved ughatE."-BG 2 to create, make, organise. ~ [ughar], ~(jT [ugharna] v to get away from the screen, become distinct 2 to get manifest. "ughan gaIa jEsa khota ghabua nadan sarapha aIa."-asa m 5. See~. ~ [ughrara] n a gully formed by running water; a pit formed by a water current. 2 a crevice, fissure. ~ [UghlaUl.).a] v to doze, be sleepless. ~ [ughlana] adj dozing, feeling sleepy, drowsy. "mera manu alsia ughlana."-jEt m 4. ~US' [ughar] ~U/37iT [ugharna] See ~Uffli')T. "suavgir sabh ughar ae."-var gau I m 4. See
1J~. ~ [ugha] See


[ughana] v to doze off; to jerk into wakefulness whille drowsy, to be sleepless. 2 to challenge, call to fight. "mar mar cahO or ughae."-caritr405. 3 to call. "j2lb rani hVE din ughayo."-carItr 113. ~ [ugharan] See ~. ~ [ughavan] v to be drowsy; to doze off. 2 to render prominent. 3 to roar, challenge to fight. "dou mar hi mar ughavi':."-krIsan. ~urr;ro [ugharan], tIurr;:rc)T [ugharna] S v to remove the cover; to denude. 2 show, reveal. ~ [uggh] n news, trace, information. 2 fame, reputati on. ~ [uggha] adjmanifest. 2 famous. "paca V:IC ugha kan vekhalIa"-gau var 1 m 4. 3 the weapon drawn out from the scabbard. "ugghe jIn neje."-ramav. fftr [uc] See tI"B. ~ [uc-hadi] See tJt!t.

instability. 3 hangover after doping has ceased. "das kabir tas mad mata ucak na kabhu jai."-ram kabir., ~ [ucakna] vto be distracted, be distraught. 2 n the act of lifting up, making one jump. "mana kop kE bir baji ucakki':."-caritr 405. 3 to take and run away" carry away. ~ [ucaka]" WcX"'- [uccaka] n a lifter, thief, swindler; pickpocket, robber, dacoit. "handhan kau ucaka ner na avai."-suhi m 5. ~ [ucat] See tI-tfl:c~. ~ [ucatna] to be fed up, become indifferent, not to remain firm. 2 to get out of the way, discontinue. 3 to be free from worldly attachments. ~ [ucral:L]., ~R!~r [], ~ [ucc1rna] SkI ~ v to say, speak, utter. "ucarhu ram nam."-g;:w m 5. 2 'lCl-Tf<:UT to eat up, devour. "kam krodh trIsna ucn:."--var sar m 3. ~t:l~I~<!1 [ucvaUl:la], ~w [ucvana] SkI v to lift from lower to higher level, raIse. "sIkkhan te ucvaI su lina."-GPs. ~ [ucarna] See ~7)T. ~ [uera], tItr.ft lucri] See~~. 2 See~. ~t:ll~<!i [ucaul.).a] v to lift, raise, in cite. "banI bhar ueaInI chatiL"-var ram 3. ~ [ucai] See ~tP~. 2 n height, altitude. 3 elderliness, praise. fftrrc [ueat] Skt ~"'qT<: n melancholy, apathy. 2 a state of the mind, getting distraught. ~ [ucatan] SkI 0'iOTITC~;or n disjoining, dismantling. 2 distractiion. "ucatanadI karmal.).a. "-gyan. ~ [ucal.).], tIwo [uean] high level, high place, grandeur. 2 height, altitude. 3 v to lift, raise. "bhar ke ucanhar tyar bhe apar hi."

~ [ucapat], ~.rl~, [ucapatI], ~ [ucabat]

n the sale or purchase on credit; taken from

Page 45



shop without cash payment. "dotr ueapatr lekh na lrkhir."-tukha eMt m 1. See ~fu. 2 the process of lifting. ~ [uearaD], ~ [uearan] See ~. ~ [ueara] Skt J-cilIR<:i adj said, spoken. 2 n a recital of pedigree or genealogy at the time of marriage. "nabhrkamal mahr bedi raerle, brahamgyan ueara."-asa kabir. ~ [ueala) Skt J-cillR1\i adjtransient, mortal. ~ [ueavaee] adj uneven. 2 criticism, See

~ [ueava] adj high, lofty. 2 raised, lifted.

"satrguru sacca sahu hE hor sahu besah ueave."-BG. 'Trust in other traders has vanished.' ~ [uersat] See~. ~ [uert] Skt adjsuitable, appropriate. "udar uert dand haran."-sav£ye m 2 ke. 2 condign, correct. 3 known, acquainted. 4 connected. 5 happy, satisfied. ~ [uerta] n suitability, propriety. 2 superiority. "uerta srkkhi par ea<;lhjar."GPs. (lftl3 1(!ftl3 [uertanuert] ely ~-l?fQftr3' fair and foul, good and bad. "uertanuert nahi man janhr."-GPS. ~ [ueera] adj marked by loftiness, highly exalted. ~ [ueer] n an act of teasing, a reasoning.
2See~. ~ [ueerna] v to pull apart; to peel. 2 to

separate. See ~.
~ [uee] Skt ~ adj high, lofty. 2 superior,

superb. "trn kau padvi uee bhai."-sav£ye m 4. 3 n a town on the southern bank of Satluj river in Ahmedpur subdivision of Bahawalpur state. Thirty eight miles ' to the south east of Bahawalpur town, it had Devgarh as its old name. Towards the end
'E a mile has 1760 yards i.e. eight furlongs.

of the twelfth century, its ruler Raja Dev Singh, having been defeated by Sayyad Jalaludin Bukhari escaped to Marvar. 2 The Sayyad plundered Devgarh and married the king's daughter Sundarpari and renamed the town as Uch. It is a famous seat for many Muslim saints and they call it "Uch Sharif." Now it comprises three neighbouring settlements. ~tJI3o [ueesur) See ~~. In Dasam Granth some ignorant scribe has put this word wrongly in place of~. "Eravat taru ueesur hanhr dae sukhpar."-carItr 113. 'Eravat, the elephant, Kalap tree and Uchshrav, the horse were given to lndar.' 2 a high pitch, loud tone. ~~ [ueqrava) Skt ~:~ n one who has high ears, such horse of Indar is white, which is in colour. According to the Purans, it emerged when gods and demons churned the ocean. "uee sravah saman nrrat karat." -priehat. See ~tllj,€,iftA. 2 a seven-mouthed horse of the sun which neighs loudly. 3 deaf; xa also called B-~ trf;p;r (ascended to the top floor) by the Nihangs. 4 adj highly reputed, celebrated. {lvtllj,€,ifeA [ueesravars], €{tllj,€,ie!F.1 [ueesravar~) n the owner of this horse. "ueesr,wars es eSI).i rSI).i arII).i."-sanama. 'Uchshrav is owned by Indar, his master is Kashyap, earth is his property, his protection is by the king's army, the gun is his enemy.' ~tr a-r tflo [uee ka pir] adj a guru of a lofty status, universal teacher, teacher's teacher. 2 n Guru Gobind Singh, whom Gani Khan, Nabi Khan and Bhai Daya Singh attributed this doubly suggestive epithet to the royal army at the time of his departure from Machhivara. Thereby the Muslims took him for some
2Jalaludin was a disciple of Sheikh Bahauddin ofMultan.

Page 46


holyman of this town (Vch). "nag,w uee ko basi bhakhat diragh pir ritI Iakhyat.."-GPs. See ~tr 3. ~ [uecra], ~~ [uecri], ~tJT [ueea] marked by greatness. "pIr ucriE marriE l:Ihu loa SIr taja."-suhi chat m 1. 'some one staying in a lofty palace.' See ~tr. ~ [ueeaghar] n the loftiest state, salvation. 2 the ultimate stage in spiritual ~:xercise. 3 a holy congregation. 4 See UfO~· and fml~. ~ [ueeat] See~. ~ [ueeathal] Skt ~~ n the region of the True One, the exalted state. 2 a holy congregation. 3 an aspirant with pure conscience and spiritual loftiness. See ~'ER? ~ [ueeavae] Skt '3 vij IClij adjhigh and low. 2 small and big. 3 good and bad. "jag maIn ueeavae je kaj."-GPs. ~ [Geh] Skt ~ n the act of picking up grains fallen in the harvested field. 2 grains lying in the passage or food fallen in the field after harvesting. ~ [Geh~il]Skt'35(0~nM adj(one) who lives by collecting ears of corn fallen in the harvested field. ~ [uehak], ~soro [uehkan] JVl the act of jumping upward in sitting position, a gambol. "uehkat taji."-kdlki. 'The Arab horses gambol.' ~ [OehbnttI] Skt '35(0'[Rt n the act of making I:>oth ends meet by picking up stray grains from the harvested field. 2 a holyman specifically mentioned in Mahablharat, so named because of his habit of picking up fallen grains or ears ofcorn from the harvested fields. ~ [uehran], ~ [uehlan], ~~ [uehalna] Skt ~ v to leap, gambol, skip, frisk. 2 to . overflow the banks. "bhan sarvaru jab uehIE, tab l:araDu duhela."-s fdrid. "uehlIa kamu kal

matI lagi. "'-beni sri. ftS'W [~ehla] n a varrLIk metre also tlamed uehal, hasak and paktI. It has four Iines, each line is organised as 511, 5, 5. Example: gav",t nari. bajat tari. dekhat raja. devat saja.-aj. ~ [uehav] Skn~'W3: n a pleasure-giving task, joyful work. 2 happiness. ~ [uehah] Skt ~~ n courage, boldness. 2 ambition. 3i endeavour. 4 fondness. 5 amusement. ~ [uehahar] n hatred, disgust. 2 nausea, numbness, the act ofwre:tching. ~ [uehahra] n zeal. See ~. 2 a person full of zeall and ardour. 116NN:1 i [uehahara] with ardour, courageously. "kur mare kal uc..lahara."-maru solhe m 1. ijsrfu [uehahI] with zeal. 2 for amusement. "khel kiya apDE oehahI jiU."-sdvEye m 4 ke. ~ [uehar] n a covering, bolster. "jari sag jare rajE arun uehar hi."-NP. 'red coloured (quilt) covers.' 2: See ~~. ~ [ueharan] See ~. ~ [uehal] See i~ and ~. ~ [uehalan], ~~(iT [uehalna] Skt~-;:r v to make one leap, to make one jump across. 2 to throw upward. 3 to turn upside down. ~ [uehar] n a covering, bolster. See ~. 2 covering material. ft'fiim'c [uehISat] Skt "'3i~c adj left-over victuals or leavings, refuse. ftt~ [uehedan] Skt -;:r~~-;:r v to dig up, excavate. 2 to cut into p'ieces, chop; to gnaw. 3 to destroy. ~ [ueher] n ~~'--~_ water-front, river-bank. 2 the act of grazing animals. 3 See ~ tJO<!T. ~ tr6<!'T [ueher carDa] Skt ~~~ mr,"lR. unrestrictl~d wanderiing of animals; grazing freely.

Page 47




[uchohara] See (j iiNJ I;:' I. ~ [uchag] Skt~ n a lap. "sIricad dhar nam tIh pay uchag bhatij."-NP ~ [ujaq.q.] adj uncouth, very stupid. ~ [ujbak] P ...(jll n an inhabitant of Tatar. 2 an uncivilized race of Tatar. There were many Uzbaks in the army of Taimur whose ancestor was an Uzbak. This race is mentioned at many places in the Indian history. 3 In Punjabi, a tall, strong but stupid man is called by this name. "ujbak kIsu valayat kera. khaI bahut aru oj ghanera." -GPs. ~ [ujar] n strength, power. 2 adj desolate, uninhabited. 3 A J~ n excuse. 4 reason, cause. 5 an act of expressing helplessness. ~ [ujarxvahi] P t,jl} J ~ the act ofasking for the cause or the reason. 2 asking about the reason of a person's death, condolence. 3 the act of asking for pardon. ~ [ujrat] A ..::..-.7.1 n the act of paying for the work done, wage. 2 hire, fare. ~ [ujal] Skt~, ~. shining, clean, clear. "ujal moti sohl).e."-suhi var m 1. 2 white. "ujal k£ha cIlakl).a." Poets consider the following objects as shining and clean: <:lmrIt (ambrosia), Eravat (Indar's elephant), satyug (the epoch of truth), satgul). (qualities of truth), crystal, s<:lr<:ldghan (killer of cold, fire), goddess Sarda, oyster, Shiv, sud<:lr$<:ln (Vishnu's discus), the sun, $e$nag (serpent god), conch, saints' heart, laughter, snow, Himalayas, swan, cotton, camphor, .katI m<:ll).I (a jewel), Radha's mother Kirati, kud flower, Ganga (river Ganges), moonlight, rice, lime, sandalwood, moon, sunlight, Narad, mercury, pun (meritorious act), Baldev (elder brother of Krishan), pearl, silver, teeth and heron. 3 free from blemish. 4 beautiful. 5 See
IMany writers pronounce this word as "uzbak."


Wffi? ~ [OJ<:ll] Skt ~ n the hollow formed with

both the hands, palms raised upwards to receive something. ~tIW [ujla] See ~ffi? "soi kam kamaI jrtu mukh ujla."-asa m 5. "sahIb mera ujla."-var ram m 1. ~ [uj<:lr] adjuninhabited. "kori n<:lr<:lk b<:lrabre ujar soi thau."-var jet. ~ [uj<:lrna] v to become uprooted, to get homeless. 2 to be totally destroyed. ~ [ujas] n light, brightness, radiance. "bijuri prakas£ jIm tej ko ujas£."-GPs. "b<:ldhyo cad sam caru ujas."-GPs. 2 renown. ~ [ujag<:lr] adjwell-known, famous. "h<:lrI ke nam kabir ujag<:lr."-asa ravdas. 2 manifest, bright. "<:lvtar ujagar an ki<:lu."-savEye m 5 ke. 3 awakened, knowledgeable. 4 n the sun. 5 xa a lamp, candle. ~ [ujagri] n renown. 2 xa lantern. ~ [ujan] Skt ~-<rR n a high flying rider, aeroplane. 2 a god riding, a celestial vehicle. I ~ [ujana], ~ [ujani] adj rider of a high flying vehicle, rider of an aeroplane. 2 n god. "kotI tetis ujana."-asa kabir. ~ [ujar] See ~, ~ and ~. ~ [ujarau] n light, brightness, illumination. "tab jaI jotI ujarau lah£."-g,m bavan kabir. ~ [ujara] n destruction, devastation. 2 cost or compensation for destruction. "sabh kIda. ko bharhu ujara."-NP 3 light, radiance. "nam japat kotr sur ujara."-jEt m 5. ~ [ujari] adj shining, sparkling. "sobh<:lt panI krIpan ujari."-paras. ~ [ujaro] See~3. 2 lighted, illuminated. "satIguru S<:lb<:ldI ujaro dipa."i-brla m 5. 'lit the lamp of knowledge.' ~tr'W [ujala] n light, radiance, brightness. "pragat rahIO pr<:lbhu sarab ujala."-maru solhe m 5. See~.

Page 48




[ujar] n an uninhabited place, a wasteland. ~ [ujarna] v to depopulate, remove habitation. 2 to destroy. ~ [ujara] n devastation. 2 a fine for causing destruction.
~ [ujlar~u], ~ [ujlara],~


through which no path can be found; also~. "bhal).E ujhdifI bhanE raha."-majh m 5. ~ [ujharpatlu], ~~Lhft [ujharpathi] adj ignorant, gone astray, (one) who loses his way in a dense: junglle. "ujharpiHhI bhramE gavari."-suhi cJ::tait m 4. ~ [ujhap] in a pathless wilderness. See

[ujiaro], ~ [ujlala], ~ [ujiara] light. ~. See Www. "harI ka nam sag ujiara." ~ [ujhar] n a wiild wasteland, an uninhabited place. 2 Sele ~·~r(). -sukhmcmi. "bhalo ujlaro bhavansagIare." -dhana ravdas. ~ [ujharan] v to uproot. 2 to scatter, Wg [uju] A ~, n washing of hands, feet and disperse. 3 to wind up. "bhanat nanak jab khel ujharE t~b ekE ek;j,kara."-maru m 5. face prior to namaz. "uthu pharida uju sajI subah nlvaj gujarI."-s farid. "kxa uju paku ~ [ujhad See ~t~. kia muhu dhola?"-prabha kabir. ~ [ujhirl adj undisputed, uncontested, ~ [ujm] Skt \3\Njf£l·-f1 n a town in Gwalior uncontroverted. "gurumukh marag c~lll).a as state, old capital of Malwa, situated on the nIrasi jhir ujhiri."-BG 2 not dense, sparse, southern bank of Shipra river. Vikramaditya sporadic. "chIn me ghan so kardin ujhira." also ruled here for some time. In Sanskrit -krrsan. texts, this place is also named "Avanti". The ~~ [ujjhar] See i~~. ancient temple ofMahakal is to be found hc~re. ~~ [ujjharpathI] Se,e~. "bhup ujm puri ko j~hiL"-krIsal1. ~ [Up] adv like that, in the same manner. ~ [ujjal] See ~. 2 Dg adj of a high caste. We rut] See €C. 2 Skt straw, herbage. 3 of a pristine race. ~ [utak'm] n a g~l).Ik metre of four lines, each line organise:d as SIS, SIS, SIS, SIS, SIS, SIS, ~ [ujjar] See ~tRr;r. Wtr.JTOT [ujyara] See Wtl'l'W. "jah anh~t sur SIS, S, with the first pause at the twelfth ujyara."-sor namdev. character and the second at the tenth character thereafter. ~ [ujval] See '~. Example: ~ [ujhakl).a], ~ [ujh~kna], v to shine, be startled. 2 to jump, leap. 3 to bend in order surbira saje ghar baje baje, bhaj kata! sUl).e ram ae, to see. ~ [ujhar], W'5'""d<!"" [ujharl).a], W'SOO [ujhr~n] ball maryo bali SIdhu patyo jinE, v to depart; to be ruined. "khln p~1 baji tahr so ber kEse racae? dekhiE ujhrat nahi bara."-asa am 1. 2 to be byadh jityo j:mE jabh maryo unE, separated, get displaced or uprooted. "jabE ram :>tar soi suhae, de mIlo janki bat hE syan ki, ujhar tU bhakh hE turat vahE chutjaI."-c~ritr cam ke dam kahe calae ?I-ramav. 68. "rIS jujjh ujjhre rajput."-ramav. Skt W"w>. to be separated. 3 to be unravelled or ~iqo [utak~n] Skt the act of stopping; an impediment, obstade. 2 wrangling, an excuse. solved. ~ [ujhar] n a garden, forest. 2 a wilderness 'Mandodari's advice to Ravan.

Page 49



[utagclI:d n seeds of k5cphdli, a canthodium hirtum, used to cure several diseases. ~ ruth] See ~ and ~. 2 Skt ~ vr to beat; to chide. ~ [uthdia] adjrising. 2 n a dancing horse, gamboling like an acrobat. 3 v rises. "sdrdha mdnI bdhutu uthdia."-brla am 4. ~ tJT<!T [uth jal).a] v to go away, march off. 2 to die, leave the world. "uth jal).a ta keha mal).a ?"-prov. ~ [uthl).a], ~ [uthna] Skt~ vto stand up. 2 to wake up. 3 to be alert, get ready for work. 4 to sprout, grow. "jdhI te uthIo tdhI hi aIo."-sar m 5. "jI osu mIlE tIsu kUSdt uthahi."-var gau 1 m 4. ~ [uthvani] n an attack, a charge. "ture dhdvaI uthvdni kari."-carrtr 176. ~ [uthvEya] adjwho rises. 2 who arouses. 3 n ajumping horse, smat1 horse. ~ [uthaul).a] v to lift. See ~ and ~. "banhI uthai potli."-s farid. 2 to remove, abolish, cancel. "sdbh lekha rekh-hu uthai." -sor m 5. 3 to decipher a document. ~'i5'O [uthan] n rise, progress. 2 desire for copulation after menses. 3 an attack, a charge. "hdri sfgh tdb kdri uthana."-VN. 4 heroic stanzas sung before the p5ri stanza for generating a heroic feeling. ~ [utharna], ~ [uthalna] v to make one rise or stand up, lift. "pdkdrI kes jdm utharIo."-asa m 5 partal."Ikna sutra der uthalr."-s farid. 2 to begin. "hdrI jdn SIU bad uthriE."-brla ill 5. 3 to bear, endure. "dukh bdhut uthayo."-GPs. 4 to stop, prohibit. 5 to obliterate, destroy. See (j6 1(j<t '. ~ [uthalr] adv having lifted. See ~<5"C?c'iT. ~ [uthr] having got up, having risen up. "uthr rsnan kerhu pdrbhate."-basat m 5. ~ [uq] See~. "uq hun kaga kare."-gau


kabir. See ~ (ji,3I(j<t I. 2 See ~. ~ [uqag] See~. ~ [uqgfd] n the master ofuQgdl). (stars), the moon. "gyan van srkh yut uqgfd."-GPS. ~'irST [uqcha] See ~. "khojdt udchandth ke."-carrtr 2. ~ [uql).a] Skt ~ v to fly, rise up into the air. ~~w [uqankhdtola] n a flying cot, an aircraft, aeroplane. "uqdnkhdtole bdhut sajai."-PP. ~ [uqdnpakheru] adj a migratory bird. 2 human mind. "rhu mdnu uqdnpakheru bdn ka."-sar kabir. 3 n mind. 4 a body showing erotic charm. ~ [uqna] See ~. ~ [UQdrI] adv having flown. "has UqdrI kodhrE para."-s farid. 2 adj flier, capable of flying. "pakhi pac UqdrI ndhi dhavhr." -maru solhe m 1. 'five senses imagined as a bird in flight.' ~ [uqrra] flew away, disappeared. "dhdrdmu pakh kdrI uqrra."-var majh m 1. ~ [uqva] stars, planets. "hdrI jdn sobha sdbh jdg uparr, jru vrcr uqva sdsrkik." -prabha m 4. See 'Rfi:rcftor. [uqau] adj spendthrift, prodigal. 2 who flies; capable of flight. ~ [uqari] n a flight, the act of flying. "mrthE mdkhu mua kru Ide uqari."-asa chat m 5. 'Unstable, distracted mind flies like a bird.' ~~ [uqaru] adj fit for flying, capable of flying. ~ [uqI]i having flown. "mdnu pakhi bhdro uqr uqr'ddh drsr jar."-s kabir. ~ [uqrd] ~-~ n the master of stars; the moon. ~mw [uqisa] Skt 3IT9: n part of Bengal that includes Cuttack, Balsur and Puri. It is called


Page 50


Utkal as well. The famous temple: of Jagannath is at Puri See RCJ1'orEr. "kaha uqise. majanu kia ?"-prabha kabir. ~ [uQik] n wait. See ~: ~ [uQikl).a], ~ [uQikna] SktW3'-~full<! to look upward, to cast constant gaze in one direction. 2 to wait, await. ~ [uQin], ~(!T [ugil).aT, ~r [uQil).i] Skt \3Cftuf adj perplexed, confounded. 2 sad. '''hau h~rI bajh uQll).ia."-bIha cJt m 4. :3 sUirprising. "vat hamari khari uQil).i."-s farid. ~ [uQin] See~. 2 Skt ~ n flight. ~ [uQini] become sad. See ~'iR!:9'. "uqini uQini uQini, kab gharI avni."-bIJa pd(taJ m 5. ~ [uQu] Skt ~:s n a bird: 2 water. ,3 a star, planet. ~ [uQug] short form for~. stars. ~ [uQugal).] n stars, nebula, starry cluster. l1l11dl(')Itl [uQugnath] n lord of uQugan, the moon. l1l11dlFoch [uQug11Iket] house of stars; night. -sanama. ~ foai3R [uQug 11IketIs] the night, a house of stars, the moon, master.-sanama. ~ [uQugbhup] the king ofstars, the moon. -sanama.. ~ ~ [u(~ugbhupl).i bhupl the moon, the lord ofstars; its consort river Chandarbhaga whose matron is the earth.-sanama. feminine form of the lord. ~ [uQup] Skt,~ n the lord of~ (water), Yarull. 2 a ship, boat. 3 the moon. 4 a blue jay, heron. See~~. ~ [uQupatIj Skt~ n the moon. 2 blue jay. See~. ~ [uQuva] See ~. l1iHiM'M [uQerolal] See~. ~ [uQat] n flight. 2 adjflown. 3 flying, while flying. "paval). uQat na dhaVE."-savEye m 3. See t!'@e:I1J3. ~ [uQh] See fulo.

~ [uQhlial S,;:e ~~l>w.

11t: I I1e: i [uQhaul).a] See m~.
~o't [uQhJni] n a doth for covering the body.

"manhu sabfdu nil uQluni."-GPs. 'As if deep green earth coven:::d with red velvety lady-bugs is a blue embroidered sheet.' ~"'iifl? [uQQhal] ad} who seeks shelter. "Qhal uddhla."-ramav. 2 a wearer~ ~ [Ul).] See ~jT and ~"(). 2 Dg pron they. 11e:3 i l')1 [ul).tali] thirty-nine. ~"<!3Q [ul).attar] sixty-nine. ~"<Y3't [ul).atti] twenty-ni\1l;:. See ~. ~ [ul).na] v to kllit, weave. "tal).I Ul).I khDb caraIke."-BG S ~m. ~<!}f(!' [ul).mal).] Dg adj unhappy, sad. See
~ [ul).v;)ja] Skt ~ ~ forty-nine.

~ [ul).asath] fifty·nine. ~ . [ul).asiJ sev(mty-nine. ~ [ul).anve] Skt 1tcl~ ~.eighty-nine. ~ [Ul).I] adv having kniitted. See~. ~ [ul).etu] Skt"3"''1~ n the ritual of wearing the sacred thread, "bhadal).u Ul).etu karaIa." -ram m 5 bJno. See ~Ni'i:t3'. ~tI'" [ul).::lja] Se:e ~~. W3' rut] Skt ~"30' n the otherworld. "it ut jia nal s::lgi."-guj m 5. 2 adv on that side, thither. "ut takE ut te utI pekhE."-dhana m 5. 3 perhaps. 4 pron he. See~. ~3'ffiICIT [utsarag] Skt ~pf n renunciation, abandonme:nt. 2 charity. 3 termination, end, conclusion. ~ [utsarpIl).i] Skt,~ n visualised by the Jains, a view ofThne. Like the Hindus have their cycles of Satyug, etc., Jains have their view ofutsarpIl).i. (moving forward) and avsarpal).i, (moYing backward). ~ [utsav] Skt ,ITBCf n pleasure, rejoicing. 2 a pleasun;:-giving action. ~ [utsah] Skt '3c'Blf? n enthusiasm, boldness.

Page 51


2 zeal, tenacity. "din daIal, karhu utsaha." -suhi m 5. ~ [utsahi] SkI \3,{"118;\ adj enthusiastic. 2 energetic. ~ [utsuk] SkI ~Cfl adj eager to know, excited with desire. I1dBOld ' [utsukta] SkI n eagerness, ardent desire to possess something. ~ [utkat] SkI '\3('Cfic adj arduous, hard, tough. 2 furious, fierce. 3 strong. 4 beyond propriety. 5 inebriated, intoxicated. 6 vain. ~ [utkara~], ~ [utkarakh] SkI ~ n abundance, excess. 2 praise, applause. 3 superiority, prominence. 4 a king ofKashmir who succeeded Kalash to the throne. ~ [utkal] SkI ~ son of king Sudyuman who gave his own name to the country. See
~m. ~ [utkala], ~ [utka] See I1Sci'f6S i • l1acl20l [utkatak] SkI n kar5da, a tree with

Utath drank up the entire ocean. Still Varun did not relent. When Varun's pond went dry and the entire universe became waterless, Varun sought refuge with Utath and restored Bhadra to him. The latter was highly pleased to have his wife back, and he alleviated all the troubles of Varun. There is a story in Mahabharat that Mamta was Utath's wife. While she was pregnant, Utath 's younger brother Vrihaspati, driven by lust, went to his sister-in-law and expressed his desire for sex with her. Mamta and her child in the womb warned him against the alleged sin. Vrihaspati cursed the child with blindness. Thus the child came to be called Dirghtama (literally great darkness). See

n birth, production. "tIsu prabh te sagli utpatI."-sukhmcmi. 2 creation ofthe universe. "utpatI parlau apI nIrala."-maru solhe m 1. hard thorns, from the fruit of which pickle is ~~ ~ [utpatI parlau] See ~31.if3" 2. made. See ~~. 2 the phenomena of the original creation and ~ [utkatha] SkI \3,Cfi 0 6d1 n intense desire. final annihilation of the universe. "utpatI "bIhbal hv£ utkatha bhuri."-NP. I1sclfOd' [utkathIta] SkI \3,CfifU6dl n in poetry, parlau sabde hov£."-majh am 3. a heroine who, not finding her lover at the ~ [utpal] SkI \W!R n blue lotus. 2 a lotus appointed spot in time, thinks about possible flower. reasons for his not coming. She is also called ~ [utpal-locan] adj lotus-eyed, having very beautiful eyes. "avIlokat bhe utpal Utkala and Utka. locan."-NP. ~ [utkrI~t] SkI ~ adj superb, grand. ~ [utpatan] SkI "\3C'IITc.., n digging, 2 superior, best. excavating, dismantling, uprooting. ~d'i~ [utk~epaD], ~oiflf<!" [utkhepaD] SkI "\3""f~ v to throw upward. 2 to steal. 3 n a lid. ~ [utpat] SkI \RI1Rf n tumult, calamity. 2 disturbance. 3 the act offalling over, rushing 4 a winnowing tray. 5 a fan. upon. ~ [utatth] Skl'\3"(1"Uf n son of Angira, born of Shradha, married to Bhadra, daughter of ~ [utpatI], ~ [utpati] SkI ~ n Som. Varun, the god, got enamoured of birth, genesis. "braham bfdu te sabh utpati." -gau kabir. 2 SkI ~~ adj trouble maker, Bhadra and abducted her from Utath's hut. Utath sent Narad to bring her back, but rioter. Varun refused to hand her over. In wrath, ~ [utpadak] Sk/~ adjwho produces.

~ [utpatI] Sk/~

Page 52


2 n father, begetter. 3 a mythical animal named Sharabh, having four feet on the back and four at the chest. See ~r. tt~ [utpadan] ~;:r n the process of creation or production. ~o [utpan] Skt~;:r adj produced or created, born. ~iii(1" [utpre~a] Skt~ n the act ofdecoding similarity. 2 a figure of speech in a literary composition that involves comparison of two distinct objects to be compared" "an bat ko an me jahf sabhavan hOI."-$IVraj bhu$cw. Example: kop bhai bar caQI maha bahu juddh karyo ran me bal dhari, lekE knpan maha balvan pacarke subh ke upar jhari, sar s6 sar ki dhar baji jhankar uthi tIh te cIngari, manhu bhadav mas ki ren lase patbijan ki camcarL-cac;li 1. (b) If such words as "goya" and "mano" are not employed, then gamyotprek:;;a or guptotprek:;;a comes into being. Example: Ikk vaQQhe teg1 tarphan mad pite lotan bavle. -cac;li 3. 'as if drunkards were rolling.' ~ [utprek:;;opma] See ~ (e). ~l:ffiT [utprekhya] See ~~'. ~ [utbhIj], ~ [utbhuj] a gdlt:1.Ik metre in Dasam Granth also called utbhuj, ardh bhujag, somraji and :;;akhnarL It has four lines, each line being organised as ISS, ISS. Example: hahasa kapala. subhasa chItala. prabhasa juala. anasa karala.-kalki. 2 Skt ~ n terri genus or abiogenic matter including min1erals and vegetation. "jal bIn

utbhuj kam nahL"-asa m 1. "aQaj jeraj setaj kini. utbhuj khanI bahur racdini."-c.Jp~i. 3 Skt~-:fif one who extends his own arm or grips another's arm to render help; a helper. "utbhuj calatu a p kan cine ape tatu pachane."-ram m 1. "utbhuj sarup abIgat abhag."-gyan. ~ [utam], tt'a:tr [ut;mm] See tt"3H. "utam sat bhale sajog:i." m 5. "utamu ehu bicar he."-var asa. ~ [utar] See ~f~r and ~3Q. tt~ [utrasI] will go across. "ram nam ki gatI nahi jani kEs~ utarsI para."-maru k~bir. ~ [utral).], tt:3~ [utarl).a], ~ [utarna] Skt ~ v to reach across. 2 to come down from above, descend. 3 to take birth, assume another form. "ghan guru ramdas bhagat utarI ayau."--savEye m 5. 4 to cease; to disappear. "utaI' ga:w mere man ka sasa." -sar m 5. "laga rag apar ko na utaraL"-s;wa m5. ~ [utrau] n the idea of coming down. 2 a slope. ~ [utan] nortlhwards. "utan dakhanI pUbI des pascamI jasu bhakhah."-s~vEye m 3. 2 having descended. "teu utan par pare."
-dh~na k~bir.

~ [utri] will descend. "dhIaIdIa tG. prabhu

mIlu, nanak utri cft."-var guj 2 m 5. 2 descended. 3 (you) should descend. tt~ [utria] adj (one) who takes across; deliverer. "bhesagar sat par utria."-g~um 5. 2 descender. ~ [utaru] See '~. "ape akhe ape samjhe tIS kIa utaru dije?"-sIdh gOS~tI. ~ [utlana] v to get excited, hurry. 2 adj excited. ~ [utlat] excited, eager. 2 adv in haste, with eagerness."sun $or jat utlat dhaI."-GPs. ~ [utvat] Skt~RfCICf n a whirlpool, an eddy.

Page 53


2 flatulence, the bloating of the abdomen.
~ [utvata] adj excited, bewildered,


baffled. 2 overwhelmed by bafflement. "phuhI utvatae."-asa a ill 3. See~. ~[utavallnhaste,promptness.2cleverness, ~ [utaul], ~ [utaIl] n excitement, smartness. . eagerness. "nIktE tIh jan utaIl."-knsall. ~ [utavla] adjeager, quick. 2 smart, agile. ~ [utai] n a picture, portrait. "manhu utai 3 nervous, agitated. 4 adv quickly, bhaI."-NP 'portrait of admiration indeed.' immediately. "sac tIkE ghan aI sabadI ft3'tJ [utah], ft3'fu [utahI] adj excessive. utavla."-asa a ill 1. "ghatE na vadhE utahI."-oakar. 2 above. ft~ [utavli] n haste, promptness. 2 adj 3 upward; S from above. likely to vanish in a minute. "jEse bhadau ~ [utak] See fu3'ror and ~. khumbraju tu tIS te khari utavli."-basat ~ [utanpad] See ~~. ravrdas. ~ [utar] n a copy, duplicate. "utar khase ~ [utI] adv in that direction, that way. "ut dastkhat ka."-akal. 'copy of a specific te utI pekhE."-dhana ill 5. signature.' 2 a used dress that is not worn any ~lutu] pron that. "utu bhukhE khaI caliahI more. "amir da utar garib da, sIgar." 3 Skt dukh."-sodaru. ~from that hunger.' 3JCIClT( a prophet, birth, incarnation. 4 an ~ [ute], ~ [utE] adv on that side, in that incarnation of a god iii some other form. direction. 5 See ~. ~ [utas] See~. 2 Skt~?;r:r an ornament. ~'3"e" ~ [utar carau] cpd n a discussion, 3 a jewel in the crown. rebuttal. 2 a talk of profit or loss. "ev utar ~ [utak] See ~"3or. carausunae.jaMgirkomanbharmae."-GPs. ~. [utag] Skt ~ adj very high. "utagi ~~ [utarl).a], ~"3"Q('jT [utarna] v to bring pEOhari."-sava ill 1. '0 with such high down from above. 2 to cross over. See~. expectations.' See ~. ~ 'ij!l:fC!T [utar rakkhl).a] v to drop from . ~ [uttam] Skt ~ adjthe best, superb. 2 n memory. See ~ ~. 2 to look down upon, elder step-brother of Dhruv. See ~. insult. 3 to bring down. ~ [uttamtaJ, ~3H3'TE't [uttamtai] n ~ [utara] See ~. 2 n a copy, duplicate. superiority, superbness, virtue. "us ne gurubal).i da $uddh utara kita hE."-prov. ~ [uttma] Skt \I"fl11T n a heroine in poetry, 3 In Tantra, the act that is undertaken to get who does not get angry even after seeing or hearing about her husband's faults. 2 a female rid of some trouble hovering over a person's messenger who softens the disagreement head. To avert it, a piece of bread is waved over the head of the sick person and thrown to between the lover and the beloved with her birds and animals for eating. 4 an assault, sweet talk and impels them to love each other. invasion. "taM ap kino husmi utara."-VN. 3 adjvirtuous (woman). 5 a cloister, place for having rest. 6 an act of ~ [uttar] Skt"3m n the northern direction. deliverance. "par utara hOI;"-dhana ill 1. 2 an answer. 3 the next world. 4 son of King ~ [utarIanu] he went across. "bhaujalu Vi rat who was the maternal uncle ofParikshit. pan utananu."-sor a ill 3. 5 a literary figure ofmeaning and speech. See

[utal] n haste, promptness. "kalu ne utaI lin ak hIt nal."-NP 2 Skt ~ adj good. 3 fast. 4 a lot, more. 5 terrible, scary.

Page 54

~ tIiil"


2 the act of abetment. and ~~. 6 other side. 7 adj rear. ~":fa" [utt~k] Skt·~ a sage who was the 8 front. disciple ofVed Muni, See tjq. "a$ram taM ~"3Q 1./ii{ [uttar pak$], ~3Q ifcf [uttar pakkh] ut~k muni ko."--GPS.2 a diciple of sage Skt ~ l"j1;1 n a counter argumeilt, rejoinder. Gautam. 2 an answer to a legal complaint, counter measure. ~ [utrayaD] See ~~RJTGl"<!'. ~ HbfiRr [uttar mimasa] n a final view, ~ [uthkan] v be adjourned, be tired. 2 to lift, to raise to an upright position. 3 to make philosophy as opposed to ritualism; spiritual one rebound or jump. "raDhr tur~g uthakk knowledge, Vedant. hE."~paras. "baj:[ uthakki~"-suraj 4 to cover; ~ [uttra] Skt~ n daughter ofknng Virat, to put the lid on. wife ofAbhimanyu, son ofArjun and mother of Parikshit. 2 the northern din~ction. "uttra ~ [uthat] See~[fu3·. or srdhai."-c<~ntr259. ~ [uthpanJ See ~WLlo. ~ [uttrakMq] Skt \3t1 {IZCl°'S n the northern ~ fut:rtr [uthap In thapJ See ~ and fut:rtr. region of India close to the Himalayas. ~ [uthalnaJ v to turn over. 2 to turn up ~3aili:laidl [uttradhrkari] Skt "J""tI~~ n a and down or upside down. "agr ju avat ta successor. uthlavat."--GP S. ~ailii<! [uttrayaD] Skt \3t1 UQOI n that half of ~ 1.f'a'H [uthal pathal} n the state of being topsy turvy. "uthal pathal kardin."-GPs. the year when the sun moves towards the north. See }){Wi'. ~ [uthan] Skt ~ n the act of standing ~3aiaQ [uttrardh] Skt~ n the: second half. up. 2 an exertion. 3 a b{~ginning. 4 progress. 2 the last half of a book. 5 See ~'). ~ [uttaJ Skt-::Jtl~ adjnext. 2 n a commentary, ~ [uthanka] Skt~m n an introduction, explication. 3 the upper part. 4 a mantle, shawl. a preface, prologue. 2. a book written by some ~ [uttanpad] Skt \3t1I'1QIG n son of Manu scholar in the name of the Sikh Guru in which and Shatrupa, whose wife Suniti gave birth reason for and context of the formation of to four sons, Dhmv, Kirtiman, Ayushman and many words is given. Vasu. His second wife Suruchi gave birth to ~ [uthapan] Skt~:rr:r-l v to obliterate, Uttam.. See q~ 8. delete. "khrn mahl thapr uthapanhara." f;r3 1'i'; l iI<!i [uttavacDa] v to che(:k accounts: -majh m'5. "khrn maIn thapr uthapda." 2 to foretell. 3 to find the details. 4 to -var jEt. 2 to raise, erect. 3 re-establish. anticipate the fi.lture. ~ [uthara] S~:r~ or~~ vl.~ a nightmare; a disease caused by heaviness in the stomach ~ [uttrst] Skt~ (impemtive) stand up. 2 standing. "uttrst deVI puj~t jaI."-paras. and weakness of the brain. While asleep, the ~ [uttiraD] Skt"J"ffiuf adjsuccessful. patient fee:ls pressure on his chest as if some 2 swum across. 3 passed the test. 4 got free. load were laid or someone were pressing him. €'3;:Ior [uttejak] Skt~ adjwhat stimulates, It causes a breathing-trouble, fear and the patient starts talking, crying and making a or elevates. 2 n a magnifying glass, a prec:ious stone that causes fire. noise in distress. As an antidote for this disease, ~ [uttejan] Skt~ n exciting, stimulating. the patient is given a pwrgative and medicine


Page 55


for strengthening the heart and the digestion. Besides standard medicines, the administration of goat or cow milk, lump sugar, almond, cardamom, black pepper, myrobalan, silver leaf, preserve of myrobalan and fruits, light food of vegetables and pulses, and the gravy of partridge meat is beneficial. Intoxicants, chillies, meat, jaggery, oily food, sex, fear, anger etc. are to be avoided. "re jan! utharE dabrohu sutra gai vrhaI."-var sor m 3. 'In the sleep of ignorance, worries pounce on one like a nightmare.' ~ [uthrt], ~ [uthrtt] Skt~ adjrisen. "bahur uthrt upar ko avr."-GPs. ~ [ud] Skt \3<\ vr to wet; to flow. 2 n water. 3 an iron-chain to tie the elephant. ~ [udau], ~ [udar] Skt \3G<T n the act of coming up, rising, manifestation. 2 progress, an increase. "satrguru mrlE ja bhagE ka udau hOI."-sri m 3. ~ [udak] Skt~ n water. "ram udakr tanu jalat bujhara."-gav kabir. 2 the ritual of offering water to the forefathers. See ~. ~ 'f!¥J [udak kGbh] Skt ~ n a pitcher of water. 2 water standing still in a pitcher. "jru pratibfb bfb kau mrIi hE udak kGbh brgrana."-asa kabir. 'Just as reflection of the sun merges into the pitcher's water when the water is disturbed, in the same manner after death, the body (like an image in the still water) disintegrates and the soul merges with the Great Soul.' 3 an ancient physician whose mention has appeared in several texts. ~ [udakl)a], ~ [udakna] v to startle with fear, take fright. "3cak udke sare."-GPs. 2 to jump, leap. 3 to tremble, stumble. ~~ [udakbhuk] adj (one) who lives on water alone. 2 n submarine fire. 3 lightning l)\Fa'Q?l'dIFo.' One whose fuel is water.
IThat which has water as fuel.

"tab kamles harakh hVE dyala, kahyo, sunhu sabh bhusur sala ! yasy ucar udakhbhuk, varitirath raj det phal cari." -GPS raSI 7 a 4, cad 36. The kind Brahma was pleased and said to the sages, The mantar whose recitation after rinsing of the mouth with the waters of the chief of pilgrimages, Amritsar, gets (you) four boons goes as : "oa amrrtodbhavay, amrrtrupay, tirathrajay, namonamh." ~t!"Crnlf [udkarakh] Skt ~ n plentitude, abundance; elaboration, expanse. "jab udkarakh kara kartara."-c.Jpai. See~. ~ [udakr] because of or with water. See

[udaku] water. See~. "ram udaku jrh jan pia."-maru kabir. ~ [udgata] Skt ~ n a brahman who recites hymns of Sam Ved in a sacrificial ritual. ~ [udgar] Skt~ n a belch, or eructation, or wind released from the stomach. Normal belching is not painful, but with phlegmatic or rheumatic cough when strength ofthe stomach decreases and the incidence and frequency of belching increases, it is a type of disease to avoid with the administration of digestive medicines, and restraint to be practised in eating. 2 vomiting, puke, cholera. 3 comfort. 4 pain. 5 effervescence, simmer. ~~ [udadh], tI-efu [udadhI] Skt ~ n a pitcher. 2 an ocean. "udadhr guru gahrr gabhir beatu harr ."-savEye m 4 ke. 3 a cloud. (l€fQljd [uddhIsut] Skt ~ n the son of the sea; the moon. 2 a jewel. 3 ambrosia. 4 Dhanvantri (the physician god). 5 precious stones and substances formed in the ocean. ~ [udpan] Skt ~ n a well. "ghat sis dhara jallevan ko udpan jaha."-NP 2 an open well. 3 a small water bucket carried by a sadhu.


Page 56



[udbJ:gan] SkI ~ adj flustered, perplexed, nervous. "bEthi sare dIn udlJIgan bhai hE man."-GPs. ijefaW'i! [udbl:lav] See ;::w; f'ac?1~. ~ [udbeg] See ~. ~ [udbhat] SkI ~ adj strong, mighty. 2 famous, well-known. 3 superior. 4 a tortoise. S the sun. ~~ [udbhav] SkI ~'l1Cf n birth, cre:ation. 2 increase, progress. 3 universe; the creation of the world. ~ [udbhIj] See ~. ijefi'Jef'ile"j1 [udbhIdvIdya] SkI \3~ffi:~1 n botanical knowledge. ~ [udbhut] SkI ~ adj produced, born. 2 appeared. ~ [udam] See~. "udam karedIa jiu til." -var guj 2 m 5. ~ [udmat], ~ [udmad] SkI 'l~ n intoxication, ecstasy. "man mad cakhI bhae udmate."-maru m 5. 'got intoxicated with the wine of the wealth.' 2 k1 i L melancholia, a disease of brain, a severe form ofdepression bordering on !insanity. It is the result ofeating dry food, excessive drinking and copulation, loss of sleep, worry, anger and grief, but occasionally of stoppage of blood caused by piles, consuming ofraw mercury, head injury, financial loss, public disgrace and exc:ess of heat and dryness. A patient of melancholia talks too much and for gets manners, sometimes laughs then cries, does not respect anyom:, feels scared of people and avoids them. Women and children are less susceptible to this disease. Early detection and treatment by capable doctors can easily cure it; passage of time renders the cure difficult. To irritate and annoy a melancholic patient is not proper. On the contrary, he should be


Page 57



(1541-42 AD). He was cowardly and disgraced the name of his dynasty. His illustrious son Rana Pratap (who is considered the pride ofthe Rajput race) founded Udaypur and named it after his father. It is now the famous capital of Rajputana. See ~. 2 Mani Ram was the son of Mai Das of Alipur (district Multan). He was a Raj put who dedicated all his five sons Uday Singh, Ajab Singh, Ajaib Singh, Anak Singh and Vichitar Singh to the service of Guru Gobind Singh. The. tenth Guru baptised them on 1 Vaisakh Sammat 1756 when he founded the Khalsa and initiated them into Sikhism. Uday Singh once killed a tiger and presented its hide to the Guru,who put it on an ass that became fearless and roamed in the fields grazing freely because no one dared go near and check it. Once hearing the sound of donkeys braying, it joined them and went to the house of its master, the potter, and indulged in a boistorous horseplay along with the other donkeys. The potter, recognizing its real worth removed the tiger skin from its back and put a heavy load on it. Giving its analogy the Guru instructed his disciples by telling that those who, forsaking the Khalsa, reverted to their old caste system would meet thesame fate as met the said ass'. During the battle of Sammat 1758, Uday Singh severed the head of Raja Keshri Chand, stuck it on his spear and brought it to the Guru. When the Guru evacuated Anandpur, Uday Singh was with him and on W3Y to Chamkaur in Sammat 1761 he fought bravely against the enemy and attained martyrdom. "pahar ek bran paryo maha prabal Iksar. uday sigh jujhe tabf' satIguru saran vIcar."-guru $obha. His younger

brothers also died fighting in the battles fought for the cause of the country and the community. See ~ 3 Son of Bhai Lal Singh of the clan of Bhai Bhagtuand Rani Sahib Kaur and ruler of Kaithal under whose patronage the poet Bhai Santokh Singh wrote his 'Guru Pratap Surya'. Uday Singh died of paralysis on Phagun Sudi 14 Sammat 1879(5 March 1843 AD.) See H-3cr filur, ~ and ~. l1elllFdlFa [udaygIn] See ~ 4.2 a mountain. in district Jasgadh of Gwalior state. 3 a mountain in Nellor district of Madras. 4 a mountain in Travancore state. 5 a mountain in Ganjam district of Madras. 6 a mountain in Puri district of Orissa. ~ [udyan] Skt ~ n manifesting as does the rising sun. 2 See ~ 2. ~ y"6" [uday pur] See ~ filur 1. l1elll'tll'S [udyacal] See ~ 4. ~ [udClr] Skt ~ abdomen. "udn: karCl!!I apnE."-var ram 1. 2 a chest, breast. "Clbki sarupI sujanI sulakhni sahIje udan dhari." -asa kabir. 3 the stomach; that which digests. 4 an intestine. 5 a womb. 6 the inner side, interior. ~ [Odar] Skt ~ n a rat, mouse. See ~ ~t!"ij" ~~ [udar udak] water in the uterus surrounding the embryo. "jan-ni kere udar udak mahI piG kia das duara."-asa dhJna. ~ [udaran] n the enemy of the abdomen, a dagger.-sanama. ~ JfHoft [udar sajogi] n real brother, born to the same mother. 2 the earth which gives birth to plants. "udarsajogi dharti mata."-maru solhe m 1. 3 adj selfish, interested only in stuffing his own stomach. l1€dlj'l'S' [udatjvala] n abdominal heat. 2 hunger. ~ ~ [udar rag] a disease of the stomach.


Page 58



rubbing on the skin before a bath to make the It is caused by decrease in digestion or decline body clean and fragrant. of the abdominal heat. It may be call1~d the father of countless diseases. There is no ~ [udvah] SkI ~ 11 the act of taking away. 2 taking the bride away from her disease which does not arise from diJorder in parental home; marriage, wedlock, marital the stomach. It may be caused by overeating union. or untimely eating, stoppage of urine, stools and perspiration, or eating while thirsty or ~~ [UdVIO], ~~~ [udvIau] v rose, drinking while hungry, eating too frequently, appeared. See 19~; and ~. See ~. ~ef~dl() [udvIgan] SkI ~ adj perplexed, constant worry or excessive fatigue. flustered. The patient suffers from flatulence, foul belching, foul smelling, farting, loss of ~ [udvegl SkI ~ 11 perplexity, perturbation. appetite or feeling of burning sensation in the "teg bahadur satIguru de satrun udveg." heart and heaviness in the forehead. -GPs. 2 vigorous excitement of the mind. Taking small quantities of castor oil and 3 passion. 4 aspiration. seeds of celetruss paniculata mixed with milk ~ [udasl SkI' ~ to sit aside, pass by. is beneficial for the patient. The powder of 2 SkI (lGm:fl;::r adj downcast, estranged, holarrhene antidy sentence, borax roasted apathetic. 3 callous. 4 a recluse. "ghar hi mahI udas. "--sri ill 3. 511 indifference asefoetida ash of conch shell in doses offour masas taken with the whey of cow's milk is asceticism, apathy. "gnasat mahI eft udas very effective" For a patient of this disease, ahakar."--asa Ill' 5. rice that ripens in 60 days, barley, green gram, ~ [udasi], ~;:!'Ffto [udasinl SkI '3,mfHdl 11 cow's milk and its whey, bitter gourd and non-attachment, asceticism. 2 hopelessness. gravy of meat from wild animals is beneficial. "us de mlCih uppal' udasi chai hoi hE."-prov. Another drug, Narayan Churan (powder), a 3 adj free from worldly attachment, ascetic. mixture of 28 ingredients, taken in doses of "gurubacani bahan ghan eko nanak bhaIa two to four masas, depending on the patient's udasi."-maru ill 1. 4 n a sect within the Sikh age, is very beneficial. community established by Guru Nanak Dev's Dropsy, lymph, windball etc. are also said elder son Baba Shri Chand. Baba Gurditta to be diseases ofthe stomach. Narayan Churan was his first disciple. The latter had four disciples: a) Balu Hasna. b) Almast. c) Phul is beneficial for them too. Shah and d) Gonda or Goind.! ~eaidlf(') [udrag;mI] abdominal heat. See These four dhuni's (literally small open ~ea~IM'. fires) alongwith the six blessed groups were ~ [udramayl n a disease of the stomach, known as dasnami udasi Sadhus. They are: or of the abdomen. ~ [udanl in the stomach or belly. 2 with (a) Suthreshahi blessed by Guru Hal' Rai. the chest. See 1~ 2.3 in the womb. (b) Sangatsahibie blessed by Guru Hal' Rai and Guru Gobind Singh. ~ [udvan] See~. "asabhau udVIau." -sc}vE'ye ill 5 ke. 'What is beyond birth has (c) Jitmallie blessed by Guru Gobind Singh. become manife:st.' '''balu hasna phul pun gooa aru almast. mukh udasi Ih bhae bahur6 sadhu samst.'''-GPS Qe~a3() [udvartan] Sk/~;::r 11 a paste for

Page 59

Qt! i l'fl6d i


(d) Bakhatmallie blessed by Guru Gobind Singh. (e) Bhagatbhagvanie blessed by Guru Har Rai. (f) Mihanshahie blessed by Guru Teg Bahadur. 1 They wear a dress dyed in deep red colour and a black cord around the neck, carry a hollow gourd shell in the hand and put a high cap on the head. The saints of this sects earlier used to keep their hair and beard untrimmed and clean, but now most ofthem wear matted hair or are clean-shaven, with ashes rubbed on their bodies or wear ochre coloured garments. Guru Granth Sahib is their leading light. See ~ and ~. €1iNi!od i [udasinta] See ~ 1. ~ [udasu] See ~. ~ [udasera] adj apathetic, indifferent. 2 non-attached. "sf!)i bajE nlt udasera."-ram

[udahr<ll).] Skt ~ n an example, instance, illustration. ~ [udac<ll] ~-})ftR? See ~ 4. ~ [uddat] Skt~ n a syllable pronounced in high or loud tone. 2 a large musical instrument. 3 high tone. 4 a metaphoric expression in which the lover is glorified by lauding the things related to him. Example: dhan su vas, dhan su pIta, dhan so mata jInI j<ln j<ll).e.-bhc:r n, 4. dh<lny <lnadpur mg<lr hE j<lhf VIcre d<l$me$. dh<lny sfgh jo prem k<lr hajIr r<lhe h<lme$. 5 adjliberal, charitable. 6 high. 7 good, noble. 8 shining. ~ [udan] See 'l{'<!". ~ [udayudh] Skt ~u adj (one) who has taken up a weapon to strike. "aj<ln se t<ln ugr udayudh."-carrtr 1. See~. ~ [udar] Skt \3"m adj charitable, liberal.
'For full details about the names ofthese saints consult this book alphabetically.

€1e i (Jaa

"udar ucIt darId haran."-savEye m 2. 2 grand, superb. 3 Skt ~. ~--ero. See ftJ vr a saw, grinder, destroyer. "sabh 10k sok<ludar."-akal. ~~ [udarta] n liberality, humaneness. 2 goodness, well being. 3 nobility. ~~ [udalak] Skt ~ n a sage, father of Shvetketu, his original name was Aruni but his guru Ayod Dhaumya renamed him Udalak. "ek udalak nkhI huto.,,_carItr 117. 2 a wild plant, whose seed is ground or roasted and then eaten. 3 a deciduous tree, cordia myza; its fruit. "hare m<ldhuk udal<lk h<lre."-GPs. ~ [udIaml] See ~ 4. ~ [udIan] Skt \3£1"Pf n a garden. "m<ln kacur kaIa udIanE."-gau amI. 2 a wilderness, jungle. "jatI n<l P<ltI n<l adro UdIanI bhr<lmfna."-var jEt. 3 river Swat and its adjoining country. 4 a stroll. 5 a resolve, determination. ~ ~ [udIan jal).aJ v to go out at the call of nature; to ease oneself; to defecate. "k<lr tUbi lek<lr tIS kala. jat huto udIan visala."-GP S. ~ [udIan<ld] n hilly woods. See ~ and E. "j<lha sr<lV<ln h<lrI k<ltha n<l suniE t<lh m<lhabh<lian UdIan<ld."-sar m 5. ~ [udIana] n forest dwelling, the third stage of man's life. "tir<lth V<lr<lt nem k<lrhI udIana."-maru solhe m 1. ~~ [udIanI] in the wilderness. See ~. ~ [udIani] adj a forest dweller. See ~. "sam pak <lp<lr<lS udIani."-bavan. tfua' [UdIt] Skt ~ adj manifest, apparent. 2 having risen. 3 Skt-::RRf adjready, prepared. ~ [udIm] See ~. ~ [udici] Skt ~ n northern direction. ~ [udipan] Skt 0tM~ n incitement,

Page 60


instigation. 2 awakening. 3 anything like musk and saffron etc., that arouses sexual desire. 4 in poetics, what enhances erotic pleasure. For example, the spring season, a cuckoo, a black bee, a garden, a female friend, etc. ~ [udirar:tl Skt ~-~ n an utterance, a description, talk. 2 Skt ~ adj perplexed, confused, agitated. ~ [udubar] Skt ~ n ~'->lfaQ higher than the sky; a very large tree; gullar; ficus glomerata. "braham udubar vltap samana." -NP 'GullaI' fruit has innumerable tiny organisms in it. Similarly God inheres countless creatures.' 2 copper. 3 weight equal to 80 rattis. 4 entrance, threshold. 5 a sect of ascetics who carry staff of gullar in their hands. 6 a type of leprosy in which the patient has boils of the size of gullar fruit bursting and oozing on his body. ~ [udull J,)~ n the act of separation; disobedience. "hukam udul apko kin."-GPs. ~ [ude] See ~!tif. ~ [udes] See ~. 2 adj appointed, established. "dIn holi ko karhl udes."-GPs. ~ fi:fur [ude sigh] See ~ fflur. ~ [udeg] short form of ~~dT a desire, longing. "pritl kar rIdE harkhavan udeg hi."-NP ~ [udedar] See 19c:Jee'd. "udedar VI dOl hari ke."-GPs. ~ [udE] See ~{jf. "UdE asatu ki man budhl nasi."-asa kabir. ~ ~ [UdE asatu], ~ >m;f [UdE ast] See ~~


fi:fur [UdE sigh] See ~ fflur. ~ [udosah] adf ~-~avid, courageous.
"udosahE kla nisani."-sava m 1.
~ [udosia] ~t!tir-'Jftn hegemony, eminence.

"udosia ghare hi vuthi."-sava m 1. ~ [udot] Skt ~~ n light, marvel: "bhavi

udot kan)a."-var jEt. 2 morning, dawn. "as at udot bh;na uthlcale."--maru a m 5. 3 adv resplendent, illuminated. ~ [udotak] Skt ~3Or adj resplendent. "lk jOtl udotak rupad s6."-GPS. 1ge9 [ud::>tu] Set~~. "ud::>tu bhalO puran bhavi ko."-mala m 5. ~ [udagal] n a fair, carnival. ~ [udaq] Skt ~3~ ad; fearless, not afraid of punishment. "uda<;l.e ama<;l.e praca<;l.e pramathe."-akal 2 (one) carrying a long staff. 3 furious, violent. 4 chief, head. "ar katkE palkha<;l.. parh ved matr uda<;l.."-gyan. ~ [udat] Skt~;:"Cf n the end of hard labour, result of hard work. "sukh sagar palO udat." -savEye m 4. 2 a decision. 3 an event; a narrative. 4 a topii4;; a context. 5 adj (one) who reaches a logical conclusion. 6 good, noble, virtuous. ~ [udabar] Sc,e WCRir. ~ [uddam] Skt ~ n an effort, attempt; hard work, exertion. ~ [uddami] aoU industrious, hardworking. ~ [udda] See (r'~. 2 n an authority. See~. 3 a jat of Harika who became a disciple of Guru Hargobind and rose: to be a scholar and warrior. He dispilayed great valour in the battle of Amritsar. ~~ [uddipan] See ~ltro. ~-e- [udde] a community of cultivators found mainly in Shahpur district. ~ [uddes] Skt-:j~w. (~-·fu'f.n n an objective, purpose. 2 a reason, cause. 3 a desire, wish. ~~ [udde~y] Skt ~ adj desired,wanted, needed. 2 n an object that is kept in mind while making an observation; idol. ~ [udyan] See ~. ~ [udyog] Skt n an effort, industry, endeavour. "alas tyag karat udyog-hl ."-GPs. ~ [udyogil Skt~~rWfTr;:r, adj active, energetic,


Page 61


hardworking. [udyotak] See ~. ~ [udrek] Skt n an increase, progress. 2 a beginning, commencement. ~ [udhau] See~. "udhau akruru tnlocan nama."-savEye m 3. ~ [udhar] adv on that side. 2 See ~. "udhar deh adh kup te."-jEt m 5. 3 See~. "udhar cali tas6 hIt b:kE."-carrtr 214. ~ [udhra!).] Skt~ n upward movement, the act of rising. 2 the act of emancipation. "nanak udhraSI tISU jan ki dhun."-prabha m 5. 3 ~ v to take across. 4 to emancip·ate. "sat udhra!). daIala,,:"-var jet. "tirath udam satIguru kia sabh 10k udhra!). artha."-tukha chat m 4. ~ t:ra- [udhar dhare] sen liberated; set free. "sabadmatr te udhar dhare."-sav£ye m 4 ke. ~ [udhran] See ~. !i1QdM d [udhranhara] adj (one) who liberates ' ' or emancipates. "dinanath pranpatI puran bhavjal udhranhara."-dev m 5.2 desirous of liberation. ~ [udhalna] v to take another husband; to elope with a lover without telling the husband. "kISU sag udhlani SOI."-GPs. See ~. ~ [udha!).] See ~'ll"<!". ~ [udhar] Skt~ n debt, loan; something borrowed with a promise to return. In Sanskrit "dhar" is another word for debt or loan. 2 salvation, emancipation. "tIsu guru baIIhari jIm sabh ka kia udhar."-guj m 5. ~ [udharan] n a ship, that one takes across. "kalIsamudr bhae rup pragat han nam udharan."-sav£ye m 5 ke. 2 v to liberate; to take across. ~ [Odhali] See »ft:rrffi. ~ [udherna] v to unstitch, peel or pare. 2 to open. (from Skt root~'l meaning to

unbind and wrap).
~ [udho], ~ [udh::>] See ~ and~. "udh::> akruru bIdaru gu!). gavE."~sav£ye m 1.
~ [Odh] See ~""Q".

~"Q" [uddh] Skt 3>{1:A adj high, tall. "dnr darh

karal dYE set udhJ."- VN. "barvanal jval samudr ke maddhI vnajat uddha."-c~di 2. See {ftr3". ~ [uddhat] Skt ~ adj high, tall. 2 lifted raised. "uddhat staya ItE SIgh dhayo."-c~c;fi 2. 'The lion ran with its tail raised.' 3 furious. 4 mighty. 5 shrewd. 6 vain, arrogant. 7 n a royal champion. ~tW [uddhav] See ~. 2 Skt a fire during the oblational ceremony. 3 pleasure, joy. ~'ll"<!" [uddha!).] n a high place; sky. "rararake gIddha uddha!).a."-ramav. ~ [udhnt] Skt "3<\¥ adj raised, lifted. 2 redeemed, selected. 3 a text extracted from some book. fFi [un] pron plural of~. "un kE sag tu karti kel."-asa m 5.2 n See %. "haq.h!:: un kataIda pEdha lOrE patu."-sfarid. ~ [unae] See ffoa". 2 overcast (with clouds) "savan ko unae ghan ae."-krIsan. itoR [ums] A n recognition, acquaintance. 2 friendship. ~ [unsar], ~ [unsur] A ~ an element, ingredient See ~. ~ [unka] A ~ n a long necked imaginary bird which is supposed to remain always in the air. It neither lands on earth and nor is it to be seen by anyone. "unka ukaba carga simurga."-salah. ~ [OnatI] See ~ofu. ~3t [unnati] Skt ~ ~. twenty-nine. ~ [unmat], ~3" [unmatt] Skt \F11ff adj intoxicated, charmed, infatuated. "unmat kam maha bIkh bhuIE."-sri beI)i. 2 obsessed, unhinged, lunatic. See ~.


Page 62


an ignoble path. 2 an awkward gait, bad custom. ~?il-flc;ro [unmilcm] Skt ~;:r n the act of opening the eye; opening the eye. 2 blooming, blossoming. ~ [unmiht] a literary figure ofmeaning in which distinction is posed between overtly similar qualities. "unmilrt sadrI$y te hetu bhed kachu man."-kavy prabhakar. Example: gahr:Q.e jyo jarpo$ de nahr sorn sakhE,I(Q tI(')}{(')'t. dhaule drssan chah duddh sad-hu gu:Q. gakhE, tru sadhu asadhu parakkhian kartut subhakhE. ~ '6ET [unman rath] See iJEr. -BG ~ [unmana] See ~. tIOJ-Ifo [unmanI] in a state of indifference :;: adj open. 3 blossomed, bloomed. towards the world. "unmanI rathu dharIa." ~ [unmul;:mJI Skt~~ vto uproot; to dig. -savEye m 4 ke. 'conscience imbued with ~oHl:f [unmekh] Skt ~ n a blink, wink. 2 time required jfl)r the eye to wink; an instant. spiritual knowledge.' See Q8" 4. ~ [unmani] Skt ~ n a posture in yog ijo-H [unrno] See ~ and BnioH:. in which eye lids are pulled upward and eyes ~ [unav] Skt '3"ffil adj enlarged, expanded. are concentrated on the tip of the nose. 2 state ~ [unavr] having swollen. "unavr ghan of spiritual knowledge attained by taking chae baras subhae."~tukl1a baramaha m I. breath to the sukhmana nerve. "unmani jotr ~ [unvaja] See ~. patatar dijE bn."-BGK. ~ [una] pran plural of ~R marked with ~7i'H't! [unmad] Skt ~ n a condition of inflexion" "una bhI avhI ohi sadu."-var asa. unstable mind. 2 indifferent behaviour, ecstasy, ~ [unanve] See ~~. drowsiness. 3 madness, tenacity. "kam krodh ~ [unab] A ",:",I:P n a kind of berry, blackish red in colour. Physicians of the Greek system mrt-hr unmad."-g5c;t m 5. See~. of medicine us,e: it in several medicines. Its ~ [unmadi] See ~. effect is cool, moist and it removes ~ [unman], ~ [unmanul Skt 3T'}(fR n constipation. It refines the tenor of voice, concentration, thought. "bac;lbhagi unmanIau purifies blood, removes cough, back-pain and rId sabad basayau."-savEye m 5 ke. "sadhr diseases of liver and is beneficial for ajgaru jInI kia unman."-savEye m 2 ke. 'one quenching thirst. 2 adj having a long nose. who has brought the evil snake under control with discretion.' 2 an estimate; a guess. ~ [unabi] aoV of the colour of blackish, red berry. 2 n bltackish red. "carankamal ki mauj ko kahr kEse unman." -s kabir. 3 a measure; a measurement. 4 Skt fffo [unr] adv they, to them. "unr cana:Q. oh sokhra."-asa m I. ~ weight. :5 a measure of32 seers (roughly 'Overtly similar. 30 kilograms) 6 price, value.

[unmad] Skt ~ n ecstasy, intoxication. "unmad cac;lha madan ras cakhIa."--ram kabir. 2 See ~r'f3". ~ [unmada] adj ecstatic, intoxicated. "jacch gadhrabi atI unmada."-carrtr 256. ~ [unman] Skt ~ adj greatly agitated or excited, with unsettled mind. "unman manua sunI samana."-gaukabir. 2 according to yog, one whose mind is indifferent to the world. "unman nam lagan."-prabha m 4. 3 Skt '3""FlC11r;'ff(, lofty mind, high thinking. "unman tatu kamahu."-var suhi m I. See

~ [unmarag] Skt ~ n the wrong way,

Page 63

;:p:f: salutation to the protecting God. "unImo bhagvat gusai." -ram m 5. ~ [unil See~. ~ [Oni] See ~ol ~ [unfda], ~ [unfdra] Skt ~ adj feeling lethargic because of sleep; sleepy. "hute Onide dYE nISI kere."-GPs. ~ [unaja] See ~. ~ [unhal] n summer time; the summer season. ~ [unn], ~'o [On] Skt 31UTf wool, fleece of sheep etc.-romavli. 2 spider's web. ~ [unnat], ~ [Onat] Skt ~ adj high. "unnat nase jotI prakase."-akal. 2 great, excellent. 3 sovereign; holding more riches. ~[unnatI], fP;fu [OnatI] Skt ~ n an increase, progress, growth. 2 height, eminence. ~o1 [unni], ~ [Oni] Skt ~. adj woollen. 2 ~ ~ nineteen. ~ [Oni vih] marginally different from the other. ~ [up] short form of~. "jagte:;;var up ur na sahicu."-NP 2 Skt prep It imparts the meaning of particularity or specificity to words to which it is prefixed as in ~, ~, ~. 3 profusion, abundance as in ~, ~. 4 deputyship as in ~, etc. ~ [upavtar] a secondary incarnation, inferior to the primary one. See~. "ab gano upavtar."-bre>ham. Ram, Krishan, Kalki etc. are primary avtars: Vyas, Prithu etc. are regarded as secondary ones. ~ [upfdr] Vaman Avtar. See~. "kotI fdr upfdr banae."-akal. ~ [upaia] adj producer, creator. 2 produced, made. "sabhI varan rup jiajat upaia."-bIla am 4. ~ [upas] See ~. ~ [upasath] See ~.

~ [unImo] Skt ~

~ [upasthIt] Skt~ adjsitting near,

present, ready at hand. ~ [upasthItI] Skt ~ n presence, attendance. ~ [up:;;am] Skt n tranquility; control over the organs of perception. 2 controlling sexual desire. 3 effort to eradicate disease. "tfh up:;;am ko karahu vIcari."-NP ~ [upsarag] Skt ~ n the process of


nrfu, nrrtr, })fQ, 1?ftf, >$.f, ~, 13, ~, ~, m, foR, f'r;Q, LfdT, ~, 11, yi3', fu etc. in the beginning of words for imparting special meanings to them. 2 a disease. 3 a disorder, disturbance. 4 had. 5 hindrance. [upsa] Skt~n work, task. "kI amItopsa hE."-japu. nffi.I3"-~. ~ [upsOd] See ~. ~trR''iJTij" [upsahar] Skt ~m n the act of pulling towards oneself. 2 a conclusion, immersion. "upkram upsahar jan CIt."-GPS. 'be absorbed in the Lord's creation.' See ~, ~. 3 principle, consequence. ~ [upasth] Skt adj sitting near, situated, close by. 2 n sex, gender. 3 pudendum. ~ [upasthIt], ~ [upasthItI] See
~, ffi-f,



Skt n a joke, jest. 2 laughter. "prIa bacan uphas kaho."-sar m 5. ~1.i'UTQ [uphar] Skt n the act of carryi ng something close. 2 a present, gift, offering. 3 worship. ~ [UphIt] Skt adj holding a title, titled. 2 assumed. 3 gifted. ~ [upkaraD] Skt n material; provisions. 2 means and material for making some object such as potter's wheel, string and staff or a writer's pen, inkpot etc. 3 things such as a king's whisk and canopy or ascetic's mat and water container. ~ [upkarta] Skt ~ adj a benefactor.

~ [uphas]

Page 64


2 helper. ~ [upkarna] v to go for aid; to render help. 2 to prove b{mevolent. "jIn karal)I guru VIsana, se na upkare ativar."-var vacj m 3. "jo tudhu upkarE dukh sukhasa."-g5d m 4. ~~ [upkar] Skt n help, aid. 2 an act of kindness, benefaction. "sar maha SImr,m satInamu, kar maha karbo upkar."-GPs. 3 conformity. 4 employment, service. S kindness. ~l.fcXTOl [upkari] Skt 'Zl:fCflTR;:r, ad} helpful. 2 benevolent, beneficent. "data tarvaru daIa phalu upkari jivat."-s kabir. J benign, benevolent. ~ [upkath], ~"Lrcffo [upkathI] Skt ~uo adv near, close. 2 on the bank, ashore. "nadi upkathI jEse ghar tarvaru."-mala am 1. ~ [upkram] Skt~ n beginning, origin. 2 a preface, preamble. 3 a sequence of the creation. See ~fH ~. ~ ~'U"a' [upkram upsahar] These two words coming together denote unity of the preamble and ultimate doctrine of a book. 2 a description of the world's creation from God and its ultimate r_eabsorption in Him. 3 the beginning and the end. ~ [upknt] Skt ~ one who has been obliged, beneficiary. See ~d". ~ [upkntI] Skt 'Z1i~~ n a favour, benefaction. 2 virtue, goodness. 3 aid, help. 4 kindness, benevolence. ~ [upgata], ~~ [upgatn] Skt ~'ill ad} getting close. 2 acquaintance, confidante. 3 (one) who helps. ~ [upcar] Skt n service. 2 an effort:. 3 a bribe. 4 a treatment, therapy. 5 a recitation of a mantar or spell and the procedure to do so. ~~. [upcarak] Skt ad} (one) who cure:s. 2 attendant. 3 one who actualizes a spell or mantar. 4 n a secondary word, which is not

primary. ~ [upcItra] See f3ffi51t. ~ [uP;}j] Skt n oriigin. 2 produce, product. See t'f1') Hfu ~r-m-. ~ [upajl).a], ~10 [upjan], ~ [upajna] Skt ~ v to be born, to take birth. "UpjE nIpjE nIpajJ: samai."-gau kabir. 2 to grow, germinate. :3 to take birth, have rebirth. "gurumukhJ: jia pran upj-hI."-prabha m 1. 'Impelled by Guru's teaching, mind and life are then reborn i.e. they assume higher form of living.' ~ fo1./H [upaj mpajl See ~ and f'otrtr. ~ [upja.- r ] See ~~l..fR. ~ [upjap] See~~. ~ [upajI] having been produced, having been born, having taken birth. ~ [upjIara] ad} born, produced. "jIS te upjIara tInI lia samai."-bIha chat m 5. ~ [upjivan] Skt n living, livelihood. 2 a means of subsistence. ~ [UpjivIka] Skt n Iliving, livelihood. 2 a means of subsistence. ~trR [UpjE] See ~"l.fi17). 2 makes progress, succeeds. 3 comes out the winner. "khoji UpjE badi bInsE."--mala m 1. 'The seeker wins, the disputant fails.' ~l.f [upjap 1, ~ftr [upjap I] Skt ~ n a recitation or repetition (of God's name) in a voice not audible to others, also called "upa:;;u jap." "upjap upaI na paiE kat-hu."-prabha m 4. 2 Skt ~ffi ad} proper, suitable, correct. "ram namI cItu rapE jaka. opjapI darsan kije taka."-gau a m 1. ~ [uptan], ~ [upattal).], ~ [up'attan] Skt \3('l:ffc:;:r v to tear; to saw. 2 to render worthless, uproot. "upatat bar."-datt. 'uproots hair.' ~ [uptha], ~ [upthi] ad} bent backward, turned face backward; that is, opposite or

Page 65


against. "l1ddan upathi je kan: sultana ghahu hartal, antimony, mica, red arsenic, and karaIda."-var asa. See ursr. khaprIya. "kahI dhatu sab£ updhatu ~ [uptapJ SkI n a burning sensation. bhano."-sdmudr mdthdn. 2 pain from sickness. 3 worry. 4 calamity. ~ [updhan] SkI n a head-rest; a pillow. 5 sickness caused by sun's heat. "baq updhan dharyo jfh pache."-GPs. 2 a mantar recited before laying the foundation ~ [uptIsat], ~ [UptI;;th] SkI ~ adjnearby, standing close. "nfdak avadh hOI of an altar. 3 love, affection. uptIsatte."-sahds m 5. 'standing nearby to ~ [upl1dt] SkI adj visible, apparent. "jan murder.' upnat suhag."-mdnu. 2 bent towards the front. 3 one who bows in order to seek protection; a ~ [updI;;a] SkI n mid-way between two refugee. directions such as southeast (agni kOD), northeast (i;;an kOD), southwest (nrrat kOD); ~ [upl1dyan] SkI n the ceremony of the sacred thread. See ~.1 2 the act of taking and northwest (vayvi kOD). See fuw. the pupil close to the preceptor. ~ [updes] SkI ~ (~-fuF.r) n teaching, advice. "ap kamau avra updes."-gdu m 5. ~ [upnam] SkI \3Q'1II1'1, n a second name given out of love; nickname. 2 a poet's 2 beneficial talk. 3 a religious preceptor's teaching. 4 a country within a country, province adopted name as Goya by Bhai Nand Lal. See 5I1-f. etc. "mer kete, kete dhu, updes."-jdpU. ~ [updesak] SkI ~ n a preceptor. 2 a ~ [upnI;;ad], ~ [upmkhad] SkI ~ n the actof sitting closeby to listen to guru, mentor. the preceptor's teachings. 2 a branch of Ved ~ [updesra] guru's teaching. "soi dasI Brahamans containing spiritual precepts. updesra."-suhi m 5 gU1;rvJti. See;r-. They are one hundred and seventy in number ~m [updesI] with or through teaching. but the main ones are ten: ishavasy, ken, "guru updesI kal SIU jun:."-bhEr kdbir. 'fights kathvalli, pra;;n, muqak, maquky, t£turiy, death through Guru's teaching.' Etrey, chadogy, vrIhdarDyak. "kachu ~ [updesi], ~T [updesta] SkI ~CT n a teacher, preacher, preceptor. "gIani upnIkhad path mukh thana."-GPs. Some of the Upnishads were translated dhIani bahu updesi."-gdu kdbir. 2 guru. into Persian during the reign of emperor ~ [upadrah], ~ [upadrav] Skl~ n Akbar. Darashikoh also got fifty of them violence, turbulence, tumult. "mIte upadrah man te b£r."-asa m 5. 2 an uproar; a turmoil. translated in 1657 AD. 3 an uninhabited place, isolated spot. 4 religion. 3 a calamity, disaster. ~ [upadravi], ~'t [upadri] SkI ~ ~trfot;m [upnIyam] SkI n bye-laws framed under principal laws. For example, principal adj riotous, tumultuous. "dhuja phat basatr precepts of Sikhism are nam, dan and Isnan, su dhare upadri."-pards. ~ [updhatu] SkI n dross. 2 an alloy. 3 a and secondary principles or upnIyams are reading and recitation of the sacred texts, metallic or metal-like substance like katha and kirtan, gifting of food, clothing, antimony, blue vitriol, yellow arsenic, etc. some writers have put their number at seven 'Being a ritual of the moment when the novice is taken to adding to the above sOInamakkhi, bluevitriol, the preceptor for teaching, it carries this name.

Page 66




medicine and education, and maintenance of cleanliness of dothes, house, etc. ~ [upnit] SkI adj(one) who has undergone the ceremony ofthe sacred thread. 2 brought closeby. ~3T [upneta] SkI ~ 11 one who brings. 2 the priest who offers the sacred thread. ~ [upnetr] SkI 11 the second eye, education or knowledge. 2 spectacles. ~''MTR" [upanyas] SkI 11 the act of keeping closeby. 2 an abdication. 3 a statement, narration. 4 an imaginary tale, a novel.5-.1:rust money. 6 thought. ~ [up-patI] SkI 11 the second husband, jar.' "patI mar2lt jIh lagi na bara. ka up-pan tIh agr bIcara?"-carItr 267. See ~<.'(fu-. "'uppatI khas\am karln ucaran."-GP S. ~ [up-pattI] Skl~ 11 an achievement. 2 a spiritual success. 3 the skin, method or reason for asceliaining a fact. ~l.ft/TOOl" [up-patak] 11 a sin of the second degree. For example, stealing is a sin of the first degree, while dealing with a thief is an uppatak. ~ [up-pati] SkI \3QQIRt;\adjwho has gatecrashed. 2 arrived suddenly. 3 caught in the trap. "tyo ab taptavhu up-pati."--GPs. ~~ [up-padan] 11 describing cogently, proving methodically. ~'6"<!" [up-pura))] minor Purans or books of Hindu mythology. They are 18 in number: usna, sanatkumar, ~ab, ShEV, kapIl, kaIIka, durvasa, devi, narsfgh, nardiy, n;}dIke~;var, para~ar, padm, bhaskar, mahe~var, maric, vayviy and varon, See ~.2
lIn Punjabi there is difference of meaning between yar and jar. The former means a friend and helper, but the latter is a person who cohabits with the other's wife. 2Names of Purans and Upp-purans differ in many books. See ~~, Chapter 17.

[upban] SkI ~ 11 a garden. [upbah] a marriage, wedding, See ~. "dVE upbah agari bhae."-GPs. ~ [upbhuktl, 1~~ [upbhugat] SkI ~ adj used, exploited. ~ [upbhog] 11 pleasure derived from using something. 2 the act of tasting or enjoying. ~ [upma], ~}-rT [upma] SkI ~-w 11 the act of judging equality; similarity. "kaun upma deu kavan baQai ?"-sar cMt ill 5. 2 a literary figure of speech in which upman and upmey being diff,~rent objects have a shared quality that calls for comparison. kanye jahf upmey ko bar upman saman, pun sadharan dharam dhar souupma jan. --alJkar sagar sudha. In order to understand this figure ofspeech, four terms i.e. upman, upmey, dharam and vacak should be thoroughly grasped: 'upman' is an object whose quality is compared with that ofanother, as for example the moon's brightness/beauty is compared with a face. 'upmey' is that object which is recipient of an attribute of some other object, as for example, the face that is imagined comparable to the moon. 'dharam' or 'sadharaI). dharam' is the common quality bi~ing compared. In the present example, the common quality or dharam is brightness ()r charm which is common to both the moon and the face. 'vacak' is an expression or a word pointing to the fact ofsimiillarity. For example in "locan amal kamaldal jEse." the word 'jEse' is a vacak. Other words such as tEsa, JID, tID, sam, so, sa, yatha, itatha, b, etc. are indicative of this similarity. The figure of speech in which all these four qualities are found goes by the name of pur))opma ali'lkar. In the above example, netr is upmey, kamal


Page 67


(petal of lotus) is upman with both having purity sIta kalakad madhu mIt?ri J amnt ne as a shared quality i.e. their dharam; and jEse is mana gurugIra me te madhurai lini hE. vacak here. 3 appreciation, eulogy. "bIn upma jagdis ki (b) If one or two terms comprising are bInsE na adhIara."-gau mI. absent, it is a case of a hidden comparison, ~ [upmata] SkI ~ n a foster-mother. 2 mother's female cousin, aunt, elder and the missing entity is called luptopma which means If a 'dharambodhak' word is brother's wife. 3 a portrayor, portraitist. 4 adj missing, it is a case ofdharamlupta; ifupman a eulogizer. is absent, it is a case ofupmanlupta; ifa vacak ~ [upman] See ~. 2 n a matnc metre is messing, it is a case of vacaklupta. of four lines, each having 23 matras the last (c) If an upamey has several upmans, it is two being guru, with pauses, at the thirteenth matra, and the tenth matra thereafter. It is also called a malopma alakar. called a nI$ani cad. Example: chir kESi chiravadhI chach kEsi chatraner Example: bhali suhavi chapri, jamhI gun gae, chapakar kESi chabI kalfdi ke kul ke, kIt-hi kam na dhaulhar, jItu han vIsrae. hasni si siharum, hira si husmabad -suhi m 5. gaga ki si dhar cali sat:') sIdhu rulke, para si palaugaQh, rupa kESi rampur (b) Another form of this matra has four lines each having 23 matras, ending in sagan, t?0ra si suragabad nike rahi jhulke, that is liS with pauses at the 13 th matra and 10 capa si caderikot, cadni si cadagaf kirti tIhari rahi malti si phulke-akal. matra thereafter in each line. Example: (d) If upmeya and upman are described akkhi bajh-hu vekhl)a, VII) kana sunl)a, consecutively in the altered order, it is a case pEra bajh-hu cal1J::ta, VII) hattha karl)a, of rasnopma. jibhE bajh-hu boll)a, IU jivat marl)a, Example: nanak hukam pachal)kE, tau khasmE mIIl)a. kEsi raVI rasamI ghata pE hE tahII sIgh? -var majh m 2. jEsi nilmanIn ki avli pahar hE, ~triiur [upmanopmey] or ~ kESi nilmanIn ki avli sabaj sEl? [upmeyoman] n a figure of speech in which jEsi bnjkOjan me jamuna ki dhar hE, upman is described as upmey and vice versa. kEsi bnjkOjan me jamuna ki dhar dekhi? "jaha paraspar hot hE upmeyo upman, bhu$al) jEsi bijuri ki $an panap apar hE, upmeyopma UihI bakhanat jan."-~Ivraj kESi bijuri ki t?an panap apar dekhi? jEsi t?ri gobid sIgh teri talvar hE. bllU~al). Example: -alJkar sagar sudha. (e) Imagining the possiblity of the quality dat?met? ki knpan bhasE bijuri saman, bIjli camak dekhi $ri guru knpan si. of one thing in several other objects is a case ~lif [upmey] See~. of utprekt?opma to the fore. ~ [upmeyopma] See ~ . Example: ~ [upyukt] SkI adjsuitable, proper, correct. tal kup phale dram megh ja pun t me 2 connected, related. mana guru nanak ki namrata basat hE, ...

Page 68

~ [upyog] Skt n a relation" connection.

2 a job, business; 3 a motive, purpose. 4 competence, talent. ~ [upyogi] Skt ~m;:r,. adj helpful. 2 assistant, helper. 3 suitable. ~ [upar] Skt \3"'1ft adv on, over, upon, See
~trfu. ~ [uprauna] n a garment for the head; a

[upram] SkI n renunciation, detachment. 2 rest, repose. 3 adj averse, indifferent. ~ [uprala], '~' [upralo] n an effort; labour. 2 help. ;3, a favour. "path uprala kin hamara."--GPs. "ab hamro upralo kijE."-guru

[upan] adv on, upon, See~. "uparI aI bEthe kuparu."-var asa. 2 according to, in accordance with. "karma uparI nIbrE." dupatta. "upa!' pit dhare uprauna."-krTsan. 2 a towel, wash cloth. -gau m I. 3 puissant, preponderant. "pure ~ [uparj;:m] SkI ~TfT\if;:r n producing, guru ka bacal1 uparI aIa."-gau val' I m 4. creating. "nanak apan rup apI hi uparja." ~ [upria] n a measure; an effort. 2 a treatment., remedy. "an:ck upria."-bIla m 5. -sukhmani. 'sdf created.' "kadac karUl:la na uparjate."-sahas m 5. 'Little kindness doesn't 3 adj rootless, uprooted, pulled out. 4 extirpator. grow.' 2 earning. 3 collecting, gathering. ~ [upre] adv upward. "mukhu talE pEr ~ [upr<lt] Skt adj detached from worldly upre."-var jEt. cares, dejected. "upr<lt m;:mua VI$<lY te." ~ [uprer£] advexcessively upward, towards -GPs. 2 dead. the higher side. "uprerE caha."-BG ~ [upr<ltan] Skt ~ n a jewel of the ~ [uprok<lt] adj said above, mentioned second order, inferior jew1els such as above. carnelian, crystal, crystallized quartz, mother ~ [uprodh] Skt n a hindrance, an of pearl etc. obstruction. ~ [upratI] SkI n dejection, detachment, ~~ [uprodhak] Skt adj a hinderer. 2 an alienation. "jo upratI hOVE sasari."-NP 2 death. obstructionist. ~ [upama] See~. "dhoti ek uparna ~ [uprodha] n a purohIt, a family-priest pan."-GPs. of the Brahmin caste who guides the ~ [upram] Skt n detachment, dejection, performance of all ceremonies and warns sadness, apathy. against wrong doings. ~ [uprag] SkI n colour, caste. 2 the process ~ [upr:ma] See ~~. of dyeing or colouring. 3 the reflection of ~ [uprat] See ~r. colour. ~ [upal] Skt n a stone. 2 a hail stone. 3 a cloud. 4 sand. 5 forest dung. 6 See ~. ~ [upraj] Skt n a ruler's deputy; a viceroy. 2See~. ~~ [uplak$J:t], ~~ [uplakhIt] SkI ~ [uprajan] Skt~ v to dye; to draw, ~1j('f~Tcf adj already known. 2 inferred. to paint. 2 Skt ~ to produce. "tum sabh 3 known, explicated. ko upraj-hi tumhi lehu ubar."-sanama. 3 to ~ [uplakkhaD], ~~5<!' [uplacchaD] Skt accumulate, collect. "sukh uprajE maddh "3'J('fe:ruT n an indicator or sign to underline the ura."-akal. "gyan rIde uprajat hE."-GPS. significance of an object. 2 the quality of a word which dim)rs from its literal meaning. ~ [uprat] SkI ~ adv subsequently; following this. For example, to protect the field from the deer


Page 69


means that the field is to be protected from the other stray cattle too. ~~ [uplabadh] Skt ~u adj available, found. 2 known. ~ [uplabadhI] Skt ~ n the act of searching, power offinding. 2 an achievement. 3 intelligence, knowledge. ~ [upvas] Skt n a fast; missing a meal; observing a fast. ~ [upvah] a marriage, See ~. "kino upvah abhIram y5 jE ram."-NP ~ [upvit] Skt n a thread worn by extending the right hand; a sacred thread. See ~~. ~ [upve$<m] Skt (~-f~'7'f) n the act of sitting; being situated. ~ [upved] Skt n a Ved of the second order. Four upveds of the Hindus are. (I) Ayurved on medical science. (2) Gandharv Ved containing musicology. (3) Dhanur Ved about weapons including bows. (4) Sthapaty Ved on architecture. ~ [uparna] vto arrive; to reach; to approach. ~ [upau] Skt \3llTl:[ n an effort, a means. "kachu upau mukatI ka kar re."-gau m 9. 2 a device, plan. 3 the act of coming close. 4 a treatment, effort to cure a disease. ~ [upauDa] v to produce; to create. tp.rfu [upaI] See~ and~. "upaI kItE nd labhai."-g.:m m 4. 2 having produced or created. "sabhu upaI ape vekhE."-sri m 3. ~ [upaIa] n an effort; a means. "e sa jan! kachu kah-hu upaIa."-bavan. "trItie mata kIChu karau upaIa."-asa m 5. 2 produced, created. ~o [upaIn] offering. See ~. fJtrFr [upas] Skt~ to sit near. 2 n the act of sitting c1oseby; worship, adoration, service. "man, carnarbfd upas."-guj m 5.3 See~. ~ [upasak], ~ [upaskiJ Skt \3'1TB91 adj (one) who sits c1oseby, a servant. 2 a worshipper.

3 a devotee. ~ [upasan], ~ [upasna] Skt n the act of sitting near. 2 rendering service, waiting upon. 3 devotion. 4 worship. ~ [upasI] having worshipped. 2 will produce. 3 See ~. ~ tJ1,( [upa$u jap] Skt n a recitation or repetition in low voice so as to be inaudible to those sitting at a distance. ~ [upasy] Skt adj (one) sitting near whom is proper; fit to be served. 2 worshippable. ~ [upaha] adj produced, created. "jInhI upaha, tInhI bInaha."-asa m 5. ~ [upakhyan] Skt ~l.f-»fTl::fJrT?i n an ancient or antique tale; history. 2 a story connected with an antique tale. ~ [upag] See ~. ~ [upajan] See ~. ~ [upatan] SkI ~c;:r v to dig up; to dismantle. 2 to saw; to split. fttpo [upat], ~ [upatI], ~ [upati] Skt ~. birth, creation. "anIk parlau anIk upatI."-sar a m 5. 2 produced, created. "apI SrISatI upati."-var majh I. ~ [upadan] Skt ~l.f-~ acquisition, adoption. 2 spiritual knowledge. 3 an achievement. 4 prevalence of senses in their respective fields. 5 a cause that changes into an action, as clay is changed into a pitcher or steel is transformed into a sword. "upadan Ih sabh jag keri. "-GPS. 'According to Vedant, maya is upadan of the world.' ~ [upadey] adj fit to be got or acquired. 2 fit to be known, knowable. 3 exquisite, superb. 4 n work. ~ [upadh] See ~. ~1.f"QTO [upadhan] a pillow, See ~1..fQTO. "as gadi Qas ruCIr fara$ par upadhan diragh dhardin."-GPs.

Page 70


[upadhI] Skt n a stratagem. 2 status, rank. 3 a title. 4 an indicator to bring to cognizance an object. It is different from the object as a pot that gives the idea of the firmament, though both are so different. 5 tumult, rowdyism. ~ [upadhi] See ~. ~ [upadhyay] Skt n a teacher; a guru to impart rei igious teaching; a priest etc. I ~ [upan] the foundation of a building.
2See~. ~'I.f'i'itJ' [up anah], ~ l.f'03' [ up ana t], ~ tf'7)(jf


[upanay], ~~ [upam:] Skt \3"1:rf'=r~-~'iC'l n shoes, xa a humble servant. "dharyo upanah guru ko cin."-GPs. "taje upanay nage paI." -GPs. "das upam: IEkar dhae."-GPs. f31m [upam] plural of ~. 2 n all created beings; mankind; the living multitude. "sabh gavat jet upam."-bera m 4. 3 Skt »n-f')f adj farthest. 4 very far. ~ [upay] See M. ~ [upayau] adj produced, created. ~ [upayan] Skt n a present, an offering. 2 a meeting. ~ [upar] See ~. ~ [uparjan], ~l..flOR?iT [uparjana] Skt 5. ~ . v to draw, print. 2 to decorate, ~ [uparI] adv having split or torn apart. bedeck, adorn. "kotI uparjana tere ag."-bhEr "bh£anrup nIksIa tham upap."-bhEr m 3. a m 5. 3 SkI ~1..fTtfo adding up, collection. 2 having pulled apart or uprooted. "phalgul).I an;}d uparjana."-majh baramaha. ~ [upari] See ~;. 4 creation. "sImrE sagal uparjana."-maru ~ [upfd], ~Ri [upIdr] Yaman. See~. "kai kotI upIdl: banay khapayo."-savEye 33. solhe m 5. "jet kin uparjana prabhu dan deI ~ [upek:?a], 1~ [upekhyal Skt~ n datar."-mali m 5. ~ [uparal).], ~ [uparna] Skt \3C'C!lC'l to renunciation. 2 apathy, indifference, dejection. 3 disrespect, scorn. "mEtri karul).a uproot, dismantle. "mul vIkar upar."-GPs. 2 to tear apart, saw. 3 \3'1ll:UT n a crime, an dVE lakho mudrta tiji jan. catur 2 upekhya jIs bIkh£ sanmukh so pahIcan."-NP offence, a sin. 4 LfRUT the end of fasting. See lIt is wrItten in the third chapter ofShankh Simriti that one ~3"(!T [upetal).a] adjwithout shoes, barefoot. who teaches a celebate is a 'guru' and he who teal;hes for "pag upetal).a."--var asa.
monetary reward is a teacher. 'Fourth.

[upara] adj dug up, uprooted. 2 created, built, formed. "kai jat bInahI upara."-suhi m 5. "oakar te snsatI upara."-VN. ~tfTQ't [upari] ad; created, formed. "sabh SE dataru jetu upariE."-var guj2 m 5. 'gives gifts to all the created ones.' 2: dug up, dismantled. ~ [upalabh] Skt ~ n a complaint, blame, grievance. ~ [upav] measure. See~. "sabhnaupava SIrI upau hE harInam parapatI hOI."-var guj 1 m 3. "upav ChOQ.I gahu tIS ki ot."-gau m5. ~ [upaval).], 1~~ [upaval).u] vto produce, create. ~ [upavaI).uhar] adjproducer, creator. "ap upaval).uhar.. "-var guj 2 m 5. ~lRO [upavan] See ~~. "apI upavan." -bIla m 5. ~~ [upavi] with endeavour, with effort. "anIk upavi rogu na jaI."-sukhmani. ~ [upar] See~. ~ [up3lran] Skt~'l n the act of uprooting. "jar apni apI upari."-majh m 5. n sawing, splitting. "bahur jam na upara."-asa chat m



Page 71

~~ [upedr] Skt ~ n Kashyap's son born ~ [ubat] Skt"\3iTIC n an irregular or rough

to Aditi; younger brother of Indar; Yaman Avtar. ~ti(T [upEya] See ~trEPw. ~i3" [upodghat] Skt \341'("1ld n a prologue, an introduction, a preface, brief description of things dealt with in the book. 2 different from a normal statement, description of a special object. ~ar [upag] Skt ~ n a part of a limb (a hand is a limb; a finger is an upag). 2 limblike, artificial limb. 3 a kind of musical instrument, nastarag. "jhalar tal mndag upag."-ca(ii 1. 4 Udho's father. ~o [upan], ~ [upana] Skt"\3"fqFf adj born, begotten. "ape apI upaI upana."-maru solhe m 3. "apI upanIa."-var ram 2 m 5. "cauthe pIan upani kheq.."-var majh m 1. ~!<tn? [uppal] a subcaste of Khatris. "gajjaI). uppal satIguru bhav£."-BG ~ [uf] P ..ji partan exclamation of pain, grief or fatigue; ah, oh! hal alas! ~ [uphat;m] v to burst; to explode; to jump. "uphtat sroI).at chIcchya."-ca(ii 2. 'Drops of blood rebound.' ~ [uphaI).na] v to ferment. 2 to boil. ~ [uftad] P ;;;f the felled ones. See e~""i$-=r3r::::J'e!Ai'i. ~ [uftad] P JDi the felled one. See ~,*31i!(,). ijiil3 i €(J [uftadah] P &JDi felled, humiliated. See
ij$3 i i!(').

path; an arduous valley. "ubat calate Ihu madu paIa."-keda k;:>bir. See ire'. ~ [ubatna] Skt~ a paste of oil seeds, sandalwood, sesame seeds, car5ji, etc., for massaging the body before bathing; it makes the body clean, soft and fragrant. ~ [ubtana] v to put on a wrong and rough path. 2 to turn back. 3 See ~. ~ [ubar] liberation, salvation, redemption.
See~and~. ~ [ubraI).], ~ [ubran] Skt ~ n the

[uftadan] P l;JJlil v to fall, collapse. 2 to be ruined. ~~ [uphanna] See ~G(!OT. "tej tale pay up;:myo jEsa."-GPS. ~ [uphan] n the process of boiling; boiling over. 2 an outburst. ~l:l'a' [ubak] A ...f" adj fat, plump. 2 smart, shrewd. "bajje ubakk."-ca(ii 2. 'Smart fighters clashed among themselves.' ~ [ubkai] n nausea, vomit.
ijiild i €(')

act of coming up. 2 turning from bad to good condition; improving. 3 attaining liberation. "ubrat raja ram ki sarI).i."-g;:/U m 5. ~ [ubalna] v ~-<ffi(')' to boil. 2 to cook. "jIu ubli majithE rag gahgaha."-var g;:>u 1 m 3. 3 to gush forth. ~ [ubasi] n a yawn, gape. (Many people think that the root of this word is from Arabic u-'f which means a wrinkle or scowl on the brow). See ~. ~~ [ubahI).a] without shoes; barefoot. 2 without a carriage. ~ [ubac] See ~. ~ [ubarI).a], ~ [ubaran] Skt~. to raise, lift. 2 to liberate. 3 to save. "dfJpdi abar let ubariale."-mali namdev. "mE taki ot satah lehu ubaria."-g;:>u;:> m 5. 4 to boil. "kahI cakar s6 deg ubari."-GPS. ~ [ubananu] he saved. "apI ubananu."
-var guj 2 m 5.

[ubare xan] Abdul Rahiman Khan, a devotee of Guru Nanak Dev, who served the congregation at Kartarpur after imbibing the Guru's precept and was counted among the devout Sikhs. See Janamsakhi of Bhai Bala. ~ [ubalI).a], ~ [ubalna] vto boil, cook in boiling liquid. See ~.

~~ l:fT(')'

Page 72


[ubharl).a], ~ [ubharna] v to push up, lift. 2 to incite, instigate. 3 to promote to a higher rank. ~ [ubhe] Set: ~"gljf. "harakh sok ubhe darbar. "-gaLi d m I. 2 See ~. ~ilor. ~9 [ubh] adj standing. 2 adv above, upon. ~ [ubhesas], ~ [ubhesah] Sk/~ "pfdhi ubh kale sasara."-dl1ana namdev. See n sighs, gasps caused by contraction of lungs, ~ and flfdt. :, Skl-:J'f{ both of them. 4 Skl-:J'l"f., by sorrow or by excessiive phlegm. "muh kala vr to fill, complete. 5 S n sky. hoa adarI ubhesas."-var sor m 3. "nave dhaule ubhesah."-var majh m I. 2 sighs. ~ [ubhaI] See ~. ~ [ubhsuk] adja tree, that has dried before ~ [ubhE] See~~. it is cut; dead even when alive. "bharam suke ~ [umai] adjc~xuberant, enthusiastic. "man bahu iJbhsuk kahiahI."-kalI am 4. me ;:ltI hi um;:li."-krIs.::m. ~ [ubhkale] See~, ~ and flfdt. ~ [um;:lh], ~1fUT [umha] See ~. "sabh ~ [ubhay] SkI adv both. umhai dekhbe ko v;:ldhu lal kO."-GPs. ~ [ubhyatr] SkI advon both sides or places. ~ [umak] n keen desire, enthusiasm, fit of ecstasy. "m;:ln n;:l r;:lhE b;:lhu brdhI umkai." 2 in both the worlds, here and hereafter. ~~~ [ubhyalakar] n This figurative -sar m 5. 2 A ~;; depth, seriousness, gravity. expression, whether ornamental or semantic ~ [um;:lkna] See ~. is formed when two or more figurative ~ [umbo], ~:3" [umkrt] filled with expressions are found at one place, and is of zeal. See ~}ror. "umkro hio mrlan pr;:lbhu two kinds: SaSrI$tI and sakar. tar."-suhi m 5. "umkrt r;:lS cale."-mala (a) If a number of figurative expressions, parta1 m 5. even if merged, appear separate, then this is ~ [um;~g] See ~ and tIHar. ~ [umagl).a]l v to have longings, long for. an instance of sasrI$tr: 2 to jump. alakar rk thaI bahut jude jude lakh jahr, trl tadul ki ritr s6 sasrI$ti tahf. ~ [um;:lQnaJi v to long for. 2 to jump. 3 to -garabgjjni. rise. 4 to spread. 5 to surround. (b) but, if on merging, they do not appear ~ [um;:lt], ~Hf3" [um;:ltI] A .,;:..;f n a nation, separate, then it is a case of sakar: nationality. 2 a sect, following a particular religious belie;f and practice. "d;:lrI seVE pay pani ki ritr kar h6y parspar lin, tako sakar nam hE bhakhat par;:lm pr;:lbin. um;:ltr kh;:lri."--var ram 3. -katvy prabhakar. ~ [umdah], I~r [umda] A u ) adj good, ~ [ubhr;:ll).], ~~ [ubh;:lrl).a], ~~ excellent. 2 healthy, sound. 3 chosen.

He was appointed the subedar of Lahore province for some time in 1761 AD by Ahmed Shah Durani. [n fact he was the ruler of Kalanaur (Gurdaspur) under the aegis of Delhi, and was badly defeated by Raja Chatur Singh of Chamba, Raja Raj Singh of Guier, Raja Dhiraj Pal of Basoli and Raja Kripal Deo of Jammu. ~ [uberaI] n a sub-caste of Khatris. ~ 1:f'O tUbEd xan], ~ ilor tubEd beg] See


iIor [ubed beg]


[ubarna] SkI -:Jfl-~ v to raise upward, get higher. 2 to burst forth into flame. 3 to swell, rise, spring up. ~ [ubha] a region ofMultan, Dera Gazi Khan and adjacent parts of Bahavalpur state. 2 See
~and ~~.

Page 73


4 beautiful.
~ [umna] Sec~. "ab jag jam ju umna

rahE."-gau bavan kabir. ~ [umar} A ) n age, life span. According to Charak Sanhita, age is a state of the union of body, senses, heart and soul. In the Veds, Manu writes that man's age in Satyug was 400 years but decreased by 100 years! in each Yug, and it has come down to 100 years 2 in Kalyug. In the Purans it is shown as thousands and lakhs of years. "jo jo vaJ1E e,lihra sou umar hath pavam."-s farid. See ~1-Rf ~ and

~ J.IlU [umar :?ah] a jat masand (preacher

cum agent) of Sangha clan, resident ofDarauli village. He lovingly participated in the construction of the Harimandar under orders ofGuru Arjan Dev. He looked upon offerings and money as poison. His son Nand Chand became a revenue officer of Guru Gobind Singh.See ittft'. ~ CJEf tWfo [umar hath pavam] S sen Days of life are decreasing, as crops do during the harvesting. "jo jo vaJ1E e,lihra sou umar hath pavanI." It is an ironical statement as lengthening of Iife stands for dying and raising the flame for extinguishing it. ~ [umarkhatabl, ~ [umarkhItabl ":",u..;. l:f. / Caliph Umar son of Khattab was father of Hafsa, third wife of prophet

'vm ~ m~:
.23RmT: B"'f ~

(Rig Ved)

"-~~: I

<gCf ~ iiJlSIl"II!i\t<JRl1JTGW: l-maTIUSrmntr a 1, S 83.

In Shabadmala, it is written that man and elephant live for one hundred twenty years and five days. The horse, dog, donkey and camel, bullock and he-buffalo and he-goat live for two, twelve, twenty five, twenty four and sixteen years respectively. For an estimate of the age-span by modem thinkers, reference may be made to the entry on 'Longevity' in EncyclopaediaBritannica.

Muhammad. He was stabbed to death by Firoz, a slave, in 23 Hijri (644 AD) Under Caliph Umar, the Muslims conquered Egypt and north Africa, and he undertook boundless preaching of Islam. "kino umarkhItab jyo aj hamaro nyau."-carItr 38. Several tales ofUmar'sjustice arc current. In the book' Alfaruk' it is written that Caliph Umar had framed the rule that one who drank liquor be given 80 lashes. One day his own son Abu Shamah got drunk whereupon Umar himself lashed him so severely that he died. "umarkhItab adalti bEta marvaIa." -j{'ignama. 3 ~ [umarthal] SkI ~ tumour in the intestines, caused by incontinence in eating and drinking and the taking of intoxicating drugs which results in malfunctioning of the four humours of the body. Blood deteriorates and tumours are formed on internal organs. Swelling of tumours causes pain especially when this occurs in the stomach, nave, pelvis, liver, kidney, spleen, etc. There is an acute pain all the time and sleep is impossible to get. The best treatment for it is a surgical operation and the use of blood-cleansing and laxative medicines. Food should be light but invigorative. Juice ofharar (myrobalan) and suMjl).a is found beneficial. "jIna adan umarthal sei jal).anI sulia."-var gau 1 m 4. This means that as the patient knows the pain of this illness, so does the love-lorn lover know of the inner pang. ~ [umra], ~ [umrau], ~ [umraI], ~ [umray], ~ [ummv], ~ [umria],
3This composition of32 pauris is from the pen ofa devotee. It is also called "Var Guru Gobind Singh Ji." It carries a dialogue between princess Zebunisa and emperor Aurangzeb, and a description of the battle ofPanvate.

Page 74


[umre] A 1;"1 plural ofl?fl-flQ. "sah raje khan umrav sIkdar hahI."-var bIla m 4. 2 administrators and ministers. "umravhu age jhera."-sor m 5. "sultan khan maluk umre gae kan kan kuc."-sri am 1. 3 a sub caste of khatris. ~ [umal] adj ambitious, aspirant, inspired. "umallathe jodhe maru vajIa."-cJQi 3. ~ [uma] Skt n light, lustre, radiance. 2 Shiv's wife, Parvati. Kalidas has writtl~n in Kumarsambhav that Parvati's mother Menka asked her not to do penance, that is, ~ (intense penance) }IT (not to do) and for this reason she came to be known as uma. ~ [umasut] n Uma's (Parvati 's) son Ganesh. 2 Kartikey, an army conunander of the gods. ~ [umah], ~~ [umahra], ~ [umaha] n enthusiasm, excitement. 2 aspiration. 3 merry-making, gaiety. 4 festival. ~ [umatanay], ~ [umatat] son of Uma (Parvati), See~. ~ [umadhav], ~ [umanah], ~~ [umapatI] Skt husband of Uma, Shiv. "gotamnan umapatI suami. sisdharan sahas bhag garni."-jct ravdas. ' ...Indar got a thousand vulva- marks on his body.' See FfIHQdFc'l. ~ [umid], 1~ fumed] p ...~I n a hope, expectation. 2 trust. ~[umedvar]PJf,~; adj hopeful,expectant. ~ [umeda] n a servant of Ran Bular of Talwandi who served Guru Nanak Dev with great devotion. See q@ ~ yorr.r. ~ [umeria] rich people. See ~.~. "anIk umeria."-bIha m 5. ~ [umag] 11 exuberance, exultation. 2 a wave of happiness. "ek dIvas man bhai umag."-basJt ramanJd. ~ [umaq.] See ~ and ~fCIT. ~H3" [ummat] See ~. ~"m lummi] See fu-fl.


fur] Skt ~ n breast, bosom. "ur lag-hu pritam prabhu mere."-bIla m 5. "carankamal hndE ur dharhu."-gau m 5. 2 mind, heart. "dhano han ur che."-basJt m 4. 3 abdomen, stomach. "rohni ke ur bie dharyo hE."-krrsan. 'Balbhadar was put in Rohini's womb.' 4 Skt "Z\ vr to go, walk. ~ [ursa] 11 a round piece of stone for rubbing sandalwood on it. Priests have it in Hindu temples. SktF.fl(i"l.fT"e". "tera nam kari eanl).athia je man ursa hOL"-guj m 1. ~ [urkat] Ski ~ adj prepared, cooked, boiled. "Ikatu patan bhan urkat kurkat, Ikatu patan bharI pani."-asa kabir. 'In one pot the Tantrics put a cooked cock and in the other put liquor.. ' [urag] Skt n one that moves on its belly. 2 a snake, reptile. ~QOT ~ [urag nath] the king of snakes, Sheshnag. ~ [urgad], 19~ [urgan] SkI 11 the eater of snak~:s or le:nemy of snakes; blue jay. 2 a mongoose, peacock, stork, crane etc. are also eaters of snakes. ~ [urge1?] Skt n the king ofsnakes, Sheshnag. 2 Writing in the form of a riddle in Gur Vilas Bhai Sukha Singh has used 'nag' instead of 'nagraj' (cobra), 'gdjraj' (elephant) and 'hastnaj', a term also used for elephants. ~ [oreha] Se:e furGr. ~ [uraj] See ~~. 2 the month of Kattak. "oraj mas ki puranmasi."-NP See~. ~ [urajh] See~~. "jhajha urajh surajh nahi jana."-gau bavan kabir. ~ [urjhan], ~~ [urajhna] SkI 3T"l""¢l:R v to be entangled. 2 to be obstructed; to stop. "urajh rdhIO b:[khIa kE saga."-suhi a m 5. "urjhIo kandk kamIni ke ras."-todi m 9. 3 to get :involved in a dispute. ~ [ur2JjhI] having been entangled.



Page 75

~Qt! [urad] See ~;re. "dal urad ki chamak
3tr. intense meditation. 2 meditation in standing

~ Soro't [urda begni], ~ ilaft [urda begi]

T IJA n a uniformed and armed female to guard the harem; an amazon. During the Muslim rule, it was only through these female guards that petitions and messages could be sent inside the palace. See ~. (la~ [urdu] T wi n an army. 2 a cantonment. 3 a military market. 4 a mixed dialect of the armed camp or cantonment, which evolved during the reign ofKhilji kings from the intermixing of the Hindu and Muslim dialects when soldiers frequented the markets. It came to be called Urdu or 'la$kari', the language of cantonments. During the Mughal rule, especially that of Shah lahan, this language became very common. Its framework is Hindi but its vocabulary is rich in Persian, Arabic and Turkish words. The Persian script is used for writing it. Although it is understood throughout northern India but the United Provinces (of Agra and Oudh) constitute its special home. In fact, any mixed language can be given this name, but the Persianized language ofIndia is exclusively named Urdu. ~[uradh]Skt~ advupwards. "uradhmul jIsu sakh talaha, car bed jItu lage."I-guj am 1. 2 adj high, lofty. "garabh kuc;lal mahI uradh dhIani."-maru solhe m 1. See ~ ftmrto't. 3 standing, erect. 4 n the Creator who is the loftiest of all. ."ardh-hI uradh mIlIa sukh pava."-gau bavan kabir. 'Human beings attain peace when union with the Divine is consummated.' 5 adjupside down. "uradh pak IE sudha karE."-gau var satt kabir. 'Upside down lotus is the mind itself.' See~. ~ [uradhtap], ~ [uradhtap] Skt~
~"l:f<l:l"-qur\f.'r m<f~~~1 (BhagvatGita, 15-1)


position. 3 meditation with arms raised upward. "kaIa sadhE uradhtap karE vIc-hu haumE na jar."-sri m 3. ~~ [uradhdhIani] adj one who concentrates on God above. See ~. (laQai~ [uradhbahu] See (]aQ~I~. (laQ1ao [urdharan] v to settle, have firm faith. "carankamal rId mahI urdharhu."-sukhmani. ~ [uraf] A ...J.A n plural of~ boundary marks 2 A...J/ adj well-known, famous. 3 equal. 4 n education, knowledge. ~ [urbasi] See ~. ~ [urbara] Skt-:rcW n fertile land. 2 irrigated land. "jImI urbara knSI chin."-aj. 'as irrigated land does not claim appreciation without cultivation.' (laadR<!1 [urbresl).i] the army of the king of the fertile land. 2 See 12d" ~. ~ [urbi] Skt \3Ccff n earth. "akas urbia jala." -gyan. ~ [urmac;lal).] Dg n the breast that adds grace to a woman's bosom. 2 an ornament, like a necklace, suspended over a woman's breast. ~'d'fi.r [uramIl, ~orft [urmi] a ripple, wave, breaker, surge. See t1orft. Books which are titled as 'sagar' or 'sar' (sea, tank) have their chapters metaphorically named urmi (waves). ~ [urla] adv of this side. 2 of this world. ~ [urvasi] Skt ~ n ~-})ff.{, something that overpowers the great; a desire, wish. 2 According to Rig Ved, a fairy in paradise, known as Urvashi because she was born from Narayan's thigh (uro). According to the Mahabharat, Mitar and Varun shed their semen on seeing Urvashi from which the sages, Agasti and Vashishth, were born. Once Urvashi annoyed these sages, who cursed her that she would take birth on earth and be the wife of king Pururva.

Page 76


The tale of Urvashi and lPururva is contained in 'Shatpath Brahman' and the poet Kalidas has narrated it beautifully in the play 'Vikramorvashi". In Padam Puran, Urvashi is described' as having been born from the thigh of Kamdev. "rabha urvasi Jr sad su madodri pE' E'si prabha kaki jag bie na kachu bhai."-krrscw. 21 In the Nirukt, lightning is also named Urvashi. ~ [urvar] th(~ nearer bank. 2 this world. "bIkhIa adarI pacImue na urvaru na par." -sri m 3. 3 the far bank, meaning the other world; hereafter. "IS tan dhan ki kavan va~lai? dharanI parE', urvan na jai."-gau kabir. ~ [urvarpar] this bank of the river and that. 2 this and the other world; here and hereafter. See ~~. ~ cl ~ [urvarpar ke dani] knowers of this as well as the next world, the saints. 2 Chitargupt, the mythological scribe of all human actions. "urvarpar ke dania! IIkhlehu alpatalu. mohI jamqaQu na lagai."-gau ravdas. ~ [urvan] advon this bank. 2 on that side; on the far bank. See ~. ~ [urvIj] n born from '~-a;tt (earth); vegetation, trees and grass.-sanama. ~ tro' fay [urvIj car npu] enemy of the grazing deer, the lion.-sanama. ~ [urvi] See ~~. ~ [ural n this or the near side. "para ura lakh IIyat paehanhu."-NP 2 this world. ~ [urahan], ~0'm)T [urahna], ~~ut [urahno] n a complaint, an expression of grievance. "kaluke kaj urahan ri sahJ:?" -krIsan. ~ [urabha] See~. "gnh ke log urabhe dehl."-earrtr 33. ~ [urar] bank, on this side, this side's end. 2 this world, See ~.

on the chc~st or breast, See~. "han ke earan hudE un: dhau."-gau m 5.2 in the heart. "han rakhr un dharI."-sri m 3. ~ [un!).], ~cs [urJ:l)at] Skt B?IlUT adj without debt on his head, free from debt. "uu!).at hoe bhar utare."-BG iIg [um],~' [uru] Skt~ nthigh. 2 adjbroad. 3 long, taIL 4 high. 5 large. (lgH [uruj] A 4:1'/ 1J' rise, progress. 2 ,j':t Khalil bin Ahmed of Mecca was a scholar and teacher of this branch of knowledge and was therefore nicknamed Uruz, just as prosody came to be called after the name of Pingal Rishi. ~ lure] adv near here, this side. 2 in this world. 3 farther away. ~ [ureb] P ~J' adjaslant, awry. 2 winding, zigzag. 3 crafty. ~ [uroj] 11 born from the breast; teat, bud. ~ lull A ~), sui precedes Arabic names as alquran, but in compound words it becomes ul as in. "hamesul salame."-japu. 'always safe and sound.' 2 Skt ,rc::r vr to burn, get bur,,:. ~ [ulas] T ~ii leftover food, leavings, provisions from the royal tables. "ulas pIalE' khari khumari."-BG ~ [ulsat], ~~r [ulsIt], ~ [ulhat] Skt ~ adjshining, bright. 2 happy, delighted. ~ [ulhana] See ~~ and ~. ~ [ulka] Skt ~~. n a ray of light. 2 a spark; a small smouldering piece of wood. 3 light of a shooting star or meteorite. See ~ 2. ~ [ulkapat] n falling of embers from the sky, shooting stars, meteorites, considered inauspicious in the Purans. "ulkapat hot akasa."-earrtr 405. See ~1?or' 3. ~ [ulga~~e] M v to conclude. 2 to stop. 3 to sweep. ,4 to scrub. ~ [uljhal).], ~~o [uljhan] See~. "jIU uljhaIo badh budhI ka martIa nahi

~ [un]

Page 77


bIsrani."-gau a m 5. See ~. 2 n a complication, an enigma, a circumlocution, an ambiguity. ~ [uljhera], ~ [uljhera] n an entanglement. 2 a devious dispute. 3 an action under bondage. ~ [ulatJ adj against, opposed. "ulat bhai jivat man jagIa."-gau a m 1. 2 adv having turned back; avoiding. "ab man ulatI sanatan hua." -gaukabir. ~ [ulatna] SkI \3\""C'j,06"'1 v to turn back, to return. "manua ulatI sun mahI gahE."-ram beI).i. 2 turn turtle. ~ [ulta] adj contrary, opposite. 2 upsidedown. ~ ~ [ulta sevak] n a purchased slave. "satan ke ham ulte sevak."-dhana namdev. 2 different from ordinary servants; one serving without self interest. ~ [ulatI] adv having turned or returned. "ulatI kamalu amntI bhana."-var mala m 1. ~ [ulti] adj opposite, reverse. "satIguru mIlIE ulti bhai."-sri m 3. 2 n vomit. ~ <Ifarr ~ [ulti gaga VahIl)i] a practice contrary to established religious and social norms. ~ 'RQfu- ~ [ultile sakatI sahara] sen breath forced in the opposite direction or drawn upward.-ram kabir. ~ ~ [ultesevak] See~~. ~ [ulathna] v to come down; to subside. 2 to descend. "sar has ulthare aI."-sri m 1 pahrre. "aI ulthe hajh."-s farid. 3 to turn over. 4 to translate from one language into another. ~ [ultha] n translation. 2 See~. ~ [ulfat] A ~i n love. 2 friendship. ~ [ulma], ~ [ulmau], ~ [ulmav] A ~ adjplural of~. scholars, panQits, doctors, philosophers. "c::lda s£ ulmavan

rakhe."-GPs. [ularna] v to overflow. 2 to tilt; to lean backwards. 3 (in carts etc.) the state in which front parts are higher and rear parts are lower. ~ [ulvi] A 1.5).; n one possessing height; a star. 2 an angel. 3 an inhabitant of the upper part ofArabia. 4 one belonging to the prophet Ali's clan, but not to lady Fatima's progeny. ~ [ulas] SkI ~ n light, wonder. 2 a desire, yearning. "khat pit vartE ;mad ulas." -sukhmani. 3 courage, zeal. "ra!). dekhI sure cItI ulas."-basJt m 5. "hasa seti cItu ulashI kukar di ogari."-gau var 2 m 5. 4 comfort, happiness. 5 a chapter or section of a book. 6 a figure of literary speech in which merits and demerits of one are attributed to another. "ek-hI ke gu!).do;; tE ::lrE ko gu!). do;;. var!).at y5 uIlas hE jo pagIt matI ko;;."-lalIt lalam. It has four forms: (a) expression of one merit through another. Example: gu!).i gu!).i mIlI laha pavsI, gurmukhI nam vagai."-bhEr m I. gaga jamna godavri sarsuti, te karhI udamu dhun sadhu ki tai, kIlvIkh m£1u bhare pare hamrE VICI, hamri m£1u sadhu ki dhurI gavai. -mala m 4. (b) expression of merit through demerit. Example: saphal bIrch phal det jyo pakhan mare SIr karvat sahI hot par par hE, sagar se kagh mukh phorIyat sip ko jyo det muktahal avagya na VIcar hE, jEse khanvara khanI khanat hanat ghan manak amol hira par upkar hE, ukh me pIyukh jyo pragas hot kolu pace avgun kie gun sadhun ke dvar hE. -BGK.

Page 78



(c) expression of demerit through merit. Example: dhanu jobanu dUI vEri hoe, jInhi rakhe rag laL-asa am 1. sadan vIbhutI apar ke dekhi. pira pavhf rIde vIsekhi.-NP. chami purakh ke kaj udara, nd$t hot j:[mI agni para, tIS ko sakal karhI apradha, <;lar ko chor det he badha.-GPS. (d) expression of demerit through demerit. Example: kusagatI bah··hI sada dukhu pavhI dukhodukh kamaIa. -maru solhe m 3. par dukh pIkhkar hot he dukhi sat man mahI. -alakar sagar sudha. 7 See 0fmT. ~ [ulasa], ~m [ulasi] adjhappy, pleased, delighted. "jIG mina jal mahI ulasa."-gdu a m 1. ~ [ulasu] See ~. ~ [ulah], ~ro [ulahan] v to bring down. 2 to stop; to remove; to push back or asilde. "habhe <;lukkh ulahI."-var jet. "sagli trIsan ulahi, sat-hu."-ram asa m 5. ~ [ulahna], ~ [ulahno] n a complaint, an expression of grievance. "lakh ulahne mohI.,,_brha chat m 5. "ulahno mE kahu na dio."-nat m 5. ~ [ulahI] adv having brought down, having taken off (garment). 2 zealously. . ~~. [ulahIamu] I have shed. "habhe <;lukh ulahIamu."-var maru 2 m 5. ~ [ulahi] v put down, took clown, shed.
See~. ~~ [ulal).a] adj without a rug, saddle or

~ [ulad] See l1h~Tt.

[ulabha], ~Hr [ulama] n a taunt, gibe. See ~~ "ulame jia sahe."-asa [arid. ~ [ularl).a] v to raise and make uneven or tilted. 2 to raise or make the front palt higher than the rear. ~ [ulicl)a], ~~Itro [ulican] Skt 0(i,ej)6(i1"1 17 to throw (water) out with cupped hands or with some utensiL "sip na sfdhu uliCIye, raj kan gIne na jahL"-GPS. 2 to sprinkle. "maha sug;'ldh ulican karkE."-GPS. ~ [ulu], ~q [uluk] Skt ~ n an owl. 2 the second name of the author (kanad) of Vaisheshik ShastaI'. ~ [ulukhal] See ~. ~tft [ulupi] n daughter of Kaurvy Nag of Eravat clan whom Arjun married in the Nag country.l She gave birth to Mahavir Vabhruvaham. The ruler of Tripura considers himself the descendant of Ulupi's son Vabhruvahan. !;1M"ioJ€;11 [ulehdara] See ~. ~ [uleh;;m] See ~. ~ [uleha] n a kind ofwiild grass that grows during the rainy s(~ason. Its seeds are covered with tiny prickles which on touching stick firmly to the hands. 2 uleha seed. 3 a person who sticks like uleha. ~ [ulekh] See ~r"M"1:f. ~ [ul;'lghl).a], G~ [ul;'lghan] Skt 0('"('I'S~'tl"1 the. act of overtaking; crossing of a river or mountain, passing over. "jotI bIna jag~is ki jagat ul;'lghe jaI."--s kabir. 2 to violate rules or bypass them. 3 to disobey or ignore rules or orders. ~ [u11] Many Punjabis regard this as pain in the eyebrows, but it is a disease of the eyes.
lIn some documents America has been mentioned as Naglok.


saddle blanket, bare back (horse etc.) "jin turagam paI nIkara. kIdh5 ulal).a lin

Page 79


Its name in Arabic Persian medicine IS ~ [ullala] n a matrIk metre, also named dh~or Glaucoma in English, also is cadramal).I, has four lines of 13 matras each commonly known as "sabaz motiabfd." and pauses at the 8th and at the next 5th matra. When the production of aqueous humoUf Some poets have wrongly called it u11a1. In around the pupil of the eye is more than its Guru Granth Sahib it has appeared under absorption, or when due to some shock or salok. blow, the pupil is dislocated from its place, Example: then darkness appears before the eyes, the sIdaku saburi, sadIka, eye-ball gets hard, and acute pain is felt in sabaru tosa malaIka, the eyes and the temples and the eyeball dIdaru pure, paIsa, grows red. The patient sees a circle forming thau nahi khaIka.-var sri m 1. itself around the candle flame, and the eye (r~ [ullu] See ~Cf. 2 a big fool, brainless becomes inert. person. In this disease, the patient should be ~ [ullekh] Skt~ n a writing, description, administered a light purgative; leaches should script. 2 a figure of speech in which different people frame or imagine the same thing in be stuck to the temples, and a little opium or morphine should be taken. The best would different forms according to their thinking or feeling. be to have the eye operated upon by a ke bal1ute kE ek jahf ek vastu ko dekh, competent surgeon. This would end pain and ahu bIdhI kar ullekh he so ullekh ulekh. secure the remaining eye sight. -Shivraj Bhushan. Patients of this disease should avoid Example: pickles, chutneys, condiments and spices, $atru vIlokat kal sam janhI Ie prana, coition and walking in the sun. They should devtrovar k£ lakhr jan kamanvana, take light food and milk. Effort should be gyani Iakh-hf paratma vachIt tan dhara, made to push out the foul matter sticking in nI$Cay bhagtan ke rIde VI$nU avtara, the intestines. $ri nanak ko tan da$am srkkhan man jana, ~ [uIlas] See ~. ~ [ulla1] a matrIk metre of two lines of praja Iakhe raja maha pale vrdhr nana, -GPs. 28 matras each with pauses at the 15th matra (b) In the second version of u11ekh, one and at the next 13th matra respectively. The person perceives a single object in various forms. last two lines of chappay cad are in the form Example: of ulla1. pral).ve nanak benti ill sarvaru to has, Example: kaul ill h£ kavia ill hE, ape vakhI vIgas. man me vasayke guru gIra, -sri r•. 1. Ik akal ko nIt bh3jO, guru tirathu guru parIjatu chal ver irkha krIpal).ta, guru mansa puranharu, mItr ghat h:>m£ tdjO. guru data harInamu deI Several poets have erred in considering udhr£ sabh sasaru.-sri m 5. u11al and ullala as the samt.- when defining their ~ [uvat] Skt ~Z" n a difficult path; an characteristics.

Page 80

~ [ukar] respect, regard. See ~. "baqo arduous route. lakh ukar kino."---krrsan. n water added to milk at the time of boiling. 2 See (le~a3(,). 3 an exchange ~lf [ukh] Skt ~~; n sugarcane. 2 Dg zeal, enthusiasm. of money; earning, gain. "kaun harE kInr @era' [ukhar] Skt ~PR n a white crust formed uvtiE."-var ram 3. 4 an exchange, act of on saline land surface. 2 saline, barren soil. receiving one object in exchange for another. "kra kasi kIa ukhar mag-har."-dhana kabir. ~ [uvta] adj flustered, flurried, confused. See ~~. "plun: uvtIa."--var mdia m 1. See~. 2 vagrant, stray, vagabond, loaf{~r. ~ [ukhal] See ~~" ~ [uva] pron he, she, that. See~. "caran ~ [ukha] Skt 31f5IT n saline land. 2 a princess who was the daughter of King Van of uva kE pau."-dev m 5. ~ [uvac] spoke, said. "kaVI uvac benti." Shonitpur and grand daughter of Bali. Once in a dream she saw a handsome prince and -c:Jpdi. Skt--o;T{ means 'to speak, explain, state'. fell in love with him. On getting up, she ~ [urad] n horsebean, lentils. 13sd!laft [urdabegi] See (lae '8al(')1 and nretlaoIT. enquired from her friend Chitarlekha whether there could be a prince like that. Chitarlekha, ~ [urdi] a subordinate's report to his senior who was a clairvoy, nt, drew portraits of all officer that every thing is ('orderly'. This handsome men and gods for the princess. pronunciation was coined by the Indian military personnel not adept in English. Usha recognized Aniruddh, son of Pradyuman as on{: of them and declared him ~ [urdu] See ~. her husband. To fiIlfil her desire, Chitarlekha ~ ciaT {urmur taqa] See ciST ~;r. M [urau] See M· 2 "par ke bal kar hot managed to bring Aniruddh to the palace. When the king came to know all this, he got urau."-NP ~ [urisa] Se{l ~. Aniruddh tied with a snake-rope.-sdrp-pa§.1 ~ [u] part word c~xpressing fear and grief; ah! Krishan, Pradyuman and Balram went to oh! ha!. 2 again, also. "SIV u brahma kachu rescue him. Although Shiv and Sakand helped Van, they were defeated by Yadavs. Krishan par na payo."-33 savEye. 3 Skt 31 n Mahadev, however rescued Aniruddh and brought him Shiv. 4 the moon. 5 P ,f pron he, she See~;rr 4. to Dvarka along~vith Usha. ~ [usar] See ~pre-. "sag layo cmrruddh ko duti harakh bac;lhaI, iw [usa] See ~:fT. ~ [uh] Skt?niQ vr to imagine; to speculat{~; to ukha ko pur tho jaha taha pah uci a I." fancy. 2 to gath1er; to accumulate. -knsan. 3 Skt -;:rsrr early morning. "ukha kal ~ [uha] adv there, at that place. "uha tau pahucyo jai."-cantr 142. jaie jau iha na hOI."-basat ramanad. 2 Skt '31f5f ~ [ukhIt] Skt~tiSrcr adjspent, (time) passed. n reason, argument, proof. 3 subtle intellect. ~ [ugvan] to appear, emerge. 2 to sprout, 4 thought. grow. "surC:ltI hove pat ugvE."-sri m 1. 'In the Purans, it is contended that if some string is cast at ~ [uM] adv there, at that place. 2 in the the enemy after reciting a nag-mantar, it assumes the form next world. "iha uha sada suhele,," -gau m 5. ofa snake and grips thl: enemy tightly. Only garur-mantar ~ [uhi] advonly there. 2 from there. "uhi te can undo its spelL harIo, uha Ie dharIo."-sar m 5.
~ [uvtcn).]


Page 81


fur [Ugh] n sleep. "cauthE ai ugh."-var majh
m 1. "rati UghE dabla."-var gau 1 m 4. 2 a direction, side. fum [ughan] v to go to sleep; to doze; to feel sleepy. 2 to bellow. See ~. ~ [ughar] See ~. ~ [ughEl Dg adv on that side. "ighE nIrguI). UghE sarguI).."-brla m 5.2 to the slumbering, the dozing one. See ~. ~[uc], ~ [ucau] See~. "ucathahbeat." -majh m 5. "uchau thanu suhavI).a."-sri m 1. ~ ~ lucan uca] adj highest. "ucanuca bie na khica."-brla m 5. ~ljtr [uc muc] adjhigh beyond limit, highest of all. "uc muc beat thakur."-prabha partal

~ [uchalna] See~.

~ [uj] n blame, insinuation, aspersion.

"jItu mukhI nam na ucarhI."-var asa. ~ [uca] See ~. 2 adj best. " atI uca taka darbara."-vaQ m 5. ~ [ucathal] a mountain top. 2 an arrogant . mind. See ~ EI'fi;). 3 a holy congregation. See

~ [ucraI).] See~.

"dharmi nu uj HiuI).i vaqqa pap hE."-proV. fPRr [ujar], ~R2 [ujaru] adj desolate, unpopulated. "ujaru merE bha::::."-s kabir. "basto hOI, hOI so ujar."-sar kabir. 2 transparent, white. 3 excuse, strength. "kes bhae ujar na rahyo kachu ujar."-vE'rag$atak. 'Hair turned white, no strength was left.' ~ [ujal], ~ [ujla], ~H(j [ujalu] See~. "man ujal sada mukh soh-hI."-majh am 3. "kagau hor na ujia."-var maru 1 m 3. "ujalu sacu su sabadr hOI."-ram am 1. ~ [ujhar] See ~~. ~ [ujharr] in a trackless wasteland. "ujharr bharmE rah na pai."-asa am 1. See~. ~ rut], tc [Ut] Skt ~ camel. See ~. ~ ruth] See ~. 2 Skt ~ n a camel, See [uthat bEthat], ~ ~ [uthatr bEthatr] advwhile sitting or standing, during normal work. "uthat bEthat han han gaiE." -majh m 5. ~ [uthna] See ~. "jal te uth-hr anrk taraga."-suhi m 5. ~ [utha], ~ [Utha] multiplication table of three and a half. "qh:Jce pun uthe joran kothe."-NP ~ [uthr] adv having stood up. "bure kam kau UthI khalola."-suhi m 5. ~ [uq], ~ [uqan] See~. "uqr jargo dhumbadro."-sor m 5. ~ [uqa] adj upside down, overturned. 2 contrary, opposite. ~ [uqr] adv having flown, by flying. "uqI carhI akasI."-sava m 3. ~ [uqi], ~m [Uqi] See~. 2 rose. See l?fl:fffi ~. 3 upside down, on its head. "rn brdhr qubi makuri bhai, uqi SIr kr bhari." -sor a m 1.

fo3' t03'

~.3 See~.

'd ~ [uci hu uca] adjthe highest among

the high. "uci hu uca thanu agam aparia." -var guj 2 m 5. ~\ft '8"'it [uci baI).i] n the Guru's speech, sublime utterance, divine discourse. "ud baI).i uca hOI."-asa m 3. ~ [ucu] Skt~: first person plural of~ (to speak)."danva ucu."-saloh. 'The demons spoke.' ~~ ~'5 IDfl? [uce thaI phule kamall Auspicious lotuses blossomed in the desert. i.e. 'Humility was aroused in the vain heart.' fir [uch] See ~'5. ~ [uch sIla] See ~~. 2 the act of picking up dropped grains during harvesting. "uch srla kar jiv hE jo drj muni kahaI."




Page 82


[uc;le uc;lr] continuously flying. "uc;le uc;lr aVE SE kosa."-sodaru. ~ [uc;lh] Skt married. 2 was carried away. ~ [uc;lha] Skt;:l?(7;T n one brought away from her father's home, i.e. a bride. f!<!' [UI).] Skt o~o adj less, short, See ~o. 2 empty. "UI). na kai jar."-var gau 2 m 5. f!<!' H!g(!'T luI). rnajhuI).a] adj empty and sad mind. "UI). majhuI).a guru sajaI). jiu dharala." --var ram 2 m 5. ~ [uI).a] See ~7i. "uI).a nahi krchu jan takE." -bher m 5. ~ ~ [uI).a jhuI).a] disappointed and repentant. "nam vlhuI).e uI).e jhuI).e."-suhi chJt m 1. ~ [ut] adj big fool, idiot. 2 without a son, childless. 3 advon that side. See ~. 4 the other world. "it ut ke mit."-bavan. 5 Skt adj woven, knitted. 6 sewn, stitched. 7 famous, well-known. ~3H [utam] See ~"3H. "utam sagatI utam hovE."-asa am 1. f!3l1feHo'Q [utamIsnanu] purity of mind, internal purification, heart's purity. "gIanu sresat utam Isnanu."-sukhmani. ~ [utamu] See~. "utamu hova prabhu mIlE Ik manJ: ekE bhar."-oJkar. ~ [utar] a reply, an answer. ~ [utarr] See~. ~ [utaru] See ~. ~ [ud] A J~ l1! the aloe tree. 2 the aloe wood. 3 a lute-like instrument called barbat; it is like a peacock but usually it looks like a duck. ~~ [udak] water, See ~t!CX. "anile kubh bhraiale udak."-asa namdev. ~ ~ [ud bIlav] a sea-cat. See ~ ~. ~~ [Udar] Skt ~ n a rat, mouse. ''ildar kE sabadr brlEya bhagi."-ratanmala bJno. 'On account of the precept of the true One that gets into the heart, the cunning ego ran away'; the rat stands for reflecting, the cat denotes


~ ~~


[udar d{ldar] adj silently damaging the interior (mind) by digging holes in it like a rat. 2 n rat-like ill-intention, nibbling. 3 nature that causes needless damage to others. "l1dar dl1dar pasr dharijE."-ram a m 1. 'Wrong actions and ideas, be thrown out.' [udal adj reddish brown, brinjal-coloured. ~ [udh], ~ [fidh] adj inverted, upside down. "fidh kaval jrs hOI pragasa."-majh m 5. 2 Skt 31ml, n an udder. "udh bhar te calyo na jai."-GPs. ~Qij [udhau], f1~~ [fidhau] n See~. 2 adj inverted. "udhau kaval manmukh matr hochi."-bher m 1. "fidhau khapar pac bhu topi."-SIdhgosatI. 'Mind disenchanted with the world is like a begging bowl.' See



n an inverted lotus; mind turned away from God. "udh kamal bIgsara."-sor ill 5. ~ [udhaj] n what is evolved from udder; milk. See ~ 2 and furtr. ~ [udhat] See ~. ~ [udham] n a turbulence, riot. 2 a noise. ~ [udhav] Skt ~ n a son of Devbhag Yadav and uncle and friend of Krishan. He carried Krishan's messages to the milkmaiddevotees at Vrindavan. "prat bhae te bulaykE udhav pE brrjhhumhr bhejdayo hE."-knsan. ~ [udhal, ~tfr [fidha] adj inverted. S ~=q "fidhE bhac;lE kachu na samaVE, sidhE amrrtu parE nrhar."-guj am 1.2 high, straight, erect, standing. "kad udha kad mudha hor."-PP 'sometimes erect and inverted at other times.' ~ [udho] See and ~. ~ [fidho] adj inverted. "fidho kavalu sagal SaSarE."-gaU a m 1. See ~. ~o [un] Skt "3i;1~ vr to reduce. 2 to count.

~ mrl? [udh kamal]


Page 83

3 ~ adj less, deficient. "un na kat hu bata." -sor m 5. 4 31Ulf n wool, soft hair on the body. ~ [unat] Skt~ adjhigh, tall. 2 increased, raised, advanced. 3 swollen, overflowing. ~'i'iW [unavI] adv overflowing, advancing. "unaVI ghanhar garjE."-sar m 1. ~ [una] Skt~ adjincomplete, not full, short. "une kaj ne hovat pure.,,_ram m 5.2 n a short amenable sword which can be kept under a pillow. "mIsri una nam, sEph sarohi sastrapatI."_sanama. 3 a town in Hoshiarpur district. It was the seat of Baba Sahib Singh Bedi. In 1848, during the time of Baba Vikram Singh, the British attached it. The descendants ofthe Baba are now landholders here. See W rn. Close to Una to the southeast is gurdwara Damdama Sahib, dedicated to Guru Hargobind. The gurdwara has only a 6ghumaons garden which is managed by a noble of the Bedi dynasty. Jejon Doaba Railway station is 12 miles away from Una. 4 a mountain in between Indus and Swat rivers in northwest India which is 1600 feet above the sea-level. The Greeks called it Aornos in their history ofAlexander. The Afghans called it "Pir sar." According to the Janamsakhi, Guru Nanak Dev consecrated it with his visit. ~ [up] n admiration, praise. ~ [upaj] See ~. ~ [upjan] See~. "guru mI1I£ namu upjE."-var sor m 4. ~ [upajI] adv having grown, having been produced. ~tfij' [upar] See ~tfij' and ~tIfu. "upar kau magau khldha."-sor kabir. ~ ~ [upar aUl)a] v to come up or over, be victorious, conquer. ~U'Ef [upar hath] n magnanimity, liberality, protection. See~.
~ [upan] SktM advupon, over. "upan

bhuja kan mE guru pahI pukana."-suhi kabir. 2 from above. "raj mal joban tanu jiara In upan IE bare."-dhana m 5. ~ 'U"? <:J"C tIfu ))fI"5T, ~ 913fa' ar3t [uparI hatu hat pan ala, ale bhitan thati]-ram bel)i. 'On the earth is the bodily shop (humans); above the shop is alcove (human head); and in the alcove is a window (brain), containing the ultimate spiritual treasure.' ~ ¥ [upan kup] See dl'd'IO 6. ~"dffi ~ [upan gall hOl)i] v to be successful in a debate, have the upper hand. "tIn ki upan gal tudh al)i he."-maru solhe

~ [UpE] on, upon. See~. "duu dEt dJre

daya sfdhu UPE."-GPS. 'Both the dragons attacked Vishnu.' ij-a- rub] n bewilderment, bafflement. = ~ [ubat] Dg arduous path. See ~. ~'8'Oi'i'T [ubarna] See ~"l:l"OO. "bed puran SImntI sabh khoje, kahu na ubarna."-asa kabir. "namI lage se ubre."-sava m 3. ~ [ubh] See ~9. 2 n the sky, See ~ 5. "ubh paIal sarab mahI puran."-bh£T m 5. 3 paradise. "chutas nahi ubh pna!." -sukhmani. 'There is no escape from heaven and hell.' 4 pride. "pahIrava dekh-hI ubh jahI."-basat ravIdas. 5 courage, enthusiasm. ~~ [ubhau] See ~. adj standing. "jamal) maral)SIrupan ubhau."-sorm 3. 2 See~. ~ [ubhsuk] See ~. "sakat kUrE ubhsuk hue."-bIla am 4. ~ [ubhac] short form for~. n wanderers in the sky; birds. 2 A firework filled with gas that flies high in the sky like a balloon. "ubhac payodhar ES phIrae."-krIsan. 'Fireworks float about like clouds.' ~ [ubhcar] a wanderer in the sky, See~.



Page 84




ascended to heaven.' 5 after this. 6 See~. 7 This word has also been used for »fiT (below). "uradh mukh maha gubare." -maru ajuli m 5. ~ ~ [uradh kamal] n an inverted lotus assumed by the yogis to denote the ultimate spiritual stage. 2 See ~. ~. ~m [ubhi] adj standing. "supnE ubhi bhai, ~ WI [uradh pOQr] Skt ~~ a ~aste­ mark donne:d by the Vaishnavs on the forehead gahIo kin acla?"-phunl1e m 5. ~ [ubhisev] service done while standing, consisting ofthree upright lines like segments i.e. serving without lassitude. "ubhi sev of sugarcane. Vaiishnav wearing uradh pUQr kareI."-var sor m 3. Skt~: Berr. look down upon Shaivs wearing horizontal ~ [ubhe] adj standing. tIlak. 1 See ~ <~lor'. ~ [ubhejat] people ready and active for ~aQai~ [uradhbahu] Skt ~~ n an ascetic taking away others' wealth; thieves, dacoits, who always keeps his arms raised. 2 a son of Vashishth.3 aclf{one) who has his arm raised. thugs. "kare ubhe jat."-s kabir. See~. ~ [ubhE] adv on that side, there. 2 in the ~aQa3i [uradhreta] Skt~~ adj(one) who hereafter. "ibhE bithalu ubhE bithalu."-asa does not let his semen fall; (one) who vows namdev.3 See 1§mir. "mathE ubhE jam marsi to remain celibate. "thna asneka maha nanak mela!). namI."-var maru 1 m 1. uradhreta."-datt. 'sitting firm in one posture, 'Finding himself helpless, even the demon a great celibatle.' 2 Bhisham Pitama. would beat his head with both hands.' 3 Hanuman. 4 Shiv. 5 ascetics like Sanak etc. ~ [ubho] Dg adj standing, up on one's feet. 6 Baba Shri Chand. ~ [urn] Skt ~ adj a companion, comrade. ~aQMOl [uradhlok] Skt~~ n the paradise. "larE kop kEkE hatE nahI uma."-GV 6. 2 the heaven. 3 the sky. 2 town, city. ~ [uram] n ta"fi-nfGr. a sea or a wave, See ta' [ur] adj short, incomplete, See ¥. '''pur ~~. "uram dhurarn jot I ujala."-oakar. ur ko lakhiE bhev."-NP. 'Distinction between 'bright light on sea and land.' God's light what is complete as against incomplete is shines everywhen~. obvious enough.' ~ 1JaH [uram dhuraml See ~. ~ [uraj] Skt ~-4 vr to acquire Iife, be strong. ~ [uramIl, ~~.ft [urmi] Skt"31fl'f n a wave, 2 n strength, power. 3 food. 4 zeal, ardour. surge, billow. 2 sorrow. 3 six hazards: cold, 5 life. 6 the month of kattak. See ~ 2. heat, hunger, thirst, old age, greed, attachment; ~a<!()iF9 [ura!).nabhI] Skt~ n with wool or : hunger, thirst, old age, death, grief and or yarn in its navel, a spider. 2 a silkworm. attachment. 4 the number six. 5 light, ~ [ur!).a] Skt ~31UTf n wool, silk. brightness. 6 illusion, delusion. 7 haste. ~Qtf [uradh] Skl'"3J<f1:A adj standing, upright. ~~ [urmimali] "31fl:f ~;:r~ n the sea, wearing a rosary of waves. 2 high, tall. 3 upper. 4 adv upwards i.e. towards heaven. "uradh ge audhes." 1*~~lT:'5f[;~~~1 -ramav. 'Dashrath, the king of Oudh, ~ ~ ~. 'IT?f mm:-vTrdh harit sahrta ch 2. [ubha] adj standing. ";mIk fdr ubhe darbar."-sar m 5. 2 inverted, upside down. 3 straight, right side up. "jal metIa ubha kana."-sor kabir. ~ [ubhI] adv upwards. "kab-hu jiara ubhI carat hE, kab-hu jaI paIale."-ram m 1. See

Page 85

~ [ura] Skt ~ adj incomplete, not complete.


2 less, short. "j;}n ura, tu pura."-sar namdev. "tu pura h;}m ure hoche."-sor m 1. 3 stupid, illiterate. 4 See ~ and or. P ,-"I to him. ~ [uri] incomplete, See I. ";}v;}r s;}g;}1 brdhr uri."-sar m 5. ~ [ulkha] A "'~I adj charitable, generous. "l;}kh tir;}th l;}kh ulkha."-BG ~ ~ [ul j;}lul] adj irrelevant, without head or tail, out of context. ~ lura] the sound or pronunciation of letter €t. "UrE upma tiiki kijE."-asa patti m I. ~ [0] part vocative for a person of lower rank or status. 2 short form for »Rr; conjunction. "jh;}r jh;}kh;}r a har."-sava m 1. 'web ofclouds, storm and flood.' 3 expression of grief and surprise. 4 pron short form for fur. 5 Skt 3iT n Brahma. 6 P ,I pron he, she, that. ~ [au] pron the very same (form of fur by adding the particle ~) {f[o], @,f loa], @,fqIQ [oakar] Skt 3W:r from root (3TCf.) which means to protect, save, get satiated, spread,etc. This word signifies God, the protector of all. "oa sadh S;}tIgur n;}m;}skara."-bavan. "oa prry pritI citr." -sar m 5. Its synonyms are ~ and ~~. Literally the word ~ means the sound of @,f. "prrtham kal jab k;}ra p;}sara. oakar te sristI upara."-VN. At places this word is perceived as indicative of the Creator. "oakar eko r;}VI r;}hIa."-kan m 4. "oakar ;}kar k;}rr p;}v;}n paJ)i bESat;}r sa je."-BG Sanskrit scholars, having presumed tp,f comprising €t,})f and H, have the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiv in mind but Sikhism, the prefix 9. to Oankar stresses the unity of the ultimate reality. "eka ekakar lIkhI vekhaha, ura oakar pasI bahalIa." -BG 2 In Nimar district of Central India, there is a famous Hindu temple named



Oankar. Guru Nanak Dev composed his writing Dakhni Oankar there!. 3 part yes. 4 true, real, correct. ~0Jf: [oan;}m;}h], ~'(')"1-ffi [oan;}m;}hj, ~ [oanamo] sen salute to the Creator who is the Protector. @E [oIl pron he and its plural 'they'. "OI j;}PI j;}PI pIara jivde."-trlJg m 4. "OI bIkhadi dokhia."-asa m 5. fuft [oil pron the very same, he , she, they. "Ik m;}n Ikk aradh;}n oi."-BG ful [as] pron See~. "as bIna h1 chutki ro1." -asa m 5. 2 to him. "osu silu n;} saj;}mu sada jhuthu bolE."-var suhi m 3. 3 Skt ~ n dew, See Wf. fuJc [OS;}t] Skt3iTrso n a lip, especially the upper lip; the lower lip is called ;}dh;}r. fu:rfl:r [os;}dhI] See n@:rq. fu1ro [osan] See ~. §JJ [osu] See ful. fur [oh] pron he, she, it, that, they. "oh nehu n;}vela."-asa m 5. 2 the other world. "na tIS eh na oh."-sri m 1. 3 Skt ~ part word expressing grief or surprise. "hE hE k;}rke oh k;}ren."-sclVa m 1. [ohaq.] the Oe,lar country. See ~. "ohaq. bags;}tan p;}than sagharkE."-carrtr 195. ~ [ohdal A ~--'I n a rank, post, an authority.
IThere is, at Rawalpinc;li in Bhai Buta Singh Hakim's dharmshala, a very old hand-written copy ofGuru Granth Sahib. In it under Ramkali measure, there is, in addition to dakhal)i oakar, another composition oakar comprising 87 stanzas which begins thus: "oakar m 1 (page 1315) oakar nnmal sabh thanI. tate hoi sagli khanI. khal)I khal)I mahI bahu bIsthara. ape jal)e snjal)hara. sIrjanhar ke kete bhekh. bhekh bhek mahI rahe alekh. (I )... bhau bhaga nnbhau gharI aIa. tab eh caran pakhale man. maIadhin sevakI dan tha<;lhi. jako carankaval ruCI bac;lhi. dnsatI maI sara jag dekhe. apI alekhi aur sabh lekhe.(87)

Page 86

sarins. "bhagat ju bhagta ohri."-BG



fu:Rft [ohri] n a subcaste of khatris linked to fur' [oeha] Skt "IT~~ adj chicken-hearted, nonfuJw [ohla] n a cover, screen, refuge. furr [oha] pron a form of fur with a particle.
The very same. "oha prem pIri."-asa m 5. fur'3' [ohar] See €. '€mr [OhI], €tit [ohi], ~ [ohu], W [OhE], W [oho]pron form oftrJ combined with particle ET and €; that very person. "OhI adarhu baharhu nIrmale."-var majh ill 1. "hoa ohi al jag mahI."'-var maru 2 m 5. "dan deI prabhu ohc.'''-guj m 4. "oho sukh oha va<;lIai."-asa m 5. 2 W particle expresses grief or surprise too. fum' [oha<;l] See ~. ~ [ok] n a cupped palm or hand. "tab teri ok koi panio na pav£."-sor kabir. 2 Skt~: a home, an abode. "man manhI sabh atak ok." -NP. 'Yam's world.' €l:f [okh] Skt 3ll<i'L vr to be strong, set right. fuffu' [okhadh:c] See~. til:Rfi [okhli] See ~' €iaRJr [ogra] adj butter-free, dry. 2 n an edible weed, goosefoot. I "ogra alono hi ehakat hute ap sada, akbar magyo dio tahf te nIkas h£. gval kavI kah£ tako ek gras hi ke maIn, ae bahu svad bhayo namrata ki ras he"-guru pJcasa. ~ [ogal] n visible moisture on the earth, wetness. fiarnr [ogla] See fuIw. Eoru [ogah] See ~ and~. "amal jI kitIa duni vieI se dargahi ogaha."-s [arid. '€fur [ogh] Skt 3i'tq n a crowd, mass, faction. "agh ogh tare Inhi ke prasadI."-kham. 2 flow, flood. ~ [oeka] a thug, thief, See~. "na oeka lEjaI."-var guj 1 m 3.
IThose who observe fast do not count ogra as cereal, though they grind it and make chapatis of it.

serious. 2 lowly, inferior. "oehi matI meri jatI julaha."-guj kabir. 3 ignoble. "oeha janam hamara."-asa ravidas. ~ [oehapan] n wickedness, paltriness, meanness. 'fu:r [oj] SkI' ~ vr to be strong; to live; to grow. 2 Skt 3itJ~ n strength. 3 light, glory. 4 The qual ity of poetry that overwhelms the listener with desire and passion. ~'t [ojasvi] Skt 31:t\ifft'cr;:r, adj mighty. 2 glorious. 'fu:r ~ I[oj VIlas] a book of verse compiled by the bard Lal Singh containing narratives and verses of se:veral poets. It was compiled at Nabha in Sammat 1910. "dISa su nIdhI saSI sal me aSVIn SUdI dIn car. guru dIn sukhad suhavno bhayo grath avtar." See we?

€trr;r [ojar] See .~tRr;r. "phathe ojari."-maru a

~ [ojara] See ~ destruction. "tine ojare

ka badhu."-dhcma m 1. €;:rr;ft [ojari] adv in the wilderness. See ~' ~ [ojhri] See ~ 2. "nadi <;larbe ojpri 1£ sIdhayo."-car.rtr 297. ~ [ojhal] n screen, cover. 2 a cave, dungeon. "jog juto rahE ojhal me"-krIsan. ~ [ojhli] n a belly, an abdomen, a stomach. 2 placenta. €5'r [ojha] Skt -;jl:r~ n a teacher. 2 one of the subcastes ofMaithali and Gujrati Brahmans' who live across the river Sarayu. "eadreur ojha tIh nav£."·-carrtr 370. ~ [ojhar] See '~' "bhramI bhramI ojhar gahe."-prabha m 4. §c [ot] n cover" screen. 2 support. 3 refuge, asylum. "ot gobfd gopal raI." -majh barahmaha. ~ [otl).a] v to bear; to tolerate. 2 to accept

Page 87


responsibility. 3 to wear.
§cr rota] n cover, screen. 2 wall, tent-wall. ~ [otail v took over; has protection of. See Be. "gobfd car'H). otai."-maru m 5.

fur lot] Skt iWr n a warp; a yarn spread to weave cloth. 2 See~. 3 See €3" i8.
~ [otsah] See~. "bhare otsaha bhae

'€io loth], €a [6th] Skt 3TIlSO n lip, especially

ea [oQ] n a tribe whose members know inner
secrets of the earth. They unearth stones and pebbles, dig wells and from experience tell the type of earth that offers saltish or sweet water. People seek their help in tracing old wells hidden underneath the earth's surface. See fu3'r. ~ [o<;lcha] Skt 3TI9: ~ See~. 2 Orcha, capital city of in Bundel Khand, Central India. See~. "abhavati oQche rani."-cantr 138. ~'A" [oQches] Lord of Orissa. 2 king of Orcha. See ~. fu3'r [oQa] adj that big. 2 n See fur. "jIU oQa kup guhaj khm kaQhE."-basJt m 4. ~ [oQari] See ~~. "kukar di oQari." -gau var 2 m 5. ~ [o<;lil).a], ~ [oQil).i] See ~. "sabh du niv1 dharatr hE, ap gavar hoi oQil).i."-BG ~ [oQr] See~. ~ [oQhl).a], ~ [oQhan] v to bear, tolerate. 2 to put on, wear. "pisan pisr oQhr kamri sukh manr satokhae. "-suhi m 5. "OQhE bastra kajar mahr parra."-sar m 5. "jru mrrtaku oQhara."-toQi m 5. ~ [oQhni] n a garment worn to cover the body, sari, head-gear. ~ [oQhlia] wore, put on, donned. "vastra oQhlia."-asa m 5. 2 the wearer of a garment. ~ [oQhaul).a] v to make someone wear. "anrk prakari bastra oQhae."-dhana m 5. 2 to offer robe of honour in regard and submission. trfu" [oQhr] adv having put on. "oQhr nagan na hoi."-bIla m 5.

the upper one.

savdhani. "-cps. ~3" [otpot] Skt iWr >fKr n warp and woof. 2 merged. See i:lf3". ~ rota] adjthat much. 2 childless, without a son. ~ [otak] P Jib,' n a parlour; a drawing room for male members. 2 residence. See ~. "trtu tanr mdu na lagai, sac gharr jrsu otak."-sri a m 1. tifaiif:r [otrpotr] See €3"i8. 2 having spread warp and woof. "otr potr mrlro bhagtan kau."-kan m 5. 3 in warp and woof. "otr potr ravra rup rag."-sukhmani. ~ [otu] pron that. "otu mati salahl).a."-sri m 1. 2 n a male cat. § [ote], B3" [otE] adv at that place, there. 2 that very (person) "tudhu OtE kamr or lara."-var sri m 4. "OtE sathr manukhu hE." -sri m 5. furor [otag] See ~. W [OthE] adv See B3" there, at that place. "OthE anhad sabad vaj-hr drn rati."-majh a m3. ~ [od] Dg n a fishing hook. treo [odan] SkI ~ n cooked rice. "dadhr aru odan mat te ardhrk khar plaI."-NP. 2 food, meal. ~ [odnrk] a cook. ~ [odarl).a] v to miss (someone), feel lonesome. wm [odasi] See ~t:'Fft. "na rhu grrhi na odasi."-g5Q kabir. ~ [odu] adv from that. §q [odh] Skt 31{1:A adj high, tall, long. "asa odh pal).a."-paras. 'with a long sword in hand.' See~. ijQH [odhajl milk. See ~tI'i1. "tere hi bhitar


Page 88


odhdj makhdn sEl ke ~tdr pavdk pani."-GPs.
@:Rr [odhdr] advon that side, there. 2 towards

the other world.

Bo [on] pron he, she. "on chdqe laldc duni
ke."-var maru 2 m 5.

fum [omm], BoH [ommo] SeeWioH:. "ondm
dkhdr sUl).hu bicar. ondm dkhar tnbhdVdl). saru."-oakar. "ondm sri sdtIguru Cdrdl).."-BG fur"[ona], ~ [onaha] advthat much, to that extent. 2 pron to them. 3 they. 4 their. "ona ~ddn namu nIdhanu hE."-sri ill 1. "pIara rdb onaha jogdi."-var ram 2 m 5. fur" if rona masi dh5] 3TrJ:f. ~: ~ This is how those teaching vowel-free characters, called l~qe, pronounce the phrase. It means 'salute to God" the Protector.' trro [onI], €Rft [oni] pron they. "OnI hdldtu pdldtu sdbhu gdvaIa."-var gau 1 ill 4.2 they. "oni tdkre pae hath."-sri m 5 pallIre. [op] n praise. 2 water, splendour, magnificence. 3 glory. [Opdt], ~fu [OpdtI] the creation. See ~. "nd 0Pdt hoi."-var guj 1 m 3. "ekds te sdbh 0PdtI hoi."-gc:IU CJ m 1. 2 Skt 3Wm n the knot of hair. 3 a bag shaped like cow's head, dipping their hands in it the Brahmans tell their rosary. "mudnt netr urddh kdr Updt."-parCJs. ffuo1 [opnil n a slab of stone on which weapons are rubbed for sharpening and giving them a shine. ~ [opma] See ~l.fW. "bahut opma thor kdhi."-mali m 5. ~ [opra] Skt ~ adjunacquainted, stranger. "ndhI opra prave~dn pavE."-GPs. ~ [opau], ~~ [opn], ~ [opav] n means, endeavour. See ~l.(T(if. "'upava sIn upau hE."-var bIla m 3. 2 See ~. "ek nImdkh opaI SdmaVE."-sar m 5. 'In an instant He creates and absorbs.' furijT [obra] Fa a cow-shed, byre .


m.r ma

[obri] Fa n a cow-shed. 2 M~ a doorframe, threshold. "kagdd ki obri, mdSI ke kdrdm kdpat."-s kCJbir. 'Treatises composed by ignorant persons come in the way ofsalvation.' ~ [obhdr] adj illiterate, uneducated. fu..rrtr [omah], fur'iJ3T [omahra], Bwc:P" [omaha] n enthusiasm, excitement, exuberance. "guru mI1IE ornaha."--jEt m 4. IDft [omi] A adj such as at the time of birth (~); without any teaching, uneducated. "pdrIa hOVE gundhgaru ta omi sadhu na mariE. .. parIa atE omia vicaru dgE vicariE." -var asa. fre [or] n a direction, side. "CItVdU tumri or." -jEt m 5. 2 a sid(~, an aspect. 3 shore, coast, bank. 4 short form for fuJq (m); the end, limit. "gInty6 j:cn ke paI nd or."-GPs. fuJq [ordk] n ·~ortheend. "ordk ndrak gdman tIn hoi."-NP. 2 a boundary, limit. "bhit uprE ketaku dhaiE ~t orko aha."-asa m 5. ~ [orcha] a town in Bundhel Khand(Central India) fou'nded by a Rajput named Bharati Chand in 1531 AD on the bank of Vetwa river. It is approached by Manakpur-Jhansi railway line (G.I.P.). Raja Bikramjit Bundela transferred his capital from here to Tikamgarh ii1 1783. Now the state itself is called Tikamgarh. Orcha is now the headquarter of a tehsil (sub division). See "fursr. ~ [orches] the king of fu:rigr. ~ [orarna] v to rise, overflow, swell. "oral' phJja aia."-cac;li 3. 2 to leap, spring, pounce upon the enemy for fighting. fur' [ora] n a furrow. 2 hail, hailstone. "ora gan pani bhdIa."-s kabir. "ore sam gat hE." -jEja m 9. ,3 See '€rw 2. 4 this side, near side, near bank. §g [oru] after all. See fur 4. "kathni kathau nd aVE oru."-gau a ill 1. Ht'u [orebhar mih] n rain sufficient to




Page 89


flood tile furrows, regarded enough for the sowing operation. ~ [OrE:] adv on this side, hither, here. "sachu orE sabhuko."-sri am 1.2 the other person. "orE kachu na krnhu kia."-bavan. (ffi [01] Skt 3Trfr n an edible tuber. 2 Pu part of a scarf spread as a beggar's bag to receive alms. "par 01 me dhan ki thati."-NP 3 a lap. 4 a cover, safe position. 5 a refuge, asylum. 6 mortgaged or pawned thing. 7 estimated yield of a field. fum [olag] M~ n left over stuff after eating, leavings. fumfusarit [olag olag.Q.i] to clean utensils after eating. "sat acara.Q. sat co marag satac olag olag.Q.i."-asa ravidas. See ~ and fum. ~ [olgi] Th n village menial, living on donations. "mE olgia olgi ham chom thare." -asa am 1. ~~[olgia olgi] a menial of the lowest level; servant of servants. See fu?aft. fffir lola] n a hailstone, See ~. 2 sugar ball used for making a sweet drink. 3 ~T refuge, support. "jiare ola nam ka."-gau m 5. 4 a cover, support, refuge. fuMp- [olama] See ~ and~. "sau olame dInE ke rati mIlanI sahas."-var suhi m 1. fu;ft [oli] n one who measures produce of a field

by making an estimate of the standing crop. "musraph dar daroge oli."-BG 2 This word may also be derived from Arabic ~. See ~. 3 the front part of a shirt or a part of a dupatta spread to receive/collect whatever is offered. 4 a brown coloured sparrow-like bird called 5 S an oar. ~ [olu] n a pit or masonary trough for collecting water drawn from the well. 2 Dg the act of remembering or learning by heart. ~ [olhag] See fu5or. [olha] n a curtain, support. 2 help, shelter. fur [or] n end, boundary, limit. "or pahucavhu date."-gau m 5. "tEsi nIb-hE or."-s kabir. 2 €c. refuge. "nanak or tuhari parro."-gau m 5. "mE ahi or tuhar."-gau a m 5. 3 in that direction, towards that side. 4 death. 5 the last moment. fum [orak] n the end, limit. "orak orak bhalr thake." -japu. furfa' [orakI] adv at the end, lastly. "kur nlkhute nanka, OrakI sacu rahi."-var ram m 1. ~ [oraku] See ~. "oraku ala tIn sahla."-sri pahIre m 1. fuJsr [orcha] See furs"r. foray] Ski 3iT~q n a musical measure comprising five rags such as hrnq.ol and malbs. See d'dl8se.



Page 90

»f lara] the second character of the Punjabi script pronounced from the throat. 2 Skt part prefixed to words for expressing meanings of negative and opposite stance and ofdifference. i.e. ~, l?fdT.iIT('), l?iLIQ}f, l?fi'l1f3", ;,ffior, etc. 3 Skt n the world. 4 absence. 5 fire. 6 Brahma. 7 Vishnu. 8 Indar. 9 wind. 10 ambrosia. 11 glory. 12 the forehead. 13 adj (one) who defends or protects. 14 helper. ~ [au] part and; a conjuction. "dipak dU nat nalk rag."-krrsdn. 2 Skt in Punjabi it also appears in place of Skt})fl.fand~,as in)~ instead of }Jf1..r~Jo, ~qr<!" instead of ~<!", ~ instead of~, ~'9"3" instead of ~, etc. 3 See ~. ~ [dual] See ~. ~ [ausadh], ~ [ausadhi] See ~tcrrr. ~ [ausar], ~ [;msaru] Skt ~ n time, occasion, opportunity. "ausar bitlojat hE."--tIlag m 9. "phlrI Ia ausar carE na hatha."-bavdn. 2 a sentence uttered for the satisfaction of an inquisitive inquirer. 3 a suggestion, context. 4 the time ofbirth and the moment ofliberation. "ausar karhu hamara pura jiu."~majh m 5. ~ [ausaph] A ._H...,' plural of~ merits, good points, compliments, qualities. ~ [ausi], ~rm [aOsi] See ~. ~l.fZ<!" [auhat pata!).] an arduous destination i.e. a spiritual opening. "auhat pata!). ki cinE· ba t."-rdtdnmala. ~ [auhath] Skt>1fl..f(JQ n wrong insistence, improper persistence. "gaIn auhath abla rahi, manyo bacannaek."-ramav. 2 Skt~3'. adj

engrossed, absorbed in contemplation. 3 alert. 4 Skt })fl..RJ3' destroyed, killed. 5 discharged, removed. 6 See :~. llortt'(]'fo [auhathI] having renounced wrong insistence. "auhathI hasat mari gharu chan dharaJ)I gagan kaldhari."-ram d m 1. 'Renouncing the ego, the Creator who has control over earth and heaven, is in the heart imbibed.' 2 Skt >>fl..«Jfu n refutation, rejection. "auhathI hasat mahI bhikhla jaci."-pTdbha m 1. 'For false belief's rejection, I have begged alms.' ~ [auharal),JI Skt ~ v to steal. 2 to loot. See ~'. 3 to hide, conceal. ~ [auha!).i] adj liable to harm. 2 fit for stealing. 3 fit for hiding. 4 whose life has ended; perishable. "oh auha!).i kade nahI, na aVE na jaI."-var guj 1 m 3. llorttUTO [auhar] Skt ~ n theft, plunder. 2 hiding, concealing. 3 damage, loss. "blnu muk~d tanu hUI auhar."-g3c;i ravIdas. 4 Skt ~ a thief. 5 an alligator, a crocodile. 6 a call, an invitation. ~ [auheral)'] Skt ~ n disobedience. 2 insult. 3 See )}~. 4 See ~. ~ [auheri] disobeyed, insulted. "khasamI duhaganI tajI auheri."-g5c;i kabir. 'Unfortunate is the woman whom her husband has deserted and insulted.' 2 a female dacoit. "sagal mahI nakti ka vasa, sagal marl auheri."-asa kabir. ~ [auhelanl See ~ and ~. ~ [aukhl n »f-J31:fdifficulty, hardship. 2 pain, suffering. 3 calamity, distress. 4 P t,;" grief,

Page 91


sadness, distress.
~l:fe" [aukhad], ~l:ffu [aukhadr], ~1:ftft

[aukhadi], ~[aukhadu], ~ [aukhadh], n@:ffu [aukhCldhr], n@:Il::ft [Clukhadhi], y~ [aukhadhu] SkI ifTqfu n that which assumes brightness; a medicinal herb, medicinal plant. 2 ~ n something prepared from a herb. 3 a medicine. "avar nCl aukhadhu t~t na m~ta." -asa am 1. "sabh aukhadh daru lar jiu."-asa c~t m 4. 'all medicines prepared either from herbs or metals.' ~l::fT [aukha] adj See ~l::f difficult, hard. 2 perplexed, bewildered. 3 miserable. "aukha jag mahr hora."-var gau 1 m 4. ~ uSt [aukhi ghafi] hard time, a moment of adversity. "aukhi ghafi na dekhal) dei." -dhana m 5. ~ [aukhivan], ~ [aukhivna] v to suffer; to undergo hardship. 2 »n-f-~ a hangover, a condition of decline in intoxication. "matra han ras mahI rate, tIS bahufI na kab-hu aukhivna."-maru a m 5. ~ [augal)], ~ [augan] SkI ~ n a demerit, defect. "augal) katI mukhu ujla." -var ram 2 m 5. 2 a crime, sin. ~ [Clugan] adj (one) who leads. "kudrat ke augan." -m 1 b~no. ~ [augul)]~, See~. "augul) sabadI jalae."-vae;f m 3. ~ [augUI)Iara], ~ [augUl)Iari] adj without merit. "augul)Iare kau gUI)."-asa am 1. "augul)Iari k~t na bhavE."-maru solhe
m 1.

[augul)ul, ~ [augun] See ~

and~. ~ [augunr], ~ [auguni] adjworthless,

vicious. 2 adv because of demerits; with demerits. ~ laugh] See Bur and »fur. ~U/C [ClUghat] SkI ~c rugged, uneven,

arduous." "aughat rudhe rah."-var mala m 1. 2 n a difficulty, hardship, distress. "jIthe aughat aI banat he"-maru solhe m 5. 3 a hard time, painful period. 4 See U1C. ~ UflC [aughat ghat] adj a difficult path, an impassable passage, a way on which travelling cannot be done. "age aughat ghat." -s kabir. See~. ~ [aughClf] n »n-f-UIQ an ascetic who has renounced the world; a mendicant. "aughaf apno nam kahayo."-NP 2 a worshipper of Shiv; a Shaivaite; an ascetic. 3 a sect of mendicants who hang a horn around the neck, wear a cord around the head, append 'Nath' to their name, and mark a sign of a trident with ash on their foreheads. Brahmgiri was the chief advocate of this cult. Gorakhpur is its centre. ~ [aucar] adj inedible. "pfc;l aparce aucar cara."-BG 'I have taken inedible food from those who are not acquainted with Gurmat.' 2 what cannot be grazed; that which is not eaten or drunk quite often. See ~ ~. ~ [auchak] SkI 3i't1WP n a bull as part of a herd. 2 a drove of oxen. "ubhe bnkhabh nrj auchak mahi."-NP $ [ClUj] SkI ~ n strength, might. "tm same atr auj janayo."-krrsan. 2 See »h=r. ~ [aujatI] »n-f-RTf::r n a low caste. 2 adj belonging to a low caste. "aujatr ravdas camIar camaia."-bIla d m 4. ~ [aujhaf] S~ n a thick forest; a deep jungle that is impassable. 2 adj(one) who is misled. ~ [aujhafI] in a thick forest, in a dreadful jungle. ~ [aujhafu] See~. ~ [autana] See ~. $ [aut] Sk/~ adjchildless, sans offspring. "dut jCll)eda jar."-var ram 1 m 1.

Page 92

~ [autar]

Skt ~ n birth; assumption of bodily form. See ~ . 2 without a son; childless. ~ [autara])] Skt~ n a copy, facsimile. 2 the act of coming down from above or descending. :3 taking birth, getting bodily form. "autarIa autar lL"-var ram 3. "sarp;:mI hOIkE autrL"--s kCJbir. ~ [autra] without offspring; childless. See
~ [autrasil will be born, will take birth.

~ [audhghaneriJ long life. 2 (ironical)

2 gets begotten, is born. "machu kachu kuramu agIa autrasi."-maru solhe m 5. ~ [autana] See ~. ~ [autrE] See ~. ~ [CJutaku] P Jib,' n a home, an abode. 2 a tent. 3 S a parlour for men. "kIthE ghaw autaku."-suhi CJ m 1. 'residences for women and men respectively.' 4 residence. "dukh bhukh dalad ghal)a dojak autak."-BG See ~.5A JLPpluralof~or~.gentlemen, gentry. 6 the nobility, rich people. 7 high-bred horses, hawks, etc. ~ [autar] Skt ~ n taking Ibirth. 2 coming down from above. 3 per Hindu belief, incarnation of some god in human form. "hukamI upae das autara."-maru solhe m 1. See ihftFr l'ifi8'fQ and -err ~. ~ [autharo] See~. ~ [audas] Skt ~ adj disenchanted, apathetic, uninterested. "dhar ek as audas cItt."-dCJtt. $ [audh] Skt~ n the principal town of the Koshal kingdom, the capital of Ram ChandaI'. "audh te nIsar cale line sag sur bhale."-ramav. See ~rr:;rr. 2 area around Ayodhya; the 1K0shal country. See mm-. 3 Skt a boundary, border, limit. 4 life's duration, life-span, age. "audh ghatE drnasu rEl)a re." -sohrla.

end, finis as 'enlarging the lamp'means 'putting it out. "dusat sabha mIlI matI' upaIa karas-hI audh ghaneri."-bllET namdev. 'It was jointly n::solved to end Prahlad's life.' l1ffImit [audhri]! n a tanned hide of cow or buffalo. 2 a time-span, age. ~ [audhI] See~3. ~ [audhu] Skt ~ one who dusts cloth. In Sanskrit it means 'to cause shivering, dusting, exorcising the evil spirit.' So an avdhut is one who casts offevil from his mind. A recluse who at night rolls ash and dust on his body and leaves after dusting his body in the morning is also an avdhut. 2 a sanyasi. "bIn sabde ras na aVE audhu."-srdhgosCJtr. ~[audhut]See~. "so audhut Esi matI pavE."-ram m 1. ~ [audhuti] adj of theavdhut sect; free from worldly attachment. "na audhuti na sasari."-ram CJm 1. 2 naked and penniless like an avdhut, extlremely poor. "jete jia phIrhI audhuti ape bhJ:khIa pavL"-var sar m 1. ~ [audhutuJ See l?f~. ~ [audhes] nn~-EtJ:r, ~-EtJ:r n Dashrath. "uradh ge audhes."-ramav. 'Heavenward went Dashrath.' 2 adj King of Ayodhya. ~ [auI'] partand; that which joins two words. "danav aur dey mIl sabahIn."-sCJloh. 2 Skt l?itlO adj first. 3 last. 4 another. "aur sagal jagu maIa mohIa."--gCJu m 9. "aur dharam takE sam nahan."-sor m 9. ~ [aurat] P ,:-"jY n something deserving to be concealed. 2 a fema~e, woman, wife. "ete aurat marda saje e sabh rup tumare."-prCJbha kCJbir. 3 wife. "siCInatI kie turaku je hoega, aurat ka kIa kariE? "--asa kabir. 4 vagina; woman's genital organ. ~ [aurat] plural of~. "dasauratrakhhu badrahi."-maru solhe m 5. Here, the word

Page 93


denotes the ten senses.
~ [auw] See ~Q. "han bInu auw na

~ [aiar] See


~ [aia] adv having come, on coming.

dekha."-sor kabir. "bhaQ.E bhau paVE tItu aia."-bIla a m 4. ~ [aurag], ~ [auraga] Aurangzeb, the ~ [aiel Skt nJUf pron this. 2 to this, i.e. to emperor, generally mentioned in Sikh history, this world. "aie maie ek an jiu."-dhana as Aurang and Aurangzeb. "tab aurag man namdev. 'Bring this world and myself in mind mahI rIsava."-VN. as one.'2 $ [aul] See~. 2 See ~. 3 See ~. "re [ae] short form for~. "mIlh bahu satru 4 a sub-caste of Jats. ae."-GPs. 2 Skt:iir a polite form of address. ~ [aulI], ~ [aulia] A 1(JI plural ofm. ))fA" [as] Skt ~ adj like this, similar to this, as In Arabic it means a master, an owner, a this. "as sOdar nahI kou."-saloh. 2 v ~ is. husband, helper, friend, holy man, religious "bah gahe ki laj as."-ramav. 3 n a sword. See leader. "avalI aulI dinu kan mItha."-var l?fft:r. "sag samhi sEph as."-sanama. 4 a horse. majh m 1. "sekh masaIk aulie."-var guj 2 See ~. "aspatI gajpatI."-tI1Jg namdev. mS. 5 the name of a king, See '97i'T (E). 6 P JI ~ [aulag] n a blemish, stigma. "aulag pron his. "xake raha:;; tutyae ca:;;me mast." vIckara."-BG. 'There is blemish in the -zfdgi. 'Dust underneath His feet is collyrium moon.' for my eyes.' 7 Skt 3Nl; vr to spread, reach, get, collect, undergo, eat; from the same root ~ [aur] n lack of rain. 2 drought. "auri akk suphulH bharra."-BG 'In dry season akk plant are formed words like, l'>IF.fO, and ~ etc. (calotropis procera) blossoms, but withers 8 Skt ~ vr to go, shine, take, be, throw, let away with rains.' I go, halt, bring out, put or keep, cut, divide into parts,join. From the same root are words ~ [aura] adj incomplete. 2 not ¥; full, as l?fft:r, ))fJJ, ))fJJQ etc. derived. not incomplete, complete. ~ [aurIa] without deficiency, not l)fJJU [asah] Skt 'i)f}'f(Jjf. adj unbearable. "asah dukkh bhogat bII-lavE."-GPs. incomplete. 2 deficient, lacking. "terah tal ~ [a:;;-had] A .;.(1 pertaining to martyrdom. auna. "-BG 'Incomplete are the thirteen "kalma a:;;-had akhkE."-mago. 'having termed beats of music.' ~ [aIal)a] See ~. it as the sacred exhortation for martyrdom.' ~ [aIan] Skt ~ lack of knowledge; »t'ffiJTS" [as-hab] plural of 1'I"f9~. 2 in Islamic literature, this term is used for prophet ignorance, stupidity. Muhammad's close friends. ~ [aIanat], ~ [aIanath] Skt })fF.Iq [a:;;ak] P ...6J n a tear. "a:;;ak jari surpatI ~ ignorance, lack of knowledge. ~ [aIana] adj ignorant, unintelligent. nazik burda:;;."-saloh. 'With flowing tears, they took him to Indar.' 2 n a child; one who is innocent and innocuous. ~ [aIaII], l'lffunrrffi [aIali] n a goat-herd, l'>I'FICE [asakat] Skt ~ adj without strength, weak, unable. "tfh a:;;akat lakh yak alava." shepherd. "dube tahf aIalI caraI."-NP "ret [ail Skt nJUf pron this. 2 adv here, at this -GPs. 2 Skt ~ adj without bondage; free. 3 Skt ~ adj in love, infatuated. "su sapat place. 3 short form for~.
larak javas pat bIn bhaIU.-tulsi. 2See, Gita Ch 7,
~. 7.

Page 94


kaq.l).o kathyo asakat 10k hVE rahyo."-br;:lham. 'Valmik uttered, that is, composed RamayaT) comprising seven chapters and on read ing people got enamoured of it.' ~ [a$akun] Skt n an inauspicious symptom, ill-omen. See »f1.n=raTi'i". ~ [a$aky] Skt adj beyond one's power or reach, irremediable. ~ [asagan] See ~. >m=raJT [asga] M»I1=JaT n a crowd, an assembly, a multitude. 2 ad; all, entire. "asga as usga." -dh;:lna namdev. 'All this is His.' 3 See »fR. l'>fFI(JfI(f [asgah], »fHo~[asgahu] adjfathomless, unfathomable. "SUl).IE hath hOVE asgahu." -j;:lpu. 'Measuring the fathomless leads to the knowledge of the Divine.' ~ [asg;')dh] Skt 3T~m a medicinal plant, physalis tlexuosa, hot and damp in effect, used for curing ills like cough, asthma, worms in the abdomen, etc. It strengthens and invigorates male potency. ))fJ1tRJfI' [ascaraj] Skt ~ n surprise, wonder, amazement. »IFItRf [asjar] adj unbearable, intolerable. })fFf trfa" [as jan] n burning sensation, mental torment, agony. See »rlJ. "as jan par jan jan jab rahE, tab jaI jotI ujarau lahE."-gau bav;:ln k;:lbir. 'When a man burns in envy and pain got from others and also burns within his own self, then descends the bright light (of spiritual knowledge).' »rffi:ro [asajjan] Skt ~ not a good person; a wicked man. »fRC [asat] Skt »J~ adj eight. »fRC Wl:it [asat sakhi] ~-FfTfurQ n eight gods providing evidence of fate awaiting human beings for their actions in this life. Per Hindus scriptures they are: 1 the earth. 2 the sky. 3 the moon. 4 the sun. 5 the fire. 6 the air. 7 the dawn. 8 the radiance. "tab sakhi prabhu

asat banae, sakh naffiIt dEbe thahIrae. te kahf kara hamari puja, ham bIn apar na thakur duja."-VN.
»tl1C WH







[asat saj sajI pural). sodh-hI kar-hI bed abhIas]-dh;:lna m 1. sen In grammar eight points of articulation are: throat, heart, head, tongue, teeth, nose, lips and palate. 2 Eight deformations marking the recitation of the Veds are: jata, mala, $Ikha, rekha, dhvaja, d;')q., rath and ghan. 3 eight grammars I authored by Indar, ChandaI', Kashkritsan, Apishali, Shaktayan, Panini, Amar and Jainendar reslJectively. Grammars listed in Bhavishy Puran are Aindar, Yagy, Raudar, Vasavy, Brahm, Varun, Savitray and Vaishnav. 4 Eight aids or parts to help reading and interpretation are hrasv, diragh, plut, uddat, anuddat, svarIt, anunasIk and <;In-nUnasIk. 5 Eight forms of Vedic metres are; ar$i, dEVi, asuri, prajapaty81? yaju$i, samni, arci and brahmi. »fRCffltti'3" [asat sIdhat] principle of a$tag yog. 2 eight summarised parts of Yog ShastaI'. 3 a$tag marag of Buddhism. See l'JiRCiaT. »tl1C ffifu ![asat srddhI] Eight miraculous powers attained through yog are: (1) al).Ima-- to become very small. (2) mahIma- to become very large. (3) ganma- to become heavy. (4) laghIma- to become light. (5) praptI- to obtain anything desired. (6) prakamy- to know others' thoughts. (7) i$Ita- to command everyone according to one's desir1e. (8) Va$Ita- to bring everyone under own control. "asat SIdhI nav nIdhI eh, karamI
'~~ 'flIWk,"'1lrq~lR1~~. I ~ ~ "Ph4tsClfil c .


Page 95

four faces, thus eight eyes. "trClsyo ClSClt nEDa."-c.Jbis. ~ [ClsatpCldi] Skt~. n a hymn ofeight stanzas. 2 eight stanzas written in a singular order. In Guru Granth Sahib many stanzas figure under the heading aSCltpadi. Guru Nanak Dev's following asatpCldi ;s in Maru Rag, Nishani metre. Ih mClnu ClvguDI badhIa sClhu deh SClrirE.... ~fRfu. The following aSCltpadi is in Malar Rag 1')jHct:!HifRfQ [asatdasasIdhI] eighteen sIdhis sar metre: or spiritual powers. "asatdasa SIdhI kartalE CClkvi nEn nid nahI cahE, sabh knpa tumari."-bIla ravdas. See ~ bInu pHU nid nCl pai. fRfu. sur CClrE pnu dekhE nEni l1IFI'<:t:!W lfC 3'10 ~ [Clsatdasa khClt tin upae] nIVI nIVI lagE pai.... -bIla thIti ill 1. Eighteen PuralJs, six shastrs The same Guru's next ClsCltpadi in Gauri Rag is in c.Jpai metre: result from three gunas or qualities. See oft3r ch 2 $ 45. 2 eight direction providers, ten na mCln marE na karClj hOI, man VClSI duta durmCltI doI. ... incarnations and three gods. Likewise ClSCltPCldi of Sukhmani are in the >m=rc~ [ClSClt du] eight and two, ten. "kahu aSClt du avtar kCltthE kClthaDa."-gyan. 'They narrate form of c::>pai metre. the stories often incarnations.' See tH"~. ~ [asCltbhuji] Skt ~ n Durga, who has eight anns. See ~. >m=rc t:JTg [asat dhatu] eight metals, which as ancient scholars mention are: gold, silver, >m1<:H [Clstam] Skt l?fJPf adj eighth. copper, aluminium, mercury, tin, iron and l'>IR<:'l-it [astami] Skt ~ n eighth of the light or dark phase ofthe moon. "astami aSClt SIdhI lead. 2 The following primary substances nClV nIdhI."-gau thIti ill 5. constitute the body: skin, hair, blood, veins, bones, limbs, fat, semen. "ClstClmi, aSClt dhatu >m=rc ~ [asClt magal] See ~ 1-fcm? ki kaIa."~gau thiti kabir. 3 For some scholars, ~ [astaIdhj ~-l?fl"!!!1l. eight weapons these are the eight constituents of the body: ofwar. "astaIdh camkE."-akaf. eight weapons bodily secretion, blood, flesh, fat, bone, in Durga's eight hands, one held in each. "ghata gada tnsul ClSI sakh jaraSCln ban, marrow, semen and vigour. 4 In Gurbani asatdhat comprises four castes and four cClkr bakr kar me II ye janu grikham n tu bhan." -cJc;1i J. 'Bell and conch are also taken religions. "ClSClt dhatu patsah ki ghariE sabCldI as weapons because they help in warfare.' vIgas."-sri a ill 1. "asat dhatu Ik dhatu See l?fl"!!!1l. karaya."-BG In Sikhism all these eight merge ~ [astag] Skt ~ n eight limbs or parts; into one. eight parts of yog are yam (control), myam ~ [ClsCltnadi] See »rid "i'itft. (rule), asan (posture), praDayam (restraining >m=rc ~ [Clsat nED], >m=rc ~ [ClSClt nm] eight~ breath), pratyahar (restraining sense organs), eyed; Brahma. In the Purans he is shown with

parapatI JIS nam deh. "-basfit ill 5. [astak] See ~. >m=rc ~ [asat karan] ~ one who has eight ears; Brahma; Chaturanan. >m=rc g1? [asat kul] See ~. ~ [asatdas] eighteen, ~. 2 eighteen Purans. "asatdasi cahu bhed na paIa."-asa ill 1. 3 eighteen sIddhis or spiritual powers. "car padarath asat dasa sIdhI."-sor ravdas. See

Page 96

))fFICiar l:f~


dhan;ta (determination), dhyan (meditation), and samadhI (suspen~ion of body and soul connection). 2 Eightfold path in Buddhism is realised through resolve, thought, action, vocation, exertion, vision, recollection and contemplation. See "if'll 3. ~ l:f(!1}f [astag pra}).amJ Skt ms~ "9'JT111 n a salutation done with eight body-parts: knees, feet, hands, chest, head, speech, eyesight and conscience. This is also called. "danc;l.vat pranarn." l?IRZidlGidl [astagyog] eightfold yog. See l?IFI<~. ))fRCT8" [astath] eight hands. "astath hathya.r~ s~bhare."-caQi 2. l?IlJCTtft!" [astapad] Skt~ n gold, which has the highest rank among the eight metals. :z a grasshopper, an insect with eight feet. ~~ a locust. 4 a thorn apple, datura stramonium. 5 Kailash mountain. 6 chess, a game with eight columns, each of eight places. 7 chaupar, a game played with dice. "kItak kal astapad khela."-GPs. 8 an eight-footed animal having four feet on the side of the chest and four on the back. See fi:r>:~. l?I'RGW [astam] E stamp; a stamped paper. 2 a postage stamp. 3 a ticket. ~ [astavakr] Skt ~ n a rishi whose body had eight twists. He was the son of Kahod, a Brahman, born to Sumati (Sujata), daughter of Uddalak. Thus goes his story in the Mahabharat. Once while Ashtavakar was nn his mother's womb, Kahod was teaching Vedic texts to his disciples. The foetus of Ashtavakar told his father that he was reciting the Ved incorrectly. Kahod got angry and cursed the child to have crooked limbs. So eight parts of the newborn got crooked. According to Vishnu Pural), once, standing in water, while Ashtavakar was praying, four fairies paid obeisance to him. He

was pleased and he told the fairies to ask for any boon and he would grant it. They said that they wanted to marry the most handsome man. At this Ashtavakar came out of water and presented himselfas a prospective groom. They laughed at his crooked body. Ashtavakar got angry but remembering his promise, he resumed his cool and said, "Your wish will be fulfilled but you will fall in the hands of thieves." These fairies later became consorts of Krishan and after the destruction ofthe Yadavs, while Arjun was carrying them from Dvarka to Astinapur, they were captured by dacoits. It is written in Brahm Vaivart Puran, that Devm; son ofrishi Asit was observing austerities on the Gandhmadan mountain. When the fairy Rambha came there she got infatuated on seeing him. When she found that her desire would not be fulfilled, she cursed the rishi and his handsome body became crooked. Thus it was that Deval bec:ame known as Ashtavakar. l?IFI'ic' [ast~t] E assiistant, helper, deputy. '»fRO [asath] »f-F.rc5. adj without deceit or wickedness; simple. "OI khare asathe."-BG 2 See l?IRC. l?fffi!' [asa}).] Dg n hail, a hailstone, sleet. 2 See

[asat] Skt l?I'lJ. adj destroyed. 2 hidden, invisible, missing. ;~ n an act of disappearing, 4 the setting of the sun. "asat udot bhIa uthI cale."-maru ajuli net 5. 5 Skt nffiJ existence, power. 6 Skt l?fFl3":;r. adj falsehood, untruth. 7 Skt l'lifPtr n bone. See ~ 6. 8 Skt 3TWf, adj untrue, bad, wicked. 9 See »oJ. l)fFJ'3(') [astan] Skt 1f'> n a teat. 2 Skj»llJH?l n the setting of the sun, moon, etc. vanishing, disappearing. ~ [astbal]. A J~!z-,?, n a stable, horse-stable. l)fFI'3"8'Ij1 [astbaj] Se(;~ ~r;:r. ~ [astbaji] See l?II3H8 1i:f1.

Page 97


1. 2 l?ff'Fcr bone. "asatI caram bIsta ke mude.,,_keda kabir. down. See »n;f ~' "asat brasat su hUI anmiIa."-NP. ~ [astin] See »fTR"3lo. "nIj astin halavan })fFI3}fO [astman] Skt~ n a palanquin. "jy5 karkE."-GPS. hVE sramIt astman dhar hl."-carItr 117. ~ [astural See~. "tej astura ek magaYO.,,_carrtr 190. 2 setting, disappearing. See '»IJ13(') 2. ~ [astarl n a poetic metre also known as ~ '[astotr] Skt 1J~ n praise. 2 a hymn of bhujag prayat. It has four lines and each line praise. See lJ. is organised as: ISS, ISS, ISS, ISS. l')f"ffifw [astaja] See feAfJH'. Example: ~ [astabhl Skt 1f~ n a pillar, column. 2 a base, basis, support. 3 halting, obstruction. maha ghor kEkE ghana ki ghata jy5, 4 being like root; stationary. su dhaya ral).a brjjuli ki chata jy5, sune sarb dano sam:>h£ sIdhae, »iR'3" [asatt], »lFI3JT [asaty] adj not true; false. maha krodh kEkE su baji nacae.-madhata. 2 opposite of the truth; a lie. 2 P 7' a mule. Skt~. 3 the inner lining of ~ [astra] Skt ~ n a weapcn meant for throwing such as a quoit, arrow, ball, etc. See a quilt or jacket. 4 See ~' ~ [astvanl Skt~ n praise, appreciation. ~' 2 In the Purans, weapons, working by "asatvan puj kar."-saloh. 2 the act of praising. spells or by recitation of mantars are also termed astra, such as mohanastra (one of the l)fR3T [astal a poetic metre variously known as five arrows of cupid), pavakastra (fire), astra, krIka, tarak and totak. It has four lines, varul).astra (water), parvastra (mountain), each organised as: 115, 115, 115, 115. vajrashtra (thunderbolt), etc. People at that Example: time believed that such weapons hurled after aSI IE kalki kar kop bhuyo, reciting mantars proved very destructive. ral). rag surag bIkhE bIcryo, Defence was possible if an opposing weapon gahI pal).r krIpal). bIkhE na qaryo, after reciting the mantars was likewise hurled. rIS s5 ral). cItr VIcrtr karyo.-kalki. For example a fire-weapon could be undone l')IRd 'l1a ' [astaul).a] v l')fT-F'EP'HO to stay; to stop; by a water-weapon etc. Detail ofthese missiles to relax. "ghari dOI astaIke unha bacan kita."-JSBB. is given in Sarabloh and charitr 405. "aganr astra chaqa tab danav, jiite bhae ~ [astacal] Skt ~ n the mountain bhasam bahu manav. yawl). astra tab kal behind which the sun sets according to the Purans. calayo, sagal aganI ko tej mItayo. rachas pavan astra sadhana, jiite uqat bhae gal). nana. ~ [astama] See "jujhat sall bhayo bhudarastra tab kal prahara, sabh sIvkan ko astama."-janmejay. pral). ubara. megh astra chora tab danav, bhij ~ [astaval P -:,Dj' (the actual word is ~ gae jIh te sabh manav, vayu astra IE kal calayo, ~, '~' replacing ':G'). a narrow mouthedjug sabh meghan tatkal uqayo."-carrtr 405. with a curved spout used by Muslims for ~ H'O [astra man] equipped with missiles, ablution. ~ [asatI], 1'>fFf3l [ash] n nrf'FJ being, See~. 2 Skt ~ who himself is like an astra. "namo astramane."-japu. existence. "asatI ek drgar kui."-var majh m

>mE' ~ last bIasat] topsy turvy, upside


Page 98



[Clstra] See »fH3T. [ClstvapadClk] Skt n something which is real but does not appear to be so due to Ignorance. >m1EI' [ClSClth] n »rtFa-. a bone. 2 adj not firm; unsteady, fickle. ~ [ClsthClkit] Skt 'PElfdr3" adj tired, weary. 2 covered. l)Iffifi'i [dsthdn] Skt ¥ n a teat. "bInu ClsthCln gClU IClveri."-bc:Js,;jt kC'Jbir. See Ftfu l:fffif. ~ [ClsthClI] Skt 'Pa1') n a place. 2 dry land. 3 earth. 4 See ~. 5 not a nice place; unpopulated waste land. "se asthClI SOIn cClubare."-majh m 5. ~ [ClsthClli] Skt Faffi. n a place, spot. 2 a boundary line. 3 earth. ~ [Clsthai] Skt ~,adj stable, lasting, enduring. 2 resident, inhabitant. 3 See))fR1El"it ~. 4 ~ in music the earlier part of recitation in Dhrupad. 5 a refrain. ~ ~ [Clsthai bhav] n In poetics, the nine bases of emotion, Le. rCltI (passion), hasi Goy), ~ok (distress), krodh (anger), utsah (enthusiasm), bhdy (fear), nfda (scorn), VI smClY (wonder) and nIrved (non-chalance). They result in aesthetic pleasures named after these sites. See ~m. >mrnTO [Clsthan] Skt FErO n a residence, place to stay. "Clsthan han nIh kevla."-guj a m 1. l1IJ:rEl"tfO [ClsthapCln] n the act of establishing. ))J1'f81}{T [Clsthama]1 See ~Cf'W. ~ [ClsthaICly] >'>I'f'Fg-~. a house of bones, grave. "pahdnko dsthaldy ko srr nat phrryo kClChu hath nCl ayo."-sc:Jvtye 33. ~ [ClsthavClr] Skt ~ adj stable, static, immovable. "Clsthavdr jagClm kit pCltaga."-gc:Ju kc:Jbir. 2 n immovable objects of nature ilike trees, mountains, etc. l)fRfu [dsthI] n >nfFa' a bone. ~ [dsthIt] Skt fFaO adj situated,


established, firm. "asthIt bhde bInsi sdbh cfd."-bhEr m 5. "cdrdnkdmClI asthIt rId atdrI."-sar m 5. 2 >n-fPa'3' unstable. ~ [dsthItI] Skt f'F"Eff3' n stability, steadiness. "kdhil asthItI paiE."-brha, chat m 5. 2 })f-fp"El'f3' instability. ~ [dsthIr], >nFrf'ag [dsthrru] Skt ~ adj stable, eternal. "asthrr jo manIo deh so tdU terClu hOI hE kheh."-jE'ja m 9. 2 fixed, stable, firm. "dstlnr rClh-hu Qolhu mdt kdb-hu." -dhc:Jna m 5. 3 »rt1::rtre" adj not firm, transitory, volatile, unstable. "asthrru kdre nIhcdlu Ih mdnua."-dhc:Jna Ul 5. 'Stabilise this infirm mind.' ~Hf3" [asthIrumdtI] a firm resolve or belief, firm faith. 2 capricious thinking. ~ [dsthur], ))fR1~R'l [dsthul] Skt~ and ~ adj fat. 2 dense. :~ broad, extensive. 4 huge, massive. "nandk so sukhdm soi asthul." -sukhmC'Jni. ~ [dsthabh] See~. "Clsthabha sdbdd sadhu svajanClh."--sc:Jhc:Js m 5. "nabhI kdmc:JI asthabh na hoto, til pavClnu kdvdnu ghdrI sdhIta?"-srdhgosc:Jtr. ~ [dsthabhCln], l?iFIth-ro [dsthamCln] Skt ~ n the act of stopping, hindering. 2 support, basis. "baI rup ClsthabhClnClh."-sc:Jhc:Js m 5. "guru ka sClbCld manhI asthaman."-sukhmc:Jni 3 petrify. ~ [asCld] Skt adjnot~(the best) 2 n a lion, tiger. 3 Leo, the fifth sign of the Zodiac. >m=I'€1:fIO [dsCldkhan] Nawab Asad Khan, whose title was Asafuddaula. Ibrahim was his original name. During the reign of Shahjahan, he held the rank of a commander of four thousand and ofseven thousand troops respectively. During the initial compaign of Banda Bahadur, he was subedar of DeIhL Bahadur Shah appointed him as chief attorney, a rank above that of a minister" He died in 1717 AD.

Page 99

l)fJf,: [a!?add] A pI adj very much, beyond

measure. has no equal; unique, unparalleled, unequalled. })fRO [asan] Skt l1iF.IO n a meal; food, things worth-eating. "asan basan dhan dham kahu me na dekhyo."-BGK. 2 Skt 31~Fl, blood. 3 Skt 31Wl the act of throwing. See lIiFf vr. l'>fR'i'iT [asna], »!'R'i'iTfu [asnaI] P ~jn a friend. 2 an acquaintance. 3 a swimmer. ~ [asnai] P J~j n friendship, intimacy. 2 acquaintance. "jo kIChu hoa sabh kIchu tujh te teri sabh asnai. "-hIla m 1. 3 the art and skill of swimming. l)fFfOl'U [asnah], ~ [asnaha] Skt ~u n love, affection, intimacy. 2 a paramour, chum, friend. See »JlF.IOT. "sabh mIthIa asnaha."-asa m 5. "guru kupa te mohI asnaha."-gau m 5. >m1c'i'i'i [asnan] See ~ and FJ?iTi'). 2 A (,;)1;.-1 a tooth. ~ [asneh] Skt ~ n love, affection, attachment. "nam na pavhI bInu asneh."-gau m 3. 2 lIiFf (such)~; such love. ~ [asnehI], ~ [asnehi] Skn-i'l"W1, adj dear friend, relative, well wisher. "sabh mIthIa asnehi."-sor m 5. ~ [asnehu] See~. »iFItI' [asap] ~ n a horse, stallion. 2 knight (in the chess game) >m=J1.IE' [aspat], 1?fRlri'3' [aspatI] adj lord of horses. 2 n the sun. "aspatI gajpatI narhI narfd."-ti1§g namdev. 'There are lords of horses, elephants and men, but that ofNamdev is the lord of all the chiefs.' ~ [aspad] See »flF11..rt!". })fFIl..RJff [asparas] Skt :m=rm adj untouched; not touching. 2 a sect that avoids touching metals etc. 3 In Sikhism, a person who restrains his senses from indulging in evil. See ~.
~ [asdrr!?] Skt ~ adjwho

>m=rtrT [aspa] plural of»iFltl'. ))fFJtI1(!' [aspaI).] See ~. })fFI1fT3' [aspat] Skt ~ n a sheet of steel, from which swords are made. See ~. nn:n.ft [aspi] adj a keeper of horses. 2 n a cavalier. ~ [asprrh] Skt ~ adj without greed; uncovetous. 2 desireless. ~ [asphal] adj fruitless; in vain. 2 worthless. 3 abortive. ~'6'3' [asphurat], ~fu3" [asphurrt] Skt ~ adj suddenly struck (idea), intuitive. 2 capricious, transient. 3 revealed. 4 »r-~. which is not within the grasp of knowledge. ~ [asphot], ~ [asphotak] Skt »I'F'WC adj not clear, not well known. 2 sundry, perfunctory. See asphotak kabbIt in Dasam Granth. ~ljfIQ [asphad yar]P .I1frl son ofGustasap, king ofIran. He was a valiant person who on the orders of his father went to capture Rustam, but was killed by the latter. Asfand Yar greatly promoted the fire worshipping Parsi cult. His name appears in the eighth Hikayat. ))fF[S' [asab] P ,-:"",' n horse. ~ [asbab] P ",:",V' n plural ofRWreasons. 2 goods, provisions. ~ [asabhy]. Skt adj lacking in etiquette, uncultured, vulgar, uncouth, ill-mannered. l)fFI}f [asam] Skt unequal, uneven. 2 an odd number. 3 Skt n a stone. 4 a mountain. 5 a cloud. ~ [asamajh] adj ignorant, unwise, stupid. 2 devoid of knowledge. "manu asamajh sadhu sagI patiana."-ram m 5. ~ [asmad] Skt ~ pron we, the like of us. 2 our, ours. »rm-retr [asmarath] Skt 3HPP.f adj unable,

4 ~ adjunworthy of touch; untouchable.

incapable, weak. 2 unintelligent, dull-'.Iacking

Page 100


the ability for work. })fF(}fl(!" [asmal)] See 'l'lfFIHTO. l1fFI}f'IO [asman] P dr-I n the sky, that revolves like a grindstone. "asman jImi darakhat." -tilag m 5. 2 Skt })f-F/}-fTi'). unequal, not plain. 3 unparalleled, superb, unique, infatuation, violence, greed, vanity. "kahI kabir khojau asman."-gau. 4 n one who does not regard anyone as an equal; vanity, arrogance. "has het asa asman."-gau m 1. 'violence, infatuation, greed and vanity.' l1fFI}f'IO 1;fio [asman xan] See >m'Il-f1?) J:Po. > [asmIta] Skt ~ n considering the visible and the invisible as one; according to Yog Shastar this is one of the five torments, and is named hridaygrathI in Vedant. l2fR'Iftr [asmedh] See ~. ~ [asmajas] Skt 31i;-P"l6(\iffl adjinappropriate, improbable, unsuitable. "sun masi, asmanjas gatha."-NP. 2 incoherent, impertinent. 3 tactless. 4 n improper time. 5 son of Sagar born to Keshini; he was an evil person, so his father drove him out of his house. After his father's death, he ascended the throne. . According to Harivansh, he became a valiant fighter. His son's name was Anshuman. See
~ [asyupasak] Skt l?f~'ltr-7..fl1.lC{ adj

"asaral) sarJt;ta ek dai."-gyan. ~ [a~Clraf] A ..J/' adj (one) who is profoundly noble; unique; who has no parallel. ~ [a~arfi] P j/, n a gold coin; This coin was first introduced in Spain. It was equal to three rupees at current rates. In India, several emperors issued it in their name, but its value has never been constant like that of silver coins. It has fluctuated with the rise/fall in the price of goild. "kac,1h asarphi dhani kahayo."-caritr 38. ~13' [a~rafulmaxlukat] A ..::.-lr,d..J/' adjthe best ofthe created beings; man, human being. ~ [asrau] Skt »fTlIUT n support, succour, basis. "VICI saca asrau."-var ram 1 m 3. 2 refuge. "coke sabh asrau."-sri a m 5. "jakau kOI na rakhe praI~i tIsu tu dehI asrau."-sar m5. ~ [asranadi] according to Ratan Mala, the wind discharged from the anus. See

~ [a~raf] A ..J~;:' adjplural of~; gentle

training, cavalry. 2 >lffi:r-~' a worshipper of the sword; a practitioner of weaponry. l)fFRf [asar] A /1 n an effect. 2 pressure. 3 a mark, spot. 4 a connection, relation. 5 history. 6 A / to squeeze. 7 to stop. 8 to give. })fFRJ(Jf [asarag] Skt>m=raf adj sans FJof (creation), uncreated. "namastavasarge."-japu. SeeffilOT. l')fR'6(!" [asaral)] Skt ~ adjwho does not find refuge anywhere; helpless. See ~ FRJ<!', })jHd<!Hd<! [asaral). saran], })jHd<'iHd<'i [asaran saran] adj the protector of those whom no one gives shelter; a shelterer of the shelterless.

and noble persons. adv continuously, without break. 2 A .Jy-' n plural oflrmr, secrets, hidden hopes. 3 A -".1"'" persistence, insistence. 4 A .J~' plural ofF.Rflo. l?fRaTli'5' [asral] adj terrible, dreadful. 2 P yJ.71 or ~.lJj, n a python. 3 ~ the place of the demons. 4 hell, thc~ Hades. "bhe sagar asral paIa."-ram a m I, See~. ~ [asrit] such a custom, such usage. 2 Skt ~ adj gluttonous. 3 a village menial, dependent on others. 4 a special menial Brahmin by caste, iincharge of kitchen on the occasion ofa marriage or mourning. "hOI asrit purohIta."-BG ~ [asrup] Skt 1J~r-r n a form, figure. "paul) pal)i agni asrup."-oakar. "varan bhekh asrup
})fffiI'IQ [asrar]

Page 101


horse. 2 knowledge of horse riding. 3 a na japi."-sidhgosatI. 2 one's own image. conveyance, fit for riding. 3 adj ~tf without form; shapeless. 4 »fIj »fFIT rasa] short form for 1?fTF.lT. "man mahI (breath)~, the embodiment of life. })fffi5" [asI] A ~, adj pure, true, real. See ~. rakhau ek asa re."-dev m 5. 2 See nmt. amongst us. "asa joru nahi je kIChu kan sak2 n a root, See~. 3 principal amount. 4 a hI."-suhi m 4. race, tribe, lineage. 5 respect, reputation. 6 A ~ honey. 7 adj good, gentle. 8 Skt n l1IW [asa] pron plural of }f we. "asa bhI oth£ ja!).a."-vaQ m 1 alahl)ia. iron. 9 a weapon. l)fF[lffiJ [asasah] See ~. })fRIDf [aslam] A (i adjvery simple. 2 highly virtuous. 3 very secure. l)f'R1'W [asasa] A .:1:-1 n property. 2 assets, })fRIDf l:fT [aslam xa] See fuRwlf w. emlllence. ~ [asalI] adv in fact, really. "naoak te oar ~ [asastri] Skt~, adj (one) who does asalI khar jI bInu gu!). garabu karat."-sava not know the Shastars (religious texts); m 1. See »1m) 1. uneducated, illiterate. 2 (one) who goes ~ [asav] Skt~. wine, liquor. "pIpat asva against the Shastars. 3 believing in fake bhata."-datt. See~. Shastars. ~ [asvad] A Jr" adj thick black (~means l?fRI(J' [asah], ~ [asah] Skt~ in us, among us. "augu!). sabh asah."-sri m 1. black) 2 n a black stone, about six or seven inches in length, fixed in the wall of Kaba. ~ [asajy] adj impossible to create; According to Abbas Muhammad, it was white irreparable, impossible. "asajya sajI samjIa."-sahas m 5. See FI'Hft:!>ow. when it fell from the heaven but gradually turned black because of touching by human ~ [asac;lra] adj ours. "je tu mItr asac;lra." -var maru 2 m 5. beings. After the dissolution of the world, while God will be administering justice to ~ [asac;lre] adj ours. "mItr asac;lre sei." people, this stone will acquire two eyes and a -var guj 2 m 5. tongue. With its eyes, it will identify persons >'>t"R"'iJT [asac;la] adj See ~. who kissed it and with the tongue it will give ))fJ.lifu [a~atI] Skt 3rmR1 n lack of peace, evidence in favour of such devotees. restlessness, commotion. l1fH1tT [asadh] Skt l?fFf'tl"jf adj which cannot be ~ [asvar] P ",Iyf a horse rider. adj( one) who proved, intractable. 2 that cannot be cured. is riding a horse. 2 riding some conveyance. 3 n cavalry soldier. Skt ~9<IR one who bridles "asadh rag upjIO tan bhitan tarat na kahu a horse. tario."-maru m 5. See »!J1T9'. ))jHiQid<! [asadhara!).] adj uncommon, ~ [asvara] n an attack, a march, procession. "xalse ne ajj asvara karna hE." exceptional. 2 special, extraordinary. -provo 2 death, breathing one's last. "navi >m=JTfl:r [asad hI] l?fFf'tl"jf. See >ifRTtT. pat1?ahi da asvara kIS prakar hOIa?" ))fR"'"g [asadhu] Skt adj unholy, bad, wicked, -bhagtavli. 3 a copy of Guru Granth Sahib. villainous. "bahuro Ie javhu asvara."-GPs. 4. Guru ))ffITl:f.if [asadhy] See >ifRTtT. ))IFITO [asan] A (;}l,..>1 Skt a benefaction, a virtuous Granth Sahib being taken in a procession. act. 2 kindness. 3 P (;}v1 adj easy, convenient, ~ [asvari] P i.5.h·' n the act of mounting a

Page 102




facile. [asanmad], ~ [asanvad] P ...;;\"?I adj indebted, obliged, grateful. l2IWHt [asami] A dL..:r n plural of fuHH; plural of})fffi/T. 2 a rank, post, an appointment. 3 a person paying hiring charges, revenue etc. 4 a party taking side in a legal case. l')f'J1T6" [asar] S adj unconscious, oblivious, inattentive. "na soi£ asar."-s kabir. 2 Skt without 'fITO (essence); inessential. 3 shoddy, cheap. 4 n a castor oil plant. 5 sandalwood. 6 an incense stick. 7 Skt J?iTFITO rain shower. "nmahu nil' asar bahE."-asa kabir. 8 A A.I plural of~, mark, sign, symptom. ~ [asarat] A "::"'.I~, n a sign, signal. "karhf ucaI, asarat dal dai."-caritr 151. 'By raising his hand, (he) gave a signal to the troops.' ))fW6'ET [asarath] Skt ~ n worthless things, vain possessions. 2 a worthless action. "suarath tIagI asarathI racIo, nahI SImrE prabhu. "-sar m 5. »IFr'aft:r [asarathI] in vain, See »fl1TQEf. l')fR'l';I [asar] Skt '»rrwta n the month ofHarh , the fourth month of Bikrami year. Full moon marks its utra1?aQha. ~ [asara], wr;ft [asari] adj our, ours. "nahi kIChu asara jiu."-majh m 5. "rakh-hu saram asari. "-maj11 m 5. »rfi:r [asI] See vr »fF!" n a cutting weapon, sword. "a51 knpan khaqo kharag tupak tabar aru tir."-sanama. 2 a stream that flows near Kashi. "banara5I aSI basta."-g5c;l namdev. 3 in the phrase. "tatvmasI." {~­ :j -»ffi:r) which means 'that is you', it is second person singular 'thou'. "sam ju bed tatvmaS1 mane."-GPs. ~ [asIkni] Skt 3lfucFfT See~. Chenab river. 2 night. 3 a female servant or slave of ladies of the harem. ~ [asIketuJI n one who has »rfI:r (sword)

in his ~ (flag); the deathless one, God. "sri aS1ketu jagat ke isa."-c:Jpai. 2 Guru Gobind Singh. »rfi:l1:r [asIkkh] ad) who is not a Sikh; who has not imbibed the doctrine of Guru Nanak Dev. 2 See »rfi:l'j1:g. »rfi:ff'ts [asJ:kkhIt] Skt ~ adjwho has not received training. 2 uneducated, illiterate. 3 uncouth, uncivilised, vulgar. »t'fi:r3' [asIt] adjnot white. 2 black. "asIt bastra tIh ag."-paras. 21 unlimited, endless. 4 Skt »!fF.r3" blunt, not sharp. 5 eaten, contaminated. 6 n the name of a king of the Surya dynasty who was a son of Dhruvsandhi. After his defeat by the Haihay dan, he retreated to the Himalayas. »IfRasifa [asItban] n a river carrying black water; Jamna (Yamuna) river-sanama. »IfHas·faufur [asItbanpatI] master of Jamna river, Krishandev-sanama. »ifi:Br [asIta] adjnot white, black. "asIta nISI mo sasI se bIgse."-samudr mathan. 2 n Jamna river. 3 Skt:~ adj an eater, a devourer. 4 Skt ~ a thrower. »ffi:Jl:Rr [asIdhar], .~ [asIdhari] adj who wields a sword, swordsman. "anbIkar aSIdhari."-hazare. 2 n Mahakal; Shiv, the destroyer. :3 sword wielding, Khalsa. ~ [asIdhav] a nomad who polishes weapons. See »JfFr and ~. ~ [asIdhuj] See ~. "sri aSIdhuj ju kariahu raccha."--c:Jpai. »rfiio9' [asIni] n an army of swordmen-sanama. 2 an army of~ (horses), cavalry-sanama. »rfi:r tr:I [asI patrl Skt n the blade of sword. 2 according to the Purans, hell spread over four thousand miles on the earth, having a dense forest oftr,e:es bearing swordlike leaves which, while falling upon the sinners, clip their limbs.

Page 103

66 [asIpal)I], ~ [asIpal)i], '»lfRtrrf'n Yam, the God ofdeath. 2 the destroyer oflife, a weapon-sanama. 3 a killer, thug-sanama. [asIpam] n Mahakal, the great destroyer holding a sword in hand. "SrI aSipal)I krIpa 4 the enemy of~ (horse), a tiger.-sanama. tumrI kar.'-ramav. 2 Guru Gobind Singh. ~ nf3'a" [asuarI atak]-sanama. enemy of 3 a baptized Sikh. })flJ (breath), the noose. ~ [a$Iva] adj inauspicious. "$iva ('fort!;ft) »flJ>WRO [asuasan] an assurance. See »fTR1R('). apva (~) pukarat bhai."-GPS. 'a female 2 ~-l'lfTRO a blanket to cover the saddle. 3 a jackal giving out ill-ornened sounds.' See fl:w. saddle; padded seat on the horse back. "IJft [asi] See l'>ffi:r. 2 See »11ft. 3 pron plural of ~ [asua] adj without ~ (son), childless. fr, we. "asi khate bahut kamavde."-sava m 5. 2 without ego, unselfconscious, free from pride. "ankal apal dIal asua."-akal. 4 adj who holds l'>ffi:r (sword). "asi gadi bci bal gaq.he."-carItr405. 'widder of the sword, ~ [asuhar]. one who takes })flJ (breath), a killer, an enemy. 2 Yam, the god of death. wearer of the armour.' l?fffu:r [asis], ~[asisri] Skt ~, n a 3 poison. blessing, prayer. "dehu sajal) asisria."_sohIla. ~ [a$UcI] Skt adj impure, profane. »IFfto [asin] sat. See »fTl'fto. 2 "asan asin." ~ [asuda] n the provider of})flJ (vital air); amrit, nectar-sanama. -NP l21H1au'ta [asibahadur] Poets like Bhai Sukha ))fJJt!"'O [asudan] n~horse giving in charity. Singh having translated 'teg' into 'asi', have "asudan gajdan."-ram namdev. attributed thi's name to the ninth Sikh Guru. l?fElf [asudh] adj unconscious, unaware, >m=tbf [asim] adjendless, boundless, unlimited. senseless. 2 Skt 3NJ,~ adj impure, filthy. 3 incorrect, erroneous. ' "payo anad asim hE."-saloh. l'>IFfta" [;:;sir] A ~I adj great, high. 2 chosen, ~ [a$uddhI] n an impurity. 2 a lapse. choicest, best. 3 A 4' arrested, prisoner. ))f'Ij7i [asun] n Skt ~ n the month of Assu, seventh month of the Indian calendar, its full "gIrYo adh jyo hVE nrIpatI drIg yut bhayo moon is in Asvini lunar mansion. asir."-('arItr 30. 4 A .;.:"l near, close by. ))flJfo [asum] n during the month of Assu. 5 tangled hair. "asunI au pIra! sa dhan jhurI mui."-baramah l21Rlast:lo [asirbacan], ~ [asirbadl n a blessing, benediction, an initiatory sermon. tukhari. ~ [asil] Skt »nfu;) n lack of ~ (good })flJO't [asuni] n cavalry.-sanama. conduct), without virtue. 2 adj of bad ~ [asunikumar] See »rf>:rFogwo. "asuni kumar kete asa avtar kete."-akal. character; depraved. 3 A J:=t-J;"I adjvirtuous, nice, gentle. 4 a legitimate issue of wedded ~ [asupatI] n master of the horse, the parents; gentle, descent. sun. 2 master of life, the human soul. ))flJ [asu] See vr ~ n mind, heart. 2 vital 3 transcendent God. breath. "basu dE aSu dE jag me jas lijE."-krisan. ~ [asupavan] adj(horse) having the speed 3 Skt ilil[ a tear. "utsav samE janI asu roki." of wind; a very fast running horse. "asupavan hasatI asvari."-gau m 5. -Cps. 4 Skt~ a horse. "asu hasti rath asvari." ~ [a$ubh] Skt adj inauspicious, unpropitious. -sukhmani. 2 n an unlucky happening, a calamity. ~ [aSUdrI] n the enemy of vital breath;

Page 104

~ ft:l'3q


fti3'a" [a:;>ubh chftak] adj hostile; (one) who wishes ill of others. })f}3~ ftf30 [a:;>ubh chftan] n illwill, hostile thinking. l')flJHrT [asumedhl See~. "asumedh jagne." -g5c;f namdev. 2 son of king J~nmejay born to a slave girll. See tro-f oja R?i""lfR1Jf QTi=r, nfur 195. ~ [asumedhan] Janmejaya's second son born of a slav<e girl. See tro-f oja. ~ [asur] Skt n one who over throws gods, a demon. See »111:. vr "angan kal asur tab mare." -caritr 405. 2 a fiend, ghost. 3 the sun that shines, See »r:F( vr 4 a wrong act, sin. "asur sagharE sukhI vasE."-sri m 3. "satIguru asur sagharu."-sri am 1. 5 an evil doer. "kukrIt karam je jag mahI karhi, nam asur tIn ko jag dharhi."-VN ,5 in Nighunt 1 it means a cloud. 7 adjlife-bearing, alive. 8 In Shastarnammala ignorant writers have put »f1.Ff in place of»ilJ, which means 'thrown away'. See »11'\ vr "pasupatI prI tham bakhankE asur :;>abad phun dehu."-112. The correct version is: "asr :;>abad phun dehu" meaning 'an arrow thrown after remembering the name of Pashupati (Shiv)'. 9 In the Rig Ved, this term figufl~s for god because »11=t. vr stands for brightness of metal. It is also so for imparting life. See ~ 1-35-9: ~~: .~: In the Zoroastrian scripture, Zend, ~ stands for god. Sanskrit [s] becomes [h] in Zend. For example: RtJ'illS, t!F.f-~, mr-1-fTtJ. 10 In Valmik's Ramayan, in chapter 45 it is held that Varun's daughter Varuni (wine), named Sura as well, appeared at the time of the churning of the sea of milk and rice but she was not accepted by the
IAn ancient dictionary of the the Vedas by Kashyap, on which saint Yasak wrote a commentary. This is a very old document. It dficiently enables the grasp of the Vedic diction.


demons. So they were named ~ as against those named J3i:r who accepted her. »flJQ RttRr [asur saghar] adj comparable to destroyers or kJi!llers like demons, monstrous. "hoa asur saghar."-sri a m 5. 2 killer of demons. 3 killed the evil doers. ~cf [asursagharakl, ~ [asursagharal)] adj a killer of demons, destruction of evil-doers. 2 eliminator of the property of demons. "mera prabhu saca asur sagharaD." -maru solhe m 3. ~ [asurguru] n the teacher of demons, Shukracary. ~ otft I[asur nadi] n rectum; anus through which filth flows out. "asur nadi ka badhE mul."-ram beni. per yog the posture of sitting with heel stuck in the rectum so as to close it. 2 a flow of evil ideas. »nI~ [asurpIt] n father of the demons, Kashyap.-s;;mama. ~ [asurprtDi] n the earth, Kashyap's wife.-sanama. ~ [asur rajl adj the king of demons. 2 n Ravan.-sanama. ~ [asur rajaH] n the enemy of Ravan, Ram Chandar.-sanama.. »fffOTotft [asura nadi].discharge ofwind through the anus, "asura nadi aputhi tarE."-ratcmmala bano. 'By preventing its slanting discharge it regulates the flow.' l)llja1a€(') [asurardan] Skt ~ n one who crushes demons. 2 Ram ChandaI'. "asurardan ke karko jIn ek-hi ban bIkhE tan cakhyo. "ramav. ~ [asurarI] Skt n enemy of the demons, god. "nIksi asurarI ki SEn cali."-cJc;fi 1. ))flJfuJ:r [asurIs] adj »fJJO-rnthe king ofdemons. 2 n Ravan.-sanama. ~ [asuri] n a d,e:moness-sanama. See >'>l"lJffi. 2 Dg rye Skt })fTtRIT mustard.

Page 105


-saloh 2 n absence of grief; happiness, joy, 2 n Ravan. 3 Bali. 4 Hiranyakashipu. pleasure. "asok gayo tIn hil te nasai."-krIsan 5 Shumbh. 6 the rule of demons, Mahadev. 'Happiness fled from them.' 3 a tree that is ))f'JJit yo [asuro pur] the battlefield brimming evergreen and has fragrant flowers, 1-IlJl:j1'Itf. L with demons. "rnuQ katyo asura pur rna." Jonesia Asoca. 4 mercury. 5 Vishnu. 6 king of -cac;Ii 1. 2 city of demons, the underworld. Magdh Desh, son of Bindusar of Maurya ~ [asulu] adv from the origin, since the dynasty and grandson of Chandargupat. His beginning, from the creation of reality. "asulu full name is Ashok Varadhman. In the history ik dhatu."-japu. See ~ 2 and ~. of Buddhism, his is an exalted name. ))I]J [asu] See l1fff and nq. "asu sukhi vasadia Ashok was initially a Shaivite and acjIna rnaIa han raI."-rnajll barallmah knowledged the Brahmans as religious >mJl'f" [asua] Skt~ n jealousy, malice, envy. preceptors. Later he became a Buddhist. He "sara!). parIo tajI garabasua."-gau m 5. provided for 64000 Buddhist monks and 'renouncing pride and malice.' erected 84000 columns of fame on which ~ [asua] n a tear. political and religious edicts were engraved. ~ [asujh] adj invisible. "asujh hr."-japu. During the 18 th year of his reign, he 2 ignorant, stupid. organised a huge religious assembly and ~ [asu!).i] n hope, longing. "vatI asu!).i later sent Buddhist missionaries to Ceylon bam."-s farid. 'equipped again with hope.' and other countries. He prohibited the >mJ3' [asut] adj lacking alignment, misfit. killing of animals. The entire country from Afganistan to Lanka was under his control. 2 unborn. 3 Skt ~3' unstitched, without connection, uninterested. "adI rup asut." This information may be gathered from the edicts engraved in the Pali language on -japu. ))I]J~ [asuda] See ~~. "nIj mj sen asudi stones and found in various parts of the karkr."-GPs. country. Many writers have referred to him as Priyadarshan. ~ [asuyak] Skt adj jealous, envious. Ashok ruled with great elan from >mJW [asuya] See l?flJl'W. Patliputra (Patna) between 269 and 232 BC. ~ [asul] See ~. ~ [asea] Skt »rJ¥f n support, prop, basis. His daughter, the pious Charumati was a famous preacher of Buddhism. "kI aseas. "-gyan. 2 adj (one) who does not consume anything. 3 what is difficult to nrf.ta' 'S<!' [a~ok ba!).], nrf.ta' ~ [a~ok van], »rF.tor consume. ~ [a~ok vatIka] adj a sorrow-eradicating ~ [ases], nn=ter [asekh] Sktl'liBR, adjcomplete, (garden) 2 n Ashok-garden. a particular whole. 2 endless, boundless. "ajonI adI garden in Ceylon where Sita was kept by asekh."-japu. Ravan. 3 a garden of Ram Chandar in ~3' [aset] adj not white. 2 black. 3 blue, Ayodhya. »!Her [asokh] adj which cannot be dried, not yellow, etc. »1Ft [asE] surely, certainly. 2 is. See ~or fHur. dry. [asok] Skt »rF.tor adj free from sorrow; l'>fRor [asog], l?fftaft [asogi] adjfree from sorrow, happy, content. "bhayo asok devpatI tab-hi." joyful, happy, content.

~ [asures] adjnflJO-Eta-the king ofdemons.


Page 106

-alakar sagar sudha. (c) The third form of incompatibility is "tngad jonI acet sabhav pOn pap asoc."-asa when the conclusion is at variance with the ravicias. 2 n absence of the thinking process, action. "bran lagE jo kaj kachu til hoy a state of thoughtlessness, "jan ajan bhae ham vIruddh."-laht lalam. bavar soc asoc dIvas jahi."-sor ravcias. 3 Skt lo>fl1tr n impiety, uncleanliness. Example: l'>IR'tP' [asoca] acij free from worry, carefree. balI pota prahlad da fdrpuri di Icch Ichada, 2 polluted, impure, defiled. 3 (one) who does kar sapuran j2Jgg SJ Ikk Ikotar jagg karada, fdrasal). no parharE jaI patal su hukmibada. not think; unthinking. ~ [asota] n wakefulness, lack of sleep. "nIt -BG parhavE karE asota."-BG >mfiIJu [asagrah] n absence of collectivity, ~ [asJC] S~:e »iFrn 3. failure to collect. })fF{cr [asakh], ~ [asakhay], ~ [asakhyatl >:Ifffi::r3' [asajat] Skt ~ adj collected,joined, closed. "dvar asajat kare."-GPs. 'closed the acijcountless, numberless, limitless, unlimited. doors.' 2 closed, shut. "asakh jap asakh bhau."-japu. >mfor [asag] shameless, unashamed. 2 Skt ~ »fJf3' [asat] Skt ::iRf.'d adj not saintly, unsaintIy, acij alone, without company. 3 uncommon. bad, false, vile. "mIlE asat masat-I kan 4 unattached. 5 n God. 6 Shiv. 7 Guru Nanak rahiL"-g5<;f kabir. Dev. ~ m-rrflr [asapragyat samadhI] Skt »nf0l3' [asagat] acij incompatible, improper, ~ B11TfU n a posture of Yog in which discordant. the distinction between the knower and the ~ [asagatI] n incompatibility, known vanishes; unambiguous meditation, unsuitability. 2 compatibility-error, if for accompanied by concentration. example on,e says. "an elephant has long ~ [asaprehl Skt ~ adj free from desire; curved horns" or "a cow with a long trunk", content. such compatibility-errors gets committed. ~ [asabh] Skt.~ n ill-omened, inauspicious. 3 a literary figure of speech in which action "kalIjug caryo asabh, jagat kavan bIdhI bac and cause are at variance. "hetu anat hi hoy hE?"-kalki. 2 Skt ~ adj birth free, beyond jahf kaj anat hi hoy."-$IVraj bhu$aI). birth "asabh hL"-japu. 3 impossible. "jite Example: asabh."-gyan. 'conquered those who were prem matt rnaI'dana gaVE, a~mbhut, impossible to conquer.' 4 Skt 3NlT ~rota sunat bhul sudh javL stone-bodied. "sun mItr matrI asabh."-gyan. 'Mardana sings in trance, but it is the audience ~ [asabhao] impossible. See}')fFfg 2. who lose consciousness.' >mfer 1fu [asabh sabh] n Brahma born to ~ (b) Putting a thing for effect at a different (Vishnu); the four-faced. "asabhsabh maniE, place is another form of incompatibillity. "Jr karol' bIsanu thaniL"-gyan. ~ [asabhav] Skt adj what is not possible. thJr karl).iy jo karat Jr hi thJr."-lalIt lalam. Example: 2 n the Creator, who is beyond birth; not born. 'lEd dava dini sukhad dukhia purekh nIhar, 3 Vishnu, according to the Purans. 4 a figure akhE ki phaki kari phaki akh;m Qar. of meaning in poetry denoting happening of
~ [asoc] acij devoid of thinking, ignorant.


Page 107


the impossible; thus as;'}bhav is one which describes the impossible as actually occurring. "anhube ki bat kachu pragat bhai si jan." -$IVraj bhu$an. Example: mask;'} bhagnatI sda kardama taratI papilakah, sagr;'} Iagh;,}tI pIg;'} tam pragas ;'}dhakah, sadh s;'}ge!.) sImr;'}t gobld sara!.) nanak han han hare.-sahas m 5. adI tImarI;'}g te anek pat~ah bhae keti kuI bit gai amaI caIaIkE, de~ te vIde~ carD cakk sabh nivE ay kahu na mavasi bhat dIye viclaykE, angan sen ko~ diragh durag bhari raj ko samaj k:m sakE su gInaykE ~ri gUbId SIgh e sarup p;'}th xaIsa kE km janE dege bad~ahat khapay kE. -GPs. pet bajavat chudha dukh ~ri satIguru samuhay, ko janat tho phuI ko de~anpatI hVEjay. 5 a defect of a characteristic. See ~ 2. ~ [asabhavna] Skt 3ffil'lWAT n impossibility, absence of possibility. ~ [asamak] Skt 3ffi"R1Cl1 adj inappropriate, improper. 2 false, untrue. 3 opposite, contrary. "jIS te daras as;'}mak pIkhE."-GPS. ~ [asamat] Skt adj not liked, unapproved. 2 contrary to opinion, without approval. >mf>.rfu" [asamatI] Skt n a lack of agreement; a difference of opinion. >ihft [assi] Skt ~ eighty. ~ [assu] Skt ~ n the month of Assu on the night of full moon; it is in the mansion

l'>I1Jm:I" [ascaraj] See »itRJtI" and ~. "ascaraj
rupa rah;'}t janma."-sahas m 5. ~ last] See }o)fFIC, })fO and »flO. ~ fiift:T last sIdhI] See }o)fFIC fiift:T. >n¥ [astak] Skt n a group of eight objects. 2 a

recitation of eight stanzas. "Im astak ustatI kari path man vachIt paI."-GPs. 3 son of the royal seer Vishvamitar, born to Madhvi daughter of king Yayati. ~ ~ last kuI] n eight races of cobras. In the Purans, they are shown as descended from eight cobras: ~e~, vasukI, k;'}mbaI, karkotak, padam, mahapadam, ~;'}kh and kuIIk. ~ [astg;'}dh] Skt 0f1SVT"U n a group of eight fragrant objects viz. agar (aloe wood), kasturi (musk), kuth (costus speciousus), kesar (saffron) kapur (camphor), khas (root of andropogon muricatus), c;'}dan (sandalwood), and taj (bay tree or its bark) "a~t g;'}dh saj arti dhare."-saloh. ~ Sltf last chap] eight celebrated poets of Vrij who have left their impact on other poets. They are: Surdas, Krishan Das, Parmanand, Kumbhan Da's, Chatur Bhuj, Chhit Swami, Nand Das and Govind Das. ~ fuatrrl? last dIkpal] See ~. ~ fe'cm::r last dIggaj] See f€"aT;:r. ~ tPg last dhatu] See }o)fFIC ~. ~ net last nadi] n In the Purans and the Simritis, eight sacred rivers are: Ganges, Jamna, Sarasvati, Shatdrav (Satluj), Vipasha (Beas), Eravati (Ravi), Chandarbhaga (Chenab), Vitsata (Jehlum). "Iakhe ast nadyan ko darap bhajE."-caritr 405. ~ ?>'few [a~t naIka], ~ i'i"ftlw [ci~t nayIka] See ~ and its footnote. ~ [a$tpadi] See ~. ~ [a~tbasu] See m]. ~ [a~tbhuja] See ~. ~ Han? last mangaI] In the religious scriptures of the Hindus, eight agents for arranging bliss are: horse, elephant, cow, pitcher full ofwater, fan, flag, trumpet and lamp. In some books a lion replaces the horse and a wardrum comes in place of the trumpet. 2 In some scriptures

Page 108


they are the fl)lIowing: Brahman, cow, fire, gold, ghee (purified butter), the sun, water and king. 3 a horse that has its mane, tail, chest and four hoofs: all white. ~'l%cf [a$t 10k] Hinduism accepts the following worlds (other than the one of human mortals); braham. 10k (divine sphere), pltrI 10k (world I of deceased ancestors), cadr 10k (sph~:re of the moon), fdrlok (heaven, abode of gods), gadharav 10k (domain of celestial music), rak$as 10k (sphere of demons), yak$ 10k (sphere of wealth), and pI$aC 10k (world of evil spirits). ~ ~:;I'ad<! [a$t vyakaraD] See l'>IRC FJTi1 FJTfff. ~ [a$tag] See ~. ~ [a$tada$] Skt eighteen. ~ [a$tapad] See l'>fRGTtR". ~ [a$tavakr] See ~. ~3d" [a$totar] See~. ~ last] Skt 3T1:~ vr to be without splendour; be invisible; to set. 2 Skt ~ adj hidden, concealed, withdrawn. 3 destroyed, perished. 4 n the mountain behind which sets th~~ sun. S P ~, is~. 6 Skt»rfFEr a bone. "bIsta ast krlmI udaru bharlo hE. "-sClvE-ye sri
mukhvakm 5.

>mf [astri] Skt 31f~?R"~ n an armed person.
[asthal] See »{RC5. 2 heart, mind. "jaka asthal tol amlto."-gatha. »rfFEr [asthI] n a bone. ~ [asthlt] See >m1fa3". 2 Skt ~ adj not firm, transitory. "asthlta sog harkha."-sahas


[astra] See



»rfFEra" [asthrr] S,ee >m=rf'Ere".
[asrn] See l1~ffif 3. >mI [asr] a tear. 2 Skt 31U' n blood. 3 water. 4 adj thrown, shot. See l?ilJd". >mIlf [asram] adj without toil or tiredness. 2 free from sum~ring and pain. ~ [a$ru] Skt n a tear; water shed from the eyes because of sorrow or joy. ~l.fT3" [a$rupat] n shedding of tears; crying, weeping" "asrupat s6 vastra bhIgoe."-NP. »rJ!f¥r [a$rotrry][, ~~ [a$roti] Skt adj (one) who has not list~med to the Scriptures. ~ [a$1il] SkI' adj obscene, indecent. 2 an embarrassing remark. 3 vulgar speech. >mf [asv] Skt~n ahorse, colt. 2 adjextensive. 3 Skt 31Bf poor, indigent. "kanak Clrv hEvar bhumldan."-sukhmani. 'giving of land horses and gold in charity.' ~ [a$ve$] n lord of the celestial horse, the sun.-sanama. ~ [a$v$ala] n a horse stable. l'>IF.l~ [a$vkavacni] n an army that has horses equipped with helmets.-sanama. ~ [a$vgatI] See fl::rf.tcr. 2 horse trot. ~ [a$vtar] See ~. ~ [a$vtari] Skt n a mule, an offspring of a mare and a donkey. >mfcr [a$vatth] Skt ~ n peepal, a sacred big tree, Ficus relegiosa (Religiosa Indica) called a$vatth because horses were tied under it for resting. I

lffiJHO [astman], ~ [astmayan] See»f}'El-IO.

[astvyast] Skt adj topsy turvy, heIter-

~ [astI] Skt n existence, being, essl~nce.

2 visibility, presence. 3 daughter ofJarasandh and wife of Kans, king of Mathura. ~ re fl:ftil" jlastI bhatI prrya] sen three attributes of the Divine: sat (truth), CIt (knowledge) and anad (happiness) "sat cetan anad Ik astI bhatI prry pur."-GPs. See meanings of all the three words. ~[astu] part Skt yes, all right, O.K. 2 be it so. • [astey] n giving up theft, renouncing stealing.

lIn the olden times, horses were tied under such trees.

Page 109


Skt 311/ClC'~, adj (one) whose voice is like the neighing of a horse. 2 n son ofDron, born to Kripi who gave out a neigh-like sound at birth and was therefore named Ashvthama. He was a commander of the Kaurav army. At the end of the final Kurukshetar battle, when Duryodhan was gravely wounded, only Ashvthama, Kripi and Kritvarma were left behind. He wanted to take revenge upon Dhrishtadyuman who had earlier killed his father Dron. He sneaked into the Pandavs' camp at night and killed Dhrishtadyuman in sleep. He then killed Shikhandi, son ofDrupad and five sons ofthe Pandavs and took their severed heads to Duryodhan. With the help of his Brahmastar he also killed Parikshit who was yet in the mother's womb. At this Krishan cursed him and blessed Parikshit with Iife. l On the following day, Ashvthama and his accomplices fled out of fear. Daraupadi wailed and called for the vengeance of her son's death. Yudh ishthar pleaded that, Ashvthama being a Brahman, it would be a sin to kill him. Draupadi agreed with this but demanded that the jewel in Ashvthama's forehead be brought and handed over to her. For this Bhim and Krishan went after Ashvthama, brought the jewel and gave it to her. Dropaudi passed this jewel on to Yudhishthar who studded it in his crown. >mflal [a~vpati] n the sun. See »fFl1.Ifu and ~. 2 Prasen, son of Nighan Yadav and brother of Satrajit. Wearing the syamatak jewel he went for hunting and got killed by a tiger. "a~vpati bIn pra}) pare."-krrsan. ~tIO [asvpan] Skt n a god; an angel who cannot dream (go to sleep).
lThe name Prikishat derives from which means to award life to a dead person.

~ [a~vatthama]

Skt a type of demigods, having the mouth of a horse. According to the Purans, they are adept in singing and dancing. ~ [a~vmedh] a religious sacrifice or oblation in which a horse is sacrified. In the remote times, ashvmedh yag was performed with a twin motive i.e. to prove the performer's sway over the entire land or for the sake of progeny. The procedure was that a horse under the spell of certain mantars or holy texts, was set free, with the name and royal dignity of the owner inscribed on its head. It was followed by the king and his army of chiefs. The horse went about in the country. Anyone challenging the sovereignty of the king would catch and tie the horse down. Then a battle would ensue. if the horse was recovered by the king, the chief who tied it down, had to accept the sovereignty of the king. At the end ofthe year, the horse was brought back to the capital where a yag (sacrificial ceremony) was held to which all the kings in whose territories the horse had roamed unhindered were asked to attend. An altar was erected on 21 poles and 18 pits were dug for a sacrifice. Numerous birds and animals were killed and their dead bodies were consigned to flames by the king and the queen. Then the sacrificial horse was brought in, duly washed amidst the chanting of hymns by the Brahman priests. It was slaughtered by the king and his queen with cries of triumph raised from all sides. In case the Ashvmedh was performed for the sake of progeny, the queen slept with the dead body of the sacrificed horse. The Hindus bel ieved that anyone who performed 100 such yags attained the rank of Indar. That is why, it is mentioned in the Purans that Indar often put hindrance in the way of the yags.

~ [a~vmukh]

Page 110


In the 14 th chapter of Valmik's Ramayan, king Dashrath tied three hundred animals to the poles during an Ashvmedh jag, and Kaushlya and other queens killed the horse with a sword and slept with its dead body during the night. 2 a son of King Janmajeya. ~ [a:;;v var] See ~. ~ [a:;;v vEdyl n a veterinary surgeon. ~~;a [a:;;varuqh], l'>!1f~m [a:;;varohi] adj a horse-rider, horseman, cavalier. ~rfiro't [a:;;vmi] n a mare. 2 the first of the twenty seven phases of the moon, so named because the combination ofthree phases looks like a horse's mouth. ~o't ~wa [a:;;vIni kumar] They are two demigods, sons of a mare, regarded as physicians of the gods. In the Nirukt, in the chapter about the gods and in Harivansh, it is written that Sangya, wife ofthe sun could not withstand the light of her husband. Leaving a fake woman, Chaya, in her place, she herself assumed the form of a mare and went to the woods. When the sun came to know of this, he assumed the form of a horse and had twin sons from her.. They came to be known as Ashvini Kumar. There is a story in the Mahabharat that Pandu's widow had begotten her sons Nakul and Sahdev by mating with Ashvini Kumar. In the Vedic agl~ they were believed to be gods of morning and evening respectively. >nU [ah] Skt ~ vr to spread, to be pervasive. 2 pron this. 3 Skt 3Wl~ n a day. 4 the sun. S Vishnu. »f(JRTO [ahsan] A (jl,.;>1 n a favour, an obligation, a good turn. 2 mercy. l?IclA1i'lii:diHE' [ahsanframo:;;] P JY-I; dl,.;>1 adj (one) who forgets a favour; ungrateful. l?ImJ [ahah] parlt expressing, sorrow or grief. ~ [ahkaral:d n pride, arrogance, conceit,

vanity. "jJ:n VIc-·hu ahkaraD cukaIa."-sri m 1 jogi Jdar. ~cmf [ahkam] A (~J plural of~cm. })f(J(!' [ahD] See l?m?l and»fT(J(!'. ~ [ahad] A .A/' n a promise, determination, resolve. "badh ahad Ih ritI s6."-GPS. 2 time, period. 3 duration of a king's rule. i.e., 'eh ghatna bad:;;ah akbar de ahad VIC hoi.' ~ clefl:tOlo1 [ahad:;;J:kni] P ~ -4' n a breach of a promise. ~ [ahdi] A J-,~,' n a particular rank or post during the Mughal rule usually held by horsemen. The pay ofan Ahdi was between Rs. 20 to 25 per month. They served under particular mansabdars (title holders), and were especially sent to convey royal commands or to realize particular dues. They would not leave until the completion of their mission for which they observed a sort of sit down strike. Sometimes an Ahdi during travel was carried on a cot by persons 'begar' (unpaid labour). "tab ::>rag jIy mahI nsae, ek ahdia Iha pathae."-ViY. ~ ih-fro [ahdo pEman] P d,S '-4' n framing of the ru les of an agreem~nt. })fU()' [ahan] Skt a:r,r:rq;:r n hail, hailstone. ~ [ahms] Skt ~ adv day and night. 2 always, at all times. ~ [ahpatI] Skt~ lord of the day, the sun. ~ [ahpatJ:dIn] n the day of the sun, Sunday. })f(J}f [ah21m] Se,e l?f(f. 2 A ff adj urgent, essential. 3 diffiicult, hard. ~ [ahmak] A J'I adj a fool, an idiot. ~ [ahmad] A ...?I adj praised, admired, eulogized. 2 n name of prophet Mohammad. 3 a poet of Persian and Hindi from the seventeenth Bikrami century who wrote prosodic metre and couplets. "ahmad, ya man sadan me han avhf kfh bat?

Page 111

bIkdt jure jJ b nIpat khulE na kapat kapat. ahmad ham na suhay, ami pIlavE man bIn, jJ bIkh det bulay, man sahIt marbo bhalo." ~ 'f.IT'ij" ~ [ahmad $ar. abdali] of Durrani branch of Abdalis, son of Zaman Khan Saddozai, a poor pathan who by virtue of his intelligence rose to become the army commander of Nadir Shah. After the latter's death in 1747, he occupied Qandhar, as also Balkh, Sindh, Punjab and Kashmir. He launched eight invasions on Punjab between 1747 and 1767. In Sammat 1818 through his subordinate Qalandar Khan, he committed sacrilege by demol ishing the sacred Harimandir Sahib at Amritsar which, however, the Khalsa reconstructed soon upon its original foundation. Ahmad Shah died at Murgab on 7th HarhSammat 1830. See~and~. »f(;n-rt~' R'ure [ahmad sayyad] Sayyad Ahmad Shah Ghazi, was a Muslim priest of Bareilly. In 1827 he instigated Muslims of the Northwestern province against the ruling Sikhs. Several thousand Muslims gathered under his flag for Jehad or religious warfare. He was severely defeated by Sardar Budh Singh Sandhawalia. He died in May 1831 at Balakot in Hazara district fighting against Sher Singh, governor of Kashmir. The Muslims believed that he did not die, but had simply disappeared. ~ [ahmadabad] principal town of Gujrat in Bombay presidency. It was founded by Ahmad Shah, king of Guj rat, in 1413 AD on the bank of Shavarmati river. ~ [ahmadi] adj a disciple of prophet Muhammad. 2 n a Musalman. 3 a follower of the Mirza of Qadiani. See QJWH >iRJHt!. })f(JQ lahar] Skt 3ffi\ n day. l')f(JQ1:f [aharakh] See ~. 2 n absence of happiness; unhappiness, grief.
~ [ahraI,l] ~ [ahraI,lI], ~ [ahran] n

ironsmith 's block; an anvil on which the ironsmith beats hot or cold iron into the desired shape. "ahraI,lI matI vedu hathiaru."


»mfoR and »ffuf'oH. [aharman] P d"fi' n according to the Parsi or Zoroastrian religion, the god of evi1. ' Opposed to it is Yazdan, the god of goodness. ~ [ahrat] adj ( one) crying ah! oh! lamenting, wailing. "ahratkotI katyatI gat."-OPs. 2 See

~ [aharnIs] See


[ahal] adjnot moving; firm, stable, fixed. "gaq tham ahIE."~gcJU var 2, m 5. 2 A J' n an assemblage, a community. 3 family. 4 husband. 5 adj able, capable. "ahal arf kama!."-0PS. ~ [ahlkar] P .J14' adjworker, employee, servant. 2 expert, specialist. »mW [ahla] adjdifficult to find; rare. 2 without profit, unprofitable, in vain. Skt »!m? See


[ahlad] Skt~ n happiness, pleasure, delight, See ~. ~ [ahaIIa] Skt ~ n daughter of Vridhashav and wife of Gautam (Shardvat). In Ramayan, she was the first and the most beautiful woman created by Brahma. Cursed by her husband she petrified into a stone only to be liberated from the curse by Ram Chandar. "gotam nan ahalIa tari."-mali namdev. See b-r 4. ~ [ahlia] A d' n the one with a family, wife. ~ [ahliha] A Ld:i those living there. ~ 'i'i"i'I'Q [ahle najar] P ~J' adj wise, intelligent, sagacious. l)fUffiIT [ahalya] See ~ and b-r 4. ~ [ahav] Skt ~ n a battle, war.
'For this reason, many poets describe Satan as »l<JQJ;?).

Page 112


[ahvaya] Skt~ adjconcerning war. "gnat bhumI ahvaya."-ramav. 'They fall in the battlefield.' See ~ wfH. ~ [ahval] A JI..PI plural of()T1i5"; conditions, states, circumstances. "mam i cIni ahval." -tilJg m 1. 2 news. ~ wfH [ahvi bhumI] Skt ~ ~F1-r n a battlefield. See ~. »f(JT [aha] part word expressing gladness and surprise. 2 v past form of' be'; was. "jah kachu aha, taha kIChu nahi."-gcw kdbir. ~ [ahaj], :~ [ahaju] Skt »RJTlJI':if. adj unsuitable. 2: unacceptable. "khaDa khaj ahajo."-var sal' m 1. 3 inedible; unfit for eating. »fU'3T [ahata] See tJT3T. ~ lahar] Skt ~ n food, meal, diet. })f"U";f lahar] adj immeasurable, be:yond weighing, inestimable. 2 n a wail, lament, cry of despair. "khuli vali dEt ahare."-cJ<;li 3. 3 a battlefield. "rule ahar vicc."-cJ<;li 3. 4 Skt ~. har, the fourth month of Bilkrami calendar. ~ [ahari], }~ [aharu] n rabi or summer crop which is harvested during the summer. "phasal ahari ek namu savDi sacu naO."-var mCJla m 1. "savaDu ratI aharu dIhu."-var ram 1 m 1. 'Like auspiciousand inauspicious days or good and evil deeds, are winter or summer crops.' 2 adj immeasurable. See (JT;RjT. })ffu [ahI] fi;(:r this. "ahI tan qheri thisi."-suhi {arid. "ahI karkaresuahI karpae."-varmanz 2 m 5. 2 is. 3 l'>Rf3r egotism, self-pride, See ~. 4 Skt 3Tl15 n a snake. 5 the sun. 6 a traveller. 7 adj lowly. 8 a swindler, cheat. 9 eight, because there are eight prominent snakes. "jab vLsakh ahI divas vitae."-GV 6. 10 Skt 0ffR, n day. "man re, ahI nIsI hanguD sar."-sri m 1. })fftfw [ahfsa] Skt n non-violence, a vow


against killing any living being. 2 not causing pain to anyone; Yog Shastar mentions 81 forms of non-violence. According to it any utterance, act or idea of causing pain is counted as the violence. nrfuR10 [ahI san] See }}f'(J"Rl7). ~ [ahIkaraD] See ~. l?ffu3" [ahJ:t] Skt n against fuo(self-interest), a disfavour, wrong, evil. 2 an enemy, opponent. 3 an evil-doer. ~ [ahld] See ~. ~ [ahIdi] See ~. ~ [ahfdr], »li~ [ahInath] })ffu-~ n the snake king, Sheshnag. ~ [ahInIsI] day and night; continuously; always, See }}RJf'?iH. "ahInISI harIjasu guruparsadI."--asa d m 1. l'>fft:J?IT [ah:mi] n a female snake. "patak dadur gan ko alnni."---GPs. ~ [ahIpatIJ n Sheshnag, the king of snakes. 2 »r<:ft.rf3~ lord of the day, the sun. ~ [ahIphen] Skt n opium. 2 froth coming out of a snake's mouth. ~ [<:IhIbat] Pkt n status of a married woman whose husband is alive; bliss of married life. "rahE atal ahIbat."-GPs. })ffu)f [ahIm] See »RJH. ~ [allImak] See ~. ~ [ahImat] See »r<JHB. "dhanVIsvasi ahlmat apa."-Nl~ nrfuHe" [alumad] See ~. ~ [ahn] See »RRf. nffiRn:r [<:Ilnrakh] Skt "EtFfT n jealousy, envy. "ahIrakh vad na kijE, re man."-asa kabir. ~ [ahIraD], ~ [ahnaDI] See ~. ~ [ahIfpatI] the sun, See ~ . "bahuro ast ahrrpatI bhayo."-NP ~ [a]nraj] n the snake king. 2 Takshak Nag, one of the eight principal serpents of the underworld.

Page 113


type of poetic stanza. See~. [ahirl).i], ~ [ahirni] n a milkmaid, a dairyman's wife. ~ [ahIrrpu] n the enemy of snakes; garur; blue jay. l'>ftiW [ahira] Ski 3ffiIT«f adj destroyed, burgled, ~ [ahrrrpu ketu] Vishnu, who has a plundered. "pfe,! vasaya pher ahira."-GPs. blue jay, the enemy of snakes, as his emblem 2 See "Rffir. in his flag. grurdhvaj -scmama. "yaddapr sam ~ [ahiri] the wife of an "Rffir; a milkmaid. hE ahrnpuketu."-NP. nIY lahul is. "laj ko kaj nahr ek ahu re." ~ [ahrran] See >lfmf<'l. -gurusobha. 2 he, that. ~ [ahrl] See »rm? ~ [ahutna] v to get tired. 2 to come back, l)ffuw [ahrla] fruitless, useless, See »rtJ"1?T. return. 3 to be separated. "ahrla janam gavara."-sri m 1 pahrre. ~ [ahurebi], ~ [ahurevi] A ~l/f ~ [ahrlad] delight, See~. "manr inhabitants ofArabia; Arabian Bedouin. "keu han ko ahrlad."-sar m 5. thatte bhakkhri rrani ahurevi mrl keu ka$miri ~ [ahrlra] See~. "gotam tapa jrn bolan pachaniE."-GPS. ahrlra rstri."-prabha a m 1. 2 adj ~ [ahuta] See~. "so chIn hkh IE das unacquainted, not used to. 3 immovable. See ahuta."-GV 6. 'The servant returned.' fuffi'ir. • [ahuti] See ~. ~ [ahrlia] See ~. »m [ahe] is. 2 part a vocative. "ahe anata." ~ [ahrvar] See ~ 2. 2 the best among -sri ravidas. 3 This word has also been used once in place of tIE (destruction). "srmrat the snakes, Sheshnag. ~ [ahrvat] See ~. nam kotr jatan bhae. sadhu sag mrh hangul). ~ [ahrval] See ~. gae, jamdutan ko tras ahe."-brla m 5. 4 i)f })fU't [ahi] is. "sai basatu ahi. "-sar m 5. (not) ~ (is), is not, does not exist. 2 inclination, desire. "saranr suami ki ahiE." >m1r.r [ahe$] n ~ the master of snakes, -dey m 5. 3 Skt a female snake. 4 a snake. Sheshnag. "je nar grase kalukh ahes."-NP. ~ yo [ahia pur] a village in Tanda police l1Ifru [aheh] adjfree from desire for copulation, station, tehsil Dasuya. The railway station is at ascetic, "aheh hehe."-ramav. 'women have a distance of two kilometres to the west. Here turned ascetics into lechers.' in the house ofBaba Jiwan Singh Bhalla is to "m [aher], ~ [ahera] Skt >'>fTlfc n game; be found one ofthe two pothis (books) ofBaba hunting deer. "ahera paro ghar kE gar ."-bhEr Mohan. Both these pothis were earlier at m5. Goindwal. But now these two priests own one ~ taheri], ~ [aheria] Sktl?fTlf2t adjwho hunts. "kal aheri phrrE badhrk jru. '-dhi'Jna each. One is here, the other is at Goindwal. ~ [ahi$] Skt n ))ffu-EtH the king of snakes; kabir. 2 n a particular caste so named because Sheshnag. of its fondness for hunting. ~ [ahin] adj not deficient, complete. 2 not nm [ahE] is. "jo krchu ahE sabh teri rajaI." low or mean; superb. -bhEr m 1. "Rffir [ahir] Skt ~ n a dairyman, milkman. "rfr [aho] part joy, sadness or surprise. "aho! jasy rakhel). gopalah."-sCJhCJs m 5. "tan same "gala biidhr duhr ler ahir."-sar namdev. 2 a


[ahIraVcll:tl See l.IatjlFe~. 2 See


Page 114

guru aho! ucari."-GPs. ~'it [ahoi] n common goddess, a goddess belonging to the Ahi dynasty, worshipped by virgins. During the festival of navratra (nine nights), virgins make clay models of this goddess and paste them on the walls. On the first of half of the light lunar month, they observe fast and worship its image by burning incense and lighting lamps. On the first of the light half ofKartik month, they immerse these images in running water. A large Ahoi fair is held at Radhakundpur in Mathura district. "han ka SImfan chaqIke <'lhoi rakhe nan." -s kabir. 'She '" who observes the fast ofAhoi instead. ' ~ [ahol).i] adjnot likely to happen, unlikely, impossible. ~ [ahoratr] Skt n day and night, a period of24 hours; eight pahars of three hours each. "RJ [aM] Skt 3:rgl\ n pride, vanity. 2 pron I. "aha aha ahe avar mUf."-kan m 5. "jagat pasu aha, kalu kasai."-oJkar. 'Due to pride the world is getting like an animal and time is turning into a butcher.' ~ [aMkarCll).] n ~ pride, hubris. "so sura variamu jIni VIc-hu dusat ahakaral). marIa."-var sri m 3. ~ [aMkar] n pride, hubris, vanity. "ahakar tIsna rogu laga."-asa cJt m 3.2 Accordiing to Vedant, pride is a variety ofthe mind of which self-pride is the essential state. 3 According to Sankhy ShastaI', pride grows in the intdlect. It is a perversion that gives rise to the vain gods of sense organs and mind. From the passionate state arise five senses ofperception, organs of action and from the dark state come out the five elements. ~ 'aRf8" [ah:3kar garab] See 0'Rm 2. ~ [aMkan] with pride. "aMkan marhI dukh pavhI."--var maru 1m3. 2 See »fc~.
~ [aMkariI Skt ~~ adj proud, vain. "ahakari detu man pacaIa."-bhET a m 3.

[ahakal] n pride, vanity. 2 pride like that of the god of death. 3 See})fCf. ~ ~.r'FfOT [ahagrah upasna] n a worship with the belief that the worshipper and the worshipped are one and inseparable. ~ 'Q'jJ'7) [ahalgrah dhyan] n concentration with the belief that the deity is not separate from the worshipper. ~ [ahata] n egoism. ~. [aMphasli the noose of pride. 2 a noose marked by vanity. ~fu [ahabuddhI] vain intellect. 2 belief in the ego. "ahabuclhI bahu saghan maIa."-guj m5. ~ [aMbadh] bondage ofthe self. 2 bondage forged by pride. ~ [ahabhraml).i] a whirl of pride. 2 misunderstanding caused by vanity. See~. ~ [aMmal).i] n a proud offering, See Hit. ~ [aMmat], l~ [ahamatI] See~. "ahamat anrat kumIt hIt."-kan m 5. lffif>.rol [ahamani] n ego, idea of selfllOod. "bharamJ: bIapi ahamani." -basJt m 5. 2 adj arrogant; (one) who has vanity in his mind. ~ [ahameu], nmHre [ahameI], ~ [aMmev] Skt »fc~h-!fu" n ego, pride, vanity. 2 I alone am. 'Then~ is none like me or to excel me.' "jo jo karte ahameu."-gau var 1 m 4. "man mdita ahameI ."-sri m 5 pahIre. "karam karat baclJ'1e ahamev."-gau kabir. »rd' [arh] Skt 3rt adj worthy of worship, venerable. 2 suitable, qualified. 3 n the Creator. 4 Inclar. It is to be noted that according to the: rules of Sanskrit, words like ~, 'l'li(j'-3'etc. should have been listed here, but in accordance with Punjabi practice they figure as~, »fc~~, ~3" etc. »fa' [ak] Ski ~ vr to go; to go aslant. 2 n llfOr


Page 115


absence of of (comfort), grief, sorrow. 3 suffering. "ak nam dukkh ko vIdIt hE jagat madhy."-NP 4 sin. 5 Skl»fCif a wild plant of sandy wilderness; akk, calotropis procera. "ak SIU pritI kare aktIQa."-var mala m 1. ~ takas] A n a reflection, an image. 2 a likeness, picture. ~ [akasmat], ~ [akasmatr], ~ [akasmat], ~ [akasmatr] SkI ~ adv providentially, by chance, suddenly, unexpectedly. "akasmat karUI).a kari."-NP "akasmatr ab mIle krIpala."-NP "bhayo akasmatra kahyo nahI kaunE."-gyan. ~ [aksar] A adv often, especially, several times. l?fIDfto [aksir] A ;:!! n a chemical. 2 a medicine that has a sure effect; an effective medicine. ~ [akah], »rcXfu [akahI], ~ [akahiu], }')ffi(J~ [akahiau], ~ [akahu] adj unspeakable, inexpressible, ineffable. "akah kaha kahI ka samjhava."-g.=Ju bav.=Jn k.=Jbir. 2 n the Creator. "rIdE b.=JSE akahiu."-s.=Jveye m 3 ke. l'>fOl';:r [akajjJ adj uncovered. 2 without shelter. See ~. "akajj kupa."-ramav. Kekai has referred to that open well which has no raised platform around it, causing a person to fall unawares in it. ~ [akat] adjwhich cannot be cut, that cannot be pierced. ~ [akl)a] v to be down with akk (pain or sorrow). 2 to fret, express annoyance. ~ [aktIQa] n an insect living on akk plant. See~ 5. 'nfa"li [akath] SkI ~ adj indescribable. 2 God. "akath ki karhI kahal)i."-.=Jn.'Jdu. ~ [akathkatha] adjwhat is indescribable;beyond description. 2 the story of the Almighty. "akathkatha tInI jani."-sollIla. l'>tCnfl.llO.[dkathgh~H] n the abode of the



indescribable Creator; sac khaQ (the True Region). 2 a thinker's conscience. 3 the highest spiritual stage. ~ [akad] See ~. 2 adj painful. ~ [akan] See ~. 2 SkI ~ n hearing, listening. 3 adv 31~If having heard, on hearing. "akan nIdes race sukh sare."-GV 6. 'Having heard the order, all comforts were created. ' ~ [aknu] P lJ;ri adv now, at this time, on this occasion. ~ [akpak] adj steadfast in adversity; forbearing. »RmC [akpat] adj sans deceit. 2 n sincerity. "sI!)i sac akpat kathla. "-h.=Jzare 1 O. 3 See ql../Z and ~. ~ [ak~h] A ~ dust, dirt. 2 A ...,.:;r a heel. 3 hind parts, behind. 4 a chase. See ~. ~ [akbar] A ).I adjolder, elder, principal. 2 n the Creator, God. 3 son of Humayun born to Hamida Bano at Amarkot (Sindh) on 15 October 1542 (Sammat 1599). His father having been defeated by Sher Shah was then fleeing India. 1 Akbar occupied the throne of Delhi at the age of 13 years and nine months. The rule was carried on under the guidance of the prime minister and chief commander Bairam Khan (Khan Khana) till Akbar took complete control in Sammat 1617. He greatly extended the Mughal empire. In Sammat 1618, Akbar forged a relationship with Rajputs by marrying the daughter of Raja Bihari Mal of Ambar. 2 Later he also married a princess of Jodhpur. Bihari
'Akbar was born on November 23, but on the advice of the astrologers. to evade the evil influence ofthe planets, his birthday was declared to be October 15. For the same reason he was named Jalaludin Akbar in stead of Badrudin Ahmad.

'See trGl fJ:i'ur.

Page 116


Mal's son Bhagvan Das and grandson Man Singh were Akbar's famous generals who always stood by him. The emperor did not hesitate to give high ranks to the Hindus. Thus Todar Mal and Birbal were among his senior ministers. Rana Uday Singh ofMevar, who hated the Raja of Ambar because the latter had given his daughter in marriage to a Musalman, was naturally regarded by Akbar as an enemy. He invaded Chattaurgarh. Uday Singh was wounded and fled, but two Rajput chiefs Jaimal of Bednor and Patto (Phatta) of Kailvara fought against the Mughals so valiantly that the accounts of their gallantry still exercise charm upon the minds of the listeners. Both were among the sixteen nobles of Mevar. At last Jaimal was killed by a bullet from Akbar's gun. This has been mentioned by Akbar himselfand is recorded by Jahangir. The gun which killed Jaimal was named 'Sangram'(battlle).1 On the death of Jaimal, the rite ofJauhar,2 was performed in the course of which nine queens, five princesses, two princes and several Rajput ladies, hurled themselves in the pyre. This tragedy took place on 11 Chet Sammat 1624. Its anniversary is celebrated in every home in Mevar where poets and singers sing panegyrics to immortalise their memory. After the rituals of Jauhar, Patto and thousands of Raj puts in saffron dress came out of their fort and attained martyrdom fighting
IThis word is from Sanskrit and means 'a battle'. Akbar was very fond of employing Sanskrit words. But this word should have been accompanied by some other word from which information about the conquest or end could be gathered. But that word is missing. 2See, the word 'jJhar'. Some scholars have found 'jivhar' as its root.

against the army ofAkbar. The sacred threads ofthe martyrs, they say, weighed 74.5 maunds or 398 seers. It iis customary to inscribe the sacred figure of?811 on commercial letters of businessmen to purport that one who opens a letter not meant for him commits the sinful murder of Chattaur. This writing figures not only on letters but also on government papers and donations, "catJr marIa ra pap" meaning that a person who stops the charity would call upon himself the curse of the dead. See Col James Tod: The Rajasthan. From the letter written by the French physician Bernier on 1 July 1663, it seems that the two statUt:~s of elephant-riders in front ofthe gate ofthe Delhi fort are those ofJaimal and Patto. Their bravery inspired Akbar to instal them there. 3 Akbar stopped the collection ofJazia and pilgrimage tax imposed on the Hindus. He ordered Dharampur for Hindus and Khairpur for Muslims to be built where lodging and boarding for persons of these communities were provided. He stopped the practice of natural or divine justice (dIvynyay)4 and ordered that no widow could be forced to commit sati or immolation on her dead husband's funeral pyre. The emperor collected one third of the produce as tax. Nobles in active service were called 'mansabdars' (rank holders) each having 500 to 10,000 soldiers uneler him. Todar Mal was the chief revenue officer; under him were officers named kroris meant to purchase rations, c1othings, perfumes,
3These statues were made on the orders of Akbar. When Shah Jahan had the Red Fort built, they were placed at th,. entrance. 4Se.



Page 117


metals and precious stones. Subedars of provinces exercised both criminal and civil justice. They were called faujdars. ' In cities cases were decided by Kotvals and Qazis. In Akbar's rule people could perform their religious rites without restriction. The emperor was fond of listening to merits of various religions. He was also a poet of Hindi and composed a verse on the death of Birbal. "din jan sukh din, ek TId dino dusah dukh, so ab ham ko din, kachu na rakhyo, birbal."2 Akbar also visited Guru Amar Das and received his blessing, Bhai Santokh Singh mentions: tab akbar dIlli te ava, sarIta utar SIvar nIj pava, dhar pratitI dar~an ko cahyo, uttam lin upayan ahyo.-GPs. Besides being an emperor, he also considered himself a religious Khalifa (prophet's deputy) and he started a religious sect, Din Elahi, to forge unity among all religions. Its members, on meeting greeted one another with' Allahu Akbar'(God the great). He developed Agra, which he renamed as Akbarabad. He got built the Red Fort and other buildings. A beautiful building at Fatehpur Sikri shows that Akbar loved to synthesise Indian and foreign architectures. His extensive empire was divided into 18 provinces called subas. They were Allahabad, Agra, Avadh, Ajmer, Gujrat, Bihar, Bengal, Delhi, Kabul, Lahore, Multan, Malwa, Bairar,
'Earlier, the person administering the region was called Suba and the revenue collector, Dewan. One who controlled the army was called Faujdar. 2For all his life, he helped the poor. So all the capital he had, was spent on them. He gave trouble to none. Whatever was saved, that he bestowed upon me while dying. With himself Birbal kept nothing.

Khandesh, Ahmednagar, Bidar, Haidrabad and Bijapur. The celebrated poet of Ramayan, Tulsi Das, lived during Akbar's time and the famous musicologist and singer Tansen also adorned his court. Akbar died on 16 October, 1605 (Sammat 1663). The beautiful sepulchre ofthis gracious emperor is situated at Sikandara near Agra. »jO(aa'a'i! [akbarabad] Emperor Akbar renamed Agra as Akbarabad after his own name. See

[akyath] adj l")fCftfjf. indescribable. 2 useless, in vain, worthless. See~. l')fO(O [akar] See »!Ol3". 2 Skt adj difficult to do or perform. 3 tax free. 4 without hands, with one or both hands mutilated. l)fO(Ot:«JT [akarkara] Skt »jIO(ldO(d§l L Anacy Clusperethrum. A"'}7 n a plant amply found in Algeria. Its root is used in several medicines, especially for curing toothache. Its effect is warm and dry. It removes chest pain and impurities of the stomach. Rubbed on the tongue it cures lisping and stammering. ~ [akdrakh] Skt ~ pull, attraction. "nanak kiti sas akarakhte."-sdhdS ill 5. 'The ant draws out breath, that is, it kills.' ~ [akdrkhal).] Skt ~<y n attraction, gravitation, pull. ~ [akaraJ.:d Skt ~ adj unfit for doing, improper. "akarl).a karotI."-SdhdS ill 5. "cahI akaral). kina."-GPs. 2 deaf. 3 with ears clipped. 4 without ears, without tools. 5 without provisions. ))fO('Q3T [akartaJ Skt ~ adj indolent. "sabh kachu karta tau akarta."-GP S. nrOld"i'i' [akaran] See >">fOlO<Y. 2 v to be overbearing or supercilious. "akn: an na manai hUI ap bharosa."-GPs. })fOlQH [akaram] adj sans divine blessing; not

Page 118


favoured. 2 Sktl?fml' without work, idle. "kahu ~ [akalkala] See })fCffi" and '1X"W. 2 adj karam karat akaram."-akal. 3 n improper or undivided power or skill. "akalkala bharpun rahla."-var asa. inappropriate task. "pag nacSI CIt akaI'ma." -prabha beni. "karam akaram bicariE."-gau ~ [a-kalpat], ~ [a-kalplt] Skt~ adj without imagination. 2 what cannot be ravidas. thought of, beyond thinking. "a-kalpat mudra ~ [akarmal, ~ [akarmi] Skt 3'["Cf,~ n an unfortunate person. "ham pathar hin gurugyanu bicanlale."-SIdhgosatI. akarma."-bila m 4. 'We are senseless like ~ [akalmakh] Skt~ sans~(sin), stone, low and unfortunate.' 2 adj lethargic, adj sinless. 2 guiltless. ~ [akalmad] P adjwise, discreet, idle. intelligent, sensible. »fa"aT [akra] a type of poetic metre also known as al).ka, anhad, anubhav, $a$Ivadna, ca(~rasa ~ [akClII] intelligence, See ~ 1. "akalI and madhurdhunI. It has four lines, each line eh na akhiE akalJ: gavaiE badI."-var sal' m 1. ~ [aklia] S,ee ~. organized being as III, ISS ~ [aklil).], Y.~~ [aklin] Skt ~ adj Example: detached, disint{~lrested. "aklil).I rahltau sabad kas sar mare, SISU nahI hare. bahu bldhI bal).a. atI dhal).u tal).a.-ramav. susar."-srdhgosatI. 2 See ~. 2 Skt adj which cannot be bought; costly. ~ [aklim] Slee ~. 3 }')f-ORJT, a woman without hands or a she- ~ [akalu] adjshort form of~. God, who elephant without a trunk. is free from sin or blame. "akalu gal jam te kla QariE?"-maru solhe m 1. ~ [akrur] See l?fqo. "udhau akrur tnIocan nama."-sav£ye m 3 ke. ~ [a-kalak] adj unblemished, unsullied. 2 flawless. "a-kalak rup apar."-akal. ))fa"l? [akal] A JRF n intelligence, In fact ~ means a fetter locked on the forelegs of a, ~ [aklakntl adjblameless. 2 Skt~ camel to control its wayward movements. That undivided form. "akalaknt hE."-japu. way it is intelligence that keeps man's conduct ~ [akva] a var:~lIk metre also known as ajba, on the right track. 2 memory, recollection. kaya and tima, having four lines, each line 3 Skt adj undivided. "sada akal lIV rahE." organized as SSS,S -sav£ye m 2 ke. 4 without limbs. 5 inartistic Example: or without qualities. "akal kaladhar soi." jutte vira, chutte tira, -sIdhgosatI. 6 the Creator. "jISU guru te jujjhe taji, QIgge gaji.-kalki. akalgatI jal).i."--gau a m 5. 7 S adj unknown. })fCf;:fOT [akarna] v to behave arrogantly. 2 to ~ [akalsar] adj(one) who is levelheaded; contract on drying. 3 to lack softness. wise. 2 a tank of intelligence. 3 brain, the ~ [akra] a gal).J:k metre with four lines, each I line having 115, lSI, 151 arrangement. place of intellect. "Ikna sIdhI na budhI na Example: akalsar."-sava m 1. 'Their head is devoid of munI ban chaQ na garb, intelligence.' 4- short form for ~ ~. ~ [akalah] Skt adj without confliet or mIl an mohly sarb, discord; peaceful. 2 to God, the wise one. lay jahI raghav tir, "kalma akalah jam:."-asa I<abir. tuhI nEk dEkar cir.-ramav.


Page 119

2 the letter nf itself. "amIt SIgh ke bacan sun confusion, perplexity, See ~. bolyo han kar kop, ab akar tua lop kar amIt ~ [akaul).a] v to cause ~ (pain); to irk; SIgh bIn op."-knscm. 'With the omission of to irritate. 2 to vex, to annoy, See ~. "bIna nf, it is mIt SIgh (that is, nothing)' 2 Skt~ hetu te an akavat."-NP n a shape, form, creation of shape and form. ~ [akaI] Skt ~ adj sans 0(Tljf (body). "jab akar Ihu kachu na dnsteta."-sukhmcmi. 3 a figure. 4 adj a sign, mark. 5 adj in form, "namast;'i akae."-japu. 2 Anang Kamdev, the manifest. "apI akaru apI nrr;'ikaru."-g5d m 5. god of love. 3 Rahu, the Planet. })fC('I'ij'H [akaraj] See »fC(1'i'f. })fOr'l1 [akas] Skt )o)fTCi(TH n the sky. 2 the abode of gods, paradise. "s;'it ka nidak akas te tarau." })fC('l'Q('f [akaral).] adj without cause or reason. 2 having no reason, self-operating. 3 adv in -g3c}. m 5. 3 a high rank. 4 See ~ l')jC(iAdldl' [akasg;'iga] See l')j1C(IHdldl'. vain, useless, ~ [akasbel] n amarbel; a dodder, cascuta l?fC("'QEf [akarath], ~ [akartha] adjofwhich apidendron or cassyta filiform is, or cascuta the result ('»RfEr) is only pain (~), in vain. "jandm akarath kin."-s m 9. 2 See )?fC(T6". reflexa; a parasitic creeper. It is soft, without thorns and yellow and red in colour. It strikes })fC("'ij(') [ akaran] See })fC('l'Q('f. its root in the bark of whichever tree it creeps })fC(Tijljf [ akaray] See »fC(1'i'f. upon. As a result, the sap of the tree dries up. ~ [akaru] See ~. »fC(Tli) [akal] n a hard time, an evil hour, famine. See~. 2 Vahguru, who is eternal deathless and is ~ ~ [akasi bj] n an army of martyrs. 2 an army suddenly arrived for help. "pari akasi not affected by time. 3 adj deathless, immortal. "Jr su kal sabe baSI kal ke ek hi kal bja aI."-GPs. })fC("'tf [akaj] Skt »fC(Tljf n a loss, harm. 2 evi I akal sada he."-VN. 4 n the time of death, the final hour. "kal akal khasam ka kina."-maru doing. "taj kaj, akaj ko kaj savaryo."-scJVeye kabir. 5 long living ones like Markandey etc. 33. 3 adv in vain, useless. ~ [akat] See ~. "sImarhI kalu akal SUCI soca."-maru solhe m 5. 6 adv untimely, not at the proper time, ~ [akatI] adj inglorious. 2 without glory as for example untimely death. or distinction. »fC(Tli) ~ [akal ustatI] The title of Guru ))fC(I"Ef [akath], ~ [akatha] Skt »lOrOfTEi' adj Gobind Singh's laudatory hymn to God in useless, purposeless. "tujh bInu jiv~m sagal akath."-brla m 5. "tIn sabh janam akatha." Dasam Granth. Due to the ignorance of the scribes, its text has got scattered, disorganised -jet m 4. and disoriented. See E'orRH BT'»fT3'HT and q:@H3' ~ [akabrr] A /.b"1 plural of~ the great lJtl"QO. ones. »fC(Tli) JIUlf<'l'l-f [aka1 sahsra nam] See FfTlJ ;:ft. l')j(i[T}f [akam] adj useless, worthless. 2 Skt without desire. "akam h£."-japu. 3 not ~ [akalsarl a well in Amritsar that Guru Hargobind got built in Sammat 1669. affected by Kamdev or lust; free from sexual ~ [akalgarh] a town in Vazirabad, sub desire. division of Gujranwala district. Maharaja ))fqTlil' [akay] See ~. Ranjit Singh's favoured subordinate, Divan l')jC(Tij' [akar] n pronunciation of the letter nf.
~ [akau] n idea of~(pain), a painful state;

Page 120

- -83 - - - - - - _ . _ - - - - - - - - - - , -


._---_._-"- - - , - - - - - - - - - - - - '

Page 121


weighing 10 seers. Savan Mal and his son Mulraj, lived here. (13) the mace of the sixth Guru, weighing ~ ~ [akal calaI).a] n untimely de:ath 10 seers in weight. It was bestowed during the prirne of life; casting off body by Mata Sundari to Jassa Singh the before actual death. See ~. warrior. })fCi{'1? 31;r3" [akal taxat] See ~orr. (14) the sword··like weapon with brass grip ~ [akalpurakh] Skt ~ n a timeless or deathless being; an indestructible power, of Guru Hargobind. God. "tu akal purakh nahI SIn kala."-maru (15) the dagger of Guru Hargobind (16) the dagge:r of BabaAjit Singh. solhe m 1. »jOlIMaial' [akalbanga] xa the Khalsa's loud (17) the dagger of Baba Jhujar Singh. (18) the sword of Guru Hargobind. shout of' Sat Sri Akal' resembling the Muslim (19) the poniard of Guru Hargobind. call for prayer. »jOlIM~al' [akalbUga] In Sammat 1665 Guru (20) the poniard ofBaba Dip Singh Shahid. Hargobind got a high throne raised opposite (21) the sword-like weapon of Baba Dip the Harimandir at Amritsar and named it Akal Singh Shahid. Bunga, the house ofthe timeless One. Heheld (22) the pistol of Baba Dip Singh Shahid. congregation here every morning and evening. (23) the pistoll of Baba Gurbaksh Singh This Akal Bunga is the Takhat (or throne) of Shahid. the Sikhs. From the very beginning, the Panth (24) Guru Gobind Singh's two arrows with has been organising gurmatas here. This a tola of gold at each point. gurdwara is the first Takhat of the Sikhs. It (25) the medium size khanda of Baba Dip Singh. contains historical relics of the Sikh Gurus and martyrs including: (26) two swords of Baba Dip Singh. (27) two short khandas ofBaba Dip Singh. (1) the sword ofmiri (temporal authoriity) of Guru Hargobind (28) the quoit of Baba Dip Singh. (2) his sword of piri (spiritual authority) (29) a small quoit of Baba Dip Singh. (3) the sword of Guru Gobind Singh. (30) Baba Dip Singh's quoit for wearing on the head. (4) the sword of Baba Budda Ji (b) the spot in Anandpur Sahib where Guru (5) the sword ofBhai Jetha Ji. Gobind Singh performed the last rites of the (6) the sword ofBabaKaram Singh Shahid. ninth Guru. See »jT~. (7) the sword ofBhai Uday Singh who was an attendant of Guru Gobind Singh. (c) In the gurdwaras at Patna and at other places too there an~ bungas bearing this name. (8) the sword of Bhai Bidhi Chand. (9) the double-edged sword (khanda) of l?f'CilT1? ~ [akal rnuratI] SkI ~ n God whose installation iis not subject to time. 2 everBaba Gurbaksh Singh Shahid (10) the double-edged khanda ofBaba Dip existing form which is timeless. "akalrnuratI ajuni sEbha."-japu. Singh. (11) the khanda of Baba Naudh Singh l?f'CilT1? ~ [akal rnntyu] See ~ and })fCi{'1? ~. Shahid. (12) the sword of Bhai Vichitar Singh, ~ [akali] adj timeles~, not related to time.

Page 122


2 n a worshipper of God, the timeless One. Vahguru's Khalsa (own, pure) kama1 jyo maya ja1 VICC hE a1ep sada sabh da sanehi cal sabh to nIra1i hE, karke kamai khave magl).a haram jal).e bhal).e VICC vIpda nil mane xu;;hali hE, svarath to bIna gurudvarIi'i da CJkidar dharam de jag 1ai carhe mukh 1ali hE, puje na aka1 bIna har koi devi dey sIkkh da;;me;; da so kahie 'akali' hE. 3 This term is particularly used for Nihang Singhs. See fmJor. ~ tft ~ [akalia di chavni] also called l).IMga di ch:mi, is a place in Amritsar where Akali Phula Singh, with 1200 horsemen and 1800 infantry-men used to stay. Maharaja Ranjit Singh had bestowed upon them ajagir for their maintenance. ~ [akIat] A ..:!-r:'(jf V to be strong. 2 adj "He sustains." to nourish, to sustain. "kI akIatas."-gyan. ~ [ak:'Ecan] Skt~ adjpoor, penniless, penurious. 2 (one) who has nothing, barest sustenance. 3 born recluse. »!feB [akIt] Skt ~ adj who is not made by anyone, self-existing. 2 See ~. >:lIfc:fu" [akItt] Skt »roftf::f n infamy, notoriety. 2 See »!feB. ~ [akIty] See l'iffcfu. 2 Skt ~ 11 ignoble act, evil action. 3 Skt ~ adj not artificial or fake; spontaneous. "nImItya akItya."
-cJc}i 2.
~ [akIratghal).], ~ [akIrtghan]

adj (one) who forgets or denies favour done to him, thankless, ungrateful. "akIrat ghal).a no pa1da."-sri m 5. mad VIC rIddha penh kutte da mas, dharIa mal).as khopri tIS madi vas, rattu bharIa kappara kar kajjal). tas, qhak IE calli cuhri kar bhog br1as,

akh SUl).ae pucchra 1ahe vrsvas, nadri pavE akIratghal). mat hor vrnas. -BG ~ [akI1bIkh] Skt ~ adj sinless, blameless. 2 virtuous. ~ [akik] A E Carnelian 11 a very hard and glittering precious stone of red, blue or other colours, inlaid with signets. It is cut and used in ornaments and for inset decoratiDl1 of plants and pictures. ~ [akida] A 6-,?, 11 firmness of thought and belief, devotion, especially religious belief. l?IOfto [akin] adv without doing. "nar ek akin hi pritr kar£."-knsclll. 'Some people requite love even when the others ignore them.' 2 n performing a deed without pride of any sort. "kin akin 1akhE pha1 ho."-krIsan. 3 not cultivated, natural. 4 See oroit?>. ~ [akIratr] Skt ~ 11 infamy, ill repute, bad name. ~o [akOth] Skt ~ adj not blunt; sharp. ~iF [akOqa] adj free, without any external constraint; not under anyone's thumb; independent. ~ [akutobhay] Skt adjnot under fear from anywhere. 2 not afraid of anyone; fearless. ~!3' [akObh] Skt ~ 11 a son of Kumbhkaran and younger brother of Kumbh. "kObh akObh se jit sabh£."-VN. 2 At some places~!3'also appears in place of ~!3'. The latter was a demon who was killed by Durga. That story is- told in Markanday Puran. ~ [akul] adj(one) who has no race, caste or pedigree; God. "kahIt kabir aku1 nahi cetIa."-gau. 2 ~. of low caste. ~(!T [aku1aul).a], ~ [aku1ana] v to have mental distress; to be mentally pained, distressed or perplexed. See ~. ~ [akulil).], ~ [akulin] adj of low birth, ignoble. 2 renouncer of caste-culture.


Page 123


The shrine owns about 125 bighas of land 3 not related to any caste or race. ";'Ikulin donated by Bhai Matab Singh. One hundred rahItau sabad susar."-sIdhgos~tI. rupees in cash and three quilts are given ~ [akual).a], ~ [akua], ~~ [akuia] annually by the state. Two Sikh mahants serve SklCfj.yrto produce a sound. adjsilent, taciturn, the shrine with devotion. It is about two miles (one) who has taken a vow of silence. "te sahI nah akual).a."~vaq m 1. "ek phUE ras rag to the south from the railway station Bahadur Singhwala (N.\V. Rly). akuia."-krIs;m. 2 See ~ mur. ~ [akok] adj ignorant ofKok Shastar. "kam ~R [akuj] SkI ~, adj bad deed, vice. ke1 akok."-prIthu. 2 See ¥vr beyond description; indescribable. ~ [akoq] SkI ~~ adj endless, countless. "praja dukhaI akuj."-GPs. ~3" [akut] adj beyond measure; limitless, See~. boundless, See ~3". 2 not criticized, not ~ [akor] n a present, an offering. "dije pran condemned. akor."-jet m 5. ~1.f'O [akupar] SkI n a sea, an ocean. 2 a ntefur [akag] adjwithout armour. "tukke akag." fabulous tortoise said to be under the earth. -ramav. See crcrr" >'>I'Ck<x [akatak] SkI' 3fCI'iUc:cr adjthornless, without 3 the sun. ~ [akuya] not talking, silent, See }~. hurdles. 2 unobstructed. 3 without any enemy, "nam akuya sabh hi kahE."-GPS. having no adversary. »!¥ [akur] n something which is not false, ~ [akatr] SkI 3lc~adjnon-doer."ajatraamatra opposite offalsehood; truth. akatra."-gyan. 2: (one) who prefers reclusion. ~ rake] See ~. >mfer [akath] adj beyond description, ~ [akera], lm [akero] adv once. 2 See unspeakable, indescribable, inexpressible. »!fu¥. 3 adj solitary, alone. "jab ghat bani "bhumadI dan dine akath."-gyan. 2 without subh th;Jr akero."-krIsan. even a ragged blanket. [ake1a] adj alone, single, without ~ [akapan] SkI 3lCfwFf n state of notcompanion. "age has ake1a."-sor k.::Jbir. trembling or nolt shivering; steadiness. 2 one ~ rakE] part or. "akE koi kIhu devae."-var of Ravan's commanders and a minister. He bIla m 4. was Ravan's maternal uncle, and the son of ~ [akoi] a village ofJind state two kos north Sumali and KetUllnalini. His sister Kaikasi was of Sangrur. Here is a gurdwara of Guru Ravan's mother" Hanuman killed him in a battle. "band nad akapan se."-VN See ~ Hargobind who came here from Saunti and stayed with Manak Chand, a devotee, in and l{UFI3". 3 Per Harivansh, he was an Indian king and was Hari's father. Sammat 1673. Guru Granth Sahib is installed in the gurdwara building got built by SaI'dar ~ [akkl).a] See ~. ~ [akyath] S~~e »imT and »rcmEr. Diwan Singh of Badrukkha. Close to the circumambulatory passage, ~ [akray] adjinactive, motionless, stationary. "akray ek paratam puran."-NP 2 unpurchasable. there is a solid caper tree under which, so believe the local people, the Guru's horse was ~ [akn~] adf not lean or weak. 2 which cannot be pulled; not deserving to be pulled. tied. According to them, earlier Guru Nanak l?ffc!3" [aknt] Ski ~ adf unmade, unbuilt. Dev had also visited Akoi.


Page 124


2 Skt ~ adj not fit to be done, misdeed, sin. "akrIt karma."-ramav. »tf~df~d [akntknt] adj doing what cannot be done by others. "tej su rasi aknt knta."-gyan. ~ [akntagy] Skt ~ adj ungrateful, thankless. ~ [akntam] Skt ~ adj not artificial, genuine. 2 real, true. »tf~dif~d [akntaknt], »tfS!d'fS!fa [akntakntI] adj not made or shaped by anyone; assuming various forms. "akntaknt hE."-japu. ~ [akny] adj inactive, passive. ~ [akrur], ~ [akruru] Skt ~ adj not c~uel, merciful~ kind. 2 not irate, calm. 3 n Krishan's paternal uncle and son of Shvaphalak and Gandini. He came to deliver Kans's challenge for battle and took Krishan and Balram from Gokul to Mathura where Krishan killed Kans and re-installed his own maternal grandfather Ugarsen on the throne. "udhau akruru, bIdaru gUl) gavE."-savE'ye m 1 ke. "mohI abE akrur ke hath bulay pathyo mathura hl1 ke rai."-krrsan. »tC! [akr£] See »rf'gGr. l')(6f [ak;;] Skt OTlR vr to enter; to penetrate; to pierce; to attain desire's fulfilment; to spread; to be diffused. 2 none of Ravan's sons whom Hanuman killed while laying waste the Ashok garden. His full name was Akshay Kumar. 3 counters in chess. 4 arl axle. 5 eye. 6 a blue jay. 7 seed of eleocarpus ganitrus used in rosaries. 8 16 masas of oil. 9 soul. 10 Dg myrobalan.
»tia [ak~at] See~.

~ [ak~ayvatl See
~ [ak~ar]


~ ~ Fl:PO [ak~ra

See »fCfiJ. de sthan] See footnote to

picture 4.
adj blind with intoxication of knowledge, See ~ ~. ~ [ak~I] Skt an eye. 2 a count of two, two. »rEhl [ak~Jl)i] See ~. })flf [akh] See l')(6f. 2 Dg n a garden, park. 3 See »rfu. 4 See »f1!O 2. ~ [akhau], })fl:ffu [akhaI], ~ [akhaIO] adj indestructible, everlasting. "atal akhaIo deva."-maru m 5. ~ [akhsar] See »t'CmO. l'>fJ::IORf [axgar] P P, n a spark; an ember, a scintilla. })fl:fH [akhaj] A ;g, n acquisition. 2 catching, grasping, gripping. ~ [akhaqa] adj strong, powerful. 2 without a hole, complete. l'>Il;I'3'a' [axtar] P /1 n a star, planet. "rJ~andImag axtar."-ramav. 2 a portent, an omen. 3 a flag, standard. ~ [akhta] See »fTl:IdT. ~ [akhtIar] See ~. ~ [akhni] P n thick soup of meat. "salan J akhni bniii."-knsan. 2 stock of food. adj cooked food. ~ [axbarl A )~I plural of J::ra"iJ. news. "lavpur te ai akhbaru."-GPs. 2 newspaper.. l')fl:flif [akhay] See ~. })fl::Rf [akhar] Skt ~ n a character, a letter; letters for writing Gurbani. "akhar ka bheu na lahat."-var sar m 1. 2 adj which does not dissolve, insoluble. 3 n God who remains in the same state. I "e akhar khnI jahIge OI akhar In mahI nahI."-gau kabir, bavan. 4 n a sermon, an advice, "akhar nanak akhIO apI."-var majh m 1. 5 a mantar according to
~ [ak~radh]


Skt n a rosary of rudraksh (elecarpus ganitrus) seeds. 2 a rosary ofletters from })f to ~. ~ [ak~mi] Skt ~ adj sans forgiveness. 2 incapable. l?Iim [ak$ay] Skt adj imperishable, everlasting.

~ [ak~mala]

ISee Vishnu Puran Part 1, Chapter 22.

Page 125


books on magic. "kava!.)u su akharu kava!.) gu!.)u kava!.)u su ma!.)ia rna tu. "--s {arid. 6 nominal; objects which bear names. "drIsat man akhar he jeta."-bavan. l'lfl::IO orr ~fI [akhar ka bheu] n a grammar; grammatical knowledge. "akhar ka bheu na lahat."-var sar m 1. 2 meaning or implication of a sentence. })fl:RJli [akharab] Skt~ adjbeyond the figure of one kharab: 100,000,000,000 ; countless, innumerable. 2 (one) which is not small; great. "garab akharab dur hve gayo."~c5dCJr. 3 tall, not short. ~ [akhrot] Ski ~ n a walnut tree and its fruit. It does not grow in hot climate. ][t has beautiful wood which is used in manufacturing beautiful articles of various types. It grows plentifully in Kashmir. Its kernel is hot and moist in effect. Its Latin name is aleurites triloba. E walnut. ))f1:f(? [akhal] Skt ~ adj whole, complete. "akhal bhavan ke sIrjanhare."-caritr 405. 2 (one) who is not mean. 3 (one) who is not stupid; wise, intelligent. ~ [<:lxlak] A J!.P I plural of~ n character, morality, conduct. 2 nature, disposition. 3 culture, decency. })fl:fffi" ~ [akhli w;li] This is the initial phrase from one of Guru Nanak's asatpadis in malar rag. 1) "akhli u<;li jalu bhar naII, 2) <;lugar ucau garu patalI, 3) sagaru sit<:llu gursabadI vicarIo" It means: 1) All downward young streams, full of water flowed proudly, 2) From high mountains, they went towards deeper dungeons. 3) Merging into the ocean they got silent, i.e. their speed came to an end. Likewise, the

hymn states, by meditating upon the Guru's word, the turbulent mind gets peaceful and humble. I »fl:fffi:r [akhles] adj ~-ElF.r master of all; God, the Creator. ~ [akhri] Skt 1?ff'Gr, an eye. "nanak se akhria bIan."-vCJQ ch5tm 5. ~ [akhaut] n a saying, proverb, an aphorism. See 1?{l::fT(Y. and ~~. ~ [<:lkhaj] See 1?f1::f"eJf. inedible, uneatable. "ghar ghar magan khaj akhaje."-BG l')fl:fI'(!" [akhal).] Skt 1')fTl:fj!T() n a story, tale. 2 a proverb, See ~cl~. 1?fl:f13t:r [<:lkhatij] See ~. })f1::I'£ [akhad], »fCfTR [akhadI], Jo>f'1:Rj1 [akhady], 1?fl::fT'fuJr [akhad yI], 1?fl:ITQ" [ akhad h], »f1:fTfq [<:llhadhI] Skt :~~ adj not fit for eating, inedible. "akhadYI khadya."-sCJhCJs m 5. "<:lkhadhI khahI harkaIa."-asa m 5. ~ [akhara] See 1?fl:I';3T. "jIu besva ke pare akhara."-bht:r namdev. 2 adj not brackish, insipid. ~ [akhavat] See 1?f1:fT<f and ~. 'l?{l::fl;f [akhar] Skt~ the month ofHarh. On its full moon day, meet two planets ofthe lunar month, the pre-Harh and post-Harh. 1?fl:I';3T [akhara] Skt 31fRR n an arena, a theatre, ampitheatre, stad!ium, battlefield. "sab tera khel akhara jiu."-majh m 5. 2 a wrestling pit. 3 a battlefield. "ehu akhara harI prItam sace ka jInI ap!.)e jOrI sabhI a!.)I nIvae."-var gCJU 1 m 4. "bIkham akhara me guru mI1I jita." -asa ch5t m 5. 4 an abode of the anchorites. 5 Bands of holymen especially of the Udasi and Nirmala sects in particular going as religious preachers, are known to form an Akharha, the briefaccountofwhich is as below: (a) Mahatma Pritam Oas of the Udasi cult
'Some scholars interpret this hymn with reference to the cranes flying with their gullets filled with water.

Page 126

once thought that bands of Sikh sadhus often experienced great difficulty in finding residence and food dliring fairs at pilgrimage centres. To tackle this problem, he approached Nanak Chand, the paternal uncle of Chandu LaI, a minister of the Nizam of Hyderabad, who offered seven lacs of rupees. With the money thus offered, Sant Pritam Das approached the Udasi saints of Paryag and suggested the establishment oftheir separate Akhara where they could stay away from the sanyasis and preach Sikhism in different parts of the country. Accordingly the Panchayati Akhara was established in Sammat 1836. A committee of four sadhus, Ganga Ram, Kutsath Braham, Sarup Braham and Atal Braham, was constituted under the guidance of Guru Granth Sahib. They made arrangements to procure tents, canopies, durries, carpets, horses, camels, bullock carts, kitchen utensils, musical instruments, walking staffs and umbrellas and framed rules and injunctions so as not to leave any lacunae in their smooth management. The headquarters of the Udasi Akharha are at Allahabad with numerous buildings at Kankhal, Kashi etc. (b) In Sammat 1896, some differences arose, and Sadhu Santokh Das, Hari Narayan Das, Sur Das etc. of Sangat Sahib (Bhai Pheru) established a separate Akhara, Sri Guru Naya Akhara, commonly known as Udasian da Chhota Akhara. Its headquarters are at Kankhal and it has buildings at other centres ofpilgrimage. Its administration is sound like that of Panchayati Akhara. I
ISantokh Das's Akhara was established in Amritsar in Sammat 1838, and Sangal wala Akhara was set up in Sammat 1843 and Nirvansar in Sammat 1850. So named, they are only cloisters of sadhus unlike Panchayati and Chhota Akharas.

(c) Like the Udasis, Nirmala saints, finding their sadhus humiliated at pilgrimage centres also thought of having their separate Akhara. They were inspired to do so by saints like Bhai Tota Singh, Ram Singh, Matab Singh etc., Maharaja Narendar Singh of Patiala, Maharaja Bharpur Singh of Nabha and Maharaja Sarup Singh of Jind, in Sammat 1918 established Dharam Dhuja Akhara of Nirmala saints. Bhai Matab Singh was appointed its first Mahant (chiefpriest).Grants in cash of Rs. eighty, sixteen and twenty thousand respectively were given by Patiala, Nabha and Jind states. Annual grants of Rs. 4000, 575 and 1300 were donated by those states in the same order. Jointly all the three states 2 drew up Dasturulamal (rules of action or constitution) for Akhara Nirmala Panth of Guru Gobind Singh. 3 Its constitution carried these clauses: I) Shri Mahant will be appointed in consultation with the three states and four other mahants, all wearers of Sikh symbols (underwear shorts, kirpan, hair-comb, steelbangle) shall be appointed in consultation with Chief Mahant. 2) The cooks in the kitchen shall also observe the same code of conduct. 3) Two workers, two storeki;pers, one granthi and one gyani (scholar knowledgeable enough as to interpret the scriptural texts), all observing the same code of dress, shall be appointed, besides one or two orderlies. 4) This code is not compulsory for the present ChiefMahant. Those appointed in the future shall have to be intell igent, ascetical and observers of the code of conduct and dress.
'Patiala, Nabha, .lind. Yrhis Dasturalamal was approved on 12 August 1862.

Page 127



5) Whenever Shri Mahant visits the capital of a state, or whenever a chief finds time to visit the Akhara, he shall give offerings to Guru Granth Sahib or to Shri Mahant, but not individuaHy to other priests. 6)AH income ofthis sort will be accounted for. If any priest brings anything from anywhere, that too he shall deposit in the Akhara without keeping anything with himself. 7) At his discretion, Chief Mahant may offer to a brahman or an invalid, clothes or cash for visiting places of pilgrimage, but the details of all such offerings shall be maintained in writing. 8) If Dharam Dhuja Akhara Guru Gobind Singh wants to have a bhandara (free distribution of food), it shaH be done in consultation with and approval of eh ief Mahant. If at any time this is not possible, food may be offered but Chief Mahant must be informed of it as early as possible. 9) Ifthe need arises to appoint a new priest, it must be obligatory for him to swear before Guru Granth Sahib that he shall observe the code of conduct and deposit all income from all sources with the Akhara. 10) It shall be essential for Chief Mahant and his colleagues to ensure that if any Sikh fiefholder or chief wants to organise a free meal (bhandara), he shall be allowed to do so according to his own faith and belief, and the mahants shall not interfere in any way and shaH be considerate so as to respect the donor's sense of honour. 11) Similarly,if any other Sikh follower ofthe sect desires to conduct a free meal, the foregoing clause shall be observed. If it is found that though a person of means wilfully shows inability to do so, a report can be lodged

with the respective state and his money confiscated and deposited with the Akhara. 12) If during a journey there is a gurdwara, the Akhara must not bypass it. An offering is to be paid according to the status of the gurdwara concerned. 13) Seating arrangements should be in this order: Guru Granth Sahib in the centre, on the right of it ChiefMahant followed by other mahants, nd saintly Sikhs respectively, on the left the gyani, the interpreter of sacred text, and behind him other holy Sikhs. Other persons, however holy, shall sit at their respective places. In this, rank and not scholarship shall be the criteria .If a mahant of some other sect comes, he shall be seated on the left of the gyani. A seat on the right side, if given, should be behind (Nirmala) mahants of the concerned Akhara. 14) No other holy man shall stay in Chief Mahant's house, though a few holy men detailed to serve him may do so. Similarly no one is aHowed to sleep in the room reserved for keeping Guru Granth Sahib, because to do so amounts to disrespect. IS) Any Sikh, ascetic or householder, who comes to pay obeisance, may do so. There is no restriction. He should be seated according to his respectiv,e: status. 16) It is obliigatory for Shri Mahant and other mahants not go to the house of any state official. If need be, they may send a worker, store-holder, some orderly or any other mahant ofthe dera. Ifinvited for a meal however, they may go. 17) It is obligatory for the Sikhs of the Akhara that if a mahant asks them for any service, they should not avoid rendering it on one pretext or the other; if they avoid doing so, they shall be liable to a fine as decided by

Page 128

92 a mahant of the Akhara. 18) If any ascetical Sikh wants to stay in the dera, he shall first have to declare with his hand on Guru Granth Sahib that he shall return to the gurdwara everything offered and shall not retain anything with him, and that he shall remain loyal to the Sangat (congregation). Without such a pledge, he shall not be admitted. 19) The mahant must take parsad prepared· and served only by the baptised Sikhs. Even water used in the kitchen must be such as is drawn (from the well) by the Sikhs. 20) There is no restriction on serving meals to other Sikh holy men; food must be served to all, care be taken that those observing rahit sit in a separate row. 21) Women shall never be allowed to enter the Akhara. This restriction also applies to liquor but not to opium and cannabis. 22) If anyone not observing rahit or belonging to a non-Sikh community, wants to offer parsad or a meal, he should not be refused, provided he gives uncooked ration for cooking by those in the Akhara. 23) The income accruing to the amount which has been put to the credit of the Akhara in the beginning, from lending or through other investments, shall be used for maintaining the community kitchen and for conducting other repairs; the initial grant must remain intact. 24) Financial management of the Akhara wi II be entrusted to three mahants, one belonging to each contributing state. They shall try to increase income by lending money on interest and investing in commerce, and shall spend it in accordance with rule 23. They shall inspect the accounts at least once in a year, and forward them to Shri Mahant for further inspection. 25) If he wants to appoint anyone in his own place, during his life, ChiefMahant shall be allowed to do so in consultation with the Akharas of the three states. 26) IfChiefMahant has already appointed his replacement during his tenure, or ifhe has not performed satisfactory work during his tenure, the three states through mutual consultation may remove him from the post. 27) If any mahant violates the code of cond uct, the three governments, through mutual deliberation, shall have the right to remove him. 28) Prior commitment will be taken from each of the five mahants that they shall not do anything against the Dasturulamal. Whenever the thr<>e states write anything to the mahants, its copies in Gurmukhi script shall be provided for safe keeping and also duly stamped and sealed with date to be kept in the office files. 29) It shall be obligatory for the Sikhs of the Akhara to keep in reserve one turban of vermillion colour and the rest of white colour. This is a traditional custom, symbolising the renunciation of family life. 30) Instead of a tiibi (mendicant's bowls of hollowed guard shell) and cIppi (oval begging bowls) the mahants shall keep steel karmaqal (mendicant's bowl with the top handle) or metallic vessel (container for keeping drinking water), because tiibi and cIppi are unclean and cannot be cleaned with earth (or sand). »rt1:r [akhI] Skt})ffu n an eye. ~ [akhIU], ~ [akhIO] See nJWjf. 2 said, uttered, "akhar nanak akhIo apI."-var majh m 1. ~ [aklnan] See »fl1::IJlTO. ~ [dkhIIU], nrf'trf'E"E [dkhIIO] See nJWjf

Page 129


l'>Ifl:l;:r [akhIj], >lfu [akhIjh] adj (one) who

[akhEJ See »fc~[ljf. ~'3lH [akhEtijJ »16XlJr ~ the third of the bright half of Baisakh month. According to the Hindu belief~ Satyug (the epoch of truth) commences with it. ~-ac [akhebat] Skt ~ n According to Purans that banyan tree which does not die even on the doomsday, and God Vishnu, assuming the form of an infant, sucks the big toe of his foot on it. Per the Hindu belief this tree used to be at Prayag; death as a result of fall from it was believed to lead to result in the liberation of numerous travellers. Jahangir had got this ak~;ayvat tree cut but now the ~[akhutJ, ~c [akhutI]Skt~ncontinuity, Hindu priests point to an indestructible tree uninterruptedness. 2 without decrease or loss. 3 adj unending. "Ihu dhan akhut na nIkhutE in the fort of Prayag to collect offerings. "jy6 na jaI."-dhClna ill 3. bat akhE rup laghu chajE."-NP See lJGITOT. Another »Il.:fil [akhutiJ Skt ~ n a bad custom, wrong ak:;;ayvat is believed to be in Gaya too. practice. 2 the idea of childhood. "hfdu mule l1f1fc [akhot] adjwithout adulteration, real. "lal bhule akhuti jahi."-var bIha ill 1. padarath sac akhot."-:Jakar. 2'pure, endless. ~ [akhobh] Skt ~ adj sans excitement. >mit [axud] P .t}, n a teacher. 2 a chief. 2 without confusion. 3 n quietude, serenity. ~ [akhuhal).IJ See ~. l?fl:fa [akhac;l] adjunlbroken. 2 endless, continuous. l?fl!C [akhutJ See »n:fC. "bhare bhac;lar akhut "akhac;l kirtanu tun bhojan."-gClu Cl ill 5. atol."-gClu ill 5. l1I¥ [akhun] P 1:)}1 n a fine speaker, teacher. ~ [akhac;lsurhi] See ~. "Ihi hakikat jo kahE soi bac;la akhun."-mClgo. ~ [akhac;lkal] n the full moon. 2 adj 2 A t,:J}, a companion, friend. 3 plural of»n.:f, complete in all respects. ~ [akhac;lat] See ~. brother. })fife [akhet], )o)fi:l"c'cx [akhetak] See~. l?fl:fa t(TQ [akhac;l path] n a continuous recitation. 2 a continuous recitation of Guru Granth Sahib ~ [akhed] n happiness, pleasure. 2 adj free which is completed in 39 hours. Four or five from suffering. granthis, devote themselves to it one after the »f1fa" [akher] See~. other continuously without any break. This ~ [akhel] adj without play. 2l>f!1:r5 all. "khel custom was initiated by the Buddha DaI. khel akhel khelan at ko phIr ek."-japu. Akhand path was not held during the time of 'Human beings having been busy playing

does not fret; not peevish, forbearing, sober. "akhIjje abhIjje."-japu. 2 See »f"l1:re". »!fl:fG [akhIt] short form for~, prey, hunting. "nrIp akhIt sIdhayo."-c."Jritr Ill. »rfl::re" [akhIdJ See~. 2 Skt~ adjuntiring. ~ [akhIdal)i] »iitt-~ comforting, pleasure-giving, comfort-providing. ~ [akhIl] See }jfl::f(? ~ [akhIles] See ~Ji. »n:ft [akhi] an eye. See »rfcf. "akhi kac;lhI dhari carl)a talI."-suhi Cl ill 4. 2 said, uttered. "batia han ke sag hf: ClkhIa."-knsCln. 3 with or through the eyes. "akhi kudratI kani bal)i." -bClS{'jt ill 1. 4 to or for the eyes. "akhi sutaku vekhl)a partrIy."-var asa. >m:fur [axir] A j, n an end, a closure, an ending.

games of all sorts, come to realize the oneness of the Divine.' ~ [akherJ Skt '~>MfG n hunting, chase. ~;'1raard [akhe buatI] Skt~, See ~


Page 130


the Gurus. Many people keep an earthem lamp burning day and night, and place a pitcher full of water and coconut, etc. But this practice was not in vogue in the beginning. 3 See l?ffu" ~


[akhae,lal] See ~ m? 2 Skt ~ n Indar, the king of the gods. "thap akhae,lal ko surmae,lal."-cdTrtT 1. ~ [akhae,lli] adj unbroken, complete. 2 n the rank or status of Indar. See~. '))fl:ffu'3" [akhae,lIt] adj unbroken, complete, whole. 2 advcontinuous, incessant, ceaseless. >ii1:Rr [akkhar] See })fl::Rf. ~ [akkhal] Skt a sound of joy, joyful tune. nfl:fT Jj~ [akkha mudl).ia] to ignore the wrong committed by another. 2 to be overbearingly arrogant. 3 to die, to pass away. bhukhan basan bas ratan anek jatI choe,le pH palki anup chabI dham ki, kaha narnah kaha bhae bad$ah kaha $ahan ke $ah jJn dehE parnam ki, beni kavI kahE khal phal me bItavE dIn pale khal khalE kE pakhalE jas cam ki, man hi ki man rahI jati abhIlakhe jab mud gai akhe tab lakhe kIhI kam ki. ~ [akhyau] l')fEiflJf eternal. "pura guru akhyau ja ka matr."-sukhm;;Jni. l'>fl:WJTO [akhyan] See l?fTl:IJtTO. ~ [akhyal] adj beyond thinking, unthinkable. "akhyal akhae,l rup he."-;;JkaL ~ [axvad] P "il a teacher, tutor. })f(Jf rag] Skt 3I!'" vr to go, enter. 2 Skt short form for l'>fCJlfo. 3 Skt 2>rn adj ignoramus. "jyo tag age ag argai."-NP. 'just as an ignorant man gets dumb before a spiritually awakened person.' 4 Skt 311T adj motionless, immobile. 5 n a mountain. 6 a tree. 7 Skt nra.r front, the front side. 8 adjfirst, primary. 9 a leader, head. 10 adv before, in front. "ag tab cala."-d;;Jtt. 'Then he proceeded forward.'


[agasat], ~ [agast] Skt nrarft:r and a celebrated sage who lived in the Vindaya mountain. He composed several hymns of Rig Ved wherein it is held that Agastya was the son of Mitravarun I At the sight of Urvashi he ejaculated his semen, a part of which fell in a pot from which Agastya was born; from the portion that fell outside the pot was born Vashishth. That is why Sayan has held that Agast came out of a pot like an elegant male fish, So he was called Kalshisut (son of a pitcher), Kumbh Sambhav and Ghatodbhav, etc. Due to such a birth, he is also called Maitravaruni or Aurvashey as well. At the time of birth, he was of the size of an extended hand. Once Kalkey demons spread terror in the world, killing holy saints and spoiling religious oblations. When the gods went to kill them, they hid themselves in the ocean. Paying heed to the request of the gods, Agastya drank the entire sea in one draught and the gods succeeded in destroying the demons. For this reason Agastya came to be known as Pitabadhi and Samuderchuluk as well. In the Purans it is recorded that Agastya was the son of Pulasaty. There is a story in the Ramayan that when Agastya saw his ancestors hanging upside down in a pit, they told him that they could be liberated only if he produced a son. Gathering parts of several animals, Agastya formed a girl whom he sent to the ruler ofVidarbh where she was brought up like a princess. When she grew up, Agastya married her. She was named Lopamudra. The Ramayan gives further account ofAgastya that for a long time he observed austerities at Kunjar Hill south of Vindhayachal. The

IMitar and Varun are twin gods. But their names figure together. They are twins like Ashvini Kumars.

Page 131



demons were frightened of him. Ram, ~ [agachrni] Skt~ advwhich does not move, motionless, still, eternal. "sarbe jor Lakhshman and Sita stayed with him there. agachmi, dukh ghanero athI."-var maru 1 m To Ram he gave: a sword, Vishnu's bow and a 1. 'At the sight of the eternal Creator, the quiver of arrows. with which he killed Ravan. senses get widely perturbed.' See))fT8' and 'l?fTfu. Agastya was present in Ayodhya at the time of Ram's coronation. The Dravids ofthe south ))IOIH [agaj] n born jfJrom »raT (mountain), ajewel. worship Agastya Muni. "agast adI je baqe 2 a metal. 3 a fruit. 4 Skt})f(J]tf Brahman. 5 a tapastpi vIsekhn:."-akal. headman, leader. 6 Skt »raJTW!'. adj beyond grasp; what the mind and senses cannot grasp. 2 There is a star by this name which rises from the south on 17 th of Bhadon. (August- ~ [agaq] adj not fixed, planted or studded. September) "uday agast p5th jal sokha."-i:ulsi. "su dh5n jIno hE agade."-krIsan. l)f(JTU [agah] Skt »raJTtJ1Jr adj who cannot be ))((J1(!" [agal:tl n according to the rules of poetics, seized. "mere thakur agah atole."-gau m 5. inauspicious character combination, that is: 2 nrcJlTl:f deep, bottomless. "rasna agah agah gun FICJlCf, RaT<!', ~ and ~. 2 adj uncountable. rati."-bila m 5. 3 n life-breath which is })fOJ(E" [aga!).at], )~rOrf<B' [aga!).It] adj beyond difficult to hold back. "agah gahE gahI gagan calculation. "agal)at uc apar thakur."-bIha cat rahai."-gau bavan kabir. 4 mind, which is m5. difficult to control. »rcJI3' [agat] adj unmoving, not fallen. 2 un»fillu"a!(J(!' [agah gaha!).] sen seizing the unseizable; ended. 3 unattained. 4 See »fa'If3'. understanding what is beyond the mind's »rarf3' [agatI], »raT'31 [agati] n m iserab Ie grasp. "agah gaha!). bhram bhratI dahaQ.."condition, poor plight. 2 adj being in bad savEye m 5 ke. 2 mental poise. shape. 3 not entitled to salvation. "parhI })f(JJ(J'i") [agahan] Skt n ~ beginning of the narak rnarl<E agatI."-GPs. year, month of Magghar; per the old custom »raTEr [agathl, ))fOJ'EF [agatha] adj of which the the year commenced from the month of story is beyond narration; indescribable. Magghar. That is why it was given the name "sarnrathagath apar nrrrnal."-asa chat m 5. of Agarhayal). 2~ })fO]-))fljf<') commencement of "palE nam agatha."-var maru 2 m 5. the year, first month of the year. "katak brtyo ))f(JJt!' [agad], ~ [agaduJ Skt adv without OR' su agahan ava."-GPs. (disease); healthy. "kal krrpa kar bhae agad })f(J1fu [agahI] See })f(jj(J. sabh."-saloh 2 n medicine, cure for a disease. ~ [agahu] Se,e })f(jj(J. 2 adv in or from the 3 A .JJif'1 a vow, promise. 4 marriage, wedlock. front. "agahu dekhE pIch-hu dekhE tujh te "agadu pap:: s£tan ve lalo."-tIlag m 1. 'The kaha chapavE."--gau m J. 3 n future. "ag-hu devil instead of a qazi performs the marriage nera ala pIcha rahla durI."-s farid. ceremony.' See F.r3"O. ~ [ag-huca] adjunfathomable, bottomless. l')f(JJtr [agadhl, »raT(T" [agadha] adj bottomless, 2 ))f(Jl'(J (bottomless) and ~. "thah nahi agunfathomable. "harr agarn agadha."-gau var huca."-dev m 5. 2, m5. ~ [ag-heu] Skt ~. which cannot be »faTO lagan] See 1~~ 1. "gan agan navo hi grasped; not a subject for the mind and the ras."-NP 2 Skt l?ifax n fire, flame. 3 one of the ISee footnote to OIWI? 4. senses.

Page 132

96 five elements, symbolizing heat. 4 adj countless, innumerable. "It kop malech carhe dgne."-krISdn. "aI agan rachas yut ravan." -GPs. 5 a bird ofthe lark family, smaller than a lark; while flying it gives out a sweet chirp. It is very common in the Punjab; its colour is brown and head is without a plume; it makes its nest on the ground and lays eggs there; some call it hazar dastan (a thousand tales). Some ignorant poets describe the nightingale also as hazar dastan. ~ [aganan] n enemy of fire, water. 2 In Sastarnammala, wind is described as enemy offire. If fuel is there, the wind helps it burn, but without it, the wind puts out the ambers. "pntham agan ke nam 1£ at sabad an dehu, tanuj anuj suten ucar nam bal) lakhlehu." -Sdnama 150. 'fire's enemy (wind), his son and younger brother (Bhimsen and Arjun) the latter's charioteer (Krishan) and his enemy, the arrow.' l1fclIO })ffu })ffu 3QH })fQil 'IJ3'fu [agan an an tanuj anuj sutan] n arrOW-Sdnama. literally meaning enemy of fire, water; enemy ofwater, air; I son of air, Bhim; his younger brother, Arjun, with Lord Krishna as charioteer who was killed by an arrow. ~ [agnail n river of fire, maya (wealth) 2 desire. "nahI poh£ aganai."-var ram 2 m 5. 3 heat, torment. ))f(JJOFIl:fT [ag;:msakha] n friend of fire, wind or


[aganvayu] Skt »f'ClIi>t;r fuffirtr. a kind of fever accompanied with pimples on the body; its basic cause is disorder of heat in the stomach caused by excessive salt, sour, raw or overripe fruits, chillies, condiments, liquor and other intoxicants. The patient's appetite decreases, nausea sets in, body aches, more thirst follows and burning sensation is caused in the forehead. If not cured early, many ailments such as spruce, diarrhoea, dysentery, colic pain, flatulence, etc., come to seize the patient. To cure it, a mild purgative be given and vomiting induced, but such medicines as cause burning sensation in the stomach had better be avoided. A mixture of ophelia charitta, adhatoda vasica, bitter, patol patra (trichosauthess cucumerina), haritaki (myrobalan), balela (torminalia belerica), aula (emblic myrobalan), talchandan (red santalum album), bark of nimm (melia azadirachta) each taken in equal quantity, thoroughly boiled and sieved, when given in small measure to the patient proves beneficial, See


[agansagar] See l'l1dIFi'lR 1dld. l'>t"iJlO3' [aganat], ~ [aganatu] See ~. "aganat sahu apni de rasI."-sukhmdni. ~ [aganbal)] See ~. "aganban ral). chuttde. "-j§gnama. ~ [aganbhav] See FC3HM'~. 2 torment of separation. 3 feeling of anger.
lair dries up water.

[agnakh] n Shiv's third eye, which is in his forehead. According to the Purans fire is stored in it. 2 Shiv, who keeps fire in the eye. l'l1dll'li3ccd [agni'itkar] n the eradicator of fire, water. -Sdnama. ~rr [agnayudh] n »fTC['!ifTJ}, l'l1d'Tf'i'l"-»fH'q, ~. In the Purans there goes a story that a missile fired with the recitation ofAgni mantar (a spell offire) reduces foes to ashes, See~. 2 a musket, gun, fire-arms. })f(lJ(')Td" [agnarJ, ~ [agnan] n the fire of hell. 2 the fire of the womb. "nahI poh£ agnan."-asa m 5. See ('jTQ. :3 l'l1Of?iTf'tf, the flame of fire. 4 ~ (fire) and 'i'i'TQ (water).

Page 133


"aganrkDt mdlu uradh IIv laga."-bcra m 4. Nirukt it is defined as agarni. i.e. what is first· ~~ [dganrkli4] See ~c 2 and ~~. put there in oblation is ag;:mr. See f3'o nrcrrol»l+. ~ [dgdnrkumar] Son of Shiv, Khranan. See O(idF3cQllI. 2 per Ayurveda (Hindu system of 3 desire. "kalrjug rathu aganr ka kUT agE medicine), ajuice which dispels diseases like rathvahu."-var asa m 1. phlegm, cholera, indigestion or dyspepsia, fever })fdJfo ~ [aganr astrd] Those who believe in and diarrhoea and constipation.The formula to Tantarshastar or the book of magic, hold that prepare it is: take mercury and sulphur in equal if a weapon is shot after the recital of a spell measures and grind them for three hours; then involving the god of fire, it burns the foe to ashes and brings about rain offire. 2 fire-arms take sweet aconytincal and borax, as much as mercury, and eight times black pepper; mix it and bombs like guns and muskets. Many with mercury; then grind this mixture in lemon people think that in the ancient times, in wars juice for seven days; when it gets thin and dry as ofthe Mahabharat such weapons were used, but researchers in history have established that like antimony, put it in a bottle. For a fully explosives were not invented till 1326 AD and grown up person a dose of one to two rattis is firearms were manufactured between 1344 enough. and 1354 AD. ~ [dganrkul] See ~. ~ [dgdnrsdkha] n the friend offire, wind })jdlFoFtWiij [agdnrjrhdv], ~ [dgdnrjrhv] or air. Skt 31fT'i' ~ none whose tongue is fire; a ~ [aganrsdtom] Skt ~}f n a form god. In the Veds, the god of fire is regarded of religious sacrifice consummated in five as the tongue of gods. The juice of things days with the burning ofSomras. 1 This is done oblated in it is taken by them. That is why for attaining entry into the heaven. "dgnihotr sacrifice is so hi'ghly rated in the Veds. satom."-GPs. ~ [dgdnrt] See l'lfd'ffu3'. 'l?IdlfoR'dld [dgdnrsagar] n an ocean-like world })fdJfo ~ [aganr tdlau] n the world, a pond which is full of sufferings and torments. of pains; a pond of torments troubling the "dgdnr sagar japr utdrhr par."-gau m 5. mind. 2 a womb. "agE dgdnr talau."-sava m 1. ~~ [agdnrhotr] n a rite of sacrifice })fdJfo 1.RJTiJ"O [dg;:mr prah;:m] adj a robe of fire, performed by dropping ghee in fire in the fiery attire, maliignant dress. course of reciting the Vedic spell. See '5q. ~ [dgdnrprikhya] See ~. })jdlfoJ2}1 [dganrhotri] Skt 31fTl'iQIGl,\n a person »raTfoy~ [dganrpuraD] See ~-. who performs oblation with fire. See -J~l })jdlf(,)~:l'fe [dgdnrbar] See ~ . "kete 2See~. aganrbar te> jare."-cCJntr 405. 2 'wind hot like fire.' ~ c [dgdnrkDt] n 1?fOTfo ¥ an intermediate direction between the east and the south, ~ [dg;mrbaD] n In the magical treatises southeast. 2 Skt n 3If1t~ a firepit formed and the Purans, it is mentioned as an arrow with special specifications for performing a shot with the recitation of the fire mantar sacrifice and oblation. See ~~. 3 belly's which burns the army and equipment of the pit where resides; the fire of the womb. foe. See~. 2 a bomb or missile of the sort. I See Fh-RlJ:T. 3 According to Bernier rotating fire reels were

l1fil1fo [aganr] See l?fdT?l. 2 fire. (See L Ignis). In

Page 134


din. "-krrscm. [agampur] adj a place where there is no grief or anxiety. 2 n highest spiritual stage, salvation. "trtu agampure kahu krtubrdhr jaiE?" -asa eMH m 1. 3 one of the five forts of Anandpur where in Sammat 176 J Bhai Uday vasu."-s~va m 3. Singh and Ishar Singh fought against the Turk ~ [agnia], ~'(jf [agney] Skt ~'(jf adj army. 4 See ~. concerning fire, of fire. 2 n gold. 3 a volcanic ~~ [agamrup] n God, the eternal one; mountain. 4 ~. 5 southeast direction. indivisible appearance. "agamrup ka man 6 Skt~ adjcountless. "maM bir agnia." mahr thana."-gau a m 5. -GPs. l')f(JJ}/T [agma] adj unapproachable. See nran-r. ~ [agnEt] See ~. 2 a leader; one who "pIta mero bac;lo dhani agma."-guj d m 5. gives the lead. 2 See i)f{ffi-fJlT. '))f'(JJ'(fQfo [agnagun] sen guilty of countless })fdJ}fT})fcJJ}f [agma agam] utterly beyond approach, faults. 2 avarice; evil wealth. "agnagun ko absolutely unapproachable. "han agma agam harh6."-krrscJn. apara."-sopurakhu. l'>fOT'ifu" [agnat] See ~. l'>fiJIlj [agamu] See nran-r. »idl(')OII'P21 [agnyastra] See >'>fa'I'fo ~. ~ [agamguru] See ~ 2. lffiJIH [agam] adj inaccessible, unapproachable. 'l'>fOTH'OIIT [agmya] Skt n a woman with whom "agam agocaru anathu ajoni."-sar a m 1. 2 n mating is a heinous sin; another's wife a tree. 3 a mountain. 4 Skt l?fCl1lfOII" adj especially of the teacher or the king. unapproachable. "agam tir nah laghanah." ~ [acyar] A .lV' plural of:am- strangers, -sdhdS m 5. 5 beyond the reach of intellect. aliens. 6 See »rdTlf. 7 future. "jan nanak agam vicana." »IORf [agar] Skt nrcng n an odorous tree found aplenty in Assam. There is juice in its roots -var gau 1 m 4. 8 a sacred text; a Shastar. which is extracted and mixed in incense, as "agam nrgam satrguru drkhara."-maru am 3. "han agam agocar gun agam dIkhali." also used in preparing perfumes. Its Latin name is Amyris Agalocha. I Its effect is warm -bh£r m 4. 'The supreme Shastar has revealed and moist. "kasturr kDgu agar eadan lip I aVE it.' 9 Bhai Santokh Singh has used nran-r for 'arduous'. "sab b:i:dhI sugam agam kachu cau."-sri m 1. 2 Skt»raJ front. 3 adjforemost. nahi."-NP 4 noble, virtuous. 5 P ;; part if. ~ [agmai] adj unapproachable one. ~ [agrak] adj a chief; leader with an 2 ~ "agam agam agmai."-asa m 5. attendant walking in front. "agrak us ke bac;le 3 firelike. thagau."-asa m 5. l'>fORJfu [agarcr], ~ [agarce] P ...:>j; part l')fdJ}f()" ragman] See »riJJ}f()". 2 not moving; firm though, even if. 2 although. ': position. ~ [agmane], >'lfCIIH?i" [agmam:] adv before ~ [agarval] a sub-caste ofthe Vaish caste. time, earlier. "rk dIn kDvarr agmane gai." Its origin is traced to Agroha village in Hisar -earitr 266.2 ahead of, in front. "bhej agmanE IE Eagle-wood.
»idlf(')a i a1

fired to frighten the elephants. [aganr bal).i] adj bittter speech that scalds the tongue. 2 n the text ofYajur Ved in which procedure for fire-oblation is described. »iCIIO't [agni] See >'>fa'I'fo. 2 n malignant nature. "manmukh bole adhule trsu mahr agni ka

Page 135

district. 2 a Khatri sub-caste arising from Sarins. l?fiITTU [agah], »fQfTftJ [agahI], ~ [agahu] adj Jo>fdlTQ" bottomless, boundless. "maha agah ))fcJRJTH [agraj] A til)' plural of:oJmir. needs. l'>IOIfa". ragan], })ji:J1'S!" [agaru] See iffiJrd". aganI ka sagar."--asa ill 5. "suru sabad sUl)ae ~ [aclab] A ~, adv predominantly, matI agahI."-basat a ill 1. 2 »!OJ1Wf which cannot be grasped by the mind and the senses. probably, surely. l)f(ITW [agla] adv first, prime. "tu bakhsisi "harI agam agahu."-var brha ill 4. "gahyo agla."-var asa m 1.2 old, former. 3 front, fore. jo ne jaI so agah kEkE gahiat."-gyan. 3 See 4 very much, plenty. "Ikna ata agla Ikna nahi 11fT01l(J. 10l)."-s fdrid. 5 n hereafter; the next world. })fOJ1H [agaj], )o)fcJJTW [agajal, l'>fdT'ft:r [agajI] P )~ r ~ [aglai] advforward, to the next. "SUIna n beginning, creation, genesis. M~. 2 an ruppa paq. banh aglai apa."-BG 2 S in the echo, resonance. "tahI anhad sabad agaja." manner of a low caste; indecently. -sor ill 5. 3 which cannot be grasped by the ~ [agalIt] Skt fi'ldFfM3 adj swallowed. the mind and the senses. "sur nan gal) munI "pejhu dISsan ragule mariE agalItE."-GPs. bohay agajI."-savEYe ill 2 ke. See ~. 4 S 'Disgorging causes death.' 2 vomited, countless, innumerable. disgorged. ))fiJJ13" [agat] n one without body. eros. "upma ~ [agli] adj plentiful, much. "kheti jami agat."-gyan. 2 Skt})fT(Jl3" a guest. "jahf agat agli."-sri ill 3. "hurmatI tIS no agli."·-var diney."-NP 3 ad; unknown. "nahI na tum te asa. 2 of the future, of the next world. "agli ab-hI agat."-NP 4 incorporeal, beyond the gal na jal)ia."-maru ill 5 ajulia. 3 See 1'iICJTW. body. "agat anada."-NP ~ [agvan] Se:e}o)fOJ}fi') and l?fI(JJ}f(')". "ap agvan >'>fiJIT3t [agati] See »fOTT3" 1. 2 income, receipt. hOI tIS des."--GPs. 'May you reach that "aj nahi ko dam agati."-GPs. country.' ~ [agatr] See}~ 1. ~ [agvai] See ~. l)fiJJT'!i [agath] adj whose story cannot be told; ~ [agvan] n one who leads; a receiver. indescribable. 2 adj a headman, leader. 3 adv in front, })fidITQ" [agadh] ad; bottomless, unknowable, opposite. "nahI kur kaho tumre agvan."--NP very grim, serious. "agam agadh parbrahamu ~ [agvani] n welcome, lead, going SOI."-sukhilldni. 2 n the Creator, God, whose forward to receive. 2 headship, leadership. limits none can know; whose expanse cannot 3 future. "IS ko phal dekho agvani."-GPS. be grasped by the mind or intellect. 4 adv in front, in the presence of, "bhayo lop ~ [agadhbodh] adjwhose knowledge is dekhat agvani.':-GPS. limitless; having endless knowledge. ~ [agvariJ n an act during which limbs "agadhbodh samrath suami."-asa chat ill 5. J1!OTTfu [agadhI], »iIOIIlJ [agadhu] See »f(jJTQ". stretch in drowsiness; yawning. ~ [agaul] See l'iIiJh? })fQJT)f [agam], })IOTTW [agama] Skt »fOT}fjf adj ~ [agau] adj advance (payment). 2 adv impassable, out of reach. 2 difficult to trace, before hand, in advance. scarce. "hath cano lal agama."-sar ill 5. See l')f(JJ'l'J1 ragas] n the sky. 2 firmament, heavenly »IOT'lft. sphere. "jInI dhare bahu dharal)I agas."-gdu »fO[1}-ft [agami] Skt 3~,adjexpectedto come; awaited. ill 5.

Page 136


[agar] n fronts ide or the front part. 2 adv forward, in front. "ItE guru agar ko sIdhar pau c;larkE."-GPS. 3 Skt lifTOTTO n a house, residence. "gun agar sabh sukh datar."-GPs. '»IOJTfu ragan], ~ [agari], »f(Jfl;ft [agari] adv in front, forward. 2 in former times, in the past. 3 in future. 4 n the front halters or fetters of a horse; the front rope of a horse. ~ fl.rsr;ft wfu'a" [agari pIchari sahIb] See ;:ffi ~. »rfcJr [agI] Skt llffa;r n fire. "ghan ghan eha agI."-s farid. 2 See »iOTJf. ~ [apat] See ))fO]JIT3". ~ [apan] SktomR n ignorance, stupidity. uneducatedness, illiteracy. "gIan ajan guru dia agIan adher bInas."-sukhmani. See 0JJl1?i". ~ [apanta] Skt 3T~rFrill n ignorance, idiocy, stupidity. "guru kati agIanta."-asa m 5. ~ [agIanath] because of ignorance, for lack of education. "tum kahe bISarIO agIanath."-marum 5.2 n ignorance, illiteracy. ~ [agIanmatI] n an ignorant mind, a head devoid of knowledge. "agIanmati adher hE."-sri m 3. 2 adjwhose mind is devoid of knowledge. ~ [agIanI], ~ [apani] Skt;mrrR"'\ adj devoid of knowledge, ignorant, foolish. "agIani adha magu na ja!).E."-majh a m 1. 2 advsuddenly, without knowing. "bInSE kaci deh agIani."-sor m 5. ~ [agmt] See ~. l)f(Jft [agi] Skt lliOlfo n fire. 2 fires. "dukh kia agi mariahI."-var sar m 1. 3 to the fire. "agi pala kI kare?"-var majh m 2. . ~ [agu!).], ~ [agun] adj without merit, without skill or art. 2 without worldly desire, passion and quality of goodness. 3 demerit, vice. "gun sIkhraI agun parharkE."-GPS. l'>IQ!1f [aguru] See l?fORl'. 2 adjnot great or weighty. ~ [agua] n front, front side. 2 one who

welcomes. "agua len agau ae."-caritr 247. 3 a leader. ~ [aguc;lh], ~ [agur] adj which does not remain hidden, manifest, well known. "re man mur, agur ISO prabhu tE kIh kaj kaho bIsrayo."-savEye 33. »tlff [age] adv in front, face to face. 2 after this. 3 formerly. 4 in the next world. S manifest. "bhagat jana ki patI rakhE VICI kaIIjug age."-sar m 4. 6 See ~. ~ [ageu], ~ [agea] Skt 31WT adj which cannot be understood, incomprehensible. >:Ifiim [ageh] adj without a house, homeless. ~ [ageta] adv before time, premature. 2 adj early, early fruit. »rcilor [agera], ~ [agere] adv before now, already. "tan upjan te hute agere."-GPS. [agE] adv in front, opposite. 2 in the next world. "agE jatI na jor hE."-var asa. lffiif [ago] adv in the first instance, in the first place, before death. "ago de je cetiE, ta kaItu mIlE sajaI."-asa am 1. 2 from the opposite side, from the front. "ta uh ago aOda mIlIa." -JSBB. ~ [agocar] adjwhich does not concern the senses. "agam agocar alakh apara."-bIla m 1. 2 not manifest or veritable. 3 hidden, concealed. "kab-hu na hovhu drIsatI agocar."-bIla m 5. 4 Just as ~ is used for fcI3uro, ~ is used for ~. "jo kachu dnsatI agocar avat, ta kahu man maya thahIravat."-cJbis. ~ a1'I? [agocar basatu] n the Creator, God. 2 spiritual knowledge. ~ [agot] n disappearance of caste; complete wipingout. This term is used for annihilation ofthe enemy, meaning that not a single person of the rival side is left alive. "satru mar kino agot."-GPs. 2 a low caste. 3 without any lineage, casteless.


Page 137


unfathomable. "'ag;=>bh hE."-japu. Se(~ »fOJH. "ag;=>m ag;=>m as;=>kh ~ [agode] adv in the beginning, during the loa. "-japu. 2 See lliOJ}f.if. earliest time. "agode satbhau na dICE, pIchode akhICl k=>mI na aVE."-var gau 1 m 4. l'>I'di'Hyo [ag;=>mpur] See »rcJ!HldO. 2 a village in l?IilT3t [ag::Jti] adv firstly, formerly, from the police station Anandpur, tehsil Una, district Hoshiarpur, 25 miles east of Garh Shankar beginning. nrcIh? [ag::Jl] a village in Amloh sub-division, and Navanshahwr Doaba railway station. police station Bhadson ofNabha state; about There are two gurdwaras in this village: (a) Holgar, where Guru Gobind Singh, three furlong northeast of the village is a gurdwara named after Guru Tegh Bahadur. coming from Anandpur, used to hold Formerly there was no gurdwara building; congregation at the time of HoIa; the gurdwara only an old pipal tree was there under which, has no land attached and the priest is a Singh. (b) Dehra Mata Jito Ji. She was cremated according to tradition, the Guru had re:sted. in the land of this village in Sammat 1757. The construction of a building commenced in Sammat 1976. Bhai Natha Singh of Agaul There is a shrine at the cremation site near an donated 10 bighas of land to the gurdwara old pipal tree. It is about 1.5 miles west of which he himself is looking after with Anandpur. The gurdwara gets monetary grant dedication and devotion. of Rs. 100 annually assigned by Bhai Uday This villag(~ is to the nOliheast of Nabha Singh of Kaithal which is received from railway station, 6 miles by un metalled and 8 village Chiparcbiri, district Ambala. Another miles by metalled road. grant of an equal amount since the Sikh rule »rcJTi:r [ag;=>j] adj indestructible, everlasting, See comes from village Khumerha police station Anandpur. Twelve ghumaons ofland assigned oTtr. ~ ~ [ag;=>jaD ag;=>jaD] adj destroyer of by the ancestors of Mian Pradyumen Singh zaildar is also in the name of the shrine. Its what is not destructible, annihilator of the priests are Singhs. See map of Anandpur. unannihilated. »1dlt!l'Sdll'l1H [ag;=>ju1ganime] -japu adjnot subject nrafHyor [ag;=>mpura] There is a village named Balachaur in district Ambala, tehsil and police to destruction by the enemies. »rcri'i3' [ag;=>qJ adj not having temples etc. station Jagadharii. Half a mile northwest of "namastua ag;=>.q;=>."-gyan. this village is Gurdwara Agampura where the l'>IOT3' [ag;=>t] See~. Guru had stayed on his way from Kapalmonraf3t [ag;=>ti] adj countless, numberless, in- chan. It consists of a small building looked after by Akali Siinghs. It has 50-60 bighas of numerable. 2 fllturistic. 3 of the fllture. ~ [ag;=>tuk] Skt 3TlT1W adj (one) who comes; land donated by the villagers. It is connectd new comer. 2 cattle grazing on green plants. with Jagadhari railway station to the northeast by a seven-mile long metalled road. 3 n a guest. 4 next world, hereafter. nraf'Ef [ag;=>th] the next world. See »raT3' and >ii'ar' [agga] n front side. 2 the next world, the hereafter. ~. " iha jas pavo, va<;l sukh hVE ag;=>th me."-PP »rcJIJI' [agy] Skt 31'?1' an ignorant person. 2 un»rcri'g [ag;=>bh] Skt 3P]"l='l-H, adj bottomless, educated" illiterate. 3 knowing little, semi

»rcit3t [agoti] adj not of the same sub-caste.

»roTH [ag;=>m]

Page 138


literate. [agyatl Skt ~ adj unknown. ntdl:il 13Hij(')1 [agyatjobnal, ntdIJfI3;;;~(')1 [agyaty;wnal In poetics, a type of naive heroine, unaware of her youth. »f(JJ:ifT(')' [agyanl See ~. In Punjabi it is mostly written as ~ but, in poetry, in order to keep correct the number of matras l'>fdT.i!T?) is written. ~ [agyanl).ol Pkt ~ , ignorant, ignoramus. "garbel). agyanl).o."-gatha. 2 because of ignorance. ~ [agyanil See ~. in Punjabi verse it is better to write~. See l'>fdT.i!T?). l'>fOJ [agrl n a facade, front part. 2 adj first, topmost, foremost. 3 best. 4 chief, headman. ~ [agrhayal).l See »!ORJ?). l'>fOJH' [agrajl n the first born, elder brother. 2 adv in the presence of, in front of, before. "jIm lute te agraj odhari ke."-c5(1i 1. 3 already. "agraj Ih balak mastana."-NP. l'>fOJMT [agrajal n the elder sister. 2 the river Ganga which is the elder sister ofall the rivers. See sanama 160. ntO]it [agral).i], ~ [agral).iv] Skt 311JUfr adj leader, headman, chief. "pachakarotI agrl).ivah."-sahas m 5. ~ [agrbhag] n front part, the front. 2 end, corner. 3 According to the Hindu scriptures, it is a part of food reserved beforehand for gods during feasts for the dead ancestors. })fUf [agh] Skt 31tt. vr to commit a sin or crime. 2 n sin. See »fUl?iTFI?i'. 3 pain, sorrow. 4 irreligion. 5 affliction, evil. "bitat audh karat aghana." -savEye $ri mukhvak m 5. 6 a demon named Agh. See~. ~ [aghoghdali] adj ( one) who destroys all sins, or eradicates pain and suffering. "sac kah6 agh ogh dali sau."-datt. See mI. ~ [aghatak] adjwho eradicates sins and

pain. "agatak badm."-savEye ill 4 ke. ' ... say the destroyers of sins.' »fl1/Ck [aghkatl, ~ [aghkatakl n a thorn for (rooting out) sin; river Ganga as a thorn to uproot sins.-sanama 265. 2 (one) who destroys sins. ~ [aghkhac;l], ~ [aghkhac;lakl, ~ [aghkhac;lanl adjwho negates or revokes sins. 2 who destroys suffering. "sukh sagar aghkhac;l." -sri ill 5. 3 who eradicates irreligion. ))lUre [aghatl adj not likely to be. 2 unfit, unworthy. 3 not likely to decrease; irreducible. 4 without body, formless. "ghat mahI khelE aghat apar."-gau kabir bavan. })fUfC(')' Uf2?iT [agatan ghatna] n one who turns the impossible into the possible; maker ofwhat cannot be made; maya. "hE aghatan ghatna su ghaneri."-GPS. ntUlfc3' [aghatIt] adj what has not happened; what has not been made. 2 impossible. 3 unfit. l')fUf(')T [ aghana] ))f1.J.f'dJO. See })fUf. 2 »r-UfO not dense, sparse. l)ftIf('i'TA' [aghnasl, ~ [aghnasakl, »fUf()Tl1'('i' [aghnasan] adj who destroys sin, who eradicates suffering. "abInasi aghnas." -bavan. "aghnasan jagadisurah."-var jEt. ~ [;:lghva] n embodiment or aggregate of sins. "nam ke let hare aghva."-krIsan. l')f1.tS' [agharl adj unhewn, unmade, unformed. 2 uninstructed, untrained. "gurumukhI bal).i aghar gharavE."-sIdhgosatI. 'Gurmukh forms speech in the taksal of sangat'. 3 See B-erB'. l')f1.tS' ft:i'ur [aghar slghl a Sikh warrior, nephew ofBhai Mani Singh. He killed Momin Khan, a Pathan of Kasur, who, on the orders of Murad Begum, headed an army, roaming about in the c0untry, to eliminate the Sikhs. Aghar Singh severed the head ofMomin Khan and presented it in a congregation of the Khalsa in 1757 AD. He fought many battles

Page 139


during the invasions ofAhmed Shah Durrani, aghulE."-prabha am 1. See~. and continued to serve the Khalsa with full »flt! [aghu] S adj weak. 2 sick. dedication. »flt!HO [aghuman] Skt ~<fo n a feeling of nfUIT [agha] n plural of i>fUf. sins. ";(otr 21gha dizziness; giddiness; falling in a whirl. "grryo sabh nas hohI."-var jEt. 2 adv forward, bebhumr jhumyo aghumyo."-ramav. yond. "agha srdhal).i sfga dhaul drll."-c;'}qi ~ [aghur] adj sans stare, snarl or scowl. 3. 'Sword cutting through the underworld "aghur netr ghumhi."-gyan. 'The stable ones went beyond the horns of the bull'. go about serenely.' 2 without ill-temper, serene, steady. ~ [aghaul).a], ~ [aghaI1:l] v to eat one's fill; to OVI;:reat; to be satiated. "gobfd ~ [aghural).J S,ee ~ and ~}ffiT. japat agharl).."-asa ch;'}t m 5. ~ [aghul] adjwithout dizziness. "karat pan ))fl.tI'TlJ'Q [aghasur] n a demon named Agh, payukh nrs drn ram rasrk aghul he."-saloh. younger brother ofVakasur, and Raja Kans's ' ...does not feel dizzy like drunkards.' 2 See army commander. Under Kans's orders, he ~. transformed himself into a python. All the ~ [aghor] adjwho is not formidable; lovely, associates of Lord Krishan entered its mouth beautiful. 2 n Shiv. »fiijfu [aghon], »iUmt [aghori] adjwho worships mistaking it for a cave. Krishan after entering Shiv. "jugia aghori muhr jhori me dharat it, expanded his own body so much that the hE."-hanu. 2 n Shiv's attendants. "aghon ar python exploded. "jivanmun huh hamri ab sou aghasur cabgayo he."-krrsan. agghae kate pare su prasana."-ramav. 'Shiv came and were satiated feasting on warriors »IUf'i'iT [aghana] v to eat one's fill, See~. cut into pieces'. 3 a sect founded by Kinanram, 2 adj satiated. "bahut darab karr man na the deviant, who not only advocates the aghana."-gau m 5. consumption of wine and meat but also of l)fl1fTfu [aghanJ adj »fUf-~, enemy of sins; excreta as part of religious practice. Aghoris goodness. 2 Lord Krishan, enemy of demon consider eating in skulls ofthe dead as sacred. Agh. They are also called Kinaramie. ~ [aghavanL ~ [aghavna] v to eat one's fill, overeat. See ~. "amnt nam })fUfo [aghan] short form for})f!.ll(JfO; heap ofsins. "dekh caran aghan haryau."-savEye m 4 ke. pna pritr manohar rhE aghavan pan kau." })ffi' [ac] Skt ~ vr to go, walk, respect, beg. -sar m 5. "IUit [aghi] adjwho sins. 2 an irreligious person. ~ [ackara] a gal).rk metre also called sragvrl).i, kamrnimohna and lak$midhara. It 3 a libertine. "ham se ju aghi trn ko gatr has four lines, each line (having four ragans) devan."-NP organised as SIS, SIS, SIS, SIS: })f'l.tft;:Jr [aghija] adjsatiated, surfeit. See ~~. Example: ~ [aghut] adjdrinking a sip ofwhich is rare. abrka totla sitla sakrni, "aghut amrrt sam."-paras. sfdhuri suprabha subhrama <;lakrni, ~ [aghul] adj free, unbound. See ~'. savja sabhri sfdhula dukkhri, l'>IlgC?O" [aghulna] v to get release, achieve samrla sabhla suprabha duddhri. '-paras. liberation."trn ki dhup aghuliE."-oJkar. 2 to be different, get separate. "ko guru parsadr 'These are all Durga's names.

Page 140


l'>ItIO [aean] v to eat; to dine, See


l'>ftlIDffu" [aealmatr] n lasting or unwavering

[acancet] adv suddenly, without prior intellect. 2 adj possessing firm intellect. notice, abruptly. "satr guru purakh aeal acIamatI."-sar m 4. »f;JOT [aena] v to eat, See »flB}f('j. nH::JM'i!Z'l'S' [aeal vatala] Two kos to the south of })ffiO [aear] adj which does not move, inert. Vatala in Gurdaspur district, there is Achal 2 »Iter inedible, not fit for grazing. 3 n the temple dedicated to Mahadev; The name of Creator, who is ever still and stable. 4 lack of the village has also come to be known as knowledge. "acar carr ta SIdhI hoi."~sor m 4. Achal, after this temple. Together with Vatala, })ffiO tJaOT [aear ,earna] v to eat the uneatable. it is called Achat Vatala. Here in Sammat 2 to consume the unconsumable; sins. "acar 1586 a discourse took place between Guru Nanak Dev and the Gorakhpanthis described carr ta nIrmal hoi."-dhana m 3. 3 to move the immovable. as Sidhgost in Guru Granth Sahib. "mela sUD })ftJOM [acaraj] Ski 3TI1iTrf n wonder, astonishment, SIvratr da baba aealyatale ai."-BG amazement, surprise. "aearajrup nIr5jano." Shivratri fair is held on the 14 th of the -sri m 5. bright half of the lunar month of Phagun. A gurdwara was raised where the Guru stayed ~ [aearar:tl SkI ~ n behaviour, conduct, action. "kahiat an, aeariat an kaehu."-sor is named Achal Sahib. A ber tree from the time of the Guru is still there. Maharaja Ranjit ravrdas. 'One thing is said, but another is Singh allotted 150 ghumaons of land to the done.' 2 a carriage such as the chariot, etc. ~ [aeariat] behaviourism. See ~ 1. gurdwara besides sanctioning an annual grant ~ [acal] ad} immobile, immovable, fixed. of Rs. 50. The priests are Singhs. "acal amar nIrbhr pad palo."-brla m 9. 2 n »itfMT [acIa] n the earth.' 2 adj still. a mountain. 3 Pole Star. 4 the Creator. 5 a ~ [aclamatI] See l'>ftlIDffu". village in Gurdaspur district. See ~ ~. ~ lades], ~1I~ [adesur] ~-m, ~ wft:ra" [aeal sahIb] See ~~. ~. adjthe mountain-king. 2 n Mahadev, Shiv, master ofKailash mountain. 3 Shivling ~ tR? crfi.p,rr [aeal cal thapla] See treJ::E. installed in village Achal. See ~ and ~ ~ i5"C [ac;~l that] In music, a scale in which ~. all tunes can be played without moving the equippage positionally; it contains pure notes: ~ [aeyan] SkI n munching, chewing, eating food. "aeyan lage saray mIl tab-hi."-GPS. :;;araj, rr:;;abh, gadhar, madhyam, p5eam, 2 See »flB}f('j. dhrvat and nI:;;ad :;;udh; rr:;;abh, gadhar, dhrvat and nI:;;ad komal; and madhyam tivar ))ffil'U [aeah] adj sans desire; without want; satisfied, patient. (slow-fast). They are thirteen notes in all; depending on the volume they can be I Sanskrit scholars of ancient times have called the earth Achal (static) and the stars of the firmament as moving. multiplied to 26 and 39. See ore F.l"8'"i:!. Guru Gobind Singh interprets Achla as the earth. It does ~ [aeal thaI).] immovable place, fixed not end with kings who call themselves bhupati position. 2 four stages ofspiritual knowledge; (husband of earth). "sag cali abb nahf kahD ke sac kah5 fourth state of the soul l.I"t. "jaki drrsatI agh ogh dali saD. cel re cel acet maha pa~u. kahD ke sag aealthaI).."-savEye m 2 ke. 3. God, Creator. cali na hali haO."-ddtt. ~ '8'2"'l?1' [aeal batala] See ~~.

Page 141

[acacall] adj without playfulness, not sprightly, immobile, See ~. ~3" [acacetl, ~ [aca!).ak], ~CI [acaI).cakk] adv suddenly, unexpechldly, without prior inkling or warning. l'>I'tJTi [aca!).a] adj who eats. "aca!).a jua!).a." -kalki. 2 See })~. })ftJTO [acan], })ffiT(')C\ [acanak] See ~."ban acan hanyo."-krIsan. })ft:JTO [acar] P .J(p1 pickle; an edible preparation 't of salt, chilli, mustard, oil, vinegar, jaggery, etc. "anIk acaran lIavan thana."-Gps.:2 Skt ~ establishi~d rules of conduct, character, social behaviour. "guru mIII caju acaru sIkhu."-sri m 5. l'>I'tJTaif [acaraj] See ~. ~ [acarvat] ~ [acarvatI] adjwhose conduct and manners are good; of noble character. "acarvatI sai pardhane."-majh ill 5. ~ [acari] See ~. J?ffi12 [<)caru] See »ffJTQ 2. J?ffu3" [aCIt] adj insentient, senseless. "ham acIt acet na janhI gatI mItI."-kan m 4. :2 ate, tasted. 3 Skt nrfB'3". neither overtly known nor sincerely learnt. ~ [acft] ad; free from anxiety, carefree. "acft hasat buagi."-sar m 5. 2 J?fftf3:;r, which cannot be thought of. "acft hamare karaj pure."-bher a m 5. 3 beyond thinking, forgotten. "cftama!).i acft karae."-BG 'With a touch of the Guru's feet, worries caused by thinking drop from the mind.' 4 adv suddenly, without prior thinking. "acft kam karhI prabhu tIn ke jInI han ka nam pIara."-sor am 3. ~ [acftclan] n a gift bestowed without asking for it; an unsolicited gift. ~ [adtammItta] See ~ (d). ~ [acfta] n thoughtlessness, lassitude,lack of impulse to exert oneself. "cft acfta sagli

gai."-bher a m 5. 2. state of being carefree. })ff;f~ [<)cftu] See })ff;f3". 2 n carelessness, indifference. 3 state of being carefree. "efta bhI apI karaIsi" acftu bhi ape deI."-s kabir. ~ [aCItr] ad} who cannot be depicted. 2 without shaiJe; formless. "su bhute bhavIkkhe bhavane aCItre."-akal. J?Ifu'a" [acn] adv without delay, soon, at once. ~ [acutj Skt })ffi~~ adjnot fallen, unpolluted. 2 undripped, not leaking. 3 unmoved, ever steady. 4 n God, the Creator. "gu!). gavat acut abInasi."-sor ill 5. ~. [acutgotri] adj of infallible descent, of God's lineage. 2 a saint who discards pride ofcaste and considers himselfGod's offspring. })j~aa(')cl [acut-tamh] son of the infallible One, son of God, saint. "bhagvan SImra!). nanak labdhya aCllt-tanah."-sahas m 5. :2 infallible form, indestructible form. ~ [acutpuja] adjunbroken (uninterrupted) worship. "acutpuja jog gopal."-bIla m 5. J?f¥ [acuk] adj unerring, unfailing, sure. »f;J3" [<)cet] adj Ilacking in consciousness; insensible. 2 foolish, idiotic. "nar <)cet ! pap te re."-gau m 9. 3 unconscious, senseless. ~ [acetan] adj unconscious. 2 entranced, swooned. 3 imbecile. ~ [acetpfQ.i] adjhaving senseless body; slothful; lacking in zeal or watchfulness. "<)cetpfq.i <)gIan adhar."-bIla m 3 var 7. })jtlafu<i!AEjI [acetb:[vastha] n condition of being senseless; torpor. "acetbIvastha mahI laptane."-suhi m 5. ~ [<)cetbuclhI] n mental inertia; a dull person; fool. [acm] adj restless, perturbed, uneasy. })j,hft [acori] n absence of theft. 2 adv not secretly; openly. "javhfge mam pra!). acori." -NP 'Breathing will stop at the sight of it'. J?Itfar [acag] ad} without a parallel, the best.


Page 142


"acag bhog bhugaIa."-BG
~ [acacal] adj earnest, not playful. 2 sober,

earnest. ~ [acabhau], ~[acabhav],l?iBw [acabha], ~ [acabhIO] n an impossible happening, astonishing event; a surprising matter usually considered impossible. "kahIo na jai ehu acabhau."-gau mala m 5. "ek acabhau dekhIo."-S kabir. "sagri SrISatI dIkhay acabhav."-c.Jpai. "maha acabha sabh man lahyo."-GPs. ~ [accvi] n uneasiness, restlessness (as of a fish out of water. ~ [acyut] See ~. 1?15 [ach] See})fcij( and nf5. 2 S ocean, sea. ~ [achaj] adj inglorious, inelegant. "alap ajog achaj."-kalki. 2 n mucous formed in the eyes. })fiiS [achat] H adv in the presence of, face to face. 2 despite the existence of, in the presence of. "achatraj bIchurat dukh paIa."-sor ravrdas. 3 Skt )o)fS5 adj without a wound, unhurt. 4 undivided, uncut. 5 n whole unbroken grains of rice used in religious ceremonies. "achat dhup dip arpat hEn." -hajare 10.6 (per Katyayan) unhusked barley grains. ~ [achmal], »fSHTW [achmala] See l'>IIDflW. l)f&:tif [achay] See ~. ))fiffi [achar] adj innocent. guileless. "acchE achan acchar achar."-gyan. 2 See »Rire" and ))fCRf. "bavan achar 10k trE."-gau bavan kabir. l)f&RJT [achra] See ~. ~ [achrak], ~ [achrag] »Rire"-nfcr n a seal or stamp with letters inscribed. "dur khare achrak lavae."-NP. 'From a distance (the navab) got (the shop) sealed'. ~ [achal] adjwithout deception or duplicity, guileless. 2 who cannot be deceived. "achal ached apar prabhu."-dhana m 5.

[achal chala] adj not susceptible to deception, i.e., God. "munI jan gavhI achal chala."-savEye m 1 ke. 2 Lachhmi, goddess of wealth that is not suspectibleto guile. 3 wealth which deceives the undeceiving worshippers. ~ [achli] See ~. "achli prabhu pahIcanIa."-asa dhana. »fST [acha] See 'l?f5r. ~ [achai] n goodness, virtue, cleanliness. 2 kindness, gentleness. ~ [achaJ.:l] S whiteness, brightness. ntS"t!7i [achadan] See ~. ~ [achadIo], nrsrft1'>fT [achhadIaJ covered, wrapped, See ~. "Ese gunah achadIo prani."-asa m 5. l)figT'i') [achan], ~ [achana] Skt ~ adj not concealed, evident, apparent, famous. See »150. 2 See ~. l')fSl1.f [achap] adjwithout imprint or impression; who does not have identification marks like conch, shell or quoit, on his body. 2 without a sign or symbol. ~ rachIal })f6if(if. adj indestructible, imperishable. "ached achIa."-akal. l?Ifif,:r [achIjj] adj not subject to wearing out, unbroken. "achIjj rup anbhE."-gyan. ~ [achIt] See »t5'3" 2. "sagal dharam achIta."-g3Q namdev. 'while performing all religious acts.' 2 Skt »rfu'3" adj unbroken, integral, uniform. "acchu achIt."-gyan. ~ [achIta] See >?iG3" 2. "sagal dharam achIta."-g5Q namdev. 'performing all religious rites.' ~ [achutt], ~Ef [achutth] adj untouched. 2 which cannot be caught. "gae vir achuttha." -ramav. ~ [achup], '»f§l..fT [achupa] Skt ~l.f adj naked, undressed. "rag surag kurag achupa." -BG 2 unworthy of touch. See ~.

~ S'W

Page 143


[aehu] adjuntouched, untouchable. "aehhu tuhi."-CJkal. ~ [aehuhr;tiJ, .~ [aehuhnI] See ~iI'<Y. ~ [aehut] adj untouchable "aehut."--japu. 2 low born; untouchable, whom to touch is regarded sinful. ~ [aeheu] adj impregnable, which cannot be pierced. 2 unseverable. ~ [aeheh], ~ [aehehu] adjwithout a hole, unpunctured. 2: uncut, undivided. "pad arbfdan prem aehehu."-GPs. 3 boundless, much. "bhayo saneh aeheh duhan man."-GPS. ~ [ached] Skt ~ adj impregnable, indivisible. "ached hE."-japu. ~ [aehep] See ~. ~trn' [aehepak] adj who slanders. 2 who throws. 3 who inserts additional matter in a book; who interpolates. »iibf [aehem] n lack of (au-spiciousness), inauspiciousness. 2 disquietude. ~ [aehev] adjfaultless. 2~. impregnable. "aehev hari."-CJkal. ~ [achE] adj indestructible. ~ [aehot], »r~ [aehota] adj involved, unengrossed, untouched. "kaval aehota."-BG 2 See~. »ritr [aehop] See ~ and ~. 2 of no consequence, trivial, small. 3 n~ked. ~ [aehobh] adj without ~ (fluster); calm, quiet, patient, without playfulness. l'ifi: [aeeh] Ravan's son Aksh, See l'~. "pur jar aeeh kumar ehE ban tarkE phII' aIyo."-ramav. 2 birds such as blue jay, etc. "kete nabh bie aeeh paeeh ko karf'ge bhaeeh."-CJkal. 3 Skt ~ n crystal. 4 clean water. 5 adj clean, clear. 6 sacred. 7 sectarian scholars define it is mean an egg. l'ifi:~ [aeeh kumar] Ravan's son, Aksh, who was killed by Hanuman. See ~ and l'>f5' 1. ~ [aeeh8rl See ~ and }')fl:ffi. "aeeh8r adI ani! anahat."-savEye 33.



[aeehra] Skt 3:r~ n a female denizen of the land of gods; a fairy, nymph, See l')fl..fffijT. 2 adj having beautiful eyes, fawn-eyed. "vIlok aeehran ko apaeehra Iajavhi."-ramav. See r-I'&ffir. 3 Skt »r~ n utterance, narration, speech. ~ tl'irer 'Jf&R:Jr [aeehra pacehra maechra] See ~ 2 and r-I'&ffir. nrsat [aeehri] adj of~, of a character, or a letter. 2 n a fairy, nymph. 3 See >ii'sw 2. ~ [aeeha] Skt~ adjclean water. 2 a crystal. 3 a bear. See ~. ni'gq- [aeehek] »rfc~-Eq-. one eye. "aeehek kupa."-parCJs. 'One eye is like a well'. l')fi{ [CJehr] a character, letter (of alphabet). "su kabo! tahI aehr bana kahIyo."-ramav. 2 an eye. "matas sabad pnthme uean aehr sabad pun dehu."-sCJnama. milter's eye. l')fi{ tr.a [aehr paehr] 3TW "5R9 desire to know letters (ofalphabet); questions about grammar. "aehr ke pachr ke SIddh sadhe."-CJkal. 2 sectarian scholars interpret it as this and the next world; here and there. »fiiT [aehra], ~'t [aehri] a fairy, celestial damsel. "ghumat gEl) aehri uehah."-kCJlki. 2 When ~, l.Ii[T and Hi[T occur together, the sectarian scholars interpret them as a woman of this world, a fairy of paradise and a female of the underworld respectively. See l')fi{. ntH [aj] Skt ~ adv today. "calal) aj kI kal." -s fCJrid. 2 Skt 3T'if, vr to throw, drive, go, run. 3 Skt 3T"f adj who does not take birth. "aj abInasi jotI prakasi."-saloh. 4 n Brahma. "Clj $IV mdr ramapatI thaq,e."-sCJloh. 5 a billy goat. "aj kE vasI guru kino keharI."-asa m 5. ' ... put pride in subjection to humility.' 6 the moon. 7 son of king Raghu of the solar clan and ruler of Ayodhya, who was the husband of Indumati and father of Dashrath. "tate putI' hot bhayo aj bar."-VN. 8 Cupid.


Page 144


9 the Creator. 10 P JI part from. "dJlte az mah ta rnahi turast."-zIdgi. })Itm" rajas] n infamy, ignominy. "IS 10k ajas nahI qan: kur."-GPs. ~o [ajsEn] son of Janmejay who is also known as Ajay Singh. ~ ~ [ajhatI laeehl)a] Skt ~ n a distinction of the figuntivesort in which the predicate has a meaning other than its literal sense. In 'Thieves slipped away as soon as they saw black uniform.' black uniform signifies policemen in addition to the dress. })ftIg [ajahu], ~ [ajhu], ~ [ajhu] adveven now, still, despite this. "aj-hu bIkar na choqai."-brla kabir. "ajhu kaehu bIgno nahi" -tilJg m 9. ~ [ajkal] Skt ~ Cffijj today and tomorrow. 2 dilly dallying. "ajkal kardIa kal bIap£."-vaq alahI)i m 1. 3 a little time, brief duration. ~ [azxud] P J;;I part by oneself, personally. »tffilRJ' [ajgar] n a swallower of goat; a large snake, python. "ajgar bhar lade atI bhari." -mala m 1. 2 adj very heavy, weighty. 3 painful. 4 difficult. "ajgar kapat kah-hu kIu khulL"-maru solhe m 1. 5 See ~. ~ [ajgaru] See »tffilRJ'. ~8' [ajgrb] P ~ JI adv from an unseen place, i.e. from the other world. ~ i;:r [ajgrbi phJil n an army of martyrs, army coming from some invisible place. See

bIifar [ajagg] adj without a religious sacrifice.
2 supernatural, not of this world. "sukhagga adagga ajagga."-kalki. 'the sword, unblemished and exceptional.' ~ [ajdah], ~ [ajdaha] P ~Jjl a python. 2 a snake. "eu tGd ajdah."-ramav. })fR('i [ajan] adj without any human being; desolate. 2 without birth. 3 See })ff,:;o. ~ [ajnabiJ A ~I adj marginal, unknown.

2 foreign. [ajanam], »fffi'iHT [ajanma] Skt ~ adj who does not take birth, beyond birth. 'l'>f'N01ll [ajnas] A \J'>.I plural of ft::roR" things, samples. ~ [ajne] advwithout knowing, unknowingly, by mistake. "bhnttan mo ajne tum tat anyo." -krrsan. ~ [ajnad;m] n sonofl?ffi, Dashrath. l)fHtI' [ajap], l'>ItI'lfT [ajapa] adj which cannot be recited constantly. 2 who rears goats. 3 Skt ~ n peryog, recitation of God's name in silence; mental recitation while thinking of characters 'cr' and 'H' ('cJH' known as gayatri mantar) with each inhalation and exhalation, respectively. ~ [ajapajap] n mental recitation without the help of the tongue. "ajapa jap na visr£." -var mala m 1. "atam updes bhes sajam ko jap su ajapa jap£."-hajare 10. 2 adj recitation of the transcendent Creator. 3 recitation without the aid of a rosary. 4 See l'>ItI'lfT 3. ~ [ajapEl P 4-;1 adv for, for the sake of. 2 therefore. l'>Ifm' [ajab] A --rf adjsurprising, strange, novel. "ajab kam karte han kere."-majh am 3. 2 a resident ofDaroli and brother ofUmar Shah, who became a disciple of Guru Arjan Dev. Appointed as a masand (Sikh preacher-cumcollector), he served the congregation at Amritsar. See ~ and it:! 'ffi!. l'>Ifm' })fiMfT [ajab ajaba] adj stranger than the strange, strangest. "patIt udharal) ajab ajaba."-BG l'>Ifm' ft:fur [ajab sIgh] See ~ 'tRur. })fM8T [ajba] a varl)Ik metre also called akva, kanya and tirl).a. It is a stanza of four lines, each line being organised as SSS, S. Example: laggE tira, bhagE bhira. rosa rujjhe, asta jujjhe.-ramav.

Page 145


[ajbakrItI] >1fi'rn-~ a strange form, quaint shape. "ajbakntI ht."-japu. ~ [ajam] A (adjmute, dumb. 2 11 The Arabs call Iran and Turan ajam because they regard it as a country of dumb people. As compared with them they do not consider the latter as good speakers . "hakayat $unidem $ahe ajam."-hakayat 8. })f'ff}f'3" [ajmat] A J glory, greatness. 2 grandeur, veneration. 3 a miracle. "$ara man kE azmat dEn."-GPs. ~ [ajmau!).a] v to test, try, put on trial, experiment with. ))fil H'iJ or [az mah ta mahi] P LS'L C~L )/. from the moon to the fish, or from the sky to the underworld. See»!H 1O. })fR}-ITi'jT [ajmana] See ~. l1Iffi-ITliIF.r [ajmaya$] P J!LJ1 11 a test, trial, an examination. See ~. ~ [ajmidh] See ~. l)(ffijl:i' [ajmukh] 11' one whose face is like that of a goat, son of Brahma. See ~ 2. ))fj=J}fq [ajmedh] 11 an oblation accompanied by the killing of a goat. "gavalabh ajmedh aneka."-rama v. ~ [ajmer] ~~ 11 a town founded by Raja Ajaypal ofthe Chauhan dynasty in Sammat 202, which is now an important city in Rajputana. Here is the mausoleum of the famous Muslim saint Khwaja Muinuddin Chisti 1 who died in



1235 AD. It is called Khwaja Sahib di Dargah. In history books a wonderful story is related about it. In the course of an expedition, attendants of the Dargah used to unstring the bows of the commanders and keep them in the mausoleum for the night. The foillowing morning he, whose bow was found duly strung, was considered one chosen by God to lead the expedition and become the ruler. Per the custom, when Darashakoh's bow was found strung, Aurangzeb after being enthroned, got the whole matter examined and discovered that there was a tunnel connecting the room where bows were placed with the house of the priest who used to string one of the bows during the night. '''nIj ghar te surag ke rahu. jaI mujavar madrr mahu. adar dehI kaman caqhaI. IS bIdhI rakhi banat banaI."-GPs. ~ fi:fur [ajmer sigh] See am-ft F.J1'(J. ~tft!' [ajmercad] son of Raja Bhim Chand who without any reason but like his father, was an opponent of Guru Gobind Singh. ~ We' IDf'(f ~':t [ajmer VIC kama!). carhni]

'This Muslim saint was born in central Asia in J142 AD. He visited Samarkand, Baghdad, Jilan, Hamdaan and Mecca in pursuit of religious knowledge. He was gn:atly influenced by the Sufi Saint Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani. He reached Ajmer in J 166 AD and preached Islam till the age of seventy. After converting a Hindu saint of Ajmer into a Muslim, he married a Rajput woman. His daughter, Bibi Hafiza Jamal, also preached Islam far and wide. Thousands of Hindus and Muslims visit his mausoleum from far off places.

[ajay] adj unconquerable, invincible [ajya] Skt n hemp, cannabis. 2 Bhai Gurdas has used this word in place of a nanny goat. "ajya adhin tate param pavItr bhai." -BGK. l'>I'HQ [ajar] adj intolerable. "sadhu kE sagI ajar sahE."-sukhmani. 2 Skt sans ;::RJT (old age), ever young, new. 3 A ;:1 11 reaction, consequence. 4 See »rft:IQ' 2. 5 who never gets old; ideas. "ajar gahu janIE amar gahu manIE." -maru m 1. 1')fffiJIjl:f [ajarsukh] adj ever new happiness, permanent comfort. ~ ffiJ(!T [ajar jar!).a] v to tolerate the intolerable, digest the indigestible. "ajar pad kEse jarau."-kalI m 5.


Page 146


strange, quaint, majestic. "djaIb bIbhute." -japu. 2 brother of Umar Shah and Ajab and a loving disciple of Guru Arjan Dev. See})f"tl"<f. ~ ft:fur [djaIb sigh] See ~ fi:fuf. l'>fHTEl [djai] in vain, useless. See ~. "mdnmukh kdrdm kdre djai."-prabha am 5. 2 a wrong place. "bhula phin:: djai."-prabha m I. ~ [ajae] See nfRTfu. 'l)f;:[Tij' [djah] without a specific place. "djah hE."-japu. 2A ~I:>' n a curtain, screen. 3 a cover for the pillow, quilt, etc. l')fH'Ttft [ajaci] adj unestimated, inestimable, beyond estimation. "dmdr djaci hdU mIle." -oJnkar. "toldu nam djaci."-maru m I. "sdtIguru te magdu nam djaci."-maru solhe m 4. 2 adv without asking for, without begging. 3 Skt3~,adj(one) who does not beg or ask for. ~and~. l'>fNl<!' [djal).], ~ [djal).ata] adj devoid of »ft1T [dja] n a nanny goat. "dja bhogat kad knowledge, unknowing, ignorant. "soi djal)., mula."-sahas m 5. 2 wealth. 3 nature. "jih kahe me jana."-asa m 5. "pukarata djal).ata." sdtta ke dja dlaba."-NP. 4 adj unborn, free of -var sar m I. 'reads the scripture but birth. "dje he, dja he."~japu. 5 a vdrl).Ik metre, understands it not.' S~. also called djan. It has four lines, each being »rtl"'3' [djat] Skt 3l\ilTcl adjwho is not born. "ajat organised as ISS, SIS, I, 5 : he."-japu. 2 Skt 3rnm untraced, unknown, Example: without trace. "kupal). bal). bah-h4 djat ag lahdjite jit jitke, hi."-VN. 'With alacrity they strike with dbhiri bhaj bhiru hve, swords and arrows and unknowingly cut off sIdhare cinraj pe, the limbs'. 3 See »ftITf'3' 2 and 3. sdthoi sdrb sath ke.-kalki. »rtl"'3' ~ [ajat $atru] adj whose enemy is not 6 A ~, limbs, collectively so regarded. born; without any enemy. 2 Guru Nanak Dev. 3 King Yudhishthir. 4 a scholarly king of l)fBf [dza] P UUI part from that, with or by means of that. 2 for him. Kashi who imparted spiritual instruction to a l)ftI'IlW [dja-a], nfRTfu [djaI],))fii"ifu [ajaI] S~ Brahman. ' 5 Bimbsar's son and king of A adj useless, for nothing. "muc;!a muc;! IS ee Koshitaki Upnishad, Ch. 4.

[djdr pdd] See »rtI"Q ~. ~ [djrail], ~ [djrailu] See GfuB3t". "djrailu phdre$ta tIlu pire ghal).i."-gau var I m5. ~ 'iil"<¥ [djrana kalii] a village in tehsil Thanesar of Karnal district. It has a gurdwara named after Guru Teg Bahadur. 1'>fHaTHQ [djramdr], ~ [djravdr] Skt ~ adj free from old age and death. 2 better than gods, i.e. lord of gods. "hi djravdr dmdr tiL" -maru a m I. 3 Skt~. spread on the way, scattered on the road. "ldtta heth ldtarie djravdr ghahu."-BG ))fffl? [djal] adjwithout water. 2 A ..y., n time to die. 3 death. 4 appointed time. 5 old, venerable (person). 6 A Jjl beginning. 7 time past that cannot be determined. ))f'iN [djdV] without movement. 2 weak. 3 See l'lii're'. 4 A ,;.r a limb. ~ [djvam], ~ [djvaydn] Skt~ and ~ n parsley seed or plant resembling aniseed; a kind of medicine beneficial for digestion. "yako dnupan ajvaydn."-NP. See


djaI."-S kabir. "so dIn jat ajae."-gau m 5. 2 unborn, eternal. "ajaI jdrabIn."-savEye 33. 3 who has no place; not living at any particular place. "ndmdsta djae."-japu.
~[djaIb]P ~If pluralof~and~,


Page 147

I] I

billy goat. 2 son ofKingAj, Dashrath. "ajanad juko sat610k janE."-cantr 102. })ffi'tI' [ajap] adjwhich cannot be recited, which has no recitation. "jap ke krye te j:>pE payat ajap dev."-aka1. })ffi'tI' HTtf [Cljap jap] adj reciting the name of One (God) who cannot be contained in repetition. 2 See 11fRl.jT FfT1.f. "Cljap jap jap-hi." -suraj. ~ fJ::fur ~ [Cljapal sfgh baba] The antecedents of Baba Ajapal Singh are not known to any one. In which town or family he took birth, of this nothing is known. He was a teacher of weaponry, a reciter of the divine Nam and was the embodiment of meditation. Reference to his aiding some Rajput noble of Bhadra town in Raj putana in Sammat 1812, and to his stay in ajungle of Jind near Patiala have come down but their full details are not available. During Sammat 1830 this revered person stayed in a grove near Nabha and continued to live there till his death.' Here he preached the Sikh faith and imparted weapontraining with full zeal and fervour. His weapons are still displayed in the gurdwara lJWi'l FEi· here. His great devotee, Baba Sarup Singh, '))fR'lt!" [Cljad] See l?fTt.ITt!". "ajad hE."-japu. was among my (the author's) elders. After the ~ [ajadr]l?iFf -l1flft: Brahma, etc. nIH'tft [ajadi] See ~ and )'}flB~. death ofBabaAjapal Singh, he was appointed ))fRTO [ajan] adj without knowledge, ignorant. chief priest of the gurdwara. See~rnur~. "janE kaha ajan."-GPs. 2 Skt »l'fi'l'TQ adj upto l')fHT ldlJO [Clja prasun] a billy lamb, a goatling. the knee. "bhuj bar ajan."-ramav. 3 A UI)I n -GV 10. advertisement. 4 a call from the mosque or its l')fM"a' [Cljab] A ",:",11),; n pain, suffering. 2 calamity, minar for Muslim prayer, also called bi'ig. The adversity. 3 admonition about hell. "toba practice of Clzan commenced from the time of pukarE jo pavE ajab."-nasihat. 4 See ~ prophet Muhammad. According to rules, azan and l?ffI'Ta'T. "prkh ~ah ajab."-GPS. "~Clbad call is given with face towards Mecca and rClbabi rag ajab."-GPS. ears plugged with fingers. Foull men, »ftl1'ST [ajaba] A ":'''If adj strange, wonderful, surprising. "avrlokat hE nrj rup Cljaba."-NP drunkards and women do not have the right to give this call. See~. ~ [ajanad] n a nanny goat's offspring, a 'Babaji passed away on Jeth Sudi Sammat 1869.

Rajgrih who killed his father but later repented a lot and became a Buddhist. He ascended the throne around 554 BC and died in 527 BC. Darshak was the son ofAjatshatru and Uday was his grandson. nrtf13" W<JI'ij" [ajat sagar] See nrtf13" thIT. nrtf13"thit [ajatpathi] members of an Udasi sect founded by Bhagat Bhagvan. Surjan Das belonged to this sect. His seat was at Ajneval in Gujranwala district. He described himself as free from any sham or sect, for which his followers came to be known as Ajat Panthi. Surjan Das compiled a granth named "Ajat Sagar". »IH'f3" [ajatr] adj without caste. "jatr me na aVE so ajatr kE kE jan jry."-gyan. 2 of a low caste. "jatr 2 jatr namu jrnr dhrara, trnr param padarath para."-vaQ ch5t m 4. 3 P .11)1 free, unbound, without shackles. "jo lauc;la prabhr kia ajatr."-asa m 5. 'The disciple whom the master has set free.' ~ [ajatu] adj belonging to a low caste. "suansatr ajatu sabh te."-keda r'avrdas. 'A dog-eater belongs to the lowest caste.' See

Page 148


[ajamar], ~ [ajamal], ~ [ajamalu], ~ [ajamrl] »rrr (birthless)})f}Rf (deathless) n a wicked brahman of Kanauj who married a prostitute. Ten sons were born to her. In Bhagatmal and Bhagvat it is mentioned that the youngest son was named Narayal). So Ajamal got liberated, found salvation because he would repeat the name Narayal).1 "bradh ajamalu tariale."-gau namdev. ~ [ajamedh] See l1fi1Ifq. ~ [ajamel] See ~. l2ftITljf [ajay] adj unborn, not liable to birth. 2 without FfT(jf (any particular place). ))ffi1tiI'S' [ajayab] See ~. })fHI'ij' [ajar] P )1)1 n torment, suffering, distress. "der ajar garib ml."-mago. 2 See fut::rQ. ))fNTOT [ajara] a contract. See fuwa'r. "sabh desan par badh ajare."-GPs. ~ rajaH] n a goatherd, shepherd. "trs chm ek ajali ayo."-GPs. ~ [ajrt] adj invincible. ~ [ajrtedri] Skt 31P1CiPS;£1 adjwho has no control over his senses. ~ fdl'5 [ajrt grll] a village in tehsil and police station ofKot Kapura in Faridkot state. About one furlong south of the village is a gurdwara named after Guru Gobind Singh. The Guru stayed here and adorned his turban. There is no building except only a platform ofthe shrine. The place is also called Gurusar. It is about two miles east of the railway station Rumana Albel Singh. })ff;::J3T [ajrtta] a Randhava jatt, headman of village Pakkho in Gurdaspur district who attained salvation by becoming a disciple of Guru Nanak Dev. His conversation with the Guru figures in detail in the"Janam Sakhis. »Ifi:ro [ajm] Skt n a skin, hide. 2 a goat's hide. 3 a deer skin.
ISec Bhagwat Sakandh 6, Ch. 1.2 and 3.


»rf;::ra' [aju] Skt n a courtyard, compound within the house. 2 air, wind. 3 body. 4 a frog. ))f;:ft [aji] part a form of polite address. »rtif [ajl] P u.:;1 part from this; from this place. ))f;:ft l1f"l-Rft [aji amri] Skt ~ adj free from old age and death. "aji amri nrvalka karam vare."-datt. >m:ffir [ajih] adj who has no tongue; sans taste. 2 dumb, mute. 3 which cannot be described in speech; inexpressible, ineffable. »rtfti:J. [ajijl A 'f."/ adj dear, lovable, beloved. 2 n a friend. "ajijul nrvaj hE."-japu. 3 God, the Creator. ~ ~ [ajijul IlIvaj] adj (one) who bestows comfort on his devotees. See »rtfu:r. ~ [ajitan] E Adjutant, an army assistant, who is a subordinate rank-holder and helps his army commander. l')fi:fu;r [ajit] See ~. "hE jug bir ajit bac;l.e rk kal duti man sur karare."-saloh. l')fi:fu;r fi:fur [ajit sigh] the eldest son of Guru Gobind Singh, born to Mata Sundari on 23 Magh Sammat 1743. He laid down his life fighting bravely in the battle at Chamkaur on 8 Poh Sammat 1761. 2 a son of a goldsmith adopted by Mata Sundari for his resemblance with her late son. Once when he put on weapons given by the Guru to Mata Sahib Kaur, and also trimmed his hair, Mata Sundari disowned him. Emperor Farrukhsiyar got him killed on the charge of murdering a poor beggar in Sammat 1775. His mausoleum is near Sabzi Mandi in Delhi where a sect named after him holds the annual fair. See uo't fi:fur. 3 according to Bandai Sikhs, son of Baba Banda Bahadur born in Sammat 1777. 4 son of Raja Jaswant Singh of Jodhpur born in Sammat 1736 who died in Sammat 1781. King Farrukhsiyar is supposed to have

Page 149


equal measure should be mixed to make cura!). married his daughter. This should be taken in dozes of one and a 5 son of Raja Sahib Singh of Patiala born half to two masas with water twice a day into to Rani Anand Kauron Bhadon Sudi 6 Sammat a ground to cure dyspepsia. 1866 (1 August 1809 AD). He was the younger brother of Maharaja Karam Siingh. ~ [ajivl adj inanimate, lifeless, inorganic. 2 inorganic matter. 6Ajit Singh Sandhavalia who killed Maharaja Sher Singh, king ofLahore with his gun before ))(jJ [ajuJ adv today. "aju na suti kat SIU." he was put to death. See "ffir tRur. 7 See :A'ft:ra' -5 fiJrid. that is, 'in this human body.' ))f;JaI3" [ajugatJ Skt:~ adjwhich is not united, tRur 4 and ~ <hr. separate. 2 unworthy, improper. "sakhi VICC l)fi=fto iml [ajit garhl There is a gurdwara to the north of Bandar village, dedicated to Guru ajugta paIke."-.J:5'BM Gobind Singh who came here from Bhagta. It '»ftIZ [ajutl adj not united, separate. 2 unhas 14 ghumanon ofland donated by the village. matched, unique" The gurdwara was first raised by Sant ~ [ajudhIaJ, ~ [ajudhyaJ See~. Sampuran Singh. A fair is held here on 1st of ~ [ajurdaJ P w;1 adjdistressed, unhappy, Baisakh and on Lohri. grieved, distressed. 2 over-wrought, This village is in police station Baghevaia, perplexed, its root is azurdan. (causing pain, tehsil Moga, diistrict Ferozepur, '9 miles east aggrieving) of the nearest railway station laito. l'>fij [ajul adj sans birth, unborn. 2 immovable, ~ }/T3T [ajito matal See t=ft3" lfI3T. motionless. "aju hE."-japu. See~. 3 part a vocative, 'yes sir.' l)ftfur [ajibl A .~ adj strange, uncommon, supernatural. >m;fol [ajuniJ Skt »>iff?> adj without origin. nrtftH [ajiml A (-fifo adj great, eminent. "hariphul 2 unborn. ajimE."-japu. 'stronger than the competiitors, ~ol R~ [ajuni sEbM], >m;fol R'~ [ajuni that is strongest of all.' sabhauJ, ~~o;f [ajuni sabhavJ Skt ~ ~ [ajimabadl See tfCi'iT. adj who is not born through the vagina. 2 whose existenc(~ is not on account ofanother nrriblF.l"O [ajimU~i$anJ A 0~' adj exercising entity; self perpetuating. 3 sans birth and self great influence; claiming majes~y. ~ [ajira!)] Skt 31'Jftuf adj which does not existing. 4 n the Creator, Vahguru. become old. 2 n dyspepsia, ('~in Arabic! ~ [ajupJ Skt ~P.f adj without restriction or Persian, indigestion, also called ajiran or check, unbound. "namasta ajupe."-japu. 2 Skt madaganI. It is caused by overeating, exertion guileness, innocent. with filled stomach, untimely sleep, grief, ~ [ajubal a four line matnk stanza, each line having eight matras with pauses at the swimming immediately after eating, etc. Fasting is good for a dyspeptic patient. Black end of each set of four matras, the last matra cumin, corriander seed, pepper longum, black being guru. It is also known as jivan. pepper, ginger, patraj (pollen of flowers), Example: aniseed kernel, root of long pepper, cItra, krudhyo bhai. sar jhar laL curcuma recliinata, myrobalan, abalbed, as sar chore. janu nabh ore.-GV 6. cardamom, common salt, black salt, all in 2 A -:J. adj strange, wonderful, supernatural.


Page 150


»ftt [aje] adv now, yet. 2 even now, till now.
3 Skt ~ adj not worthy of conquest. »fttl)f [ajea] See ~. »fttur [ajeha] adj like this, similar, of this sort. 1?f#t;r [ajey] Skt which is not worth conquering. "ajey;'l abhey;'l."-VN. ~ [ajev] See 1?f#t;r. "ajev hari."-akal. 2 See ~and »!tflB". "rudravtar sOdar ajev."-datt. 3 })fff-~ like Brahma. >ml~ [ajevi] See >ml~. "alakh abhevi adr ajevi."- kalki. »1ft [ajE] till now, See »ftt I. "ajE su rabu na bahurro."-s farid. 2 »ffilif. n defeat, rout, reversal. 3 adjwhom it is difficult to conquer; invincible. "ajE alE."-japu. 4 n the Creator, God. "ajE gag jal atal srkh sagatr sabh navE." -saveye m 5 ke. 5 Raja Aj, grandfather ofRam Chandar. "ajE su roVE bhikhra khar."-ram var 1 m 1. 'Raja Aj wept after abdicating the throne while begging alms in separation from queen Indumati.' See~. »1ft fi:fur [ajE sfgh] son of king Janmejay born to a slave girl. "ajE sf gh rakhyo rajiputr su~;'l."-janmejay. nfft it [ajE jE] adjwho conquered the unconquerable. ~ [ajEmal] See~. "ajEmal kio bEkOthhr than."-g5<;i namdev. n-rH [ClZO] P ,JI part from him, from that. "ffiu [ajoh] adj invisible. 2 beyond estimation. "ajoni achE adr advE ajoh;'l."-akal. »fttar [ajog] Skt »Iiitar.;r adj improper, inappropriate. 2 incapable. 3 without proper relation. l'fRt:r [ajodh] Skt~ adjwho cannot be fought against. "ajodhasc."-gyan. >ittao [ajodhan] See ~. 2 See nrGtml. »tilo [ajon], ~ [ajonr], ~ [ajoni] Skt~ adj who does not come through the vagina; beyond birth. ))jtl(')1H~ [ajonisabhau] See ~ M "ajoni

s;'lbhau na trsu bhau na bharma."-sor m 1. "abrnasi aeal ajonis;'lbhau."-saveye m 4 ke. })f;l [ajJ], nfi:r [ajS] adj even now, uptil now. "ajJ na patrar nrgam bhae sakhi."-jet ravdas. ~ [aj;'lgam] See ifur;r ~ ~ 12. 2 adjwho does not walk around; stationary. })fifo [aj;'ln] See'ilfRT. 2 ~. See;:ro:;:r . ~ [aj;'lbh] Skt adjtoothless. 2 n a frog. ~ [aj;'lm] l?fM?)Jf. "aj;'lm hE."-japu. nft::r3" [ajjar] n a flock, herd (of goats or sheep) >mfa" [ajhar] adj which does not drop or fall off. 2 without dropping ~ [ajhat] adjwhich cannot be glanced at or peeped into, invisible. "kr ajhatas."-gyan. l'>f5Ttr [ajhap] adj without a cover or screen, uncovered. 2 without sloth or lassitude; active. See "Sltf. ~ [ajhu] n a tear. ~ [ajhujh] adjwho cannot be fought against. "ajhujh hE."-japu. ~ [ajh;'ljh] adjnottrembling, steady. See~ . "ajMjh hE."-japu. ~ [aj1al)] adj without gyan (knowledge), ignorant, naive. 2 a child. 3 ignorance, naivety. l)fC [at] Skt 3R, vr to go about, loiter, wander. 2 n pricking, planting, driving into. "pag me at k;'ltak jEse."-krrsan. })fCOf [atak] n an obstacle, obstruction. 2 an impediment. 3 River Atak (Indus). 4 a town l on the bank of river Atak; a district of this name in Rawalpindi division also named Campbellpur. ~ [atakl)a], ~ [atakna] v to stop, stay (temporarily). 2 to fall in love. "atkro sut banrta s;'lg."-kan m 5. "atak rahi lakh raj kumara."-caritr 312.
IFort ofAtak was built on emperor Akbar's order in 1583
AD. Maharaja Ranjit Singh further fortified it and

stationed a large army there.

Page 151


Page 152


[;:ltbr] See })fCOffi" "tiiki na~? ghat atkarIo."-caritr 124. 'thought of a trick to destroy him', l1I'Ccifl? [atka1] n a guess. 2 a thought. 3 an estimate. 4 a know-how; plan. ~ [atblna] v to guess, evaluate. 2 to consider. 3 to appraise, estimate. "p<lraIa chIdr <ltk<llL"'-asa m 4. ~ [<ltkau!).a], ~ [<ltkav<ln] vto stop, hinder. "b<lhUrI b<lhUrI atkavsI re."-maru m 5. 'gets involved again and again in vices'. l'>I'CO [at<ln] See ;fu' and "f-C(!T. 2 SkI 3fc;:r n a stroll, walk, travel. l)fCl(CT [<ltP<lta] adj topsy turvy. "gm<lt gmi <ltI <ltP;:lti."-NP 'high and low.' 2 hard, difficult. 3 tangled. 4 gone astray, stumbled. ~ [<It<ll] adj unmoving, firmly settled; inevitable. ''<It<ll b<lc<ln sadhuj<lna." m 5. 2 SkI ~ a tower, fort. "bhe nIrbh<lu h<lrI <It<ll.''-savEye m 3 ke. 'Free of fear is God's fort'. 3 See »t'Cl? 'ijTfu tit. ~ Wl:IT [;:It<ll baba] See ~ 'ijTfu tit. ~iffi" [<lta1maq<l1] n a true and holy congregation. 2 a stage ofspiritual knowledge. 3 a region of the Pole Star. ~ [<It<llmaq<llve] n the Pole Star with its fixed positiion. "gavhI gu!). dhomu <l1[<llmaq<llve."-savEye m 1 ke. ~ tit [<lta1raI ji] son of Guru Hargobind and Mata Mahadevi (Mata Nanki ji, according to Suraj Prakash) was born at Amritsar in' Sammat 1676 and died at the same place on Savan Badi 10 (Assu Badi 10 as per GPS) Sammat 1685. His memorial is a nine-storey building. I Its foundation was laid in Sammat 1835 by Sikh devotees; then Sardar Jodh Singh Ramgarhia got some storeys added; verandahs of some storeys are

IHis memorial is a nine storey building, corresponding to his death at the: age of nine.

yet to be completed. Here cooked food is always kept ready for visitors by the citydwellers. No wonder, there goes the saying"baba <lta11, pakki p<lkai gha11." ~ [<ltladha] adj unavoidable, sure, inevitable. "Ik sadhub<lcan at1adha."-sar m 5. ~ [<It<lVI], »t~ [<ltyi] SkI 3Tc:cfr n a forest, wood, jungle. "m<lha udIan <ltyi te kaqhe." -sar m 5. ~ lata] Skl3f;! n a windy upper storey of a building. See E Attic. l')fC"'OI" [<ltak] n a shield; a cover against the blow of a weapon. "atak ote."-ramav. })f'C'C [<ltat] adjwithout caste or sub-caste, See C'T'C. "<ltat<lSc."-gyan. >:lfCTO [atar] adj stable, constant. "harI SImr<lt <lm<lratare."-maru m 5. ~ [<ltari] an attic See ~. 2 a town in Amritsar district; jats ofSiddhu sub-caste live here. Most renowned of them was the hero of Sikh faith Sardar Sham Singh, the supreme patriot and the Sikh general who attained martyrdom while fighting in the battle of Sabhraon on 10 February 1846. His daughter Nanki was married with great pomp and show on March 1837 to Naunihal Singh, grandson of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. l')fCTl? [<lta1] adjunflinching, sure, certain. "tohI bhag me lIkhyo <ltal."-GPs. 2 SkI 3f;!rc1 n dome. 3 a heap, pile. ~ [atIa] Se,e: >ifc<!r. 2 See l'>I'CO. l'>Iit [<lti] short form for~. a hazardousjungle. "<lti bIkti."-ramav. 2 See l'>I'CO and ~. »f?G [<ltut], ~ [atut] adjflawless, unbreakable, inviolable, firm. 2 inexhaustible, whole. ~c [atet] adj without deficiency, integral. 2 See Zer. »r&1o [<lter<ln] n a reel or frame for making hank of yarn; a tabor-like appliance to roll yarn on it. "punhI ateran ki bIdhI preran."

Page 153


-GPs. 2 a kind of spider also called kah!)a. See ~. 3 the process of making hank of yarn. "sahIt pritI ke karhI ateran."-GPs. ~ [aterna] v to rotate, revolve. 2 to make hank of yarn around. a reel. 3 to deceive; to entangle in some problem. ~ [ateru] n an insect which can move around; a long-legged spider; a kahf)a. "a~eru ko kanh£ya nam."-akal. 2 an implement for making hank ofyarn. 3 one who makes a hank of yarn. nk' [att] Skt ~ vr to exacerbate; to cause pain; to insult; to be subtle. ~ [att-has] Skt ~ n a loud laughter, a guffaw. ~ latta!)] n a corn on the skin (caused by friction), stiffness ofthe skin. "at~a!) pare agu:;;~ aguri, £cat pamc oj ko dhar."-GPS. 2 See ~. ~ [att!)a] v to fill up, complete. "garab a~ia tnsna jalhI."-sri m 3. "sara dInu lalacI a~Ia."-var gau 1 m 4. 2 See })fC<'). »[cr [at~a] n a skin of yarn wound around a reel. 2 an estimate, a guess. ~ [atti] n feminine of 1?fcr 1. 2 completely filled up like a ditch or a trench. 3 Po untwisted multi-strand yarn used on ceremonial occasions. l')fQ [a~h] Skt ~ vr to go. 2 Skt 311SC ad) eight. l')fQ })fc5lOfu lP'Ofu [a~h a~harhI barhI bis]ratanmala. eight prominent demigods, eighteen castes, twelve signs of Zodiac, twenty years reign of each of the three gods.! 2 eight parts of yog, eighteen accomplishments, twelve virtues as listed in Bhagvat, (acquistion of wealth, nobility of descent, beauty, penance, learning, faultlessness, lustre, dignity, effort, strength, philisophy and acumen); twenty means of salvation mentioned in yog rahasya


ITwenty years were reserved for each god to rule. His turn came after sixty years.

(truth, hatred oftheft, celibacy, abnegation, nonviolence, ablution, contentment, penance, education, exertion, meditation, saintly company, charity, benefaction, meekness, mental happiness, performance of yog, faith, worship and spiritual knowledge). »Ii5FIO [a~hsa~h], »rcsRfo [a~hsa~hI] Skt ~ ~. sixty eight. 2 In the Sikh scripture the figure, sixty eight, points to the pilgrimage centres of the Hindus. In the line. "SU!)I£ a~hsa~hI ka Isnanu."-)apu. the Guru refers to all places of pilgrimage. The Hindu scriptures differ from one another as to the exact number of their holy places. Many texts give a much larger number; in the 22nd chapter of Matsya Puran 222 holy places are mentioned; Bhavish Puran's nagar section Ch. 102, has a different number. In Kapil Tantar the following sixty eight places of pilgrimage are given: Oankar Ayodhya, Avantika, Eravati, Shatdru, Sarasvati, Saryu, Sindhu, Shipra, Shon, Shrishell, Shri Rang, Haridwar, Kapal Mochan, Kapilodak, Kashi, Kanchi, Kalanjar, Kaveri, Kurukshetra, Kedarnath, Koshiki, Gaya, Gokaran, Godavri, Gomati, Govardhan, Ganga Sagar, Gandaka, Gharghara, Charmnvati, Chitarkut, Chandarbhaga, Jaganath, Jawalamukhi, Tapti, Tamraparni Tungbhadra, Oashashvmedh, Orishdavati, Ovarika, Ohara, Narmada, Nagtirath, Naimish, Pushkar, Prayag Triveni Sangam, Prithudak, Badri Narayan, Bhadreshvar, Bhirneshvar, Bhrigutung, Mahakal, Mahabodhi, Mathura, Mansarovar, Mayapuri, Mandakini, Yamuna, Rameshwar, Vitsata, Vindhya, Vipash, Vimleshwar, Vena, Vetarvati, Vaishnavi and Vaidaynath. »rcsRfo 3'RJEr [a~hsa~hI tirath] See »rcsRfo. 2 a specific place near Oukhbhanjani and Thara

Page 154


gurdeu a~hdas bIuhar. "-bhEr namdev. Sahib on the bank of Sri Amritsar tank, where Guru Arjan Dev uttered the hymn "athsathI 4 eighteen castes" See ~fO ~. tirath jah sadhu pag dharhI."-ram m 5. This l'>I'i5t!'R" afo't 11~ Rf~ [athdas gatlF khoh: JOI] -rat;mmala. whoever unties the eighteen spot was also visited by Guru Nanak Dev, knots; whoever forsakes the fallacy of caste Guru Angad Dt:v, Guru Amar Das and Guru distinctions. Ram Das. Located here is a temple with a small golden umbrella; built by Maharaja ~ ~ [athdas varan] See t:R" »ro ~. ~ [athpahni] n parsley seed that is kept Ranjit Singh. soaked in water for twenty four hours in a ~ [athsathe] See~. "das atha athsathe care khal).i."-db;ma r;wdas. 'eighteen purans, brand new earthen pot and is then ground and drunk in the morning as a cure for indigestion sixty eight pilgrimage centres.' and fever. »fQ W1:ft lath sakhi] See }')fRC FJTl:ft. »fQ~ lath katha] Skt,WSC':Cf)I'SC':1 eight directions. »ro ~ lath pahnia] adj (one) who takes 2 one who has two feet, two knees, two arms, only one meal in twenty four hours. chest and head (skull) all hard like wood; a ~ [athpuria] in the Purans eight imagined strong-bodied person. cities of eight gods : Indar's Devadhani, Agini's Agneyi, Yam's Sanyamni, Nairiti of ~ HO [athkatha man] See l?fO afoT. the mind running iin eight directions; volatile Nairit; Varuni of Varun; Paun's Vayavi; mind. moon's Vibhavari and Shiv's Aishani. ~ [athkul] See ~ cp>. l)fi5'6l't)T [athraha] Skt~~~. the death ~ [athkheli] adj clever, smart:, who plays of a child on the eighteenth day after birth or many games. 2 He who has learnt several after eighteen months. Believers in mysticism miracles by wandering in all directions. hold that this disease is caused by yoginis ~ [athkMc.I] eight parts. 2 rejection ofeight (female attendants of the goddess Durga) but evils. "athi pahrri athkhac.I."-var majh m 2. it is not true that death occurs at the count of 'eight parts of the human character including eight alone. Scholars have mentioned three five senses, that is, sex, anger, greed, love and types of barren women: pride as also three qualities of maya'. 3 four (a) kak badhya - who bears one child but castes and four stages of life. 4 four castes none there after. (b) garabhsravi - who conceives but aborts. and four religions. "ath khac.I pakhac.I mahI (c) mntvatsa -- whose children die young. gurumat Ikman Ikk dhIaya."-BG »fQ ~ lath jOgI).ia] See ~. This type is said to suffer from athraha. This is caused by some de~ect in the mother's mensural })f<5C [athat], ~~ [athatt] adj not established for or by some one, existing by or itself. outflow or father's semen, and its commonest cause is syphilis. When a foetus is not fed to 2 See S'c. proper nourishment, its blood gets polluted and ~ [athatar] adj seventy-eight. l)fc53"a'T [athatra] adj seventy-eighth. See >:~ death becomes im~vitable. ~. The best treatment is for parents to keep their bodies free from disease, stop coition ~ [athdas] eighteen. 2 eighteen Purans. after pregnancy. the mother should observe See~. 3 eighteen spiritual attainments. "jau

Page 155


moderation in eating and drinking, consuming less salt and eating light food of milk, rice, etc. She should spend more time in fresh air and wear clean clothes. A mixture of physodis flexussa, turmeric, chitra curcuma, ceder, myrobalan, cardamon, warm wood, curcuma reclinate, coral ast parsley, kernel of the seed of water lily, sunflower, extract of root of barberry, red sandalwood, emblica ribes, all in equal measure should be ground and kept in a duly corked bottle. If the expectant mother takes this mixture with water for six months during conception but discontinues it in the beginning of the seventh, athraha gets ineffective. ~ [dthvaral, ~ [dthvara] n a period of eight days; the term is used for the week. ~ 3'l.f [dthvara tap] See 3'l.f (b). ))fc5'}f [dtham] adjsans space; who has no place. "ndmdsta dthame."-japu. >:Ifc5W [dthardh] eighteen. 2 eighteen Purans. See~. 3 eighteen races of snakes. "tIn kdn jdg dthardh ghae."-prdbha d m 1. Eight plus ten additional races of snakes are mentioned in books i.e. subuddlu, nadsan, prIthu~rava, tak~dk, a~vtar, hem-malIn, naredv, vajrdn~tI, vn~ and kulir. >:Ifc5W fi:rQt [dtharah sIdhi] eighteen miracles; eighteen powers. For eight SIddhis refer to l'>fRC fRfl:T; the other ten are : 1) anurdmI (not feeling hunger and thirst); 2) dur ~rdVdD (hearing from a distance); 3) dur dar~an (seeing from afar); 4) mdnoveg (proceeding at the speed of mind); 5) kam rup (changing into the desired form); 6) pdrkay prdve~ (entering into other's body); 7) svacMd mntyu (death at one's own will); 8) surkrira (enjoying the company of gods);

9) sakdlap sIddhI (coming true of any wish); 10) apratIhat gat I (absence of hindrance while going somewhere). "mv nIdhi athardh sIdhi pIche ldgia phIrhI."-var sor m 3. })f(5'l"ij'U ~ 'S1Fr [dtharah ddS bis] forty-eight. "sdbhe putr ragan ke atharah das bis."-ma sag. >:Ifc5W ~ [athardh bhar] the entire flora; the idea is that ifone leaf is taken from each plant, it will amount to eighteen loads (each load is equal to five raw maunds) See~. "atharah bhar bdnaspati."-mdla namdev. "romavdh kotI atharah bhar." -bhEr d kdbir. 2 Mahabharat with its eighteen chapters. See


~ ~

[atharhI] See ~.

fflt:ft [atharhI sIddhi] See ~ fl:rdt. ~ E [dtharhI got] See t:R»lO ~.
[atharhI ghae] See ~ 3. ~ 3'kra' [atharhI tirath] See 3'\QET 11. ~ YW<!' [dtharhI puraD] See~. ~ lRJC!" [dtharhI bdrdD] See t:R»lO~. ~~ [dtharhI bhar] See~~. ~ ~ [dtharhI vIdhya] knowledge of eighteen things; eighteen sciences or subjects: four Veds, six subordinate branches ofVeds, mimasa (through determination of a point), nyay (rule, equity), puraIJ (mythology), manu SImntI (manu's code of Hindu law), etc. ayur ved, dhanur ved, gadhardv ved and nitI ~astrd. See 'fuRQ ~, part 3, eh. 6. 2 See


[athara] See ~. nffis(j- [athIO] adj an eighth. "dthIo SIr Qhore ndvam nIhorE."-ramav. ~ [dthuha] n eight-legged insect, scorpion. "matri hOI dthuhIa, nagi Idge jaI."-var majh m2. ~ [dthotar] Skt ~ adj eight added to any sum. "jIu sau tIVE athotar Iaya."-BG See RtfHTW and 3ffift Em:.

Page 156


[athotri mala] n a rosary of 108 ~ [aq.o1] adj not wobbling, not unsteady; beads. See Rt/}rn-r. firm, established. "fa [atth] See 1'liO. ~ [aq.;'}g] adjwithout a sting or barb, without "fa ~ 'S"QfcJ m [atth atharhI barhJ[ bis] getting stung. See ifoT. See })f<5' ~. ~'g [aq.;'}q.] Skt ~ adj not punishable, })fcf [aq.] Skt 3f6.:. vr to exert, spread, bring under unpunished. control. ~ [aq.;'}bar] Skt 3~ n outer show, display, ~ F.I"'U [ i;;ah], })ffi(') ~ [ ~ahi] Bhai ostentation. 2 affectation. 3 a tent. 4 a casing Ghanaiya, a khatri of Dhamman sub-caste or cover, for pillow and quilt. 5 the sound belonging to village Sodora in Gujranwala of an elephant's cry or a trumpet. 6 ornadistrict became a disciple of Guru Teg mentation, ostentation. "nanak habh aq.;'}bar Bahadur as water carrier for the community kupa."-var jEt. kitchen. In the time of Guru Gobind Singh he nrn- [aq.q.] adj separate, different. 2 SkI ~ vr served water to the injured Sikhs and Muslims to unite, encircle, attack, endeavour. at Anandpur without any discrimination. With ~ [aq.q.!).a] v to straigh~en, spread, dilate, this philanthropic act and also by giving first open out, broaden. aid to the wounded, he earned the pleasure of ~ [aq.q.a] n a sojourn, halting place. 2 a frame the Guru. The Guru appointed him to a of steel, wood, etc. for knitting. 3 See »rW. missionary seat and gave him his handkerchief nfit [ n a heel. In Sanskrit, ~ is a wall as a symbol of benediction. After Bhai in which bones etc. are set; the structure of Ghanaiya, his seat was occupied by Bhai S.ahaj the heel resembles it. Ram, Rana Ram, Lachhman Ram, Narayan ~ [aq.h] adj half. 2 n half a damri (= one Ram, Sahib Ram, Bhadar Ram, Santokh Ram, eighth of paisa). See~. A9an Shah and Seva Ram, etc. A9an Shah and ~ ~ [aq.h aq.h] n half of a half damri. Seva Ram became great celebrities because of ~ [aq.hai] adj two and a half. "pacanu ser aq.hai."-gdu kdbir. See il1H~. their services. Thus the name of Bhai Ghanaiya's sect became Aqanshahi ~nd ~ URI" [aq.hai ghar] See m URI". Sevapanthi. The famous Sevapanthi centre is ~ [] See »1'3". "aqhu TId 1ahdaro mu1u." -var jEt. at Thai in Sindh Sagar Doab. Adanshahi Sikhs and saints live on their ~ [aq.huk], ~r [aq.huk] adjunapproachable, earnings, earned through hard and honest unreachable, difficult to reach. labour. Earlier writers used ink of black hue ~ [!).a] adjtwo and a halftimes, "lahe!).e d;'}ill."-illdgO. prepared by them that came to be known as »f(!" [a!).] Skt ~ vr to articulate; to utter sound; A9anshahi ink. to keep alive; to be strong. 2 Skt 3T;:r, adv ~ [] adjwithout fear, fearless, intrepid. without. "b;'}dh2Jn sauda a!).bicari."-asa dill 1. ~ [] adj without reproof, not reproved 3 See)o)fc'). or rebuked. "aq.atasc."-gyan. ~ [a!).hGda] adj without any material. ~ [aq.aI:d See~. >milo [aq.ith], ~lg [aq.ithu] adjunseen, invisible. 2 without money or education, etc. 3 poor, penurIous. "ghatI ghatI (~ithu aq.ithu."-sri d ill 1.

~ l-I"l¥

Page 157



celestial bombs. "al)dage gole chutal)ge." impossible. -jagnama. ~~ [al)h6da] See ~tT. "al)hoda nau ~3" [al)dut] adj without brilliance, noniridescent, not miraculous. 2 Skt ~ n dhano padha."-asa pari m 3. lightning. "al)dut khal)a tC}n sohi."-ramav. ~ [;:mhodi] adjwithout existence, imaginary, illusionary. 2 n unreality. "hodi kau al)hodi ~ [al)parh], ~ [al)parhIa] adj hUE."-ram m 5. 'Immersion in material objects illiterate, uneducated. ~ [al)bIddh] See »f7if8'q. is offset by detachment and belief in truth.' ~ [al)ka] a gal)Ik metre also known as akra, ~~ [C}l)mC}rIa madC}1 bajEl This is Namdev's hymn in sorath rag: anhad, anubhav, ~a~Ivadna, caQrasa and mC}dhurdhunI. It has four lines, each line I "C}l)mC}ria m;'idalu bajE. 2 bInu savC}n ghanhC}ru gajE. observing III, ISS arrangement. 3 badal bInu bC}rkha hoi. Example: 4 jau tC}tu bIcan: koi.... jab sar lage, tab sabh bhage. dC}lpatI mare, bhat bhatkare.-ramav. 5 jal bhitan kObh samania." (3) ~ [al)akh] n })fc'i'jf-nfcr the other eye; an act This means: that makes the eye turn. 2 desire for bravery. J Unstruck word sounds like unstrung 3 desire for self-respect. instrument. »f<!l:It [al)khil, ~ [al)khoa] adj possessing 2 The cloud thunders though it is not the rainy sense of honour; angry. 2 self-respecting; with season. a sense of honour. 3 The blessing of ambrosia rains without a ~ [al)gal)at], ~ [al)gal)It], ~ cloud. [al)gata] Skt ~. innumerable, endless, 4 So it seems if one has spiritual knowledge countless. "sIkh sagC}t aVE C}l)gC}ta."-BG to grasp it. ~ [al).cari] Skt 3F,nnft";f, adj of a bad 5 Water in the pitcher has mingled with that character; wicked, immoral. "al)cari ka in the ocean, meaning thereby that human soul dhanu."-saVEye m 3. has merged with the Divine. ~ [C}l)jal)C}t] without knowing the purpose. ~ [al)magIa] adj without asking; "al)jal)at namu vakhal)iE. "-basJt m 1. bestowed free. "al)m;'igIa dan devl)a."-sri m 2 innocently, unknowingly. 1 jogi Jdan. ~ [al)QIth], ~ [al)Qith], ~ })j<!oiltNfl [C}l)vicari] adjwithout thinking; bereft [C}l)Qitha] Skt 3W;'Z adjunseen. "C}l)Qitha kIchu of power to think. 2 adv without considering. "b;'idhC}n sauda C}l)vicari. "-asa a m 1. kahIl) na jaI."-mala m 1. ~ [C}l)C}d] a khatri sub-caste, which is one of ~ [C}l)aul)a] Skt ~ n the act of the high castes ofKhukhranas. ' "al)C}d murari bringing; fetching. 2 sending for. "caukC}rI mC}ha purC}kh."-BG. 2 Dg pleasure, joy. mulI al)aIa."-var asa. ~ B [C}l)dage gole] bombs not l')f(!Tl..f [C}l)ap] adj unmeasurable; without needing explosive or fire; martyrs and measurmg. 'l1I'f<Y [al)I] Skt n the sharp point of a weapon 'They are $uri, kohli, chac;lc;lhe, al).ad, sahl).i, sethi, bhasil)., sabharval. like a lance. 2 Skt army.

~ [cll)hOl)i]

n an impossibility. 2 adj


Page 158




~ [dDIala], ~ [dDIali] Skt adj

having a sharp point. 2 n a lance, javelin, spear. 3 a dagger. 4 a weapon like an arrow. ~ [dDIDef?] n the master of an army, a military officer, an army commander. "dDIDes duhu dIS c;lhuk-hfge."-kalki. nrf<rnT [aDIma] one of the SIddhis (spiritual performances). See »rFIC fl:fftr. l1fit [21Di] See »ffu. I and »fil>m?r. 2 See »Ifcf 2. "aDia jutia."-c~Q'i 3. 'Armies clashed'. ~ [aDiara], ;~ [aDiala] n something having a sharp ]point. See »Ifcf. 2 a javelin, spear. 3 an arrow. "prem baDi man marIa <wia1e aDia."-casa ch~t m 4. ~ [aDimac;lavy] See ~. ~ [aDiraI] n Chief of an army, a Chief. 2 son of Guru Hargobind born to Mata Damodari (Mata Nanki according to GPS) in Amritsar on 26 Magh Sammat 1675. He did not marry and allways remained in a state of spiritual bliss. He breathed his last at Kiratpur where his shrine exists. ~ tlit [aDiro dhaDi] n a commander or chief of the army. 2 a king. 3 a commander-in-chief, general. "kaha ch£ aDiro dhaDi n£ nIhare." -ramav. 'Where is the commander ofthe army?' ~ [aDu] Skt n a speck, mote, particle. '';wu saman hv£jan pahar saman ko."-NP 2 adj very small. 3 of no consequence, trivial. ~ [aDukit] a germ invisible to the naked eye. Germs exist in blood, water, etc. ~ [aDuvad] Skt n Vaishashik philosophy according to which atoms are ewr existing and through their concord they constitute the material world. 2 philosophy of logic. ~ laDe] of the army. See'»rf'<! 2. "that saj aDe."-krIsan. ~ [aDokha] adj unseen by the eye; supernatural. 2 rare, uncommon. 3 surprising, wonderful.

[dDokhi bibi] daughter of Guru Angad Dev born in Sammat 1591. ~ [dDag] See 'l'lfi';'or. 'l1f3" [dt] Skt 3KL vr to go, tie, receive. 2 Skt 3Rf n bondage. 3 arrival. 4 continuous travel. 5 Skt nIT3" adj excessive; too much. 6 n profusion, abllndance. ~ [at-ev] adv for this reason only; due to this. l)f3FIfu3"r [dtsahIta] Skt ~ n intolerance; want of tolerance. 2 inability to tolerate/ appreciate others' greatness or glory; jealousy. See »!f3H3r. "atsahIta dukh sukh mahI hoi." -NP ~ [atsuhia] adj gorgeous, very beautiful, winsome. ~ [at-tail Skt 31l~n one who has drawn his bow to kill; a killer or tormentor, torturer. In Sanskrit texts six kinds ofwicked men have been noted: a setter of fire, a giver of poisor., a snatcher of wealth, a snatcher of woman or land; I a denigrador of a pious person. "sat ka nfdak maha at-tai."-sukhmani. '»f3"3' [atatt] adj lacking reality; sapless, worthless. 2 without the five physical elements. 3 n illusory world (though its real essence is not different from the supreme reality) "namo param tdtta atatta sarupe." -japu. 4 one who is not mentioned as tat (He). 5 without 3"3" (He) and"Ef (you). ~<!' [atadguD] Skt ~UT n Where the context is immaterial, a literary figure of speech wherein a description retains its original quality or meaning unscathed. "jahf sagatI te :lr ko gu~~ kachuk ndhf let."-pvraj



Example: j£se pah;:m jal mahI rakhIo bhed£ nahI tIh
'Apstambh and Manu, etc. write that to kill an at-tap is no sin even if he is a brahmin. etc. See manu. a 8, $ 350.

Page 159


excellent library at Ludhiana. He died in 1896 pani, tEse hi tum tahI pachano bhagatIhin jo prani. AD. -bIla m 9. 3 Sant Atar Singh, a devotee of the Almighty and preacher of the Sikh scripture. pathar kau bahu nir pavaIa, He was born at village Chima in tehsil Sunam nahI bhigE adhIk sukaIa, of Patiala state on the first of the bright half khat sastra murkhE sunaIa, of the lunar month of Chet Sammat 1923. At jEse dah dIS pavan jhu1aIa. -bher m 5. the age of 18 years, he joined the Burmese Platoon No.4, but left it after some time to ~ [atanu] Skt n one without a body; Cupid. devote himself to the preaching of the Sikh ~ [ataf] P ...;w n a favour, grace, compassion. 2 attention, consideration. religion. He administered amrit to thousands })f3'[i::r [atbhuj] See ~. of persons. Sant Ji was a perfect recluse and practitioner of Karam Yog (the path of action) ~ [atbhut] See ~. »I3'a' [alar] adjwhich one cannot swim across, and labour (work). His institution Gur Sagar unswimmable. "atar tano nahI jai."-gau at Mastuana and beautiful buildings at kabir. 2 A »Y n a perfume, scent, oil ofsandalDamdama Sahib are a permanent memorial wood, extract of rose wood. to him. Sant Atar Singh breathed his last at »I3'a' fi:fur [atar sIgh] son of sardar Amir Singh Sangrur on 19 Magh Sammat 1983 and was Sandhavalia and brother of Lahina Singh. cremated at Mastuana. After the death of Kanwar Naunihal Singh, })f3'aq [atarak], ~ [atarkya] Skt ~ adj which cannot be debated, non-debatable. "tor he wanted to instal Maharani Chand Kaur, atarak grra ras bhini."-NP widow of Maharaja Kharak Singh, on the thrown, while the Dogras were planning to ~ [atardan] n a perfume-vial. make Sher Singh the king. Sher Singh ~ [atraf] A ..Jt;, plural of~ direction. succeeded and Sandhavalias felt extremely 2 tax collected from several sides. 3 duty on slighted. They wanted to put an end to Sher goods exported. Singh. The Dogras also joined them in their l'lf3(i) [at;~l] n the first and uppermost part of the nether world. plan. When Ajit Singh shot Sher Singh dead n a kind of glistening silken at Shah Balaval, a great calamity befell the ~ [atlas] A cloth. "soe mmi tale 1a1 qarkE at1asE."-knsan. entire family. Atar Singh ran away and took In the ancient times red coloured Roman refuge with Bhai Vir Singh ofNarranagabad. silken cloth was very famous. The Lahore army under orders from Hira Singh Dogra encircled him there. In May 1844 ~ lata] A lizy n a largesse, bounty. 2 See 1?f3r. (27 Baisakh Sammat 1901, Sardar Gulab "aja hE, ata hE."-ramav. Singh shot Atar Singh dead with his rifle. See ~w [ataulla] A ";ulizy adj gifted by God. ~w l:fT [ataulla xan] See qjC?};ITO. 2 a Rajput -aN fRur. of Taravri who sided with the Muslim 2 son ofSardar Kharak Singh, an aristocrat of Bhadaur was born in 1833 AD. He was a religious zealots assembled under Haidri flag to fight for the destruction of Banda Bahadur very shrewd and erudite person. Sardar Sir Atar Singh Mahamahopadhayay set up an and the Khalsa force.


Page 160


Page 161


A JIkY adj one whom the Creator has blessed or gifted with knowldege. 2 This word meaning 'mighty or dominating' is derived from »Y. "eh fakir ba<;!a atai."-BG "nad cad krrpal das Ih bade atai."-j.?gnama. 3 half-literate, partially educated. "bajigar lakh bha<;! atai."-BG 4 S a beggar; a supplicant. ))f3Tq [atak] A iF adj independent, free from bondage. "punita ataka."-akal. })f3'I3" [atat] adjwithout a 313" (son). 2 fatherless. 3 without rancour. 4 A ...::J'U,I n obediience, allegiance. »13'0 [atan] adj without defence; who has no protector. "atanasc."-gyan. See 310. »f3Ttf [atap] adj not attainable through austerities/penance. "tap ke kIye te jJpf paiE atap nath."-akal. 2 free from sorrow; calm. })f3Tij" [atar] A .J~ n a maker or seller of perfumes. 2 a seller of distilled drugs. ~ [atalik] A J;:t'l a teacher, an instructor, a preceptor, an educator. })fftr [atI] Skt adj very much, excessive. "atI sura je kou kahavE."-sukhmani. })fftr~tf'O[atI akha<;! path] an uninterrupted recitation ofGmu Granth Sahib by one rleciter in a single sitting without eating anything. It usually takes twenty seven hours to complete. See ~ ft::rur ~. »I f::m F(Jd l [atI sahIta] See »I3Flfuor. ~ [atD:,ay] Skt adjvery much. })jF3BGiF~ [atI~ayoktI] See ~. l?ffuJ:rrij' [atIsar] n essence. 2 Jlr! diarrhoea. It is caused by diisorder in the digestive system that is in turn caused by overeating or eating offoul food, raw or over ripe fruit, or viscous glutinous things, sleeping on wet ground, drinking unclean water; in this state food is not well digested causing frequent lloose motions. Before preventing loose motions, stomach

~ [atai]

should be cleansed by administering castor oil or some other waxen stuff. Then prepare a compound of bamboo manna, cardamom, verdigrass, gum of acacia, fine gum (mastagi), lump sugar, and opium into pills of one tola each. Taking one to three pills a day, according to the patient's age, with aniseed extract or fresh water for three days, would cure diarrhoea. Alternatively, Indian baekl kern and aniseed boiled in water like tea or curd of cow's milk with black pepper, ginger and salt may be taken. Or powder ofmyrobalan, patis aconitum heterophylum asafoetide, black pepper, ginger and salt be taken two to four masas daily with warm water. The patient suffering from diarrhoea should not eat thick loaves of wheat flour or other heavy things. Light items like sago, white of the egg, rice, milk etc. should be taken. "tIS ko lagE adhIk atIsar."-GPs. ))ffuH [atis£] See ~. ~3T [atIs£ta] Skt »IF3BGld ' n excess and deficiency, profIt or loss. "atIs£ta mahI jIn CIt layo."-GPs. 2 See ~ . ~ [atIsvap] Skt n eternal sleep; death. See ~. ~ [atIkayl adj having a large body, bigbodied, hefty. 2 son of Ravan born to Dhanyamalini. Lachhman killed him in a battle. His name was also Mahakay. "mahakay nama maha bir eva."-ramav. })fftr c!m [atI kubhi] See ~-m 6. ~}f'(! [atIkramal)] Skt n walking over. 2 exceeding the limit. 3 overstepping the rules. ~ [atIgita] a matnk metre comprising four lines, each line having 32 matras with pauses first at the fifteenth matra and the next at the seventeenth matra after that. Example: "jIln han han namu na cetIo (meri jfdurie)

Page 162


te manmukh mur raI).e ram."-brha m 4. In these lines, meri jfdurie is an address, and is not a part ofthe metre. If there are two guru matras instead of guru and laghu matras at the end, the metre is known as bm;'id. ~ [atrthr] SkI n one whose time of arrival is not fixed; a visitor, guest. 2 son of Kushu and grandson of Ram Chandar. He was born from Kumudvati's womb. ~ [atrpat] adjdissatisfied, unsatiated. See

nri3uflr [atrpatr] Skt ~ n lack of satisfaction,
absence of satiety. "atrpatr man mae."-sahas
~ [atrbalna] adj extremely powerful,

very strong.

11I'fu8w [atrbala] SkI n It is stated in Valmik's
Ramayan that Vishvamitar taught Ram two techniques ofbla and atrbla because of which he remained free from fatigue and disease. 2 a herb called g~geran or k~ghi that strengthens semen, pacifies the burning sensation and cholera afflicting the animals. It kills worms in the stomach. Taking it with milk and a lump ofsugar cures prameh disease (L sidonia cordifolia). ~ [atrbhuj] adj long armed.' 2 one whose arms can reach anywhere. "atrbhuj bharo aparla."-mala namdev. ~l:f [atrmanukh] adj one who though human in fonn, possesses greater strength than man; god in human form. 2 beyond human power. 3 one who transcends human strength; an animal. ~ [atrmalti] a four lined matrrk metre, also called padakulak, comprising four cJkals, that is four qagaI).s, with two pauses,each after eight matras, the final two matras being guru.
lIt may also be pronounced as?Tir.

Example: kahu na puja, kahu na area, kahu na $rutrdhunr, srmratr na earea, kahu na hom;'i, kahu na dan;'i, kahu na s;'ijam, bhu sanan;'i.-kalki. ~~ [atrmrrtyu] SkI n salvation; death that does not repeat itself. "Ese marhu jr bahur na marna."-gau kabir. ~ [atrras] n spiritual bliss, of which there is no equal. "atrras par taje ras phike."-saloh 2 the joy of reciting the name of God. ~ [atrrath], ~ [atrrathi] Skl31f('RQ n a warrior who mounting a chariot alone fights against countless enemies; a great hero. "jatha sub hat atrrathi hVE larat na eahrt sahay."-GPs. »IfdFdd3 [atrrrkat] SkI ~ adv besides, in addition to. ~ [atrrog] n ignorance. 2 cough. 3 leprosy. 4 adj incurable; mortal. ~ [atrv~t] SkI l?f3Jf'3" adj very much, abundant, beyond measure. "danr baqo atrv;'it maha balr."-saveye m 4 ke. »IF3~Jl'f~ [atrvyaptI] SkI n a defective characteristic of a particular object; the characteristic which is to be found in other objects as well. Suppose we describe a cow as a horned animal but there are many other animals like buffalo, and goat with horns, so this is a defect in characterisation. llf3t [ati] See »1'3" and »rB. 2 SkI vr to pass by, go across, trespass. ~ [atisar] See»ff3wo. "trn ko atisar dukh hoi."-NP. »I3E [atit] SkI adj gone by; past. 2 free from worldly attachments; averse, ascetic. "atit sadae mara ka mata."-suhi m 5.3 advaway, beyond. "hVEbo triguI). atit."-hajare 10. »13m [atith] See »rf3fEr. ~ [afidr£] Sk/~ adjnotcomrehensible

Page 163


through the senses; beyond senson; perception. (?- adj (one) whose parents are dead. 2 poor, penniless, trivial. "jaI sute jiral). me thie atima gaq.."-s {;)Tid. ~ [atiyah] A .-1& a reward, an award. . ~ [ativ] Skt adjvery much, beyond measure. ~ [atut] adj undiminished. ~1? [atull adj immeasurable, measureless. "ape atul tulaIda pIara."-sor m 4. 2 Skt'n~ matchless, unequalled, rare. "gun gavat atul sukh paIa."-to<;ii m 5. ,~~ [CltulClt] adj unweighed, unmeasured. "bCll atulat bahu vIsala."-GPs. ~3'1? [Cltul tol] n a spiritual insight; thinking of what is immeasurable. ~ [CltUIIt] See ~. ~ [Cltuly] See ~ 2. ~1?:;rtil'fiJT3T [;3tuly-yogIta] a figufl~ of meaning with a specific feature "tuly-yogIta jClha nCl hoi, jan atuly-yogIta soi.-jasvat jaso bhu~an. 'The object to be compared is not equal to the one it is compared with.' It is non-comparability, the obverse of comparability. Example: thakE m:n SrClVClI1 sunI thake, thaki sudan kaIa, jClra hak di sClbh mCltI thaki, ek nCl thakasI maIa.-suhi kabir. gIrI basudha jal pavan jaIgo IkI sadhbacan atladha, ;)q. bInasi jer bInasi utbhuj set bInadha, can bInasi khat-hI bInasi Ik sadhbClcCln nIhcaladha, dIsatIman hE sClgal bInasi, Ik sadhbacCln agadha-sar In 5. mda brahma mda fdu, rClvI mEla mda hE c;)du, mda malta Ihu s;'}sar,

bf3'b.r [atim] A

Ik hCln nIrmal jaka ;)t m par. -bherkabir. ~ [Clte] part a conjunction meaning 'and'. l1f3t:r [atej] adj without lustre, ineffective. 2 n darkness. "atej jEse tej lin."-akal. ~ [atev] See -n-r:3W. "atevagm hotri."-datt. 'high priest adept in performing rites.' ~ [atE] See ~. "gohe atE lakri ;'}dCln kira hOI."-var asa. »Bar [c;tok] Skt 3TfF~n a limb, part. 2 a traveller, wayfarer. ~ [atoll adj unweighed, beyond weighing. 2 unequalled, matchless. ~ [atolak], l'ilB~ [atolva], ~ [atolvi] adj that cannot be weighed, beyond estimation. "han han nam atolak paIa."-asa chat In 4. "oh veparvahu Cltolva."-sri m 1. "mIti pai atolvi."'-s {arid. ~ [Clt;)k], »8of [Clt;'}g] Skt ~ n terror, fear. "sabh des dukal Cltak haryo."-NP. "kayar ke ur hot ataga."-GPs. 2 glory. 3 dominance. >if3' [att] n surplus, excess. 2 tyranny. nl'~ [Cltta] Skt 3ffIT n mother. 2 elder sister. 3 the Creator holding everyone in grasp. 4 Skt 31cJ: adj gourmand, gluttonous. ~ [attar] See »sre-. })fdJi'ijlij [atyacar] Skt n transgression of morality, outrage. 2 depravity. 3 atrocity. ~ [atyuktI] hyperbole, overstatement, a literary figure in which excess is the norm, and to describe with greater emphasis is its function. It is aliso called CltISyoktI. "dan :?urta rup gul). kClluye atI adhIkay." Example: "tClha satru ke bhim hasti calae, phIrE maddh gEl).;'} ajS b na ae."-gyan. "dhurI uq.i khur puran te pab uradh hVE rClvIm;) chae.rnanhu pher race bIdhI 10k dhara khat ath Clkas banae."-ca<;ii 1.

Page 164

~ [atyat] Skt adj very much, too much, in

word for expressing a sense ofbliss.
"~ R~ ~R"CT ~ ~: :J:U I CfiU<:5 ~ ~ B;:r J1ls·JIfc1CflI q-m." , '"

excess. "Cltyat asa athItybhavna."-sahas m 5. l')j3i3fdRGir~ [atyatatIsyoktI] a literary figure of meaning involving excessive imagination. Its characteristic is to describe an action before the cause for it arises. "jaha hetu te pratham hI pragat hot hE kaj."-?Ivraj bhll?CJn. Example: "pClhIla putu pIchEri mai, baharI bElu gon gharI ai."-asa kCJbir. "yuddh hetu dar;;mer;; jab kasi kamar knpan, jag dukhdaIk r;;atru gal) turat bhae bIn pral)." l1f3i3r ~ [atyata bhav] See ~. ~ [atr] n short form for»fF?I. a missile, weapon for throwing. "atr ke calEya ChItI chatr ke dharEya."-CJkal. 2 adv here, at this place. ~ [atrata] adj without a defect; complete. ~ [atrpatr] Skt~ n an umbrella, which provides shelter from the sun. 2 a royal canopy. See "atrpatr kahI sis c;l.hurayo."-VN ~ [atrI] Skt n Brahma's son in human form, a sage counted among seven eminent sages. His wife was Anusuya and their three sons were Dattatrey, Durvasa and Som. "pun bhae atrI rIkhI munI mahan, dascarcar vIdyanidhan."-dCJtt. 2 See~. 3 Skt ~ adj who eats or devours. ~1J3" [atnsut], »rf~R [atnj], »rf~or [atrItanay] n Atri's son, Dattatrey. 2 Durvasa. 3 Som. ~ [atrIpat] Skt 31W0 adjhungry. 2 impatient, greedy. ~ [atrIpatI] lack of satiety. See ~.. ~ [atri] See~. 2 short form of~. an armed person. "yuddhveta atI atri."-parCJs. $ [atrag] adjwithout waves or ripples, calm, still. "atragasc."-gyan. 2 of the inside, inner one. 3 from the heart. })fEi lath] part now, at the moment. 2 after this, hence. 3 ancient Hindu sages employed this

(See Bhamti explication ofthe Brahamsutars and Sankhyvachan Bhashy) See ~ F.fTR1 ~ Jj~-31~ W'lf cJ:1I<"011lfl"llJ1: and ~ tQF.!?j' ~ 'nfTft!- 312-TfC'iI t';j eq Ri $II '8 I• See 11fTfEr an d lJl'lfRf3'. 4 See »!fEr 2. ~ [athak] adj tireless. 2 indivisible, continuous. "ahInIs diva balE athak."-ram m 1. ~ [athtis] Skt»rf3Eh:r n God, the master of the newcomers. "so to na c;;l.ot astag athtis

[athan] Skt ~ n sunset, See~. [athar] short form for ~. "athar bed pClthya."-VN »ICRJa' [athrab] Skt ~ n the fourth Ved also named Brahm Ved, See ~. 2 The sage who revealed the fourth Ved. See ~. ~ [atharbCll)] See ~ and l'>fERf8?). ~ [atharbal)I] Skt 31IT<ffUT n a scholar of Athrav Ved, panc.Iit. 2 a priest who conducts a sacrifice etc. according to the provisions of Athrav Ved. ~ [atharban], ~ [atharvCll)] Skt»fFJi!o n the fourth Ved, See ~. 2 a sage mentioned in Rig Ved. He is mentioned as the son of Brahma, and his, Brahman progeny is known as Athravan, who consider themselves supreme in conducting sacrificial rituals etc. "bhar atharban gurumukh tara."-BG. 'Devotees of the Guru have taken away the burden of Athravan ritualists.' ~ [athval)] See »fEl7i. 2 the west, See~. ~ [athva] part or, rather, alternatively. ~ [athail n a place for sitting or settling down. 2 a rest room. "huto athai ke VIC bEthYO."-GPs. »tWU [athah], ~ [athahu] adj measureless,


Page 165


very deep. "agam athah beat."-var ram 2 ill 5. ~ [adna] A L,I adj lowly, inferior, [athak] adj tireless, untiring. "kie rath worthless. athak."--sri m 5. ~ [adab] A "':"'" n respect, regard, deference. })fEfT)f latham] adjwithout a place ofone's own, "hadiye rahe xuda amad adab, be dddb xalist homeless. 2 without check or hindrance. az altafe rabb."-jfdgi. 2 a rule, regulation. "ukharyo dhiraj mul athamu."-NP. 3 literature imparting morality. »rfu [athI] short form of»rfi:otr. a bone. 2 adv at ~ [adbhut] Skt~ adjwonderful, strange. this. "maja rudhIr durgadha nanak athI 2 amazing. 3 in poetics one ofthe nine literary garbe:r:t agyan:r:to."-gatha. excellences. See OFf. ~ [athIt], })f11Er [athIta] adjwhat is not set ~ ~ [adbhut ramaYd:r:t] See ~. or settled, restless. 2 mortal. 3 at some places ~ [adam] Skt ~ adj that cannot be this word has been used to mean d?ifufEr. subdued, unconquerable, irrepressible. 2A (.... ~ [athItI] See l?ff3fu. 2 unsteadiness, n absence, non-existence, state ofwithdrawal. instability. 3 the next world. "1fa3.MI<1(') [atlutybhavan] See ~~. ~ [adras] See ~. 2 See ~. »iftRr [athu] Skt»ffFcRr adjunstable, unsteady. ~ [ddrak] Skt nrtfcx n ginger. 2 mortal. ~ [adarab] adj without wealth, poor. ~ [athon] adv thereafter, after this. "athon 2 priceless, invaluable. "su baji addrba." pursa damra."-dhana namdev. 'After this a -gyan. person should practise breathing.' See mi. ~ [ddal] Skt:u.ft purified butter. 2 A J.... n >mI [athru] n l'lilJ a tear. justice. "ddal k;3re guru gIan sdmana."-maru l'>fi [ad] Skt 3fc\ -vr to eat; to cut; to chop; to solhe m I. 3 God, the Creator. 4 equality. 5 a nibble. measure. ))ft!'(jJ" [adag], l?ftfor [adagg] adj untainted, ~ [adli] adj (one) who administers justice. stainless. "namo khagg adagga,,"-VN"lekar 2 n a judge. "adli hOI betha prdbhu apL" khagg adagg maha."-caeji 1. 2 unblemished. -gau m 5. 3 a resident of village Bhaini (now 3 which cannot be burnt. "adokh adag adag renamed as Chohla or Cholha). He was a he."-akal. spiritually awakened devotee of Guru ~ [adad] A ,~a number, numeral, figure, Ramdas. It was as a result of his teaching that sum. 2 a countable object. Bhai Bidhi Chand renounced burglary and l?tt!O [adan] Skt n eating, dining. 2 A 0~ adj received spiritual teaching lessons from Guru everlasting. 3 n in the Bible and the Quran, a Arjan Dev. "aclli guru ko sIkkh tahf jfh sumatI vIsekhi."-GPS. garden i.e. Eden, where God kept Adam. See '»R'1f. 4 a town situated on a hill at the sea ~ [adalu] See~. coast bordering Arabia. Its height from the sea ~ [adve] See ~~. level is 1775 feet. There is a strong miilitary »feT [ada], »ftTfu ![adaI] A 'JI n grace, gesture, gait. "ddbhut ddaI Uiki."-ramav. 2 syntax. fort which is a part of the Indian empire. Adan was captured by the British in January 1839. 3 settling of accounts. 41 lucid exposition. 5 A It is a harbour for ships going to and from .,.... cancellation, rejection. "tero hukam karhfge ada. guru ke sag rdhrge sada."-GPs. Britain.

Page 166


6 adj destroyed, perished. "IS thaI te tlihi hOI Patvari, (a recorder of land holdings) and by virtue of his ability rose to be the nawab of ada."-GPs. lalandhar, and died as the subedar of Punjab. ~ [adaIb] A ,-:",'JI plural of~. "brfd His real name was Bahram lang but born on adaIb rakhat h'E."-GPs. Friday (Adina), he came to be called Adina ~ [adahal:ll adj which cannot be burnt, beg. With the aim ofdestroying Ahmad Shah's incombustible, inflammable. "praca<;l amet adahal)."-paras. son, Taimur and his deputy lahan Khan, he »re'CIT [adag] adj spotless, clean, unblemished. allied first with the Sikhs and then with the ~ [adab] See ~. "karat adab adhIk Marathas. Being dishonest, he could not sabhkoe."-GPs. continue his alliance with either of them. He died of colic during Assu of Sammat 1815 ~ [adalat] A ..:;),~ n court. 2 justice. and was buried at Khanpur near lalandhar. ~ [adalti] who holds the court. 2 n a judge, magistrate. According to Prachin Panth Parkash, he conquered lalandhar in Sammat 1813 with ~ [adavat] A ..::.--,I~ n enmity, hostility. "til kare adavat guru nal."-jagnama. the help of Sodhi Vadbhag Singh ofKartarpur ~ [adIsat] Skt ~ adj invisible, unseen. and the Khalsa Dal. The Khalsa disinterred and burnt the body ofNasir Ali who had earlier 2 n the Creator. "sahje adIsatu pachal)iE." consigned to fire the,sacred pillar of Kartarpur. -sri d m 3. 3 fate. 4 fortune, destiny. ~ [adIsatI] the unseen. "cItu adIsatI ~ [adutIy], ~ [aduti] See~. lagai."-ram am 3. ~ [adu] A ,~n an enemy, a rival. »rfuH? [adISatu] See nrfeRz. ~l:f [adukh], ~CfT [adukha] adj without ~ [adIkh] adj without initiation, suffering or distress. 2 guiltless, innocent. 3 sinless. "man rahyo adukha."-GPs. uninitiated by the Guru. 2 invisible. ~ [adIt] See ~. ~ [aduj] adj matchless, unique. l?ffufu' [adItI] n the earth. 2 daughter of Daksh ~ [adul], ~ [aduli] A J-,~ n refusal, and wife of Kashyap who gave birth to the disobedience, negation. 2 opposition, gods. "dItI adItI e rIkhI bari banaI."-VN. antagonism. "hukamaduli gunahI vIcaro." -GPs. 3 mother. 4 a devourer, i.e. death. l?Ifefaljd [adItIsut], ~ [adItIkumar] ~ [adeu] n a demon. 2 adj unable to give, unfit for giving. "deu adeu vasatu jo hoi." the sun. 2 Indar. 3 Vaman. 4 god. ~ [adIti] See l?ffufu'. -NP. ~ [adis], ~ [adikh] invisible. See~. ~ [adea] adj not fit to be given, See »RoT. "adisE."-japu. 2 n one who is not a god, a demon, See~. »ttflo [adin] adj lacking in humility. 2 fearless. ~ fades] adjwithout a country. "aka! purakh ades."-japu. 2 ignoble habitation. 3 See ~. 3 magnanimous. 4 son of the Pandav, Sahdev. [adesa] P n apprehension, concern, l?I'tftoT [adina] P :"J' n Friday. adina means anxiety. 2 envy. 3 misgiving, doubt. "cuke adornment; the Muslims adorn themselves on manhu adesa."-vaQ chat m 5. 4 fear, panic. Friday, so it gets this name. l?Itftor -a-ar [adina beg] son of Channu Arain, a ~ [adekh], »Rfl:f [adekhI] adjinvisible. "jas poor man of Sharakpur, started life as a adekhI tas rakhr brcara."-gau bavan kabir.


Page 167


2 Goddess Kali. According to a story in Markandey Poran, she appeared from the is not given. "nahI adey kachu to te."-NP forehead of Dmga during the formidable ~ [adev] n one who is different from a god; a demon. "mIl dev adevan sidhu mathyo." battle of Saronatbij. "mkli mattha phorkE." -cjc;li 3. -molmi. 2 who has no god to worship, who does not worship any deity. "adI adev hE."-japu. ~ [adrI~t] See nrf't!1:Ic I and 3. ~ [adokh] adj faultless, sinless, blameless. nrfii~ [adrI~tkut] a riddle, the resolution ~ [adag], ~ [adagi] adj unblemished, of which is beyond grasp; a riddle with an untainted. See #err. 2 free from bickering. 3 P enigmatic clue. In Punjabi it is pronounced ...£~ foolish. as drI~tkut. ~ [adaqJ, }fji~ [adaqy] Ski ~ adj not ~ [adrI~Y] Ski ~ adj invisible, unseen, punishable, not liable to be punished. mlssmg. ~ [adabh] adjfree fi'om hypocrisy; unpretentious. l?fftrw [adrIja] n daughter of the Himalay, ~ lady] Ski adv today, now. Parvati. 2 a stream. ~ [adri] See~. 2 adjhonourable, venerable. ~ [adrJ See n~. 3 a man from the hills. ~ [adrasar] n sap of a mountain, secretion of a rock. 2 iron. 3 steel. "kahu adrsara, kahu n$r [adroh] ad)' without ill-will, without bhadr rupa."-akal. 'At some places it is iron enmity; amiable. and gold at other places.' 4 a spring or a ~ [advay], ~3lliT [advItiy], ~ [adVIy] stream, rising from Adri mountain. adj incomparable, unique, matchless. "advIy amar."-gyan. ~ [adrahrnan], ~ [adrrnan] i.:Jl.i.)l~ Abdul Rahman, a devotee ofGuru Nanak Dev. ~R" [adves], }Jf~l:f [advekh] Ski ~R" adj He served thee Guru at Kartarpur and is without enmity. :~ without envy. counted among devout Sikhs. "ek fakir ju ~ [advE] adj unique. See ~. "adI purakh advE."-CJkal. adrahman."-NP nrfii [adrI] Ski n a mountain. 2 a stone. 3 a ~l:f [advEkh] See ~l:f. tree. 4 a cloud. ~3" [advEt] SkI adj unrivalled, unique. 2 n ~ [adns], }~ [adrIsat] See nrfuFIC' I God who is peerless. and~. "dekhI adrIsat rahau bIsmadi." ~~ [advEtvad] SkI ~, the principle holding that there is nothing except God who -sor ill 1. "bItharyo adrIsat jIh karam jar." -CJkal. 2 See lltRRc 3. is the cause as well as the creator of the world. ~ [adrIsar] n sap ofa mountain, secrletion })ftr [adh] SkI 3Rl: adj half. "adh ser magau of a rock. See f~. 2 iron. 3 a fountain of dale."-sor kCJbir. 2 SkI 31m:[ part below, under. 3 See nl1:r. water that springs from a mountain. ~ [adrIsuta] n daughter of the mountain, })ftr ~ [adh uradh] adv under and above. Parvati. 2 stream. 3 Ganga. 2 n the earth and the sky. 3 nether and celestial nrfii lj3"'"g oft H ;3Olnfr [adrI sutahu ki jo tania] worlds. 4 heaven and hell. "kHat paIa adh goddess Kaushaki, daughter of Parvati. 1 urdhi."-gau a ill 1. Iwfu eN~ll£:Itlf'lI: wI'c<n ~:~ I ~ [adhsili] adj semi cultured, partly well behaved. "adhsiH treta aIa."-cJc;li 3. ~ ~ mit ~ r\T1:R\ I I-durga sapat sati a 5.

nreur [adey] n not worthy of being given; what

Page 168


[ddhdh] See »f[l 2. [ddhdk] See ~. ~ [ddhkar] Sec ~. »rtIiitt [ddhki] adj additional, excessive. "ddhki trIsna vIapE kam."-gdu d m 1. »Jl:lO [ddhdn] adjwithout wealth; poor. "ddhdn dhdni ho jat."-sdloh. ~ [ddhnetra] See ~ and ~. l?f'Ql./'fu" [ddhpdtI] SkI ~ 11 the master, a king. "jyo ddhpdtI Ik po~m? tdjkE."-NP }) [ddhpadh] half the journey, half the distance. 2 According to the Hindu custom, it is the mid point between the home and the cremation ground where the hearse is placed and the oblation is performed. 3 S nf<:n..fq adv resuming the travel then. ~tft [ddhpadhi] adjwho travels half the way to the destination; who cannot complete the journey. "ddhpadhe hE sasaro va."-va<;f alah1J.iii m 1. ~ [adhbhut] See ~. ))fllH [ddhdm] adj mean, low, base, wicked, vile. ~ [ddhmdi] n meanness, impiety, baseness, depravity. ))fllH thPm [ddhdm caQali] This hymn of Guru' Arjan Dev is in the Asa Rag. (l) ddhdm caQaIi bhdi brahmdDi sudi te srestai re, (2) patali akasi sdkhni lahbdr bujhi khai re, (3) ghdr ki bIlai aVdr sIkhai musa dekhI Qdrai re, (4) aj kE VdSI gun kino kehan kukdr tInhI lagai re, (5) bajhu thunia chdpra thamIa nighna ghdru pan re, (6) bmu jdfie IE jdfIO jdfava theva dCdrdju laIa re, (7) dadi dad I TId pdhucdnhara cupi nIrnau paIa re,


(8) malI duliCE bEthi Ie mIrtdku nm dIkhaIdnu dhaI re, (9) soi djaDu bhE mE jana jandDharu nd chana re.-asa m 5. It means: The murderous and pain-giving tendency has turned into divine knowledge. The servile has changed into nobility i.e. spiritual strength has come within grasp. See JIRe and JI~. 2 The fire of desire that was not satiated by eating up the underworld and t~e starry world has got extinguished. See~. 3 Tile house cat has been taught in such a way that it is now frightened of the mouse. 4 The Guru has placed the tiger (pride) under the control of the goat (humility) and the dog now eats grass instead of carrion. 5 The thatched roof of the body is held firm without props. What roamed astray without rest has found a home deep within. 6 Without (an) insetter flaunting his acumen, the devotees have got within their own conscience, and inset there a wonderful gem (of spiritual knowledge). 7 The supplicant, failing to get justice through appeal raised with a hue and cry, succeeded in his mission through silence i.e. through deep understanding. 8 Man's corpse man (lacking self-knowledge) sits on the throne, but his visual ostentation (false pretension) has disappeared. He has cultivated contempt for it. 9 An ignoramus alone claims that he knows, but the (real) knower cannot remain unknown. })f[I}/3T [ddhdmta], ~ [ddhdmtv], ~ [ddhmai] 11 lowliness, meanness, depravity, falsehood, inferiority. "ndhI chuti adhmai." =-sor m 9. "kdhdU kdha. dpni adhmai."-to<;fi


Page 169


[adhmadham] adj lower than the lowly, the lowest, most ignoble, heinous sinning, wicked. ~ [adhyan] Skt ~ n study, learning, perusal. »rQ-o. »Imf [adhar] Skt adj which cannot be grasped or adopted. 2 n the nether region; hell. "adhr;} dhar;} dharal)ah."-sahas m 5. 'adopter of the earth and the nether region.' See l')fl:Rf mf ~. 3 the lower lip. 4 a lip. 5 a constellation. "hukme dharI adhar rahav£."-sukhmani. 6 the vagina, pudendum. 7 S adj baseless, without support, helpless. ~ [adharal)] adj not worth adopting; unworthy of adoption. "adharCll) dharl);:l pCltItau dhClrl);:l.'''-gyan. ~ [adharam] n irreligion, sin, depravity, unworthy of adoption. 2 sans words such as, sublime, etc. "namClst;:l CldhClrm;:l."-japu. »n:I'01frtt [adharmai] n irreligiousn~~ss. 2 absence of religion. })fmll-ft [Cldharmi] Skt 31tffif~, n an irreligious person, a sinner, a wicked person. })jQafcitrilcl l [adharvIchoha] See ~ l?ffiqra- (b) ~3" [adhramnt] n sweetness of lip, pleasure of kissing. "Cldhar tnya ko cat kahIt adhramnt payo."-caritr 81. ~ [adhria] n a base, support. "nam sahIb ko pran adhria."-g;m m 5. 2 adjwho provides support. ~ [adhr;:lg] ;;>rrf 1?far half limb; a disease that disables half the body. Lr"GfTUf1'3", ~~ hemiplegia. It is a disease of the muscles caused by stupor, brain-carbuncle, gas formation in the stomach, epilepsy, syphilis, etc. Its attack on the left side is more dangerous because the heart is on this side. Its treatment should start early because cure is difficult after two months. Hemp seeds ground and lnixed with honey, or fresh ginger

mixed with honey are beneficial for the patient. Powder of rock salt, roots of long pepper, gourd, ginger and raysan, taken in equal quantity should b(~ ground and taken 6 masas daily in the gravy of horse beans, is a standard treatment of hemoplegia. The use of the gum of Anniysis comiphora is also very effective. Take sap of leaves of calatropis procara, azedarach, drumstick, vitesnegundo, castor in an equal measure. Boil them in oil equalling the total weight ofall these ingredients. When all the sap is burnt, clean the remaining oil and put it in a bottle. Rubbing this on the body of the patient is quite useful. Rubbing with tiger or bear fat is indeed efficacious. A patient of hemiplegia should not be given glutinous di,et as it produces gas in the body. Instead meat and gravy of gram are useful. l'>fmf mf ll'QFcJ [adhra dhara dharCll)ah]-sahas m 5. See »Imf. 2 assuming form to give support to one lacking it. ~ [adhvaddh] adj two equal halves; two parts or pieces. ~ [Cldhro] Dg half. "adhro sigh adhro mal)as."-bano. 'half man half-lion'; Nar Singh >'>ftr" [Cldha] See }?fer. 2 Skt part then. 3 and. 4 but. 5 therefore, hence. ~ [adhak] 3R<fu::cr adj half a letter. 2 See

[adhakhar], J~ [adhakhyar] %feR adj half letter. "braham gIani ka kathIa na ja I adhakhyar."-sukhmani. »fQTi') [adhan] Skt })fIrqr(') n trust money, deposit for safe custody. 2: pregnancy, conception. })fQl}f [adham] who has no habitation, homeless. "nClmClsta Cldhama."-japu.

Page 170


[adhar] Skt »f'"Q1'O n support, prop, succour. 2 a vessel, pot, utensil. })fl:Rft [adhari] Skt~ adjwho gives support. 2 n a beggar's bag, lap. 3 a female ascetic; a T-shaped stand wooden support on which holy men rest their arms during meditation. 4 food. "sabhna der adhari."-to<;ii m 5. »rfq [adhr] Skt prep used to form words denoting higher status as ~ (officer), »rfutrfu (lord, king), ~ (God), and l?fftrar,:r (monarch), etc. 1?Ifu>,rT [adhra], ~ [adhrau], n-rf'qwfu [adhrar] See~. ~ [adhratam] Skt ~ . n soul. 2 mind. 3 nature. 4 body. 5 knowledge of the self. l'>Ifun!t3H C«JH [adhratam karam] Skt ~ "i'filf n actions relating to spiritualism. 2 means for attaining spiritual knowledge. "adhratam karam kare ta saca."-gaua m 1. 3 actions in accord with one's nature,1 wi lied actions. "adhratam karam je kare namu na kab-hi par."-sri m 3. ~ [adhratmi] adj concerning spiritualism. "adhratmi harrgul) tasu manr jap-hr eku murarr."-sri m 3. ))jfQA2 1d l [adhrstata], ~ [adhrsthata] Skt ~ n a manager, an organizer, a chief. ~ [adhr~than] Skt n a place for living, a town. 2 a house, home. 3 support, prop. ~ [adhrk] adj plentiful. "adhrk suad rag adhrkai."-mala m 1. 2 remainder, residue. 3 n gemination mark in Punjabi in the shape of the new moon denoting double consonant. 4 a literary figure of meaning wherein the supporter is magnified more than the support provided. "jahf adhey te adhrk adhar." -garab gJjni. "rom rom vrcc rakkhron

kar brahmaq karor sumara."-BG Here the quality ofa hair is magnified more than of the universe. ~ [adhrkta] excess, abundance. ~ [adhrkaral)] Skt n basis, support. 2 a context. 3 a title, heading. 4 locative case in grammar. ~ [adhrkai] See »rf1::ror3'r. "tanr manr satr hor adhrkai."-kaii am 4. 2 adj desirous of worldly objects, greedy. "mara ke jo adhrkai, vrc mara paCE pacijE."-kali am 4. 3 having long life; long-living. "markaqe te ko adhrkai, jrnr trrl) dharr muq balae." -dhana namdev. 4 too much. "trrsna jalhr adhrkai."-bher m 3. ~ [adhrkar] n a rank, status. 2 a right. 3 competence. "atar bal adhrkar."-sava m 1. 'concerning the competence of the army.' 4 authority. ~ [adhrkari] Skt~,n one who has the right or a title. 2 a rank holder. 3 an owner, a master. ~ [adhrkrrt] Skt ~ adj occupied, under possession. 2 n an officer. ~ [adhrdev] n a deity. 2 a household god. 3 an adorable god. ~ [adhrdev] adjwhat happens suddenly. 2 concerning a god. ~ [adhrp], ~ [adhrpatr] n a master, an owner. 2 a chief, chieftain. 3 a king. ~3" [adhrbhut] n the immanent God to whom all living beings owe their dependence. ~ [adhrbhutak], ~ [adhrbh:>tak] See }}l'fQ; foO(. »Ifl::ra'er [adhrrath] See ~. ~ [adhrrajl n a powerful king, an emperor; a monarch ruling over a vast empire. ~ [adhrvasan] Skt n the act of residing in another's house. 2 residence. 3 consecration of god in an image.

Page 171

~ [adhIve~an] SkI n


a rally. 2 a session. l)fiTa' [adher], ~ [adhera], »filg [adheru] n 3 an assembly, a congregation. darkness. gloom. "sakatI adher jevri bhram »!tit [adhi] adj half. 2 »r (without) tit (intellect), cuka."-gau kabir. "bharam adhera lahi."-dev foolish. "tudh bhav£ adhi parvaI)."-dllcwa m m 5. "agIan adheru cukaIa."-var guj 1 m 3. ntitw [adhela] n quarter of a pice; half a dhela. 1. 3 n half a damri, the smallest coin. l')f1fur [adhi~] SkI n an owner, a master. 2 a king. ~ [adhm] See ~. })fit [adho] See 1~. })ftfB" [adhit] adj studied, considered. })ftI'to [adhin] adj subject, subordinate. nriioTfu" [adhogatI] n fall, decline, downfall, 2 subdued. 3 humble, free from vanity. "ajya retrogression. adhin tate param pavItr bhai."-BGK. I 'A goat »fitaft [adhogi] SkI l?fllOT n one On the road; a ()){RT) being humble became holy.' traveller, passenger. "bhajl£ guru ~ [adhinta] n subjection, dependence. gyanadhjgi."-BG 'Pray to and serve the 2 humility. Guru who leads to knowledge.' »ttfur [adhir] adj impatient, restless. ~ [adhomu] short form of~. See»npf I. ~ [adhiraj] SkI ~. n impatience, ~lilf [adhomukh] adj hanging with head uneasiness, petulance. downward; prostrate. 2 upside down. ~ [adhira] in poetry, a middle-aged heroine ~oT [adhori] adj who supports or helps. who petulantly disapproves of the hero's "sukhdate prabhu pran adhori."-gau m 5. conduct of making love to another woman. ~ [adhorna] vto unstitch, unsew, separate. »rg [adhu] adj half. "adhu gula CIri ka l?fllo [adh::m] »rcf-HO half a maund, twenty cugaI).u."-var mala m 1. seers. ~ [adhuna] advnow, at this time, these days. ~ [;:Jdh;}dh;:Jr] adj half the body, body in l'>f'lJW [adhula], [adhuli] adj blind. two parts. "sudar sIgh adh;}dh;:Jr kE."-knsan. 2 ignorant. "durmatI adhuli kar."-bas~t a m })ftfo [adMn] adj unfortunate, unfelicitious, unblessed. 1. "netr phun adhul£."-bllE'T m 1. l1f1JlW [adhua] adj half. "bIlam na adhua rai." l)j'q [;:Jddh] See »ItT. 2 SkI 31~, n a journey, passage. 3 a path. "sanaddh baddh addh -guj am 1. l)ftJ"3" [adhut] SkI n one who remains unafraid; hv£."-kalki. ~ [addhaI).], llJfr:ro [addh;:Jn] n half a maund, a fearless on<~. "adhut h£."-japu. twenty seers, two weights (often seers each). ~ [adhum] adj smokeless. 2 noiseless. ~ [adhura] adj partially complete, ~ [;:Jdhy;:Jst] SkI adjfalse, illusory; a thing incomplete. thought to be at a place but in reality there may be nothing at all; for example silver in })fit [adhe] SkI 31U: part below, under. 2 SkI 31WT adj not held by anyone, without support. an oyster shell. ~ [adhyak~] SkI n one who keeps an eye "adhe h£."-japu ~ [adhea] See })fIit1:;r. on every thing around, master, owner. 2 an officer. 3 a headman. >nito [adhen] See~. ~ [adhey] See~. "ahI adheyjhutholakh »n:r.iI"liIi' [adhy-y;:Jn] SkI n recitation of the t£se."-NP Guru's words as uttered by him; that is, a IS ee Bhai Gurdas, Var 23, pauri 13. study, a reading.


Page 172


[<3dhyv<3say] Skt n enthusiasm, ~ [<3dhv<3r] Skt n such an oblatory ritual in courage. 2 confidence. 3 fondness, desire. which violence and sacrifice do not figure and ))j"Q':iITR' [<3dhyas] Skt n a thought. 2 false no killing of the animal takes place. knowledge. 3 imagining the quality of one 2 uninterrupted oblation. See ~. thing in another. 4 a seat. 5 a posture. l'>I'lfdl!!' [adhvrayu] Skt 3T~ n Yajurved. 2 a »jQ:I!'ij'ij [<3dhyahar] Skt n a thought. 2 a Brahman who performs oblation by reciting verses from Yajurved. talk. 3 (missing) words added during explication of a text. "Ih j<3g mE ram nam ))j7) [an] Skt ~ vr to go, be competent, take so t<3U n<3hl sunIO kan."-jeja m 9. 'In this away. 2 part indicating the negative aspect by prefixing the main word. 3 Jo> adj other, God's name (great essence of which) you another, different. "lobhi an kau sevde."-sri have not lent an ear to' the words added in m 3. "sagar bud nahi an hera."-brla m 5. 4 n brackets are <3dhyahar. Similarly in the line. "k<3rI k<3rI harIo <3nIk b<3hu bhati."corn, grain. "latu madha!).ia angah."-var asa. gau m 5. 'got tired of various (efforts)', 5 a suffix clarifying the idea of the principal verb. "rakhe rakh<3!).har apI ubarI<3nu."I-var the added word is an <3dhyahar to complete the sense of the line. guj m 5. 6 ))j7) is also used in place of l?iO. ~ [<3dhyat<3m] See ~. See »IOfuo and l?iO. ~ [<3dhyat<3mgyan] Skt n knowledge l')fOFIO [ansan] Skt ))j7)-))jF,fO adj who does not eat, or who undergoes fast. "<3cV<3hD <3S<3n kI spiritual or divine. raha ansana?"-NP. ))j"Q':IIT3}f ~ [<3dhyat<3m ramay<3!).] n the Ramayan, which contains the story of Ram l'fi'iR"lJ [ansadhu] an evil person, See i.ttr 2. for imparting spiritual knowledge.Gulab 'lffi'i'ljl')fT [ansua] See ~. Singh, a learned scholar of the Nirmala sect ~ [ansuta] n a barren woman, not capable of bearing a child. translated it from Brahmand Pural} in Sammat l'>Ii'i'lJlII' [ansuy], ~ [ansuyak] adjfree from 1839. l')ftI':IIT3}/T [<3dhyatma] Skt n transcendent God. »i1JW (jealousy), unenvious. "ansuY<3k $ubh man nahI manr."-GPs. ~ [<3dhyap<3k] Skt n a teacher, an ~ [ansuya] daughter of Daksh and wife educator. of rishi Atri. According to the Ramayan, she ~ [<3dhyapIka] Skt a lady teacher, a lived on Chitrakut mountain with her husband. mistress. She was saintly and given to meditation and })ft:r.JllII' [<3dhyay] Skt n a part of a book, chapter. therefore possessed several spiritual powers. ~ [<3dhyarop] Skt n fabrication. When Sita along with her husbant.: came to 2 assigning the action of one to another, for example, taking the behaviour of maya see her, Ansuya gave her a magical paste for rubbing over her body which would keep her (illusion) as the act of God. 3 climbing, ever youthful. "b<3ri an <3nsuya narI."-datt. ascending. 2 freedom from jealousy and envy. ~ [<3dhr<3v], »jtJ~ [<3dhruv] Skt ~ adj not stationary, unstable, volati Ie. 2 transient, lffi'iJfl:f [<3ns;}kh] adj innumerable, countless. "ans;}kh achuhanI sag dala."-datt. See Hl:f. impermanent, perishable. "S<3bh <3dhrav QIthe I In Gurbani, it changes into '»10'. jiu ta carank<3mal cItu laIa."-suhi chat m 5.

Page 173




Skt adj indestructible,

everlasting. [anhat] Skt l?fc'i""(J"3" adj un struck; without a bruise. "dan vaj-hI anhat vaje ram."-vaQ chat m 5. See})fi:')(J3' mR'. '))fi'i'U3' mR' [anhat ~abad], »fO(J3' ~ [anhat nad] Skt ~ ~l n the sound that is produced without striking at anything. According to the Yog, the yogis hear it when they reach the transcendental stage of meditation, dasam dvar or the ultimate spiritual stage. "prathme bhramargOjar sakhdhunI dutIy kahijjE, tntIy bajE mIrdag caturath-hI tal sunIjjf, pacam ghata nael kha~t biDadhun:c hoi, saptam bajE bhen a~tama dOdabhI joi, navmE garaj samudr ki da~am megh ghokhhI gunE, kahI sOdaI' anhat~abad ko das prakar jogi sunE."-sOdarvr1as. 2 In Gurmat, it stands for transcedental music that is not audible to the ears. The devotees experience it during meditation. "anhata sabad bajat bheri."-sohrla. 3 The revelation of the Divine that dawns upon a spiritually awakened person. ~ [anhad] Sel~ »fO(J3'. "anhad baDi paiE tah haumE hOI bInas."-sri m 1. 2 adj unlimited, beyond measure. "anhad rup anahdt bani." -akaI. 3 n a gaD metre, also named akra, aDka, anubhav, ~a~;Ivaelna, caQrasa and madhurdhunI. It has four lines, each line has III, ISS arrangeme:nt. Example: satjug ayo, sabh sunpayo, munI man bhayo, gunI gan gayo.-kalki. l)fi'lueHSe [anhadsabad] l)ji'lcle(')ie [anhadnad], l)j(')ue~N;l [anhaclbaDi] See »fO(J3'~. "anhad
'The antonym of l)f;'i'<!3" is striking something.

which arises out of

sabael baj-hI darbare."-bl1t:r m 5. "anhad dhuni dan vajde." -sri m 5. "anhad baDi sabad vajae."-gau a m 3. lffi'ifu3' [anhIt] n against one's interest; evil, damage, disadvantage, opposition. ~ [anhoni] adj what cannot happen; impossible. "efta taki kijiE jo anhoni hoI."-s m9. ~ ~cmhovan] adjimpossible. "hovankaura anhovan mitha."-brla m 5. (that is) 'Death is bitter but sweet is life.' 2 n non-existence, absence. })fi"iq [anak] Skt adj low, mean. 2 Skt many. 3 Skt ))fT(')Cf n a small kettle drum. "anak tur bheri paDav."-CClrItr 1. 4 A jl n happiness. 5 adjjoyful, pleasing. })fi"iq fi::fur [anak sIgh] See ~ fRur. l)fi'lClief~t1 [anakduelbhIj] son ofAnakdundubhi (Vasudev), Krishandev.-sClnama. ~t&;:r sMf(,)f1Ii1di'liGlCl ~ [anakdOdbhIj balabhnIjaearnayak satr] n Anakdundubhi's son, Krishan, whose darling was Jamna; born of Jamna Was the grass that the deer grazed; the deer's master was the lion; whose foe was the gun.-SClnama. ~~ [anakdudbhi] See ~~. ~ [ankap] Skt~n one who drinks with more than one limb, i.e. with trunk and mouth; an elephant.-sClnama. ~ [ankapni], l)f'()C(1.ft [ankapi] n an army of elephants.-sClnama. See~. ~ [ankapyarI] n the enemy of an elephant, the lion . -sClnama. ~~ [ankapyan nadanI] n an army roaming like the lion, the enemy ofelephants, having its roar.-SClnama. 2 gun, musket. ~ [anakrib] A -:-c.? advnearly, roughly, about (in time). 2 in the near future. l)fi'jC:{l' lanka] a gal) metre of four lines, also named ~a~I, whose each line is organized as

Page 174



corn that is threshed. "latu madhaI).ia Example: angah."-var asa. prabhu hE; aju hE; ajE hE; abE hE.-ramav. l'>fOaii:r [angadh] adj odourless. 2 without any 2 See~. 3 See~. trace. 3 n a foul smell, stench. "angadh jare ~ [ankar], ~ [ankae] SkI ~ n maM kug anla."-gyan. one who is bodiless; desire, lust; Cupid. lffi"jUf [anagh] adj without 'l?fUf (sin); sinless. 2 blameless, unblemished. "ankae ratpa! vat duheli ram."-bIha chat m 5. 2 })fc').if-~! why (or for what) another; why })fOllI;f [anghar] adjunhewn, See~. 2 badly any other. hewn, unshapely, mis-shaped. 3 uneducated, ~ [anakad], ~ [anakadI] adj the uncultured, vulgar. origin of many; root of all. "ankadI sarupa ~ [ancar] SkI ~ n loose character; immorality. amIt bIbhuta."-gyan.. l')fOQl}f [ankam] adjwithout desire. 2 Skl»iQCXTH ~ [ancari] SkI 3FfRrrft;:r~ adj licentious, fulfiller of desire. "sarab ke ankam."-akal. reprobate, profligate. "ancari ka dhan."-sava ~ [ankal] adj timeless; akal; God that m3. never dies. ~ [ancet] adj without feeling, insentient. 2 advall of a sudden, sudden Iy. "jaI lagi han ~lr [ankObh] See »@lr. "tab kObh Jr ankObh an; dal rukyo ram ki tyag kan."-ramav. ko ancet."-krIsan. ~ [ankapa] See ~. ~ [anchIjj] adj indestructible, imperishable. "anchIjj tej udar."-akal. ~ [anak~ar] SkI adjwho has no knowledge of letters; uneducated, illiterate. l'>I"i'i'N"O [anjan] adj ignorant, without knowl')f01:f [anakh] See »f<!l:f. "man ankhaI su kupledge, foolish, illiterate. hi ghanere."-GPs. 2 who has no nails, without ~ [anjanat] adv ignorantly. "anjanat talons. bIkhIa mahI racE."-sukhmani. ~ [ankhag] See »fQl:for. ~ [anjev] adj unconquerable. "Im kapat ~ [anakkhar] See~. dev anjev nrIp, jadIn jhatak dE dhaI hE." ))f'OOI' [anag] See l'>fior. 2 who is not ?lor -pards. 2 which cannot be ffi.!o (eaten); (stationary); moving, living. 3 transitory. inedible. 4 volatile. ~ [anjhajh] adj sans ~ (trembling), unshivering, steady. "anjhajh gat."-japu. See ))f'OOI'O [ angan], »I7iCll'f'o3" [an ganIt] a dj countless, innumerable. ~~. ~ [angarua] adj lacking in sense of ))fOG [anat], ~ [anatt] n ~. a lie, falsehonour, mean. 2 })f('fur-'§"iIT charming, attractive, hood. 2 injustice. 3 adj who does not back having graceful features. "angarua akhara."- out. 4 immutable, permanent. ''<matt mala namdev. sukkhla."-gyan. 'lasting comfort.' l')('i'i(JS" [angar] adjunorganized, unforged, self[angith] adj unseen, unobserved. existent. 2 n the Creator. »I7iif~ [angag] SkI ~ not liable to l'>I'OcJI'I'U [;mgah] adj which cannot be organised; punishment, unpunishable. boundless, very grim. 2 n a thrashing frame 'lffi'i3' [anat] SkI adj which is not 03' (bent), unbending, without humility. 2 SkI ~ which is dragged around in a circle over the

one yagaI). (ISS).


Page 175



aradhe arag andai."-sor m 5. 2See~. 3 a non-giver. l)f(')fuo [andln], })rOf'€Q [andlnu] Skt l')fQfuo advevery day, always, continuously. "andlno mohr ahi plasa."--sohIla. andlnu sahsa kade nacukE."-bIha var m 3. ~ [anadu] See >:~. "anadu karE sasI sasr samar£."-asa m 5. ~ [andnsat] adj invisible, unseen. })j(')F~RF<:: [andrISajI] Skt the deluge; ultimate destruction of the universe. "avanu javan drr satI andrr satI."-sukhmani. »iOQ'd" [andhar] Skt))j('jTQT6" adj without a base, groundless. "andhar pramath."-datt. 2 })j'(')"m5. mr which cannot be caught; ungraspable, ~ [anatbhaI] adv in numerous ways. irresistible. "Ih bhat nfd andhar subhat." -paras. "raja ram maulIa anatbhaI."-ba$Jt kabir. })j(')FQa,Jj [anadhlkari] Skt ~,adjwho ~ [anatar] Skt ~ adj one of the two, is not entitled or empowered; undeserving, the second, the other one. 2 Skt adj at another place, somewhere else. 3 Skt~ afterwards, incapable, unfit. 2~ dismissed, demoted. hereafter. 4 »i'"r.i:iI"-"32 another tree. "cadna ~ [anadhya]1 Skt . ~ n time not subasu jasu sImraf anatar."-savEye m 3 ke. prescribed for studying. In Hinduism, study is prohibited on thee first, eighth and fourteenth })j(,)3FaGl' [antarIya], ~ [antariya] adj lunar dates and on moonless and full moon who does not know swimming. "antarIya jya days; 1 ";madhya jo vldya parE so vadi jag sfdhu ko cahrt taran."-cJQi 1. l)fi')3T [anata] See})f03". "anata dhan dhan mahI."-GPS. dabla."-suhi chJt m 4. })j'(')'(')' [anan] Skt n life. 2 movement, dynamism. 3 breath. 4 See l')f?5o"Jf. })j(')'W [an-tha] See ~. })f'(')"t!" [anad] Skt n pleasure, joy, happiness. })f(')'(')l.(d' [ananpClr] Skt ~ adj devoted or attached to only one; a monotheist. "gran Clru "anad sukh magal bane."-bIla m 5. 2 felicity. dhyan ananpar."--savEye m 4. 3 See~. ~ [anadmul] adj the origin or causle of ~ [anany] Skt adj not related to »i7iJl" (other); devoted only to one. 2 engrossed in happiness. "anadmul dhralO purkhotamu." only one subject, devoted only to one type of -bIla m 4. thinking. ~ [anadrup] adjwhose forte is happiness. lffi'i'Qlif [ananvay] Skt unrelated;'a literary figure "anadrup pragatlo sabh thanI."-ram m 5. })j(')eifea [andaTk] adj who does not give. of meaning, wherein there is none to be compared with the one defined; a simile to "andaIk tlh putr na pIt ko badh klyO." IMany other days and times arealso added to them when -carItr 266. 2 the provider of f~od. study is prohibited. See manusImrrti. Ch. 4, S 102 to 121. ~ [andai] n ecstasy, joy, pleasure. "han endless. "pasrlo ap hOI anat tarag." -sukhmani. See t.I~. 3 Skt~ adv somewhere else. "kahI nanak ab nahI anat gatI."-toQi m 9. 4 Skt »rfo:g::;r adj transitory, destructible. "anata dhan dh;m)i dhare ,mat na cahla jar; anat kau cahan jo gae se ae anat gavaI."--gau m 1. 'puts perishable wealth under the earth, but does not desire the endless one (God); those who pursued wealth have come to lose that eternal One (God).' 5 someone else. "sImran brna anat nahI kaju."-NP I':l:":lr:r.lftr:n,. ft ::I })j(,)3dddl' [anat taraga], })j(')33ddn [anat taragi] adj having infinite waves; sea, ocean. 2 n the Creator, God. "asa pural.). anat tar~ga."-bIla

Page 176


reveal uniqueness where something is Vahguru. "anbhau bhau na darSE."-ram compared with itself. "jaM karat upmey ko ravdas. upmeyE upman."-~rvraj. bl1U~,m. ~ [anbhay] adj f~arless. ~ [anbhav] See~. 2 adjsans~(birth); Example: "kahI ravIdas akath katha bahu kaI karijE? which is not born. ~ [anbha] short form for~. the other jEsa tu tEsa tuhi, kIa upma dijE?"-brla. thought. "nas hOI anbha bhIdE."-GV 10. "bhale amardas gu!). tere teri upma tuhI 'Ideas gathered in the other way came to banIavE."-saveye m 3 ke. naught.' ~ [anparh] Skt l'){l.f<) adj one who does not ~ [anbhIg], »tOfuot:ir [anbhIgy] Skt ~ know how to read; unlettered. adj not knowing, ignorant. ~ [anapaIni], ~ [anapavani] Skt 3T;or~;or, adj imperishable, constant, firm. ~ [anbhIj] adjnottrusting. 2 unrelenting, not pleased. 3 ascetic, alone; detached. "anpavni bhagatI na upji."-sar parmanad. ~ [anpeksh] See }')fc')ilcr 2. ~ [anbhut] adj not of material elements. })('i')"l}l:f [anpekh] adj unseen, invisible. 2 Skt 2See~.· ~ [anbhev] See~. "te jan hE anbhev." ~ desireless, indifferent. -braham. ~ [anphur] adj without will or resolve, ~ [anbhE], ~ [anbh:J] See ~, ~ quiet. 2 n falsehood, untruth. and ~. "karta hOI su anbhE rahE."-bher ~ [anbIkat] Skt~ adjwhose name and fonn have not been revealed. 2 »fQ-~ ravdas. 2 ~-!m other fear. "anbhE VIsre free from illusion. 3 n the Creator, God. namI samaIa."-gau m 1. 'With the Divine imbibed, vanishes the other fear.' "anbIkat rag."-datt. »rofil'q [anbIddh] Skt ~ adjwhich cannot l')fi')}fc') [anm,m], l')f('))-IOT [anm,ma] adj attached to other than the One; fickle-minded. 2 sad, be pierced, unbreakable. 2 whose limbs have melancholy. "sunkE sIkh anman hVE ae." not been perforated. -GPs. ~ [anbol] adj silent, soundless. ~ [anbolat] adjwithout speaking. "anbolat ~ [anmarag] Skt~ n wrong or false path. 2 ~-HTOOT the other route. meri bIrtha jani."-sar m 5. ~ [anmIkh] Skt~ adjwithout blink~ [anbra!).] Skt~ adjnot split, unpierced, ing, with constant stare. 2 n a fish. 3 The god undivided. "anbra!). anat."-japu. who does not blink. 4 Bhai Santokh Singh ~ [anbhau] adj fearless. "anbhau padu has also used anmIkh for time. "tIh anmIkh paVE ap gavae."-maru solhe m 1. 2 n the Creator, God. "anbhau kInE na dekhIa, mukh bhai arunta."-NP 'Then the face got ruddy, is a transform of blink.' bEragiare."-maru kabir. 3 Skt l'lfQ~, n knowledge gained without any guidance. })(('j')-ftw [anmila] adj not aligned. See l'>fff3' "anbhau prakas. "-japu. 'is self-evident ~. knowledge.' 4 ))f('jJf-!m, fear of the other. ~ [anmekh] See ~. "anbhau bIsangae prabhu jaCIa."-sar am 1. ~ [anmev] adj nnfur immeasurable. 2 unlimited, boundless. "nanki sunat harkhat ~ ~ [anbhau bhau] Skt ~ ~ n the ,mmev'Jg."-NP light of self-knowledge. 2 the Creator,

Page 177


acquired. 3 violence, oppression. "kan kan precious. anarath vIhajhi maIa."-asa. m 5. 4 part in 2 expensive. ~ [anmacJl adj undecorated. 2 See l~. vain, futile. })fi')liI" [anay] Skt n against Olif (justice) injus~ [anrau] Skt })fQoraT n love, affection, tice. "samas manfd prakas nay, tam anay amorous attachment. "nanak kE manI nasae."~GPs. 'Light ofjustice equals that of Ihu anrau."-sukhmani. 2 ~ echo, reverthe sun.' 2 inauspicious. beration. lffi'iQ [anal'] n an impotent person. 2 a coward, ~ [anrag] See })fQoraT. 2 without love, timid person. bereft of love. See ~ 2. ))f('ffi)1 [anras] adj nf('i":if-QR other taste. "anras ~ [anraga], ~ [anragi] adj ~ CUkE harIras manI vasae."-majh a m 3. lover. "gurmukhI so anraga."-sor m 1. 2 insipid, tasteless. "hoI' anras sabh bisre." "suratI sDnI anragi."-gau kabir. "nIjghan -anadu. 3 renouncer of taste. "dehrasii vallo bastau pavanu anragi."-srdhgosatr. 2 ))fO anras hoe hEn."-bhagtavli. 4 n antagonism, (without) orar (love), stoical. "sabh mahI vaSE discord, hostility. 5 a literary defect inhering atit anragi."-bllEr m 3. conflicting qualities; poets have defined five ~ [;:mradha] Skt ~ adj unrestrained, categories of anras: "pratynik niras vIras headstrong. "jan bIcrE anradha."-sri beni. keshav duhsadhan patradu$t kabbIt bahu 2See~. karhf na sukavI bakhan."-rasrk prrya. ~ [anrukat] See ~. (a) pretynIk is mixing of lovt':, power, pity ~'Q" [anruddhl See ~'Q". and horror. (b) niras is expressing love ~ [anrup] adjill-formed, ugly. "rup anrup hypocritically. (c) VIras is writing about mora kachu na bicano."-to<;li m 5. 2 Skt~ copulation amidst sorrow. (d) mixing up of adj similar, resembling, like. "dharanI me friendship and hostility is duhsadhan. saIII jEse kup anrup] kE bImal jal chae hE." (e) writing contrary to the context is patradu$t. -BGK. 3 proper, suitable. "jo anrupIO thakur 6 Some poets have mentioned the savour of merE hOI rahi uh bat."-guj m 5. 4 concordant. quiescent peace as an anras. In their opinion 5 other or different form. quiescence spoils poetics; they thelrefore ~ [anal] Skt 3F1C1 n what never gets satiated; a fire. "audh anal tanu tIn ko madaru."-gau uphold only eight rasas in poetic literature. kabir. 2 representing the numeral three 7 Skt })fQQR a mixture of two savours. See l?fT('jQH. because three fires are recognised. See f3'o ~. [anargal] Skt 3FP("ff adj without ~. 3 Skt )~~ source of life; wind, air. restraint, unrestrained, free. "anal agam j£se lahan maIO dadhI."-sor ~ [anrat] adj without love, loveless, sad. ravdas. 'Waves come into being on account 2 nf('i":if-"ij3" who loves someone else. 3 Skt ~ of strong wind rising above the ocean.' 4 Skt n a lie, an untruth. "ahamat anrat kumIt 3Tfffi;r a bird also called analpak$, supposed hIt."-kan m 5. "matva madya kunara always to stay in the sky. Its eggs ripen in the anrata."- kalki. sky during their fall to the earth, and the poults ~ [anarath] Skt 3Ff~ n a wrong meaning, 'Traditional scholars use this term for 'expressing' as contrary implication. 2 wealth sinfully well.

~ [anmol] Skt~ adjpriceless,

Page 178


begin flying in the air without ever touching tab re dharam ki as karE." the earth. "anal akas pachi c;lolbo karat hE." -asa kabir. -akai. See ~ and IfW. "jab ghar madan agI lagani, kac;lhI kup kac;lhE pamhare." ~ [an~lhakk] A J7\tl I am God. "analhakk bolyo vIkhIata."-NP. The followers of -natam 4. Vedant philosophy, who like the Sufi saints ~ [anavady] Skt adjfree from ~ (defect), appreciable, admirable, praiseworthy. consider themselves Brahma, make this utterance, See RHF.r ~. "ajar amar anavady abhekha."-NP. ~ [analpak~], ~ [analpachi] See ~ [anvar] A .ii' adj illuminating, shining, }o)f('ffi 4. very bright. 2 Skt l?fO-~, not inferior, ~ [analvau] n fire-like air, scorching supenor. wind. 2 a hot suffocating, sand laden wind of ~ }:flO [anvar xan] a ranked holder in the army of the chief Mukhlas Khan. He fought the desert ofArabia, Africa etc. which causes many to parch to death and others to get against Guru Hargobind during the battle of stranded. A (Y. "anal vau bharam bhulai." Amritsar. -maru solhe m 3. 3 fire without life-sustaining »1()~adOil() [anvartyan] See »1 FmaF3('). oxygen in which man cannot remain alive; »1()~If3<!i [anvauJ)a] v to make available, send for. "anvayo ham ne tIS bhat."-GPS. carbon dioxide. "atar lobh bharam analvau, diva balE na sOjhi paI."-asa m 3. 2 »f""q~<!T to get something or someone ~ [analu] fire. See}o)f('ffi. "muktE gun analu washed or bathed. "rup sidhu anvae."-paras. bujhaIa."-ram kabir. ~ [anvaIa] adj called for, sent for. ~ [anavastha] Skt ~ : n lack of 2 ~ got bathed, helped in having a bath. firmness in thought and speech. 2 a blemish ~ [anvan] A t.:JIY' a title, heading. 2 a beginning. 3 a preface, foreword. of speech wherein the device does not lead to a conclusion, as in. "je ko bujhE hOVE sacIaru; ~ [anvar] A .i1}1 plural ofga-, light, flashes. dhavlE upan keta bharu? dharti horu parE ~ [anvraJ)]. See~. horu horu; tIS te bharu talE kavaJ)u joru?"-japu. »1OTH' [anas] adj hopeless, undesired. "anasa »1()~Hfafa [anavasthItI] Skt »1MfFSfa n udasi."-datt. 2 indestructible. "namo namo anas ko." 3 Skt without '(')TW (nose), noseless. vacillation, unsteadiness. 2 lack of support. 3 instability of mind even after meditation. ~ [anasauc] See ~. ))f'()TH('j [anasan] adj without a seat or position. 4See~. ~ [anavsar] a literary figure describing 2 Skt YifOF.fO food. the execution of action at the wrong time, lffi'i'fi:Rr [anasIr] A /l1' plural of~. the five rendering it useless. elements: earth, air, water, fire and ether. "f(')Tlltr [anas:>c] Skt »1"F.ttf n uncleanliness, Example: impurity. "anas:>c nama mahii sur soh€." "suke sarvan palI badhavE, IUJ)e khet hathvan karE. -paras. ))f(')T(]'d" [anahat], ~ [anahatI], ~ [anaaIO cor turat-hI lEgaIo, hatu] adj not wounded, unhurt. 2 indestructimeri rakhat mugadh phIrE. jIhva bacan sudh nahi nIksE, ble, deathless. "adI anil anadI anahatI."

Page 179


ghakke ghol, ghuki ghal; chuHE bal)., UtthE -jdPU. 3 n one who has not been killed; the jval.-ramav. Creator, the transcendent One. "jotI sarup 6 Skt adjwithout 'O"'e' (sound), soundless. 7 A anahat lagi, kahlJ halal kIa kia."-prabha kdbir. J!;Y enmity, hostility. 4 According to Amarkosh it is a piece ofcloth that has not been beaten in washing by the ~ [anadatt] n lack of charity, parsimony, miserliness. "Itf datt dhayo anadatt utt~." washerman. 5 See ~ m:rt!". -pards. 'From here rushed charity, from there ~ [anahar], ~ [anahari] Skt 3fl1~ came miserliness.' adj without food, fasting. ~ [anadar] n disrespect, insult, dishonour. l')f('j'T(JfT [anaga], »fi'i'TOft [anagi] adv without missing a day or time, regularly, continuously. l)f'O'Tfe' [anadI] Skt adj sans beginning ever"dan deu anagi s~ghar raccIa."-c5c;li 3. 2 adj existent. "adi ani! anadI anahat."-jCJpu. 2 victuals, proviisions. "anal anadI kiau." unprecedented. ~ [anacar] See ~. -sdveye m 4 ke. "dh~n anadI bhukhe kaval tahkev."-g5c;l kdbir. "devhf sabhan anadI." })fOlR [anaj], l?IOTjj [anaju] n foodgrain, corn, cereals, See »f<'iTe". "anaju magau sat si ka." -NP »f('j1}f [anam] Skt 3F1Tl1rf~ adj nameless. "anam -dhdna dh5na. hr."-japu. "jag nam sah~s anam aho."-NP »f<"i'3' [anat] Skt 1:f'3" adj bathed; who has taken 2 Skt l?f?iT}flif" without l'lfTlfliI" (disease), healthy. a bath. 2 sends for, obtains. 3 something "tan anam man anad hr."-NP 3 See WH. fetched. l)f(")T)flif" [anamay] adj having no disease, »f<'iT3}f [anatam] Skt 3AT('1i adj soulless, inert. 2 n five elements which are different· from . healthy. "akhIlanamay krrpa tumari."-GPs. the soul. 3 without conscience. "~g hin abhag ))fOll-fT [anama], 1?l"?;rf}fo(r [anamIka] Skt finger next to the little finger which is sinful to name anatam."-japu. lffi'iTEI" [anath] adj unprotected. 2 indigent, because it was wiith this finger that Shiv had cut Brahma's head. At the time ofan oblation, destitute, orphan. n1o'aclo'a [anathahnath] ~ [anathnath] a ring ofgrass is worn on it so that its impurity goes away. "nIj anamIka te su bagai."-GPS. adjmaster ofall orphans. "anathahnath daIal 'took the ring from Anamika and threw it sukhsagar."-sar m 5. 2 n God who is the away.' master of the orphans. "patlt udharan ))f'O"l'}ft [anami] adj nameless. 2 l?f?iT}flif" without anathnath."-gdu thrti m 5. n1o'a'MliI [anathalay] n a house for the disease. "karhu avar ko kEsanami."-NP 3 prize-winning, fit for the award. homeless, an orphanage. »f<'iTe' [;mad] Skt 3rnJG n God who accepts all. »f<'i'W [anam£] See: l?f?iT}flif". 2 adj who eats corn or cooked food. 3 corn, ))fO'Itifl'J1 [anayas] adv without })f1'lif"Il1 (effort), effortlessly. "anayas sabh hi banjaI."-GPs. grain, etc. 4 rootless, without a beginning. 5 n a four lined van;tIk stanza, also called l?fOTl!ftJ [anayudh] Skt adj unarmed, without vapi, organised as 555, 155, 5, I, with pauses weapons. l1I'O'Q [anar] adj wiithout ~ (neck), neckless. after every fourth varal). (character): Example: 2 P .Jel n a pomegranate, L punica granatum. A sweet pomegranate heals thirst and sickness calle bal)., rukkE gEl).; matte sur, ratte nEl)..

Page 180


of throat, strengthens semen and is constipative. Seedless pomegranates of Kandhar are the best. Its sour type is used in preparing sauces and condiments. Its rind called 'naspal' is used in several medicines. })j(')iae'<!' [anardal).a] n dried seeds of pomegranate used in sauces and condiments. ))j"(')Tij1jf [anaray] Skt n non-Aryan. 2 a clumsy fellow, a naive person. 3 an uncultured fellow; a rustic. ~ [analka] adjnot a companion. "khaQIa bharam anal ka."~maru solhem 5. 2 without sloth. ~ [analobh] n absence of greed, contentment. ~ [analab] adjwithout a support or a stay. "analab lakh sis jhukava."-GPs. ~ [anavan] v to bathe, to have bath. "jal nrkas pun srkkh anav£."-GPs. 2 n bringing or fetching. ~ [anavarat] adj without ~ (circling or turning) i.e. not rotating, not turning back, not revolving. "anavarat bira maha varat dhara."-paras. 2 Skt 3F1T'td" not covered, uncovered, open. ~ [anavrI:?tr] n absence of rain, drought. 1')fi'ir;ft [anariJ adj who does not know how to feel or;ft (pulse), who is an incompetent physician. 2 Skt })fO-~foolish,unintelligent. "asat anari kade na bujh£."-gau m 3. })jfo [anr] See »ifu". 2 Skt l?fi').if adj other. "anr na upav karha."-asa m 5. 'not to make any deliberate effort.' 3 army. "hau me anr sru larr mar£."-bavan. ~ [anrau], ~ [anrar] Skt l?f?iJITtif n inequity, injustice. "ta karie je anrar ko marta."-bher m 5. See l?f?iJITtif. ~ [anrai] See ~. ~ [auras] Skt))jOTljJTFf adv without effort, effortlessly. 2 without)).fltilTFf (hard work).


[anrara], ~ [anraro] adjpointed. 2 not different, ordinary. 3 n the crescent moon that has two sharp points on the second day. "bhal brrajat he anraro."-carItr 1. ~ [anr:?t] Skt adj not dear; against desire. 2 n a loss, harm, an evil omen. ~ [anrk] adjnot one; many, several. "anrk bhog brkhra ke kare."-sukhmcmi. 2 Skt ~ n gold. "anrk katak jese bhulpare."-sor ravdas. 3 A ~ travel, journey. 4 an attack, a charge. "karI karI harIo anrk bahu bhati choQ-hr kat-hu nahl."-gau m 5. 'After launching several attacks on lust, I have met with defeat.' l'>Ifocs [anrkat] ~ adv in many ways, of many kinds. "khoj asakha anrkat patha."-dev m 5. 2 n plurality, multiplicity. ~ [anrkdha] adv~ vr in many ways, by several means. ~ [anrkmukhi] adjmulti-faced, having several months. 2 n Sheshnag, a thousandhooded cobra. 3 Shiv, with five-faces. 4 Ravan, ten-headed. 5 Brahma, four-faced. 6 Kartikeya, six-faced. })jfoaddR [anrkragi] n the Creator, who enacts a multifarious play; the universal form. l?ffoar [anrg] adj many. 2 n limbless, Kamdev, god of love, Cupid. "sudar anrg bhau karat phrrat."-sar m 5. })jfOdli3'~ [anrgbhau] many moods. 2 ~ the idea of love, See gtral. ~ [anrcch] adj sans desire. ~ [anrcchrt] Skt ~ adj undesired, unwanted. ~ [anrt], »!f&r [anft], ~ [anrtu], ~ [anrty] adj not perpetual; transitory, momentary. "anrt bruhar acar brdhr hinat." -kan m 5. 2 not fixed, unappointed. "anft he."-japu. l:Iff?f'€' [anfd] n opposite of fC'f€T; praise,


Page 181


appreciation. "taj kam krodh anfd nfda."
-asa chJt m 5. 'Forsake lust, rage, praise and vilification.' 2 Skt ~ adj not fit to be

vilified; praiiseworthy. "jo an,fd nfd kan ChOQIO."-gu; m 5. ~ [anm], »rf7\'o [anfn] Skt })f<'j(')Jf adj not attached to anyone; worshipping One only. "das anfn mero nIjrup."-sar namdev. See

[amp] n chiefof»!fo(anny); commander. [anIbaddh] Skt m~ adj untied, unbound. 2 n a musical instrument without a metallic or fibre strand tied to different tunesetters. ))ffoft..n:r [anImIkh], »ffoHl::f [anImekh] Skt ~ adjwithout blinking; staring. 2 n a fish. 3 god; it is mentioned in the Purans like Bhagvat that gods do not blink. ~ [amm;~Q] adj adornment of the army, military decoration. ~ [anIyat] Skt adj unconfirmed, uncertain. 2 ephemeral. 3 transitory. ~ [anIyara] See ~. nd7rnl::f [anIrakh] adjpriceless. 2 which cannot be seen or observed. "anIrakh sab uccro." -brdhdm. ~ [anIrat] Skt ~ n different from truth; falsehood, untruth. ))jf(,)d'iltlo1 [annvacni], ))jf()d'iltlo1G1 [anIrvacniy] Skt 31f.'1cfi!;:f)£1 adj inexpressible, bt:yond expression. "lakh-hu anIrvacni Ihu yiHe." -GPs. 2 n God. ~ [anIrukat] Skt~adjwhichcan't be uttered; unspeakable. ))ff()g"tJ [anIruddh] Skt ~ adj who cannot be stopped; unrestrainable. 2 n grandson of Lord Krishan, son of Pradyuman born to Rukmi's daughter, and father of Vajar. Ban's daughter, Ukha, fell in love with Aniruddh and with the help of her shrewd


friend Chitarlekha, she brought him to her father's town Shonitpur. When Ban heard of this, he sent many warriors to capture Aniruddh but he killed them all. At last Ban somehow imprisoned Aniruddh. At this Krishan, Balram and Pradyuman went to get him released. A fierce battle took place. Ban was a devotee of Shiv whom he called for help. Shiv and Sakand sided with Ban. Lord Krishan wounded Shiv and Sakand was wounded by Garur and Pradyuman. At last on Shiv's request Krishan released Ban, and Aniruddh along with Usha came to their home at Dvarka. "sag layo anIruddh ko."-krrsdn. See ~. 3 a rope to tie animals with. 4 an emissary, envoy. 5 Shiv. ~ [anII] nair. "anII bera hau kheVI na sakau."-bdsJt namdev. 2 gout, paralysis. 3 See

~}fTd' [amlkumar] n son of the Wind;

Hanuman. 2 Bhimsen. ~ [amlbhuk] Skt n a serpent which lives on air. 2 adjwho consumes air to remain alive. ))jf(,)'ildfd() [amvartm] Skt 31f."Qfcf;=r, adj who does not turn back, impetuous. "anIvartIn nIvaratkE."-carrtr 137. 'pushing back the impetuous ones.' })fO't [ani] n a point, pointed end. 2 army. See l'>ffe. "kE kE bal sDbh ki hani ani."-cJQi I. ~ [anialaJI adj pointed. "ram bhagatI aniale tir."-gdU kdbir. See l'>ffe. ~ ranis] ad} who has no 'tlF.r (master); orphan. 2 chief of the army; commander-inchief. 3 soul separated from its Creator. ))jo1I(!doe ' €'l [anif,'Irvarvadi] Skt 31"11\1'1 {ClI~i. adj atheist. ))f'('fur [anih] Skt adj without desire, uncaring. ~ [anik] Skt n army. 2 a battle, war. 3 a battlefield. ~ [anikni],'~[amkmi] Skt3foftfcl:;rfT

Page 182


a blue lotus, lily. 2 an army composed of 2,187 chariots, 2,187 elephants, 6,561 horses and 10,935 foot soldiers. 3 army. "bIcal bIthar Ese bhajgi anikni."-c.3Qi J. lffi'fur [anit] Skt ~ adj not perpetual; for a brief period. 2 injustice. See~. 3 fetched. See ~. 4 some other place. See ~. lffi'i'lfu [anitI] 11 absence of m; injustice. 2 adj~ not always, for a few days. "jalI dhow: bahu dehI anitI."-sukhm;mi. ~ [anite] Skt~ advat some other place. 2 in evil and falsehood. "gavhI gite CitI anite... bIn naVE manI jhuth anite.."-asa am J. 'Reciting hymns, the mind wanders to other places, and is deprived of the Divine.' 3 See

characters, making a total of 32 characters. The fifth and sixth characters of each quarterunits are laghu and guru respectively. The seventh character of the fourth quarter-unit must also be laghu. This poetic form is often used in Sanskrit compositions. It is also called a ~alok. In Sanskrit books there are many metres but while counting, only a stanza of 32 words is taken as a ~alok. Example:
~~ Irl ~ "I q ",s~/lCfl,\


[amraI ji] See l?iit wfu. ~ [anil], ~ [anilu] adj white, bright. 2 without form or colour. "adI anilu anadI anahatI."-japu. 3 beyond count i.e. countless, boundless, uncountable. 4 See ~. })fQ [anu] 11 »io corn, cereals. "anu dhanu bahuta upjE."-sava m 3. 2 Skt prep when added to words, it carries the sense ofafter, equal, with, each, repeatedly, etc. as in ~(following, succeeding)})fQ'fuo(daily), ~(resembling) etc. 3 See~. ~ [anuar] See ~. ~ [anusaraJ::l] 11 the act of pursuing, conforming. 2 imitation. ))fQF.IlFIO [anu~asan] Skt 11 an order. 2 an advice, a precept. 3 thirteenth chapter of Mahabharat. ))fQRTa' [anusar] Skt adj according to. 2 like, resembling. ~ [anusari] adj following. 2 conforming. })fQlJ3' [anusut] adj diffused, pervasive, See ~. "nIj anusut sabhIn me dekhE."-GPS. ~l.f [anu~tup], ~ [anu~tubh] 11 a varJ::lIk stanza of two lines, each with sixteen characters, that is, four quarter-units of eight


'" -'-guru nanak satotr ratnakar. kijE man na bhulkE, vIdya rup dhanadI ko, dharo prem su~ilta gurumat dharo CIt. l'>fQJi!T(') [anu~than] Skt 11 commencement of work. 2 recitation of magical incantations in accordance with the prescribed procedure. 3 the idea of performing religious deeds. ~ [anu~an] Skt ~ adj not hot; cold. ~ [anusyut] Skt adj sewn, stitched. 2 all. pervasIve. })fQ1fQ [;musvar] Skt 11 a vowel pronounced in conjunction with some nasal symbol like bfdi and tIppi. It nasalizes the vowel as in sat mahat, jatu, tatr etc. ~ [anuhar] See ~ and ~. "karhf knty nar anuhar hoi."-GPS. ~ [anuharaJ::l] Skt 11 copying, imitation. ~ [anuhar] adj similar, equal. "sanmukh devi ke gayo salabh dip anuhar."-c.3Qi J. 211 a form, shape. 3 resemblance. })fQCE [anukat] Skt~ adjunsaid, unspoken. "anukat prabha hE."-japu. ~ [anukaraJ::l] Skt 11 an imitation. 2 an act performed in conformity with another. 3 pursuit ofa law-suit. 4 a word formed with sound as its basis, onomatopoeia as tSl-r,

~ ~~:

tlJnfcHi2R $:



tiT tiT.

[anukul] Skt adjwho helps a drowning

Page 183


person like a shore or the bank (kul); a helper. .2 conforming. 3 benefactor. 4 who gives support. ~ [anukulta] n conformity, concord, See
~. ~

[anukula] n a varr;lIk metre also known as m:lktlkamala. It has four lines, each line being organised as: 511,551,111,5,5 with pauses at the fifth character and the sixth character thereafter. Example: :;;ri guru sevo, janam sudharo, kamaru h:lmE, man nalu dharo, alas t'lago, knat kamao, -var asa. hVE upkari, jag sukh pao. manas janam amol hE, hOI amol sadhusag pae. l'>IQi5l'trr [anuk~ipa] Skt ~ n the act oftrem-BG bling on account of another's distress; pity, ~ [anugya] Skt~n an order, a command. kindness. "mujh par nlj anukapa dharhu." 2 a figure of speech involving a description -NP. of one finding virtue in a matter popularly considered bad. ~or [anukapma] adj abode of kindness; compassion, beneficence. "sun :;;r:lnan bEna Example: anukapma bani bhani rasal."-NP. bhali suhavi chapri jamhI gun gae, ... ~ [anukt] See })f'QiE. anadu garibi sadh sagI jltu prabhu CIt ae, . pisanu piSI oqln kamri sukh manu satokhae, . ~ [anuktnlmltta] See ~~. (c) ~ [anukram] Skt n succession, order. nagan phIrat ragI ek k£ ohu sobha pae. ~ [anukramr:lIka] Skt n a serial list -suhi m 5. or table of contents, index. jetak kanan ke dukh hE, ))fQl:i'or [anukhag] Skt ))fQHor n compassion, sabh se sukh kE tan pE anumano.-ramav. beneficence. 2 connection, bond. 3 the process bhai laddhe kah'lo suno premi mere gurubhai! of bringing words from one line to another as kal ham ramdaspuri vlkhe javege, in Guru Amardas's compositions in order to kala mukh kaTIcE sayar hOI gadhe par, complete the sense. "cahu jug mahI amrItu satta balvaq ko gunah bax$avege. saci ba!)i, sIdh sadhlk tars-hI sabh 10I; purE ))fQOJU [anugrah], »fQ'CJ]'fu [anugrahI], '»fQd.@' bhagI parapatI hOI."-dhana m 3. Here the [anugrahu] Skt ~ n kindness, mercy. "bharo word amrIt of the first line has to be brought anugrahu prasadr sata!) k£."-sor m 5. into the third line too, in order to complete })fQW [anucar] Skt n a follower. 2 a servant, the meaning of that line. This is anu:;;ag. an attendant. })fQOT [anug] Skt adj'»fQ (behind) or (moving), ~ [anucdr!)i] n an army, that has a follower. 2 a servant, footman, dep,endent. collection of servants.-sanama. 2 adj "anug apne ko abhEdan dati."-chakke. following one's commander.

[anugani] Skt army, which is composed of followers and servants.-sanama. ))fQarrHt [anugami] Skt 311,"llTfli;:r, a follower. 2 an employee, a servant, slave. ~ [anugu!)] a figure of speech in which the company enhances the merit of the companion. Example: sadho! Ih man gahlo na jai, cacaX trIsna sag basat hE, 'late tlur nil rahai.-gau m 9. baIIhari guru ap!)e dluhari sadvar, jlnI maJt:las te devte kie karat na lagi var.


Page 184

~ [anuclt] Skt adjimproper, unbecoming.

[anuj] Skt n younger brother. "jivat anuj nam tlh lalu."-NP. 2 born later. "rahu anuj adI pad dijE." 'wood got from a tree, and a gun or musket made from it.' l)f'Q"W [anuja] Skt n younger sister, born later. l1I{f'3lf [anuttam] Skt adj not good. 2 having none better than itself, the best. ~ [anudatt] Skt~ adj l'>fO-~inferior, of no consequence, worthless. 2 low tone, abated voice. ~ [anudln] Skt adv each day, daily, always. »16 i'lifHa [anunaslk] Skt adj nasal sounds D, ]1,1)., n,m. ~ [anunad] Skt n an echo, a resonance, reverberation. ~ [anupasthrtI] Skt n absence. ~ [anup pattI] Skt n tactlessness, irrationality, deviousness. 2 impropriety. 3 inability. 4 non-achievement. ))f'Q1m [anupam] Skt adj matchless, incomparable. ~ [anuplabadhI] Skt 3T1,~ n nonachievement, non-attainment. 2 knowledge of non-existence, for example, to know that a horse is not an elephant, is in fact nonknowing. ~ [anupan] Skt n something gulped to take medicine, as water with a tablet. 2 water, etc. taken after food. ~ [anupar] short form for »fQ1-IH. »IQ~ [anupari] adj possessing matchless beauty. bfQ1f'J1 [anupras] a figure of speech, drawing its chann from the sameness ofsound in words, is called alliteration or assonance. This is also called padmEtri and vara1). mEtri. Scholar have recognized five types ofanupras: chek, vrrttr, ~rutr, lat and aty.

(a) When a sound repeatedly appears in the middle or beginning of words, it is called chekanupras. Examples: gavE ko vldya vlkham vicaru.-jCJpu. kUCIl karupI kunarr kulakhni prrka sahaju na janla.-sar ill 1. chatrdhari chatripatr chElrup chltrnath, chonikar chayabar chatripatI gaiE.-gyan. parampurakh parmesur svami pavan paun ahari-hazare 10. chalrupi chEli sada chaki rahrt chltI mahr achal chalat chltI patIn ko chali km te jahf ? -CCJrltr 70. (b) If the same sound appears repeatedly at the end of words in the same line or stanza, it is called vrrtyanupras: Example: darsan parsan sarsan harsan ragI ragi kartari re.-asa ill 5. namu dhlai sada sakhai sahaj subhai govfda, gd1).It mltai cuki dhai kade na vlapE mancfda. -asa chat ill 5. nam kam blhin pekhat dham hu nahr jahr. -japU. kahu devtan ke dIvan me vrrajman, kahu danvan ko gumanmatI det ho.-CJkal. kahu ko tanEya hE na mEya jake bhEya kou, choni hu ke chEya choQ kas6 pritI laiE.-gyan. (c) Sounds articulated at the same place (dental, labial part of body) appearing in the same line constitute ~rutyanupras. Example: trthE ghariE sura srdha ki sudhr.-jCJpu. In this line t, th, s, dh, are all dental. (d) The same words carrying different meanings according to their position in a line they figure in, form latanupras. Example: gavE ko tal)u hOVE kISE tal)u.-jCJpu.

Page 185


(5) InsamvIkhmaty anupras, the first line The meaning of this verse depends on rhymes with the second and the third with the where the pausI;: is placed in the text, that is, fourth. whether the pause precedes the :first taJ)U or Example: follows it. In the sentence "jao mat thahrro gun gan udar, Iha." the sense conveyed depends Ulpon whether the pause is after jao or after melt. In mahIma apar, the :first case it will be 'go, do not stop here' asan abhag, but in the second case it will be 'do not go, upma cmag.-japu. stop here.' (6) Where the last words of all the lines (e) The :fifth type of anupras is what rhyme are of different quantities, and none of them is in English. Here it is named atyanupras. rhymes, it is bhfntukaty anupras. Poets have imagined six forms of this rhyme. Example: (1) In sarvaty cmupras the last syllablle of kItO kal bityo bhae ramraja, each line rhylm:s. sabE ~atru jite maha juddhmali, Example: phrryo chakr carD dI~a maddh rama, amIt tej jag jotI prakasi, bhayo nam tate maha cakrvarti. adI ached abhE aVInasi, -ramav. param tatt parmarth vIkasi, ~ [anubadh] Ski ~ n relation, connection, adI sarup akhaQ udasi-gyan. contact, affinity..2 the contents of the texts (2) samaty vIkhmaty anupms is where which relate to the reader as title, subject, odd and even lines rhyme: relation and purpose. "Im carD anubadh ko Example: gyan rIde jab ho]c."-GPs. gUl). mud magal mul, ~ [anubhav] Skt n knowledge evolved sabh karay ko sIdh karat; without formal instruction or education. avgul). gaho na bhul, 2 cognizable knowledge. 3 knowledge not sukh sapatI ko jo harat. indefinite. 4 a four-lined gal).Ik metre also (3) In samaty anupras, even lines rhyme known as akra, al).1<a, anhad, ~a~Ivadna, c;'}Qrdsa but not the odd ones. and madhur-dhun:r. It is arranged as III, ISS. Example: Example: :rdran fdr, anhCld bajje, dhUnT ghan lajje, balan bal, ghal).hal). ghor~l, jal).u bal). mora.-surCJj. rakan rak, ~ [anubhav] Skt n an effect. 2 a brief kalan kal.-japu. revelation of pleasure through the gestures of (4) In VIkharnaty anupras, odd lines rhyme eyes and eyebrows. but not the even ones. ~ [anubhut] Skt adj felt; known through Example: practical experience. 2 tested. 3 known. salahi salahI, })f'Q'Hf3" [anumatI] Skt n an agreement, a coneti suratI na paia, sensus. 2 a permission. 3 according to Vishnu nadia atE Yah, Puran, daughter of Angira and wife of the moon. pavlu samOdI na jal).iahI.-japu.

Page 186


[;:muman] SkI n an estimate, a conjecture, ~ [ariuvadi] in music, a note that iterates guess, speculation. 2 See ~. the savadi note, as the fifth one in bilaval ~ [;:mumodan] SkI n a confirmation, an measure. See~. 2 adjwho repeats another's approval. 2 expression of satisfaction or utterance. delight. 3 indulgence. "anumodan nadan mat l'>fQ(5T [anutha] adj strange; of a new kind; karE."-GPS. wonderful. ~ [anumatI] SkI ~ adj expressing l'>fQw [anu<;lha] SkI n a maiden; a virgin; a approval or agreement. woman who has not been married yet. ~ [anuyai], ~ [anuyayi] SkI ~ l'lfQ'lf [anup] SkI n a region with a lot of water. adj who follow. 2 servant, attendant. 2 a buffalo. 3 adj unequalled, incomparable, ~ [anurakat] SkI ~ adj immersed in inimitable. "tIthE gharatI ghariE bahutu love; enamoured. 2 dyed in red colour. ;mupu."-japu. 3 beloved. l'lfQ'lf ~ [anup ~ahar] a sub-divisional town in district Bulandshahar of the United ~ [anurau] love. See~. 2 SkI ~ n resonance, a reverberation, an echo. Provinces, 25 miles east of the city. It was founded by Raja Anup Rai during the reign ~ [anurag] Skt n love. affection, attachment. 2 reciprocated love. of emperor Jahangir. Guru Har Rai's fatherin-law, Daya Ram, was a resident of Anup ~ [anuragi] SkI 311,-mn-rr, adj who loves. Shahar. 2 a reciprocator of love. l'>fQtr 'i'RJTH ~ [anup naraj chad] n a poetic ~ [anuradha] SkI n seventeenth of the metre not different from naraj chad because twenty seven lunar mansions. According to this metre has sixteen characters per line Hinduism, travelling or doing charitable deeds orgnaised as 151, 515,151, SIS, 151, 5, in laghu and in this period is auspicious. guru order. In Dasam Granth the term anup ~ [anuru] Skl})fQ2 n charioteer of the sun has been added because of this affiliation. who has no thighs (ur). See~. Example: ~ [anurup] SkI adj resembling, like, congruous. 2 suitable, appropriate. See ~. gaja gaje haya hale halahali halohala, babajj sfdhre sura chutat bal) kevla, ~ [anurodh] SkI n an obstruction, an papakk pakkhre ture bhabhakk ghay mrmala, impediment. 2 obduracy. 3 impulse, impetils. palutth lutth bItthuri amatth jutth utthala. ~}f [anulom] SkI n descent. 2 See ~ -ramav. ~. ~ [anulomaj] SkI See ~ ~. ~ [anupam] See l?fOi-Pf. l'>fQl..f'iil' [anupach] adj ~trH-~, matchless ~ [anuvak] SkI n part of a book, a section, eyes. "sohat anupach."-kalki. a chapter. 2 a sentence formed to express the idea of another. 3 repetition of words uttered ~ [anupan] See »fQl-fT?i. by the teacher. "pa<;lhE anuvak jEse padha so ~ [anupIa] adj unequalled, having matchless excellence. "cakrpal)I darasI pa<;lhavai."-NP anupIa."-maru solhe m 5. ~ [anuvad] SkI n translation. 2 a revision, repetition, an iteration. 3 denigration, >nQY [anupu] See »fQtI'. ~ [anupera] adj possessing matchless vilification.

Page 187


excellence. "rag ;mupen:."-kan m 5. ~ [anuperE] See ~. l?fQ1f [anuru] See »iQ2. ~ lanes] adj »rolor-m army commander. "race car anesa."-d'kji 2. 'appointed four army commanders. ' ~ [aneh] adj without affection, indifferent.

[aneha] adj similar to this. 2 Dg n time, occasIOn. ~ [anek] Skt adj not one, more than one, many, several. "anek upav kari gur karaDI." -suhi CI m 4. ~ [anekta] Skt n plurality, multiplicity, variety, abundance. -nmcrer [anekda] Skt adv many times, often. "anekda nIvavat hE SIS kO."-Clkal. nffiolqr [anekdha] Skt adv in many ways, by various means. ~ [anekap] See Jo)f('i01tf. ~ ~ [anek vakra] See cp:rnr. -nm::r [anet], nffi'3T [aneta] See ~. 2: Skt 31f.n:rd adjwithout certainty. "bahu bIdhI joni phIrat aneta."--maru m 5. 3 irresolutely. "jo krchu kino sou aneta."-sukhmClni. 4 See


nffiw [anera] n darkness, confusion. "dujEbhaI
anera."-majh am 3. our ( ethics), absence ofvirtue. ~ lanEs], ~FJT [anEsa] adj painful. "chatri kharges hVE anESO bol h5 sah6."-krrsCln. 2 ))fc'iTtiJlFf without effort. "par bhai pat phar anEse. "-cJc;fi I. ~ [anEky] Skt n absence of unity, disunity, discord. ~ [anokha] See nr<!cfr. ~ [amcrt] adj improper, inappropriate, inept. "vak anocIt mEju bakhane."-NP nffitr [anoj] adj without fu:r (strength); weak. "jiv anoj jaI jIh jai."-NP 2 See »fQN.
~ [anE] lack of

[anopam], ~ [anopIm] Skt })fQlIH adj unequalled. "parmadI purakh manop Ima."-guf jE:dev. 'param adI purkha anopma.' l'>f7fur [;mag] Skt 3R~ n one who does not have a body, Kamdev (Cupid). There is a story in the Pural)s that once Shiv was troubled by lust (kam), and in anger Mahadev burnt him to ashes. 2 adj bodiless. "ag te hOI anag kIn?" -ramav. 'Why not one to give up the body?' 3 ~ free from pride of the body. "dhanukh dharyo IE bhavan me raja janak anag." -ramcadrrka. 4 n the sky. 5 mind. 6 soul. ~ [anag$ekhar] n a van::uk metre also known as mahanarac. It comprises four lines and each line has thirty two characters, in laghu and guru order, with pauses after every eight characters organised as 151, SIS, 151, SIS, 151, SIS, 151, SIS, 151, SIS,I, S. Example: guru gobfd sfgh ko namo su hath jorkE kU$tru tej tor jiihI palIo hfdan ko, knpalu sis hath dE su kit te bye mngedr fdrcap laj pekh nath ki kaman ko, bhuja bhujagraj si vIraj sis ke$ cad $yamta na hoy to mukharbfd san ko, apar dukh tarkIO nIvarkE kale$ das vas to vIkOth tej puno jahan ko. -CldhyatClm ramaYCll) by bhar gulab sIgh. l)fO"(JJtfT1? [anagpalJ See l'>I?f~ and ~. 2 Balram or Balbhadr who brought up Anang (Pradyuman) (Lord Krishan's eldest son). ~ [anagnpu], ~ lanagan] n enemy of Anang (lust); Shiv, Rudar. })fi'faft [anagi] Skt ~ adj without limbs, bodiless. "anagi aname."-japu. 2 n Cupid. 3 formless; the unmanifest Creator. '))fi'j'::r [anat] adj endless, boundless. "Iksu te hOIO anata."-majh CI m 5. 2 n the Creator. 3 the sky. 4 Sheshnag. 5 Balbhadr, regarded


Page 188


as the incarnation of Shesh and is therefore -guru nandk sdtotr rdtnakdr. known as anat. "anat ke upar kop calayo." 4 There are also in Guru Granth Sahib -krrSdn. 6 an ornament worn on the arm by unrhymed verses which have no rhymed Hindus on the 14 th of the bright half of the endings: lunar month of Bhadon believing it to be the ruro manu harrrago lorE, image of Sheshnag. gali hdrInihu m hor, ))j(,)dHbf' [anat$in;;a] many-headed Sheshnag. hau c;l.huc;l.hedi ddrsdn kard]).I, bithi bithi pekha, 2 one with a stupendous body, God. ))jl'lddJd~ [anat taragi] the ocean. 2 the Creator gurmrlI bhdrdmu gdvaIa he, whose waves are endless. See ))j(,)d3Jd~. 3 a Ih budhr pai mE sadhu kanhu, man in whose mind countless ideas arise. "anat lekhu lIkhIo dhurI mathE. taragi dukh maIa."-gdu m 4. rh bIdhr namk hdrI nE]). dloi.-to<;ii m 5. ~ [anat tuka] a metre of diverse rhymes; 5 See ~ \:T ~ 2. blank verse. This metre has no specific class, ~30 [dnatdr] Skt ~ adv after this, any composition where end-words of two or subsequently. 2 without break, continuously. more lines do not ryhme forms blank verse, ~ [dnata] vocative: 'he dnat.' "jau pE ham nd pap kdrata, dhe dnata."-sri rdvdas. 2 Skt as for example Ramavatar savEya and bhujag 3FRfT n the endless One! 3 the earth. 4 soft prayat are in blank verse. grass, commonly used as fodder, L panicum Example: dectylon. 5 a medicinal creeper, L ros bharyo taj hO$ nIsacar Manispernum glabrum. 6 the only son of sri raghuraj ko ghar prahare, Kakko Vadhal), Khatri, a disciple of Guru jO$ vac;l.o kar kO$II$a Hargobind, who was a grea.t warrior and died adhbic-hI te sar kat utare, fighting in the battle of Amritsar. pher bac;l.o kar ros dIvardan ~~ [anatastr] innumerable weapons. dharpare kapr puj saghare, "dnatastr chutte."-di<;ii 2. pattrs loh-hathi parsa gar IE »rifdT l-f13T [anati mata] daughter of Rama Sill, jabuve jamdarh calavE. a khatri of Vatala in Gurdaspur district and krto kal bityo bhae ramraja. Mata Sukhdevi. She was married to Baba sabE $atru jite maha juddhmali, Guruditta on 21 Vaisakh Sammat 1681. She phrryo cakr caro dI$a maddh rama, gave birth to Baba Dhirmal and Guru Har Rai. bh<lyo nam tate m<lha c<lkrv<lrti. Her shortname was Natti. Many writers have 2 See~. 3 In Sanskrit literature there named her as Nihal Kaur. are many multi-rhymed compositions as rhymed poetry is seldom found there. See the ~ [dnad] Skt ~ n happiness,joy, delight. "mrtIa sog mdha dnad thia."-asa m 5.2 Guru following bhujag prayat and totak stanzas: Amardas's composition in Ramkali measure cgcn-~OO'~~I~~~~I ~rnur~~I~~~~11 which he composed in Sammat 1611 on the '"' , occasion of the birth of Baba Mohri's son. Mohri was the Guru's younger son. 3 Guru 31"l'R~l=ffi'mKfl ~Rm~1 Amar Dev's grandson. He was a man of great ~1jJG:~fcl:Wq&1 m~~ ~II

Page 189


spiritual eminence. Guru Hargobind sent a special palanquin to bring him to Kiratpur. That palanquin is now at Goindval. 4 In Sikhism marriage ceremony is also called ;mad. "bIna ;mad bIah ke bhugte par ki jOI ... mera SIkh na SOI."-rC)tcmmal. This batJi is also recited on other auspicious occasions, as it was recited at the birth of Guru Hargobind. "gurubal)i sakhi ;mad gavE."-asa m 5. See ~ 4.5 Skt 3T~ adjwithout happiness. ~ [cmad sIgh] an ardent devote:e of Guru Gobind Singh. He was a great spiritual scholar as well as brave fighter. He attained martyrdom at Chamkaur. nrcfuuro [;madghcm] See ~ uro. lffi'f~ [anadpal] son of Raja Jaipal I of Lahore. He died in or about 1013 AD. Historians have also named him Anangpal. ~-eyQ' [anadpur] See llfTit!YQ'. 2: a village under police station Bassi in tehsJil Sirhind of Patiala state. In a low-lying place in the interior of this village, there is a gurdwara dedicated to Guru Teg Bahadur. Because of its low lying area, rain water accumates here. It gets an annual cash grant ofRs. 70 from the state. Its priest is a baptised Sikh. It is 9 miles northeast of Sirhind railway statiOl~. There is a metalled road 5 miles long upto Bassi; beyond that there is a unmetalled four miles path. Village Kalaur is near by. So the two villages collectively are known as Anandpur Kalaur. ~ ~ [anadpur kabr] See ~r 2. ~ [anadmE] ~ abounding in happiness. "ve parvahu anadmE."-asa m 5. ~ ~ [anad vIah] See ~ 4 and J?fTi'i~ 4. ~ [anadi] Ski ~,adj happy, pleased. "var pan purdkh cmadi."-sri chat m 4. ~ [anadu] See~. "dnadu bhaIa sukhu

paIa."-var maru 2 m 5. »It'l?;- [anan] one who does not acknowledge any other person. See)o)f'(')(')jf. "bEsno dnan brdhman saIIgram seva."-BGK. "sIkh dnan paqIt dIkh Ese. grah tIthI var nd janE leEse, ek bharosa prdbhu ka pae, tyag ldgan ardas karae."-GV 6. ~ [ananta] Skt l?fc')(')Jf3T n disbelief in any other relationship; monothism. l'>fi'i'fo [ananI] See l?fi'i'C'M. "hOI ananI ll1anhath ki dnrta."-guj m 5. 'being a monothiest with firmness of mental resolve.' })j(,),fMdl(lJl [dnambhdgduti] adj worshipping only one deity. "koi kahItdu dnanIbhdgduti." -ram C) m 5. 2 );r.~ worship of the only One. ~ [dnabhdu] adjfearless, unafraid. "param dukh nIvar dpar anabhdu."-sc)VE'ye m 5 ke. »fQ tanh] Skt 3TI'(l" n a day. ~ [dnhrata] a feeling that it is hight-time during the day. 2 night-blindness, nyctalopia.


>iIQT [anha] adj blind, without eyesight. »f(JW [dnhana], );~ [anhavan] v to bathe, take a bath. "avadh anhae kaha tIlak ldgae kaha."-hasram. ~~ [cmhera] darkness. See ~. >;fo [ann] Skt 3Fl n food, victuals. 2 corn, grains. 3 God whose energy imparts life to the creatures. 4 the sun. 5 breath. 6 eatables. })fi'):iJ' [dny] Skt ad} other, second. 2 stranger, unfamiliar. 3 different, separate, apart. ~ [anyatr] Skt part at another place, elsewhere. ))fi')jJ8T [anyatha] Skt adj opposite, against. 2 false, illusory. ,3: part otherwise, or. ~ [anyau], ))fO"jj'!'fu- [anyaI], ~ [dnyay] Skt 3-RIT<T n injustice, inequity. 2 an unlawful activity, atrocity. ~ [anyayi] Skt ~~, adj who has

Page 190


recourse to unlawful activity, commits atrocity, goes against justice. ~ [anyoktI] See ~. ~ [anyony] Skt pron mutual. 2 n a literary fi,gure of speech in which two objects are described as mutually interacting with each other. Example: "kObhe badha jalu rahE, jal bmu kObh na hoI." -var asa. "prabhu te janu janijE jan te suami."-sri ravdas. »j('j~('jOiii'ilGi [anyonya$ray] Skt n mutual support; reliance on each other. 2 knowledge of one thing for the sake of another, as knowledge of darkness is essential for understanding light. 3 an inadequacy of conversation, wherein one needs the other for justification. ~ [aurI!).] Skt adjwithout debt, not indebted. ~ [annt] Skt 3P[Cf n lack of fu3' (truth), falsehood. "rar hE annt~."-kalki. 'will speak the untruth.' ~ [anvay] Skt n taking away, carrying. 2 relation, contact, connection. 3 shifting of words for clarifying the meaning, as for example to re-write "bhE bohIth sagar prabhu carI).a."-vaQ chat m 5. as "bhEsagar bohIth prabhu carI).a." or "dIvEya In ke s~g khelat hf' kaVI $yam su dan abhL"-krrsan. as "abhEdan dIvEya In ke s~g khelat hE." and "alekh bhekh dVEkh rekh sekh ko pachanIL" -gyan. Here the initial 'a' is to be carried with all words so as to underline the negative meaning. 4 dynasty, lineage. ~ [anve$a!).] Skt n research, finding, discovery. ~ [anVE] See »fQ1if. 'l,m lap] prep prefixed to words, it gives the meaning ofopposite, against, loss, difference, prohibition, or bad etc. See ~ etc.

2 Skt 31'L(n water. "ap tej baI pnthmi akasa." -gau kabir. 3 pron own, personal. "mul na jaI).E ap bal."-var majh m 1. "katI sIlak dukh maIa kan line ap dase."-var jEt. 'enslaved them.' "apatan ka jo kare bicar."-basatravdas. 'he who thinks of his body.' ~ [apa;)] adj dedicated, presented. 2 See

[apsakun], '»ItIFIOlO [apsagan], ~ [apsagun] Skt ~o. n an evil portent, inauspicious omen. "tau sagan apsagan kaha bican:."-sukhmani. "sagun apsagun tIS kau lag-hI jISU citI na aVL"-asa m 5. People of many religions in all countries believe in the good and the evil portents, those mentioned in the Hindu Scriptures have thus been listed by Bhai Santokh Singh. Bad omens: pharke bhuja vIlocan vamu, SIr vayas l bEthyO dukhdhamu, nIksatI chik bhai dIS dae.... dhunI khoti te bajat nagara, dal par gidh bhram~ti cale. ka$t bhar agari mIle, dinmane baji rudnavE.... calat akaran gIrgIr parE, kItak bhatan pagia par tarE. $IVa 2 pukarat sanmukh avat, mng ki mal kuphere dhavat. darun kak bolte uq,e, ... samukh vayu mngmal kupheri ... khar bolyo mntsucat bhari .. jat IIye mIrtak sabh dna . Im apsagun vIlokat baq,e. Good omens: pharkyo dahIn vIlocan sOdar, bhujad~q, dahIno bdlm~dar, numal dIvas vayu sukhkari,




Page 191



mIli dughatdharl sudar nari, mrIganmal dahIn ko ai, madhur vrh;:igan sabad sunai, mIli jO:;>Ita 2 balak god, huti suhagaI).I sahIt pramod. surbhi3 vatas 4 cughavat thaQhi. catat rIdE pritI bahu baQhi, kag dahni dI$I uQ ava, nakuP daras sabhhIn ne pava.-GPs. As for the Sikhs, such is Bhai Gurdas's dictum. sajja khabba SJI). na man vasaIa... bhakh subhakh VICar na ChIk manna ... ~ [apasrnar] SkI »fl.I1tH1O. n epilepsy, as a result of which memory gets lost. Seei1-reoft. ~ [apsar] Sk/~. n a wrong time; an in-appropriate or late time. "sal' dpsar na pacaI).Ia."-sri beni. 2 lack of leisure. 3 SkI 311ffi\. running. 4 an aquatic animal. ))f1../ffifI' [apsara] SkI ~ n a female emerging from))fl..f (water). According to Ramayan and the Purans, apsras came out when oceans were churned. The Veds contain little about them. They only mention Urvashi, etc. Manu holds that seven manus created them and they were taken as their joint creation. Vayu Puran has an account of 14 of them and Harivansh 7. They mention their two varieties comprising: ten orthodox and thirty four ordinary ones respectively. With their enticement the apsaras would disturb austerities of many holy men. It is written in Kashi chapter that they are 350,000,000 in number but the more prominent among them are only 1,060. In Ramayan their number is given as 60 crore. Only those warriors are rewarded with apsaras
Iwoman carrying two pitchers of water. 'woman.

·calf. 5mongoose.

in heaven who die fighting valiantly in wars. 6 Apsaras possess the ability to change their form; they know how to make moves in chess and conduct exorcist exercises. In Athrav Ved; . several incantations are mentioned which can prevent apsaras from exercising their magical effect. "apsara an;:id m;:igal ras gavni niki." -mala partal m 5. ))(l.ffiTO [apsan] SkI >iI4'IfO n using of water to clean sexual organs beforea bath. 2 bath taken after the cremation or burial ofa dead body. >m.nIt! [apsud] SkI ~LJJft! Sund and Upsund. were real brothers and sons of the demon Nikumbh or Nisund. They had Brahma's blessing that no third person could kill them as long as they did not fight with each other. Tilottama the apsara, was sent from heaven to kill them. Both got enamoured of her and quarrelled between themselves. She told that she would marry the one who was more powerful. Both of them died fighting each other, and Tilottama went back to. heaven. "baQhe sud apsud dVE dEt bhari..." "duhu bhrat badhkE trIya gai brahmpur dhaI."-carrtr 116. ~ [apsos] See ~. "adhIk kin apsos ham."-NP 2 drier or sucker of))fl..f (water), the sun. 3 the wind, air. ~ [apsvarath] n selfishness. ~ [apsvarthi] adj selfish. ~ [apharalJ.] n stealth, theft. 2 snatching, plundering. 3 concealment, hiding. ~ [apkarakh] SkI ~ n insult, disrespect. 2 the act of pulling down. .3 deficiency, loss. l)f1rcRJ}f [apkaram], ))f1.fc51T}f [apkam] SkI ~ n a bad or wrong action. 2 sin. ~ [apkar] n opposite of upkar. 2 evil, harm. 3 wickedness, villainy.
"See para:;;"r srmntr. Ch. 3.

Page 192




~ [apkari] adj who does wrong; who

~ [apatth] SkI »f1.fEIJf n food or conduct that

inflicts harm.
~ [apkiratIl SkI 31~ n infamy,

opprobrium, notoriety. "kab-hu apkiratI mahI aVf.."-sukhillani. ~ [apkhepan] SkI ~ n the act of pulling down; toppling. ~ [apgatI] n going down; a fall, misery. 2 going to hell. 'l)ftfiJIT [apga] n what}o)fl.f (water) merges into; a river, stream. See~. ~ [apear] n an evil or bad behaviour.
~[apehara], ~[apaeehra] See~.

[apaj] SkI n born of water; a lotus. [apjas] or ~ [apjasu] SkI ~ n ignominy, infamy, opprobrium. "apjasu mItE hOVE jagI kiratI."-guj ill 5. l'>flrtIlJ [apjasu] See nn.rr:m. ~ [apI).a]pran own. 2 n a kinsman, relative. ~ [apI).auI).a] v to make one's own, adopt, draw to one's side. ))fl.f3' [apat] adj without honour or respect, disgraced. "apatu pasu manmukhu betala." -illaru solhe ill 1. 2 leafless. "apat karir na mauIiE."-BG 3 See ~. 4 S useless, purposeless. ~ [apatan] See }o)fl.f 3. 2 not in a state of fall, steadiness; firmness. ~ [aptij], ~ [aptiI).a] adj not satisfied or reassured, lacking faith. "aptij patiI).a." -savryeill5 ke. 'was charmed without reposing faith.' "hath nIgrahI aptij na bhijE."-illaru solhe ill 1. 'Faithless mind is obstinate in not stopping to placate the senses.' ~ [apatu] n selfhood, ego, conceit, pride. "kamkrodhlobhmohapatupaedut."-savEye m 3 ke. 2 See l?fl.f3". 3 See ~. ~ [apaty] SkI n an offspring, a progeny. })fl..fEf [apath] n a wrong path, an evil passage. 2 awkward gait.

aggravates sickness. 2 harmful conduct, misconduct. l')flR [apad] n calamity, distress. 2 })f-l.fe", reptiles like snakes etc. which crawl. 3 a condemned place. l')f1.ft!T [apda] calamity. See }){ll.RT. "apda ka marIa grIh te nasta."-prabha a ill 5. nn.rlf'Q't [apdhari] n maternal affection, motherly tenderness. "bInsi apdhari."-brla ill 5. l')ftfi') [apan] See »fT'lI'<!T. "sabh kine basI apan hi."-guj ill 5. ~ [apnIa] owned, adopted. "kina apnaIa."-brla ill 5. ~ [apanp:>] n one's self. "pragat na hot apanp:> goi."-NP 2 owning, possessing. 3 he who blesses; one who utters a blessing. l')ftfi')T [apna] See »fT'lI'<!T. ~ [apnauna] See ~. ~ [apnaIo] See ~ . 2 of the adopted. "rakh laj apnaIO."-toc;ii ill 5. 3 one's own reality. "nahI bujhIO apnaIo."-toc;ii ill 5. ~ [apnaIa] adv made one's own. nn.r'i'i'lft [apnai] n one's own existence. 2 familiarity. 3 made one's own, adopted. "dhanu dharti aru sapatI sagri jo manIO apnai."-sar ill 9. l1{l.f(')TQ [apnakl having made one's own. "rakh lehu apan apnak."-kan ill 4. l?flRIT [apni] pran one's own. 2 SkI ~ n a shop, store. "apni apni pahueyo jaI."-GPs. 'reached his own shop.' 3 SkI }o)fl.f-01 to take far away. 4 to steal, to plunder. ~ [apnidhe] belonging to one's own. 2 presuming one's own. "tum pEj rakh-hu apnidhe."-bas~t ill 4. ~ [apnhutI] SkI ~ n hypocrisy, concealment. 2 an excuse. 3 a figure of speech in

Page 193


cowardly soldier responds to this by hiding which the natural object is kept in the background and truth is established; through the truth. analogy the thing to be compared is made to ~ [apbal] See »ftf 3. 2 n weakness. "bal apbal apno na bIcara."-carrtr 405. look as if it were the original thing. Example: ~F.I" [apbhra~] Skt n fall, falling down. 2 a deformed word with a change in form as ghan ki na garaj hE sIghnad sfghan ko, from ORJ}-f, IDr from tJOH and m-r from I:RI}f, etc. capla ki camak, na aSI da~me~ ko. By concealing the roar of the cloud and the })ftf}fT('j" [apman] n egoism, selfishness. "kInhu flash ofthe lightning, the heroism of the Sikhs pritI lai moh apman. "-asa m 4. 2 Skt and the wonder ofthe Guru's sword are shown disrespect, insult, contempt. as the essential truth. Poets have illustrated ~ [apmani] adjwho has given up the ego; several other functions of this device. humble, without pride. "bES kIsor bIkhE (b) Concealiing the actual subject some apmani."-NP how or under some pretext is kEtvapanhutI. ~ [apmntyu] Skt ~ n unnatural or Example: uncommon death as by snake bite, hanging or lightning etc. 2 untimely death. See ~. "kalgidhar ke bal) mIS kalbyal Q.aslet." (c) Tactfully replacing one thing with ))fl.ftiI" [apay], ~. [apyau] See »!flr€". another is called hetvapanhutI. l')ftfliI"F.f [ap ya~] See »fl.ItIH. Example: ~ [apyat] adj drank. 2 (they) drink. ami nahi surlok me amnt gurugh~n' mahI, })f1.Rf [apar] adj first. 2 later. 3 another, other. 4 different, separate. 5l'>ltRf has also appeared jIh pivat hi martya sabh turat arnar hVEj~ihI. in place of})fl.fl'ij" as in "samajh TId parE apar (d) Rejecting the nature of something and reposing its quality in something else is called maIa."-sor ravrdas. paryastapanhutI. ~ [aparapar] See ~. "so bEsno hE Example: aparapar."-gau m 5. cadan cadu na saI'ad rutI mulI na rnItai gham, ))ftIQFI' [aparas] n one who has taken a vow not sitalu thivE nanka japadro hannam.-var jEt. to touch metals etc. "sompak aparas udIani."-bavan. 2 one who keep himself Here, the poise of the Divine is reiterated by untouched by perversions; one who doesnt concealing the coolness of cadan and such have recourse to evil deeds. "nanak kotI objects. (e) In the event of someone's genuine madhe ko Esa aparas."-sukhmani. 3 Skt ~ doubt, replacing the fact with a false answer adj untouchable. })f1.Rf 'fffior [apar sajog], l'>ltRf Ritor [apar sayog] gives rise to chekapanhutI. n second marriage. "jIS Istri ka bharta kalbas Example: yodha ke nahI mE pIkhyo kabhi pith pE ghau, hOIa hOI, cahie uske pIcche jat sat sil pale, kIte vall CItt Q.ulavE nahi, j:J jane kISi upau katyo ag Ikk sIla te phISal gayo mam pau. rahIt kar rahI nahi sakti, tab jari cori na kare, Seeing a wound inflicted on the back of a apl)i Ink dekhkE apar sajog kare."-prem soldier, if someone asks him the reasons with the remark that a valiant person sustains sumarag. wound in the front not at the back, the ~ [aparca] See ~.


Page 194


unacquaintance. l'>fl.l"fafu3' [aparrcrt] Skt adj unacquainted, unfamiliar. ~ [aprok~], »n.Ricr [aparokh] Skt adj not ~. ~ [aparpar], l?itRfl.ffiT [aparpara], »fl..RJl.@' away from sight; manifest, present, apparent, [aparparu] See ~. "ehu p5j vakhat tere visible. aparpara."-maru solhe m 5. "aparparu manr ~ [apar5par], ~ [apar5paru], ~ gursabadu vasarau."-s~w£yem 4 ke. [aparapar] Skt ~ adj not mutual or })IlN 1ftI:H [apar brahm] n immanent God, the reciprocal, not wishing or desiring help from Deity together with all the properties of anyone. 2 without Iineage or dynasty; who has no need of another's help in creation or nature. 2 the individual soul. ~ [aparma] Skt l?il;fW n untrue perception, perpetuation of dynasty. "aparapar false knowledge, wrong understanding. See parbrahamu parmesaru."-sor m 5. "til adrpurakh aparapar karta ji."-sopurakhu. 1jW. "trrputi me lakh ap ko kahe aparma gyan."-GPs. 3 Skt limitless, boundless. ~ [apvarag] Skt ~ n a high post or })f't.faT [apra] n worldly wisdom; other than position. 2 liberation, emancipation. "gahak divine knowledge; practically useful je apvarag ke."-NP. knowledge. "(f?lTG'U ~ ~~ ~ <:p:jT CR~."-mu£;ikopanI$ad. See ~ [apvad] Skt n indecent language, foul talk. 2 censure. 3 opposition. "pardhan par tRJT. 2 western direction. apvad narr nfda."-sri mukhvak sav£ye m 5. ~ [aprajrt] adj undefeated, uncon4 rejection, negation. 5 a perverse argument, quered. 2 n Guru Gobind Singh. useless controversy. ~ [aprajrta] feminine of ~ ~ [apvadi] Skt ~, adjwho slanders. "aprajrta bhagvati bhima."-GPs. l?fl.RJi3' [aprat] See ~l.Rf3'. 2 Skt ~ n a 2 quarrelsome. 3 foul-tongued. "maha country north ofKonkan, of which the capital brkhadi dusat apvadi."-asa m 5. used to be Sopar, which is now a town in police ~ [apvIt], ~ [apvrtu], ~ [apvrtr] adj impure, unclean, profane. "sat station Thana of Bombay Presidency. ka dokhi sada apvrtu."-sukhmani. "apvrtr l'>Il.«I"tr [apradh] Skt n a sin, fault, an offence, pavItr jInI tu karra."-ram Cl m 5. crime. 2 a mistake, blunder. 3 disobedience, ~ [apvrtrta] n profanity, squalor. "dukh disrespect. })ft.Rf'tft [apradhi] adj who commits a crime, darrd apvrtrata nas-hr nam adhar."-gau thIti m 5. sin or does something wrong. "apradhi ~ [apvit] See~. "nave chIdr apvit." matrhin nrrgun."-asa chat m 5. ~ [aprro], ~ [aprra] v reached, -gau thIti m 5. ~ [aparna] v to reach. "trthe kal na apr£." arrived. » [aparr grah] Skt n the act of not hold ing; -sri a m 5. 2 to be equal, be similar. "aparI kOI na sakai pure satIgur ki vaQIaia."-var giving up, relinquishing, forsaking. sar m 4. 2 asceticism. 3 non-acceptance of charity. ~ [aparrcay] Skt nunfamiliarity, ~ [aprauI).a] v to deliver. "Iakh caurasi

[aparath] See~. ))f1.ffiOT [apama] v to reach, arrive. 2 to be equal to. "takau koi apar na sak£."-kalI m 4. 3 See


Page 195


rljak apI aprae."-majh am 3. })f1.frfu [apaI] Skt ))flf11if n a difference, peculiarity. 2 destruction. 3 depravity. 4 See ~. 5 Skt »rL:tor adj unfit for drinking. 6 not drunk, did not drink. "jo ham te bhaj jaI, tlh mata dudh apaI."-krIsan. 'didn't suckle inother's milk.' ~ [apaIlJ], ~ [apaII).o] n selfhood, one's own personality. "mE chac;lIa sagal apaIl).o."-var maru 2 m 5. ~ [apah] adj without benng effected. 2 detached, unattached. 3 n pride, conceit, egoism. ))ftfl(JN [apahaj] Pkt~ adjcrippled, disabled, limbless, incapacitated. ))f1.fTfu [apahI] See »ftp(J 2. "maI).Iku mohI mau c;lfna dhaI).i apahI."-var maru 2 m 5. })ft.[Tfu;::r [apah r j] See })ftfI(Jff. ~ [apahu] unengrossed, unsu Ilied. See »fl.I'(J. "ape apI apahu."-sor m 4. ~ [apak] adj (that) which is not pious; unholy, polluted, profane.' 2 Skt n rawness, unripeness. 2. indigestion, dyspepsia. 4 wise, intelligent. 5 knowledgeable, well-informed. "~: t[]Cfl:, crl~Fr: 11m:" 'Pious is he who is foolish, unholy is he who is not pious.' "tum ape apI apaki."-dh<ma m 4. l'>IU'Oft [apaki] n unholiness, profanity. 2 See

~ [apatr] ad} sans l.P3"(sub-caste); who does

[apagrah], ~ [apagrahI] »flf-»fTOj(J n false persistense, unwise obduracy, mulishness, obstinacy. »f1J1tft [apaji] not l./'tft See l./'tft. 2 not artificial or bogus; real, genuine. "paji ko apaji lakh til sovIrmayohE."-NP 'taking the false as real.' })ftfT5" [apajh] See })ftfI(Jff. »rtl'3' [apat] adj without leaves. "apata palasi mano phul lage."-GPs. 2 without a fall or decline; infallible, imperishable. "namast5 ajate, namasta apate."-japu.


not belong to any sub-caste or class; classless. "patI mE naavE so apatI kE bulaiE."-gyan. ~ [apatr] ad; unentitled, unofficial. l')ftITEI" [apath] ad/wrong way, false track. 2 dry. "sakuce dal kaj apatha."-GPs. ~ [apadan] Skt n a division, variety. 2 in syntax, ablative case is marked by ~ or H postpositions. »f1lTO [apan] Skt n one of the five vital airs which passes through the anus, See)o)f1..JT('j" '8'1'fu. 2 anus. 3 selfhood, self. "bIsra apan tan." -NP ~ [apanbaI] Skt~ wind that stays in the alimentary canal, vagina, testicle bag, urinary bladder, phallus, etc. It is because of its pressure that the excretary system of the body works and the birth ofan offspring takes place. When this wind is adversely affected by phlegm, catarrh, rheumatism, etc., the excreta.ry system ofthe body cannot function properly, and lit becomes stiff and the back begins to ache: and ills such as piles, stone gall-bladder come to afflict the body. To keep flatulency in good order, regular walk, horse riding, light food and keeping the alimentary canal clean are the best ways. A powdered mixture of white trIvi and sugar, four tolas each and piper longum one tola, taken daily in doses ofhalfa tola each with honey removes the disorder of wind. "praI).baI apanbaI bhan."-carItr 405. ~. [apana] n self, idea of selfhood. "bIsra sabhIn Clpana."-NP ))fl.fTt( [apap], })jfl.lll.IT [apapi] adj free from sin, sinless. "apapi e apradh bIn $irxor guru bal." -PPP }){1.flQ [apar] adj endless, boundless, unlimited. "apar agam gobfd thakur."-asa chat m 5. 2 unfathomable, limitless. 3 abundant,

Page 196



excessive. 4 countless, innumerable. 5 n God. "payau apar."-saveye m 4 ke. 6 near side bank, this side. "ape sagar bohrtha, ape par apar."-sri a m 1. 7 Skl})fl1../'lO limit or extent. "janE ko tera apar nrrbhau nrrakar."-saveye m 4 ke. ))fl.p'ij(Jf [aparag] adj not going across, unable to go across. ~ [aparagr] »fl..I"'aOI:i ignorant of the other side; ignorant of knowing the end. "man bachat phal pae sagle kudratr kim aparagr." -suhi cMt m 5. 'Ofthe extent of the Creator's greatness, man is ignorant.' ~ [aparaI).] adjwithout-qr(OT(ending). "mere suami agam aparI).a."-maru solhe m 5. l)ftfT6"ff [aparath] Skl})ftPCf n a defect in poetics due to which the sublime meaning of a poem is missed. "punaruktr aparath ki samajh na avai."-NP. 2 adj meaningless, without meaning. ~ [aparbhaul, ~ [aparbhav] adj the tenor or meaning of which is endless. "bhakhra bhau Clparu."-japu. ~ [aparla] adj who has no end. "atrbhuj bhClro Clparla."-mala namdev. >'>IW2 [Clparu] See l')f1..fTO. 2 ~, near side bank. "parr sajClnu Clparu pritClmu gursClbCld suratr laghvae."-tuklla chat m 1. ))fl.II'l? [Clpal] SkI ))fl.JT(?il' adj not nurturable; whom none can bring up. "Clpal hClri."-akal. 2 ~ has also been used as l')f1..fTO in "buddha apal."-akal. 'unnurturable wisdom.' ~ [apavan] adj not ~, not sacred, unholy. ))ffu [Clpr] SkI part also, certainly. ~ [apro], ~ [apro] n nectar, ambrosia; not meant to be drunk by the common people. "apru harrras pitra."-vac;f ghoria m 4. 2 sap of God's name. "Clpro pro gClt thio bhClrma." -jet m 5.

~ [aprau], ~ [Clprav] Skl)o)fl..fjjl1j[ n

light or soft food. "mukh Clprau bEth kau dm."-sukhmanI. 2 meal, victuals. "det sClgClI Clprau."-sar m 1. "kag sadhusClbha rahyo nrrahar muktahClI Clprav kE."-GPS. ~ [Clpir] n lack of pain; comfort. "ghar ki bujhE pir Clpir m."-NP. 2 adj painless. ~ [apil] E appeal. n a request, an appeal. 2 the act of approaching a senior officer for ·changing the order of a junior. ~ [apilat] E appellant n the person lodging the appeal. })f1.ft;r tapir] n absence of pain; comfort. 2 SkI ~ pressure. "Clpir pirrta dukha."-ramav. ~ [apu] See 1?ft.f. l')f1JRC [ClpUSClt] adjlean, thin, weak. 2 reversed, upside down, against, contrary. "apusat bat te bhai sidhri."-asa m 5. })flfS [Clpuch] adj without a tail; tailless. 2 without asking; unasked for. 3 without question, unquestioned. ~ [apuchra] adj without asking for. "Clpuchra dan devka."-var sri m 4. ~or [aputha], ~o't [Clputhi] adj reversed, opposite, See~. l?fY3r [Clputtal, ~ [aputr] adjwithout a son, without an offspring; childless, See »rtI3'. ))fy7iT [apuna] See »P-fi'iT. "apune ramhr bhaju re manu."-g5c;f namdev. l?Il;fS' [Clpucha] advwithout asking for, without question. 2 doubtlessly, without doubt. "des mere beat apuche. "-bher m 5. l'>flJH.iI' [ClpUjy] adj not to be worshipped, unadorable. ~ [aputha] adj reversed, upside down, overturned. "sidha chodr aputha bun-na." -gaum 5. ntlJ3' [aput] adjwithout a son, childless. 2 SkI defiled. ~ [ClpUp] SkI n fried bread, a kind offritter.

Page 197


ap;:)cikrrt yut karay."-GPs. 2 wheat. 3 fried cake of sweetened butter. Skt ~ adj incomplete, not nn..ffu3" [ap;:)qrt] adj not a scholar; illiterate, foolish. whole, unfinished. ~ [apurabJ, ~ [apurav] Skt »~f adj ~'Ef [ap;:)th] adj wrong path, fake course. 2 n a tantrik mode of worship. 3 atheism. "ap;:)th novel, hitherto unknown, uncommon, curious, p;:)th sabh logan laya."-arhJt. a strange. "apurab j;:)j1 bal).ai."-sLihi chJt m 4. 2 a gal). metre of four lines, each line being nftr [app] n pride of self, ego. 2 Skt l?flf fear, dread. 3 a disease. 4 Skt l?fliT the air. "bhayo organised as SIS, 551. app bhes;:)."-kalki. 'took the form of air'. Example: kan-n;:) ge ram, dharm karm;:) dham, ~ [apyau] adopted; made one's own, lacchnE IE s;:ig, janki sobh;:)g.-ramav. occupied. 2 See»iLt "harr ka nam akhE11rdhr (b) Another form ofthis metre has four lines apyau."-savEye m 4 ke. organized as ISS, 5. l'>fl:fJJ3'lpfw [aprastut pra$asa] n a literary figure of-speech meant as praise which is out of Example: gal).e kete, hal).e jete, kai mare, kIte hare. context. --Tamav. Example: khal $er ki oqh kar gadha na karr SIr bhaj. ~ [apuravta] Skt ~ n novelty, strangeness, singularity, peculiarity. 'By regarding some cowardly person as a tiger ~ [apek$a], l'}fL"'"rf1:I>w [apekhIaJ, ~ [apecha], the former is admired'. ~ [apechJ:a] Skt 3TG"ii-TT n desire, want. rajhas bIn ko karE chir nir ko dor.-vrfd. 2 need, necessity. 3 basis, support. 'An ignorant judge is praised by calling him 4 comparison, balance. a swan.' »rlttif [apey] adjundrinkable. 2 n wine, liquor. ~ [apragyat] Skt ~ adj not known, 3 hemp. 4 poppy husk. unknown. 2 n a state of meditation in which ~ lapel] adjimpenetrable, stagnant, steady. the worshipper forgets his difference from the 2 irremovable. 3; intransgressible. worshipped. »rtt [apE] Skt »fl..fJlOf n accord, union. "nam nay »fl{fdH [apratrm] Skt adjunmatched, peerless, "apratrm rup bIdhI nE dayo."-carrtr 156. mdhr apE."-S,wEye m 4 ke. 2 See »rfl.~" »f1;ffuJ-ro [apratIman] Skt adj unparalleled, ~ [apodghat] See ~. »ri:r~ [apJrkhey] Skt~ adjnot existing unmatched, matchless. because of man, not man-made; formed by ~ [apradharakh] Skt ~ adjwho cannot be threatened, who cannot be brought under God. ~dT [ap;:)g] adj free from dust; clean, clear, pressure. 2 invincible, unconquerable. stainless. "skat nir ap;:)g."-GPs. 2 faultless, ~ [apraman] Skt adjunmatched, matchless, stainless. "ap;:)g p;:)ge."-ramav. 3 Skt ~. peerless. 2 beyond measuring and weighing. without a limb, crippled. 4 with crooked 3 without proof. limbs. »f1JHTe" [apramad] Skt adj unerring, guiltless. ~ [ap;:)cikrrt] Skt 3{qSC-q~I'td n elements 2 not intoxicated. See ~. which have not been divided into five parts; »f1;fHfl [aprameu], l?fl;fHtif [apramey], l?fl;fH~ undivided elements. See t1tft ~. "bhut [apramev] Skt~ adjbeyond measurement.
~ [apural).]

Page 198


2 beyond conjecture. »I)gill'f(,)Rd i(') [afGanIstan] dt;:J~;, n country of ~ [aporayukat] SkI })f1j~a- adj unused. the Afgans; a country northwest of India with 2 unconnected, non-contiguous. Kabul as its is surrounded by Russia, l1fl;fTQ" [apradh] See »!tRr'LT "kotI apradh sadh Turkistan in the north, Persia in the west and sagI mItE."-sukhmcmi. Kashmir in the south-east. The ruler of l$lttr3' [aprapat] SkI ~ adj not received, Afganistan formerly called Amir is now unacquired. 2 rare. known as Shah (King). See 'I')f}-/tQ. ~ [aprra], ~ [aprry] adj not lovable. ~ [aphgar] P .J{if adjwounded, injured. 2 n an enemy. ~ [aphgadah] P ~flI adj thrown, cast. nnJo- [apret] adj not yet dead. "nama pret 2 put in, poured in. 3 defeated. apret."-japu. See Y'o-. ~ [dphg5ddn] P v to put in, pour, drop. 2 to throw, throw down. 3 to defeat. ~ [af-all A Jb-" plural of~. l)fG"ffif [aphsar] E officer n a chief, commander. ~ [aphjal] A~, adjpossessing greatness, 2 a ruler. 3 an office-holder. 4 P ~,a crown. very good, best. ~ [af~adan] P (;.!.t~1 v to spread; to ~ [afzay] P .::...'.1' adjwhich increases; it scatter. 2 to sprinkle; to spray. is a suffix and adds to the meaning of words ~ [aphsana] P ,.;l)I n a story, tale, legend, as~-~. narration. 2 a novel. ~ [dfzu], ~ [afz11] P n an increase, a promotion. 2 adj more, special. "aphju ~ [aphsos] P U-';, SkI »fl.Iifa-. 2 sorrow. khudaIa."-var majh m I. In Dasam Granth 3 regret. ))fiicfc") [afkan],})[G(Il'O [afgan] P ~ n throwing the word has been used at many places to underline this context. (imperative of ~.) you throw. 2 When this word is suffixed to a noun, it carries the ~ [afzud] See~. "mrlds nrj dphjud kar."-salah. sense of a thrower, as Sherafgan. })[G(Il'O 'Sooa- [afgan ~er], })[G(Il'O crt [afgan kha] ~t!'O [dfzudan] P (;.!J.i.1l v to be more, Sherafgan Khan, governor of Kashmir who increase, progress, rise. under orders from Aurangzeb converted ~ [aftab] See ~ "dunra dphtabdID." Hindus to Islam. "suba tIh thii afgan ~er." -knsan. '1 am the sun of the world'. -GPs. 2 the first husband of Noor Jahan, ~ [afyun] See ~. Alikuli Beg who having killed a tiger got the ~ [aphar] adj what cannot be caught. title of'Sherafgan' (defeater of the tiger). He 2 without fruit, fruitless. 3 bad fruit, bad result. died in 1606 AD. ~ [afganam] P 1 throw down, I shall ~ [apharna] v to bloat. 2 to swell with pride, be arrogant. throw down, I shall defeat. ~ [afGan] P (;.!WI n noise, din. 2 a Muslim ~ [afraxat] P ..:.51)1 adjraised, elevated. tribe especially the one that lives between ~ [afraxtan] P v to raise; to lift; to elevate. Kandhar and the river Indus. that thunders in battle. a Pathan. Pathans speak Pashto. 3 a »ICiididCiiJl [aphrataphri] See l)jCii~'dCii;{]. lament, wail. 4 adj an inhabitant of ~ [aphrro], ~ [aphrra] adj not grasped by senses. "aphrro be parvah m." Afganistan.





Page 199


-maru solhe m 1. 2 bloated with pride, filled with vanity. "aphrro bhar aphar tare."-maru am 1. 3 bearing evil fruit. "akk na laggE ab aphna."-BG. 'A bloated wild plant, calotropis procera, cannot bear mango fruit'. ~ [aphritil, ~ [aphridil P rJ,jl ~ is also correct. n Pathan community is regarded as progeny ofthe Prussian emperor Fridun; Orakzei and Shinvari Pathans are branches ofthis clan. ~ [afroxt;:ml P ~jj v to illumine; to enlighten. ~ [afroxtil P (j,jl you lit it up. ~ [afrozil P lSj,)1 you may lighten it. Its root is also afroxtan. ~ [aphall Skt adj fruitless. 2 n a bush. 3 an impotent male:. 4 Indar, king of gods, whose testicles got abraded because of a curse by the sage Gautam and he came to be known as fruitless or barren. See -at3H 4. ~ [aphlatul, ~ [aphlatul,})f<~ [aphlatunl P l.:,I.,blJ,i1 G tn?rbl E Plato. A celebrated personality among western philosophers, son of Ariston and Priksoene, he was born in the capital Athens in 428 BC. His real name was Aristocles but because of his broad chest and forehead he came to be known as Platon. Ancient historian Olympudorus writes that while his parents took him to l\.1ount Himatus to obtain the blessings of gods, honey bees put honey to the infant's lips which earned him the adjective Athl:::nswi (a large black bee), and poets concluded that his tongue spoke words sweeter than honey. Plato became master of poetics early in his life. One day while passing through a narrow lane, he came across the great sage Socrates whom he had not met earlier. Socrates barred Plato's path with his stiek and

said. 'Blessed boy, please let me know the way to the school of goodness.' Held in ecstatic awe by Socrates' words, Plato said, 'I do not know, sir.' Pointing towards him Socrates said to his companions, 'This is the swan ~ho in my dream last night sat on my breast and then flew away!' Plato was twenty years old then. He was so charmed by Socrates that he, considering the latter's company as a path to emancipation, decided to spend the rest of his life at Socrates' feet and be educated by him. After the death of Socrates, Plato roamed about far and wide and then, around 388 BC, he settled down at the world famous Academy Garden and for 40 years concentrated on philosophic questions, and explained them to his associates and pupils who belonged to both the sexes. They became so famous for their truthfulness that whenever called to the comi for evidence, they were not formally sworn to speak the truth. Plato wrote many celebrated treatises which, fortunately for the scholars, still survive. Easy and correct translations ofthese treatises have been done in various languages of the West for readers not only of Europe and America but also of India. The Indians respectfully admit that Plato born in Europe was a saint-philosopher of the calibre ofVed Vyas. To call this philosopher a metaphysician and a paragon of education and knowledge would not be an exaggeration. That is why Emerson writes that Plato is philosophy and philosophy is Plato. . Many principles ofPlato are in accordance with the Sikh tenets, even his idea about keeping full-grown hair accord with what was ordained by Guru Gobind Singh (see his book Timaeus and his statue). On this topic, the

Page 200


Sikh scholar DharamAnant Singh has written a book of over 300 pages entitled 'Plato and the True Enlightener of the Soul'. He wrote this book after consulting Plato's writings in the original Greek. It was published in London by Luzac and Co. in 1912 AD. Plato died on his birthday in 348 BC when he was exactly 81 years old. Some scholars hold that even at the time of his death, he was busy writing. The influence of Plato's wisdom and knowledge on people's mind is so deep that while praising any person for his wisdom, he is called aphlatun (Plato). 2 xa a quilt, a ragged mattress. ~ [afav] A ;t n a pardon, forgiveness. See

[afvah] A ~';I n plural of~. (It means mouth, thus afvah is the talk of many mouths), news, rumour, canard. ~ [afvaj] P [;,1;1 n plural of~. ~s;;'Sl'Si!!()icl [afvulgunah] P ~l;di;t adj one who pardons sins. "kr aphvulgunah hE."-japu. »fG;f [aphar] adjwho cannot be caught, beyond grasp. »ilil?3 13lil;:fl [aphrataphri] A kLjJ-J,ljl n more or less, confusion, disorder, melee. ~ [afaka] ,.';(;1 relief from pain or sickness. bIG'3' [aphat] A ..:-(;f plural of~. calamities, tribulations. "hor aphat pari atr diragh." -GPs. ~ [aphar], })fGTijT [aphara] adj impetuous, headstrong. "chalE hukam aphar."-sri d ill 5. an order that no one can check. "brn guru kal aphar."-sri dm 1. 'Death is unrestrainable without a spiritual guide' "kana hukam aphara."-sor d m 5. 2 Skt %R unrestrained, spreadout widely. 3 broad. 4 great. "mol aphara sac vapara."-vdQ chJt ill 3. 'ta ko bhar


aphar."-baVdn. 5 force, severity. "barat-hI hOI aphar."-sri ill 5.6 flatulence caused by eating heavy indigestible food, increase of rheumatic effect, defect in stomach or liver, as a result of which the stomach gets bloated, respiration becomes difficult and nausea is felt. The medicines, which are prescribed for colic pain, are good for flatulence, but if it persists for long periods and recurs frequently then, the following recipe should be tried. Take nIsoth (a purgative drug) two parts, piper longum four parts and myrobalan five parts, all powdered and sieved, then mix them with gur (raw sugar) and roll into small pills which taken in the morning with fresh clean water permanently remove flatulence. Alternatively, pistocial lonticus (a fine gum mastagi) 3 masas mixed with one tola gulkand (preserve prepared with rose petals) taken with water along with the use of aniseed and mint is beneficial. 7 getting puffed with pride; self-conceit, vanity. "ek mahalr tU hohr apharo, ek mahalr nrmano."-gdu m 5. "aki marhr aphari." -maru m 1. ~ [aphari], »ri [apharol See})fGTijT. 2 adj vain, arrogant. ~ [aphal] See ~. ~ [aphim] Skt ~ which is as strong as a serpent's poison. A d.,J, E opium n an intoxicating and poisonous drug prepared from buds of poppy plant. Physicians use it as medicine to cure several ailments. It has a very dry effect and shrinks the muscles and causes slackness and dullness. ~ [aphimi] an opium addict. ~ [aphut] See ~. ~ [aphur] adj without thought, desire and doubt; free from volition. 2 sans shudder.


Page 201


[dphu] See ~. ~ [dfundt] A ..;:.;;t foul smell, stink, stench. >mr [db] adv now, at this time, at present, "db hdn rakhdnharu cItana."-dhcwa I.l 5. 2 Skt adj not perv1erted, always alike. "suhagu hdmaro db hUl~I SOhIo."-asa m.5. 'our eternal blessing.' 3 Skt ~ adv today. "kal karata db-hI kdr db kdrta su Ital."-s kdbir'- 4A ":"'" n father. 5 teacher, guru. >mrnT [db-hi] adv this very moment, now, immediately. nmc:ft ~ [db-hi kdb-hi] adv now and any time; now and not later. "db-hi kdb-hi kIChu nd jana."-ram m 1. ~ [dbke], l?n:r& [dbkE] adv this time, this moment. "dbke chutke thaur nd thaJ:o."-giJU kdbir. "abkE kdhIE namu nd ffiIldI."--maru m 1. l?f8}:ffiU [dbxdrdh] A ~J.I plural of~. l?f8J:«IT3' [dbxdrat] plural of~. l?fSl:it [dbkhi] Dg n a bad time, an il1-·omened moment. l?I1rclT3' [dbgdt] Skt l?f1..fOIf3'. n a miserable condition, poverty, misfortune "sadhu bInu Ese dbgdtI javE."-g5Q kabir. 2 Skt l?ffuoJ3' adj imperishable, eternal. 3 Skt~ adjbodlyless. "adI purakhabgdtdbInasi."-dkal4See~. l?IlrtJl? [dbcal] See~. l?IaeModld [dbcalmgdr] See ~ 0ilTd'. l?faM [dbdj] Skit ~ n born of water, lotus. 2 the moon which was born from the sea. ~ [dbjdd] A 4' n a series of letters beginning with dlIf, be, jim, dal, etc. 2 an alphabet. 3 a table ofletters used for counting numbers beginning with dlIf, be,jim, dal. The complete table is as under: J"':"'l:,. J J ; Vb


J' 90











12345 6 7 u J I) ( (;) ..; 10 20 30 40 50 60



9 .J 80

While mentioning dates in years, poets use two such suggestive letters in which these counting letters may also be employed. >mEa' [dbtdb] n a dilly-dallying, an evasion. 2 an excuse, pretext. 3 advalways. 4 anytime. "db tdb dVdru nd magdu hdn pdhI."-guj d m 1. 5 this and the other world. l?IS3'd' [dbtdr] A .r-I adj very bad. Skt~. 2 with a short tail, with tail cut, tail-less. l?Pfu'r [dbdtta] See ~. })fat!' [dbdd] metathesis ofl?Ri:T, See l?Ri:T. 2 Skt })fat!' n a cloud that provides water. "amntvak abdd amnt te."-GPs. 3 year. 4 camphor. 5 sky. 6 Skt ~ adj unspeakable, unutterable. 7 A ~,without end, boundless. 8 constant, perpetual, always the same. 9 A .J! n a slave. l?f8t!TM' [dbdal] A J'~' adjchangeable, changing. 2 n saintly persons ofa particular rank similar to the Hindu's dlikpals as guardian deities of different directions. The Muslims believe in 70 abdals out of which 40 are in Syria and 30 in other places. Some writers accept only 40 abdals and they believe that the world is intact because of them. When one of them dies, God appoints some other holy person in his place. Thus they go on changing and hence their designation abdal persists. Prominent abdals are called Gaus. Abdal is a plural of bdddl (change) "marphdtI ffidnu marhu dbdala."-maru solhe m 5. To transfigure concepts with spiritual exercise is essential for attaining the status of an abdal. In this verse-line abdal has a double meaning; those who kill the fickle mind are also abdals. 3 Abdal is one of the five ofMuslim holymen:

Page 202


gaus, kutab, vali, abdal, and kalandar. Many put kutab in place of kalander. 4 a Muslim community in Kangra district, whose members live on beggary and accompany dead bodies singing to the burial/cremation ground. They also sing about exploits of the valiant warriors. ~ [abda1a] See ~. ~ [abdaIi] adj connected with Abdal, "karI abdali bhesva."-bhEr namdev. See ~ 3. 2 n Pathans of Saddozai tribe are also called abdali. They are a branch of Durranis and are also called by this name. See ~ W(J" ~ and ~oro'T. ~ [abdi] A 15-:' adj everlasting, immortal. ~ [abdul] See ~w. "sun abdul q.haq.i cal ayo."-GPs. ~l:I"'O [abdulsamad khan] (;j(;..vVI-"I son of Muhammad Amin Khan, a rank-holder who courtier during the reign of Aurangzeb, who was given the title ofDiler Jang (valiantin-battle). Duringthe reign of Farukhsiyar, he was transferred from Kashmir to Lahore as subedar. He launched an invasion on Banda Bahadur at Gurdaspur and by employing deceit made him a prisoner and sent him to Delhi. During the time of Muhammed Shah, he was subedar of Multan. He died in 1739 AD. In Sikh history he also figures as Samund Khan. Zakariya Khan subedar of Lahore (Khan Bahadur) was his son. See'lfe'r. ~ J:ITO [abdul xan] See ~w l:flO. ~ ~ [abdul rahman] companion of the Prophet and religious fighter who accompanied him in numerous battles. He died at Madina in 32 Hijri. According to JSBM, Abadul Rehman initiated nine families. ~QYlHJ:ITO [abadu1rahimxan] cJ(; f.J JIJ!

well known as Khan Khanan, son of Bairam Khan, who was an ally ofAkbar. He was born at Lahore in 1556 AD. After the death of Todar Mal, he became Akbar's foremost vazir in 1589. His daughter Jani Begam was married to prince Danial. After Akbar's death he remained in Jahangir's service for 21 years, and died in 1627. His grave is near the mausoleum of Sheikh Nizamudin in Delhi. He was a scholar of many languages and poet with Rahiman and Rahim as his noms-deplume. His couplets in Hindi are very fascinating: kahr rahim ya pet s6 ky6 na bhayo tu pith, bhukhe man brgar hE bhare brgarr dith. sadhu sarahE sadhuta, yati YO$Ita jan, rahrman sace sur ki vEri karE bakhan. kahr rahim gatr dip ki kul kuput ki sor, bare ujraro karE baq.o adhero hoI. pharji ~ah na hVE sake gatr teq.hi tasir, rahrman sidhi cal te pyado hot vazir. karat nrpunai guI) brna rahrman nrpun hajur, rnano terat vrtap caq.h rh prakar ham kur. khira mukh dhar katrye malrye namak lagar, karve mukh ko cahrye rahrman yahi sajaI. 2 a paymaster of Ahmad Shah Abdali. The Khalsa Dal in Doaba killed him and liberated many Hindu girls from his clutches. ~ [abdulla] adjGod's slave. 2 a musician in Guru Hargobind's retinue who encouraged and roused the bravery of Sikh army by singing ballads of the heroes. See ~. 3 the eldest son ofAbdul Mutallib ofQuraish tribe, and father of Prophet Muhammad. He died in 571 AD. ~ J:ITO [abdulla xan] subedar of Jalandhar who died during a battle against Guru Hargobind fought at Gobindpur (Hargobindpur) in Sammat 1687. ))flJtf [abadh] Skt ~ adj unbound, free. 2 Skt

Page 203




not worthy to be killed, sueh as a child, a sick person, a woman and a refugee. 3 who cannot be killed by anyone. 4 Skt ~EfTtr.if; unbound, unobstructed, unhealable. "kalphas abadh lage."-asa r;)vdas. l)fSfu [abadhI] See ~. 2 Skt31fim 11 blearer of water; sea, ocean. >mrlbw [abdhIja] Skt ~ 11 born of sea, Lachhmi. 2 wine, liquor. ~ [abdhut] See ~. ~ [abadhy] See l1ratr 2. ))(8O'IJft [abnasi] See l?furJ:ft. ~ [abnus] See ~. "syah mane abm.ishI ko taru."-krrs;)n. l1I8liIO!3" [abyakt] ~ without body, formless, unembodied. See ~ ; "abyakat rup apar."--;)kal. l')f8ti[T3" [abyat] A ~!:<' plural of E, a metre, "abyat hfdvi."-s;)loh. 'bEt stanzas in Hindi'. })fflO [abar] adjwhich is not ~ (the best); not good, bad. 2 P ,/.I Skt~-tRf a cloud. Set::~. ~ [abra$] P J/.I adj piebald., dappled speckled, like the sky or a cloud. 2 his cloud. ~ [abrak] S,ee ~. 1'>Ia'6O [abaran] Skt~adjcolourl<ess, without any colour. 2 of bad colour, wrongly coloured. "abaranbaranghamnahrham."-hhET.:1kabir. 3 without any religion; low; outside the four castes, "gavatsunatjapatudharEbaranabarna sabh hu."-dev m 5. 4 Skt 3fCjl1'<r. adj indescribable. "abaranbaran SIU man hi pritI. "-bhEr ;) k;)bir. 'love for the indescribable One from the heart's core'. 5 unspeakable, slander "baran hE abaran ko." -kalki. 'will slander.' 1'>Ia'6O'S"60 [abaran baran] See})f8'Qc') 4 and ~
~. ~

lfiJTOi' [abre bahara] P U'.Jl(./.f rainfall in the spring season. >mre [abro], ~r:?" [abroI] See ~. »fm5" [abal] adjlacking strength, weak, "abal bal topa."-maru jEdev. 'broke the might of the mighty', I.e., weakened the senses. 2 A JJ' first. "abal naG khudaI da."-JSBB. ~ [ablak] A ~l adj piebald, speckled (horse), white and black. >mrW [abla] Skt 11 a woman. 2 adjweak, feeble. 3 A J..f lacking in intelligence, foolish. l')f'8'l'fur [abIis] A,):, 11 one who is bereft of God's grace; Satan, devil, "takabbar kita abIis 'ne ga1lanal: j1ma."-jagnama. >>is;3iiPij' [abarvaha] adj half-asleep, halfawake. l)fST [aba] A Ii' 11 plural of~ (father). Skt~. "~m abe thavhu mIthra."-sri m 5.
l')f'8Tfft [abasi]l1ayawn.See~.2flowerof

basa. "januk phul abasi rahi."-carrtr 317. See

»l'aTFf 2.
[abah] ad} without arms, armless. 2 without transport; who does not ride a blue jay (as does Lord Vishnu "namast~ abahe." -japu. 3 without:EI"U (sexual desire). See~. ~ [abajar] P Ab adj unhappy, 8' (with) 1?fIt.I'I'ij' (hurt). l'>I'1Pt!' [abad] adj without ~. (dispute), undisputed. 2 Sele~. ~ [abadan] See~. »rWQ' [abadh] adj without restriction, unrestricted, unchecked. 2 unimpeded, unobstructed. 3 See~. ))ftfltf.iI' [abadhy] adj unrestricted, unimpeded. ~ [ababil] A IJ.:~' 11 a swallow. ))fSTij' [abar] adj without slackness or delay. 2 without obstruction, unobstructed "khaqa abar~."-gyan. 3 See~. ))f'fu [abI] adv now, at this time. "abI kIchu krrpa kijE."-dh;)na m 3. 2 Skt ~ 11 a ram.

[abru] P ,/.1 E eyebrow Skt ~ eyebrow. 2 See~. ..



Page 204



3 a billy goat "abl madh hom karaI."-gyan. 4 the sun. 5 a mountain. 6 a mouse, rat. 7 the air. 8 calotropis procera, a wild plant. 9 modesty, shyness. 10 adj good, all right. ~ [ablakat] See ~. ~ [ablkhad] adj without a conflict. "ablkhad dey durat."-akal. ~ [ablgat], ~ [ablgatu] Skt ~. adj unknowable. "jab ablgat agocar prabhu eka."-sukhmani. 2 imperishable and perpetual. "jo jan jambhaj-hl ablgat kau." -suhi kabir. "abgatu samajh lana."-gau kabir.

))ffuan.r [ablgam] Sktl?lSOlH. n certain acumen, sure knowledge. 2 ~ adj indestructible. ~ [ablgami] adjhaving sure knowledge. "adVE alakhpurakh abl gami." -akal. 2 imperishable. See))ffuan.r 2. ~ [ablcal] adj motionless, unmovable, permanent. "ablcal niv dhari gur nanak."-guj


[ablcalnagar] a sacred town related with the tenth Guru situated near Nader (nader, ~) city on the bank of Godavari river. Here Guru Gobind Singh breathed his last on the 5th of the bright half of the lunar month of Katak Sammat 1765. The Sikhs have chosen this name with reference to a line in Suhi Chhand "ablcal nagar l gobfd guru ka." to the true congregation and the highest spiritual state. Its other name is Hazoor Sahib and it is now accepted as the fourth Takhat of the Khalsa. Here the following weapons of Guru Gobind Singh are preserved: a quoit, a broad sword,' a steelbow, a mace, a steel arrow, five golden swords and one small sword, six in~hes long. Besides these many more priceless weapons,

lIn Gurbani, Abchal Nagar, means congregation-cumhighest spiritual state.

which cannot be seen in the museums of capital cities, are beautifully displayed on the Guru's throne. They include a blade of Mai Bhago's spear whom ignorant people call an eight-armed goddess. ghanachri abrcalnagar ujagar sagar jag jahar jahur jaM jot hE jabar jan, khade hE pracaq khar kharag kudaq dhare khajar tuphag puj karad krrpan ban, sakti sarohi sd sag jamdar cakr qhale gan bhale rrpu ghale chrpr jag than, camkat carD or ghor rup kaIIka ko badna karat kavr jor panr tahi than. manhar sudar godavri vrhin mal calE jal saIIta satul gag kul chabr pav;;i, khare khare taro khare hare hare pat jare patr patr kare char saghni ko chavai, bolat brhag rag rag ke utag than 1;iri gobId sIgh ko sIghasan suhavai, jar darsavai manorath uthavai so kamna ko pavai satokh sIgh gavai. -GPs. Nander has other gurdwaras as under: 2 Shikarghat in the south of Nander on the bank of Godavari where the Guru would relax for a while after hunting. 3 Sangat Sahib where soon after his arrival at Nander, the Guru addressed his first congregation. This place is within the precincts of the city. 4 Hira Ghat where he threwa' diamond into Godavari presented to him by Bahadur Shah. This place is in the south of the city. 5 Gobind Bag, about two furlongs from the main gurdwara where the Guru occasionally went and rested for a while. Now this is an agricultural field, tllough a small room is also built there.

Page 205


--n;;d"f (hazur sahIb) sl"""n

nak~a abIcalnagar
naf1an gurdvara ------ •
(9). ~

mugat st~~





manmad hEdaraood


rasta gurdvanii te hur pfdii no
bahman vara
0, ...



_ e- : ":" :::: :: .(8)


~~~~~asllian ~

-- _ _·ta sahIb lor



\\ II



\ \,

\'" hanuman <Ii ) , ' gupha


~Ikar ghal


Page 206



Page 207


6 Nagina Ghat where the Guru threw a ~ [dbrdya] See ~. jewel into the river presented by the Sikhs. nrfaour [dbrmy] See~. Some small glittering stones on the river bank ~ [abrnas], ~ [dbrnasr], »!fuorRt are to be seen there. This is in the west of [dbrnasi] Skt m;orTfu;or~ ad) imperishable, immortal, indestmctible, "parbrdhdm purdn Nander. dbrnas."-sar m 5. 2 perpetual, eternal. "he 7 Banda Than. At this place was the acut he parbrahdm dbrnasi dghnas."-bavdn. thatched hut ofMadho Das Bairagi. The Guru sanctified this place with his visit and baptised 3See~. Banda as a Sikh. See"8t!r~. This place is ~ H [dbrnasikhem] 11 perpetual pros. perity, eternal liberation, after which there is in the west ofNander. 8 Shrine of Mata Sahib Kaur near Hira no bondage. 2 eternal happiness. "dbrnasi Ghat. She had come to the south from khem cah-hr je nandk sdda srmdr nararn." Damdama Sahib along with the Tenth Master, -toeji m 5. stayed and served the Guru for sometime and ~ [dbrnasipurdkh] 11 an indestructible went back to Delhi as orderd by him. See ~ or perfect person; God. "abrnasi purdkhu "&0 J-fT3T. para parmesaru."-sohIla. 9 Maltekri in the north of Nander. Here ~ [abrbek] Skt ~ 11 thoughtlessness, the Guru dug out a hidden treasure and made ignorance. "abrbek hE trh naG, tav hiy me payment to the Pathan employees and again jrh thaG."-par<Js. buried the remaining treasure there. See (')CffiT. »rf1raoft [abrbeki] Skt 3TmfcF;or~ devoid of reasoning and thinking; foolish, ignorant. ~ooRft [dbrcdl mgri] Sikh conclave" Sikh congregation. "dbrcdlndgri nandk dev."-asa ~ [abryak,~t] See ~. <J m 5. 2 a spiiritual state, stage of spiritual ~ [abrrtha] ad) fruitless. "jamm abrrtha knowledge. jai."-maru k<Jbil~ ~ [dbrcar] 11 lack of thinking, ~8" [abrl;'ib] See ~8". ignorance. "rdcro brcar dbrcar."-<Jkal. n-rm [abi] adv now, at this very moment. See 2 ad) devoid of thinking, thoughtless, n-rfu. foolish "tE dbrcar jdrh! kdrtar kalu nd >mftor [abina] ad) without ~ (eyesight), man."-par<Js. 3 adv without thinking, blind. 2 ignorant person. "sdbh phokat without calculation "ldcch ldcch tur;'ig ekdharamabinra."-pr<Jbha bel)i. 'Deeds by the ignorant are ineffective.' hr dijiE dbrcar."-par<Js. 4 11 Skt n-rf<Nra' 11 a custom of making a sacrifice or killing of ~ [dbinra] See »rator. animals according to Atharva Ved. "pdrh >mikr. [abir] A .d 11 gulab; coloured powder of bed m;'itr dbrcar."-gyan. 5 According to musk, rose, saffron and sandalwood which is books on magical incantations there are six very fragrant. See »hfur. dbrcars : killing, attracting, hindE~ring, ~ [abujh] ad) which is not extinguished; ever lit. 2 Skt nrgir ad) unintelligent, dull, hating, extirpating and conjuring. ignorant. ~ [dbrdra] See ~. »t'fS"t! [dbrddj Skt ~ ad) uneducated, ~ [dbujhDa] 11 remaining lit; (of fire) not foolish, unwise. dying. 2 ignorance. "bujhDa abujhDa tudh

Page 208



kia."-asa am 3. [abudh] See

l)f~q [abodh] adj unintelligent, stupid. 2 n


~[abuddhI] Skt~adjignorant, lacking

intelligence. 2 n ignorance, lack of intelligence. ~ [abujh] See ~ 2. ~w [abutbela] Paolo di Avitabile, was born in Italy in October 1791 AD. After having served at different places, he became an anny officer of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the lion of Punjab, at Lahore. General Avitabile's cantonment was at Naulakha and his residence was at Buddhu's Kiln. He was ofa hefty build and an astute soldier. He raised . Vazirabad again in a new design. For some time he was governor of Peshawar. After the decline of the Sikh administration he went away from India, and died in France on 28 March 1850. ~ [abur] A ~i' n the act of going across; crossing, ferrying. "..a- [abe] See ~. 2 part vocative. are! 0 ! "..a-",. [abea] See~. lriu [abeh] adjwithout hole or gap; unbroken. "abeh nath ajit."-akal. "ravri deh abeh ko dekh kE."-GV 10. ~ [abecal] adj See l'>lfatffi. "mal hamara akhut abecal."-bhEr m 5. "..a- 3it [abetabe] See >m:I3lT. 2 n an insult. "abe tabe ki cakri."-asa a m 1. 3 adv always, everyday. "abetabe kure he paja."-gau a m 1. 'bf8o faber] adv without delay, at once. 2 n delayed time, wrong time. 3 adv evening. "ketak kar aber nIksate."-GPs. 'bf8o~ faber saver] n evening and morning, sunrise and sunset. "avhI jaI aver saver." -GPs. "m [abE] See~. 2 Skt~. adjimperishable, eternal, always the same. "ajE hE:. abE hE." -japu.

stupidity, ignorance. ~ [abol] adj without voice, silent, "karal) kavan abol."-dhana ravdas. 2 See in?~. >mit!" [ab;'lC] adj who cannot be deceived, undeceivable. "as prakar lakh rIde sadiv abac jo."-NP l)flf~ [abadta] n boundlessness, freedom, salvation. "badna ko let hi abadta ko det jan."-NP ~ [abbas] A vI? n son of Abdal Mutallab and paternal uncle of Prophet Muhammad. He died on 21 February 653AD. His grave is in Medina. Abasi family to which caliphs of Baghdad belonged is so known after his name. 2 a flower; plant gulabbas or gulabbas. ~ ~ [abbul phajal] ~'i.' son of Sheikh Mubarak and brother ofFaizi was minister of emperor Akbar. His title was Allami and he was a great scholar. Born in 1551 AD, he died in 1602 AD. He wrote many important books including Aiyar Danish a translation in Persian of Panch Tantra. His Aini-Akbari is a great book of history describing Akbar's administration. ))f8'jf [aby] See ~. ~a:i1ifq3 [abyakrIt] See ~. ~ [abrIl~i] Skt ~ adj without a wound (~); unwounded. "jo abrmi thaQhe hute brIl)i kIye kartar."-cantr 128. })f9 [abh] See l'»fu". ~ [abhau] adj fearless, intrepid. 2 n fearlessness intrepidity. "guru amar das parsiE abhau labhE."-savEye m 3 ke. ~ [abhat], ~ [abh-atar] Skt ~ n in the middle. 2 heart, mind, conscience. 3 adv inside, in the heart. "agam agocar rahIa abh-at."-bhEr a kabir. "nrrbhau so abh-atar vasIa."-maru solhe m 1. ~ [abh-atarr] adj inner, mental "sacu

Page 209


m 1. 'Empty (minds) are irrigated (with karr)i abh-;'ltan seva."-gau a ml. 2 adv from Guru's teaching) and filled to the brim'. within, inside. "'jal mahI keta rakhiE abh-;'ltan ~ [abharan] an ornament. See~. "har suka."-asa a D.1 1. ~ [abhak~], .»Blj [abhakhu] Skt ~. adj kajar bastra abharan kine."-bIla pa[tal m 5. "abharan hE."-japu. not fit for eating; religiously forbidden food. "lobhi j;'ltu n", jaI).ai bhakhu abhakhu sabh ~ [abhara], ~ [abhana] adjnot filled, empty, partly filled. "abhara saru bhana." khaI."-sri m .5. -savEye m 4 ke. 'Mind filled (with content»f!fiIT [abhagJl Skt ~ adj unbroken, ment) is really full'. unbreakable. "tIS diban abhag."-var asa. "abhag sabha s;'lg hE sadha."-asa m 5. 2 Skt ~ [abharIth], ~ [abharItha] See 3l111T. unfortunate, unlucky. ~. ~ [abhagat] Skt~ adjwithout devotion, ~ [abharvaha] See ~. irreligious. 2 which has not been divided, ))fW [abha] glory, See ~. "laSE trIy vaki unbroken. "abhagat hE."-japu. '(God) is abha."-krrsan. 2 l?f (without) ~ (light). indivisible' . ~ [abhau] n lack of~(respect); disrespect, ~ [abhagan] See >'l@OT 1. insult, "jJ b bhau abhau Ih manE."-sor m 5. ~ [abhach] See »&ld.' 2 Skt ~. absence, want, non-existence, ~ [abhajl adjwho does not rUIl away:; firm. "pekhan sunan abhau."-NP 3 destruction. See 2 who cannot be defeated or overcome. ~. 3 unbreakable:. 4 not fit to be consumed. ~ [abhaI] Sl~e ~. 2 n hatred. 3 an ill~ [abhadr] adj wicked, ungracious. intentioned attitude. 4 lack of interest. 2 inauspicious. See ~. "subhaI abhaI ju nIkatI aVE situ taka jaI." ~ [abhpir] See»rfu" and tikI'. -maru a m 5. 'Interested or disinterested, ~ [abh-lbhagatIl, ~ [abh-bhagti] whoever comes near (fire), loses his cold'. See»rfu" and elorfo. 2 n worship of the manifest ~ [abhas] Skt~n a reflection, an image. deity or saint. "manmukh te abh-bhagatI na 2 light. "das car 10k abha abhas."-braham. hovsI."-prabha a m 1. "abh-bhagti PIr l?f'§lTl:f [abhakh] Skt ~ adj silent, reticent. agE."-tukha baramaha. "re l;'lpat knsan abhakh;'l.";-prabha baI)i. 'You l?fID-ITO [abhman] See »rfu'Hro. are mute for saying God's name.' ~ [abhay] atdj fearless. ~ [abhakhan] Skt ))fT-~ n an utterance, ~ [abhaydan] n bounty of intrepidity, a statement. "avra dekhI na SUI).E abhakhE." -suhiravdas. 21?f(not)~(speaking),silence. making the refugee fearless, removing the ))3Tl:fT [abhakha], l?f'§lTf1:PlfT [abhakhIa] n refugee's fear. ~ [abhar] adjunfilled, empty. "guru ramdas language not fit to be spoken. The Hindus sar abhar bhare."-scwEye m 4 ke. 2 See~. regarded Greek and Arabic as barbarian ~ [abharak] See ~. languages and directed the people not to use these uncivilised languages. See ~ t.fTO""F.IQ ~ [~bharaJt).] See~. 2 a~iwhich no one wears, uncherished. 'Fi'fu3r b. 4. ~ 'Fi'fu3r b. 6. "abhakhIa ka ~ [abharat] adjwhich has not been filled; kutha bakra khaI).a."-var asa. The Guru did empty. "abharat SIC bhae subhar sar."'-sar a not consider any language barbarian but only

Page 210


pointed out to the Hindus! and the Muslims the ideas of pollution. Referring to the practice of beating a camel with a stick drawn from its own load, he tells the Muslims that they kill an animal by repeating' in the name ofAllah'. To the Hindus he remonstrates that they forbid others from polluting theif'kitchen though they themselves eat meat prepared in Allah's name. How strange is their reason. If the Guru had considered Arabic, Persian etc., as foul languages, he would not have employed them in his spiritual utterances. ~ [abhakh£] See ~. ~ [abhakha] See l?&Tl:f. ))SI(IT [abhag] adj who does not get his share. 2 Skt i>ffi1Or.iI" n misfortune, bad luck. 3 adj unfortunate, unlucky. "ram kin japsI abhag." -bl1er ravdas. ~ [abhaga], l'i@TCIft [abhagi] Skt 3Tmfl'r;:r, adj unfortunate, luckless. "jIs kau bisr£ pranpatI data, soi gan-hu abhaga."-dhana m 5. "nam vIsana se manmukh mUT abhagi."-asa chJt m4. ~ [abhagu] Skt ~. n misfortune, bad luck. "ram na jap-hu abhagu tumara."-gau a m1. ~ [abhat] adjwhich has no parallel; unique, peerless. "sobha abhat."-ben. ~ [abhan] n disbelief, lack of faith. ~ [abhani] See})f1'ePO and~. ~ [abhav] Skt n lack, absence, nonexistence. Scholars have accepted five types of it: a) pragbhav (prak - abhav): non-existence in the past, as the sword was non-existent before its manufacture from steel as a weapon. b) pradhvasa bhav: non-existence of something after its destruction, as when
ITaking a stick from the load on the back of the camel and beating it with that.

fireworks get burnt into ashes. c) anyonyabhav: mutual non-existence, of one thing in the form of another, as an ass is not a cow and vice-versa. d) atyatabhav: non-existence at all times as horns of a rabbit or flower of the sky. e) samyIkabhav: non-exisence at any particular time, for example of a pot after it has been taken away. 2 bad or wrong idea or vow. 3 lack of faith. ~ [abhI]prep which prefixed to a word gives the meaning of vis-a-vis (FI7ilj1:f), bad (Ht!"), upon (~), near (ilS"), far (~o), around (~), well (tfaft 3W), without (reoi ), desire (re'6r), liking (gftr), etc. 2 in the Sikh scripture abhI has appeared as a short form for abhyatar, which means inside the mind, or conscience. "pritam pritI bani abhI £si."-mala am 1. "sabadI abhI sadhare."-asa cl1Jt m 1. "bIn abhI sabad na majie:"-sri am 1. 'Withoutthe word, the mind cannot be rendered pure'. l?ffirlI [abhIUl, l'>fftffi [abhIO] Skt~ n doubt. 2 reasoning, argument. "apa pad nIrbaI) na cinIa In bIdhI abhIu na cuk£."-asa kabir. 3 adj »f-mif unafraid, fearless. ~ [abhIa] adjwithout fear, fearless. "abhed abhIa."-akal. ~li [abhIas] Skt »rnJ1TFf n practice, repetition for improving performance. "karhI bed abhIas."-dhana m 1. ~ [abhIasi] Skt ~ adjwho practises ascetic discipline or devotion. ~ [abhIagat] Skf~ n coming face to face. 2 a visitor, guest. 3 a mendicant, sadhu. "abhIagat ehI na akhianI jI parghan bhojan karenI."-var ram 1 m 3. »I"fip,f3' [abhI~H], ~~ [abhI~Har] See

[abhISaraI)] Skfn advancing, going forward. 2 getting closer.

Page 211


[abhIsar] n a battle. 2 method. 3, effort. l?If!!lR'fdCi(i [abhIsanka] n In poetics the heroine who makes deliberate effort to go to the lover. It is oftwo types: (a) kri;mabhIsanka: who on a dark night goes dressed in the black, and (b) $uklabhIsanka: who goes wearing white clothes on a moonlit night "set saj saj chali Sayre ki pritI kaj, cadni me radha mano cadni si hVEgai." -krI$dn. ~ [abhIsecl, ~ct [abhIkhek] Skt ~. n the act of sprinkling (water). 2 a ritual bath at coronation when water is sprinkled with kU$a (sacred grass). 3 sprinkling amrit in the eyes and the hair at the time of baptism. l?I'&1:r [abhIkkh] adj who does not beg alms. 2 Skt »IfucrJf n fame, renown. 3 splendour. 4 Skt ~ adj famous, renowned. l?If!!I"ar [abhIg] adjwhich does not get wet; dry. 2 cruel, brutal. 3 ~ adj well-acquainted, knowing closely. 4 awakened (soul). ~ [abhIg-atam] Skt 3T~;:r, adj profound scholar, metaphysician. "kai kotI abhIg-atam nIkor."-sc.:khmani. 'Crares of profound scholars and crores of novice:s are here' . ~ [abh:[gIa] Skt 3TM~T n memory, remembrance, recollection. ~ [abhIgyl See l?If!!I"ar 3 and 4. ~ [abhIcar] n According to the book of charms or incantations there are six barbarous deeds consisting of killing,attracting, stupefYing, hating, distracting and bewitching. See~ 4 and 5. l'>I'firt:r [abhIj] adj which does not get wet. 2 not compassionate, stone-hearted. 3 See »m 3. "akhIjje abhIjje."-japu. l?I'fuft:E" [abhIjIt] Skt ~ n According to astrology, the last stages of the zodiac, along


with the first four phases of the moon, during which period victory over the enemy is achieved by encountering him from the front. That is why it is termed abhIjIt. 1 2 son of Chandarvanshi king, Puru, and father ofAhuk. 3 adj in a contest victor over his enemy. 'I')fft;e- [abhId] adj ~ which cannot be pierced; not fit to be pierced. ~ [abhIdhal Skt n power to clarify the power of the spoken word; word-power to reveal its objective. ~ [abhIdhan] Skt n an utterance, speech. 2 dictionary. ..::-liJ. l'>fftfo [abhfn] adj who does not feel any empathy. "manmukh abhfn na bhIjai."-var sar m 4. 2 Skt ~ adj not different, not separate, similar" ~ [abhmay] Skt n the act of revealing heart's disposition. 2 The act of revealing; a play through bodily gestures, dramatics. ~ [abhInIVe$] Skt n an entry, admittance. 2 concentration. 3 In yog system, mental conflict is accepted as distress arising from the fear of death. ~ [abhuiadan] Skt ~ n happiness. 2 contentment. 3 praise "sar majjE abhInadan karE."-GPS. 4 supplication request. "sur kar abhInadan. "-GPs. ~ [abhIpir] n mind's agony. "prabhu jal).E abhIpir. "-sri a m 1. 2 Skt~ enthusiasm, courage. 3 desire. 4 See »rf!!Iq3". ~Tlif [abhIpray] Skt n intention, purport. 2 import, tenet. »rf!!Iq3" [abhIpret] Skt adj intended. desired. ~ [abIbad~m] Skt ~ n a salutation done while standing in front. 2 praise, admiration. ~ [ablumatl adj heartily, desired. "jo
IS ome people regard the zodiac (l'lffuf,:s-) as a planet but it is not so. See »&ttf.

Page 212


abhImat datar:"-NP 2 samat. according to opinion. ~ [abhImatI] n pride, arrogance. "tJ abhImatI kya phal tum pavhu."-NP 2 desire, inclination: "abhImatI bat dharo ur mahi." -NP.3 an opinion, counsel. ~ [abhImanyu] adj who in his heart bears anger against the enemy. 2 n son ofArjun and Krishan's sister Subhadra. He killed· Duryodhan's son Lakshman on the second day of the battle of Mahabharat, but himself died after displaying valour on the thirteenth day. He was married to Uttra, daughter of king of Viratpati. She gave birth to kingParikshit who ascended the throne after the Pandavs. l2ffin..rro [abhIman] Skt n pride, vanity. "abhIman khoI khoI."-brla m 5. 2 ego, self, conceit, egotism. "lobh abhIman bahut hakara."-majh Cl m 3. 3 Skt disrespect, insult. "man ClbhIman madhe so sevak nahi."-sri m 5. "tEsa man tEsa abhIman."-sukhmClni. ~ [abhImamni] adj proud (woman). 2 nstream.-SClnama. ~ [abhImani] adj (a woman) who is proud. "abhImani ki jar sar par jae."-g5<;l a m 5. 2 n pride, ego, sense of vanity. "cuki abhImani."-tukha eMit m 1. ~ [abhImukh] Skt adj face-to-face, confronting. 2 ready to work. 3 adv in front, opposite. ~ [abhImatral)] n a ceremony performed by reciting mantars. "matran so abhImatr kE gahI dhanu chaqyo ban."-krrsCln. 2 the process ofconjuring up some god with the aid of mantars. ~ [abhImanu] See ~. "jIm bharat abhImanu kin."-GPs. ~rf [abhIram] adj beautiful, attractive. 2 pleasing. "rFimJo [abhIrIth], l?ffuftfor [abhIrIttha] Skt

heartily desired. 2 comfortable. "gurusEva jal)an abhIrIttha."-BG ~ [abhIlakh], ~ [abhIlakha] Skt ~. n a strong desire, intense longing. 2 an inclination, a disposition. ~ [abhIlakhi] Skt ~,adjdesirous, eager. l')jrg~:Jit'la [abhIvyajak] Skt ~ ~ adj who reveals or enlightens. 2 who teaches or reveals. l?fYt [abhi] adv just now, this very instant. 2 Skt adj without m(fear), fearless. ~ [abhi~t] Skt adj keenly desired, heartily longed for. 2 something one is fond of. ~ [abhic], ~ [abhicu] See ~ 1. "dhal) abhic nachatr hE kam krodh ahakar tIage."-BG 2 victory in a face-to-face contest. "naval)u purabu abhicu gur satuIgur daras bhaIa."-tukha chJt m 4. 'The true Guru Amar Das gave darshan to pilgrims at the holy places, where they went for a holy dip' meaning thereby that a glimpse of the Guru is better than bathing at holy places. 3 ~. desired, wanted; the idea being that Sikhs got a much-desired darshan of the Guru on the occasion of the sacred bath. ~ [abhit] adj without fear, fearless. "namasta abhite."-japu. ~ [abhir] Skt n a shepherd, herdsman. 2 a four lined matrIk metre also called ahir, each line comprising eleven matras ending in 151 combination. Example: atI sadhu atI raj, karan lage durkaj, pap hnde mahI than, karat dharam )<ar hanI.-kalki. 3 adjnot cowardly; brave, heroic, fearless. "Ih gaqhoi abhir hE."-NP ~ [abhiril, ~ [abhiru], ~ [abhil] Skt ~ adjwho is not timid; brave. "abhiri bhaje

~ adj

Page 213


bhiru hVE."-kalki. "bir bake abhile."-GPs. ~ [abhul], »f~ [abhulu] adjwho doe:s not forget or miss, unfailing. "bhular:t adau sabhuko abhulu guru kartar."-sri CI m 1. ~ [abhu] adj without birth, unborn; "abhu hE."-japu. See~. ~ [abhukhan] Skt~. finery, decorative things. 2 ornaments, items of jewellery. ~ [abhukhi] adjwhose hunger has come to end; satiated. "abhukhi jEsebhukh tE." -krIsan. 2 content. ~ [abhut] adJwhat has not happene:d iin the past. "abhuta bhyar:ta."-VN. 'Such fearful beings have not been there in the past' . 2 '~ which is not sans beginning; without a past. "tEse bIsvrup te abhutbhut pragat hvE." -Clkal. 3 existill1g in the present only. 4 not a function of the elements. "namasta CJbhute." -japu. 5 n disappearance, destruction. "kruddh ko abhut hE kI achhE abInasi hE." -gyan. 6 See }~ and ~. ~ [abhutak] Skt ~ adj not born or made from the elements. })j~3iiJGI'C! [abhutbhayar:t] See ~3" 1. • [abhutI] Skt n non-existence, absellce of existence, opposite of increase. See ~. ~ [abhum] Skt ~~ adj little, meagre, of no consequence. 2 Skt~ adjnot made from earth; unearthly~ ~ [abhul] See~. "abhul nCJ bhulE."-sar m5. l$ [abhe], ~~ [abheu], ~ [abhea], ~ [abheI]adjwithout a difference. '''alakh abheu harI rahIa samae."-majh am 3. 2 Skt ~ without fear, 1I10t fearful, not afraid. "abhe hE."-japu. ~'A" [abhes], [abhekh] Skt»m-li1 adj without a dress; undisguised. 2 ill-dressed. 3 invisible, non-existing, annihilated. "kijIyE abhes unE baq.o yahI kam hE."-cJ<;li 1. "sabh


dust mar kine abhekh."-mrsfgh. 'killed all the wicked and annihi lated them'. ~ [abhet] n lack of meeting, separation. "jam ki abhet det."-NP ~t! [abhed] adj whose secret cannot be known, unknowable. 2 without a secret. 3 n identification, unity. 4 Skt~ impregnable, impermeable. ~ ~ [abhed rupak] See ~. ~ [abh~dyl See ~ 4. ~ [abhey] adj without a difference. 2 without fear, fearless. See l$. "ajeya abheya anama athama."-VN. ~ [abhev] ad) unsecretive, whose secret cannot be known. "abhev hari."-akal. 2 n nonexistence, annihilation. "man tan nITmal abhIman CJbheva."-ram CI m 1. ~ [abheva] See ~. l$ [abhEl See })ffl1jf. ~t!TO [abhEdanl n a gift of fearlessness. "abhEdan pavau purakh date."-bIla m 5. ~ [abhEpatl n a dress which renders the wearer fearless; a helmet, an armour. "abhEpat rIpU madh tIh."-sClvEye m 3 ke. ~ [abhE pad] n a state from which there is no fear offalling down. "abhEpad dan SImran suami kO."-jEt m 5. 2 salvation, the highest state, the fourth spiritual state. ~ [abhogi] adjwho renouncespleasures. ~ [abhojy] adj inedible food. ~ [abhol] See ~. ~ [abh;)tIk] Skt adj non-material. ~ [abhagl Skt 3f'l=[6~lf adj unbreakable. imperishable. 3 n a poetic metre in Marathi used by Tukaram and Namdev in their literary works. It has two forms: in the first there are 16 characters in each line and in the second there are 22. 4 Dg adj fearless, dauntless. ~ait [abhagiJ Skt 31~~ adj complete, undivided. "abh:3gi aname."-japu.

Page 214


I 80



~ [dbhajJ Skt ~ adj unbreakable. 2 un-

conquerable. 3 without bend, unbending. ~ [dbhJjdnJ unbreakable, unbroken, imperishable. 2 Skt ~ n an oily substance for rubbing or pasting over the body. »t!!fri'o!!frio [dbhajanbhajdnJ adjwho divides the indivisible ones. 2 who bends those who do not bend before anyone. ~ [dbhJc:lJ adj not condemned, not

~[abhatJSkt~adjindescribable.abha "

abh;-jt barni na jai."-datt. ~ [abhyastJ Skt adj practised. »t¥.ifTR' [abhyasJ See ~. ~ [abhyasiJ See~. ~ [abhy;-jtarJ See ~. ~ [abhrJ Skt 3T'lJ vr to go, wander. 2 Skt 3T'lJ n a carrier of water; a cloud. P ~" 3 mica. 4 the sky. 5 gold. 6 a demon who was in the army of the Yadavs. "raehas abhr huto han ki dIs."-krrsan. ~ [abhrdkJ Skt n a glittering mineral like mica or glass that is extracted from the mines.



[amJ Skt vr WI:. to go; to speak; to be sick; to serve; to eat. 2 Skt 3111 a disease. 3 the cause of a disease, diagnosis. 4 fear. 5 strength, power. 6 P (, pron indicative of first person, singular, I. "na danam kI imarad rubah pee." -jafaT. >m-rfi:p,p- [amasIaJ See ~ . ~ [amsosJ See »IGfh:r. ~ [ameurJ n a dried and powdered form of chopped mangoes. })f)-Iri1i [amajabJ adj who follows no religion, irreligious. "namdst;-j dmdjbe."-japu. See}ftf8". »tHEr [dmdtthJ adjwithout a forehead; headless. 2 which cannot be churned, unsubued. ~ [dmddnJ A 1..1 advwillfully, deliberately, intentionally.

[dmddyJ n something different from wine; elixir, nectar, anything not an intoxicant. "ddYO bilt mddy;-j dmddy;-j."-vErah. 'Mohini distributed wine and nectar.' >m-IO [dmdnJ A d' n peace, tranquillity. >m-Rr [dmdr} Skt n a god, that does not die. "dmdr sImdrkdr jahI Sdmdr jdY pavhI dn hdr."-GPS. 2 adj deathless, undying. ";-jmnt piVE amaru su hOI."-sukhmani. "amar gahu marrlE"."-maru m 1. 'Conquer your unconquerable mind i.e. bring it u~der control.' 3 unmoving, immutable, irrevocable. "teri amaru rajaI."-asa c11Jt m 5 brrhare. 4 short form for Guru Amar Das. "sacu Sdea satlguru amaru hE."-var gau 1 m 4. "lahIl).a tu hE guru dmaru tu vicarra."-var ram 3. See ~~. 5 A /' n order, command. "amar hil).;-j jatha rajanah."-sahas m 5. "SIr upan amaru karara."-maru m 5.6 currency; a coin. "amar ealavE e;-jm de."-BG 7/1 a ruler. "amaru veparvahu hE."-var sar m 3. >m-Rr fi:Tur [amdr sighJ grandson of Baba Ala Singh and the younger son of tikka (prince) Sardul Singh. He was born to Rani Hukma on Harh Badi 7 Sammat 1805 (1748 AD) and ascended the throne of Paiiala at the age of 18. He was a great soldier, expert administrator and staunchly religious person who was initiated into the Sikh faith by Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia. The state of Patiala registered great progress under his reign. During 1767 AD he rescued 20,000 Sikh men and women from the clutches ofAhmad Shah Durrani and earned the popular title ofb;-jdichor (Iibrator ofcaptives). He died on Phagan Badi 8 Sammat 1838 (February 1781 AD). 2 See 2lf -&ir. 3 a scholar of Sanskrit and author of Amarkosh. 4 eldest son of Rana Partap Singh, king of Mevar. 5 See FrWa3" cr-. >m-Rr fifg' [amdr sIddhuJ A village in police

Page 215


deathlessness. "amar das amratu chatr guru station Muzang of district Lahore. About one ramhI diau."-savEye m 5. furlong east of the village is a gurdwara dedicated to Guru Hargobind who arrived l'>!}ffit!TJ1 R'f3qr~ [amardas satguru] the third preceptor of the Sikhs. He was the son ofTej here from Guru Mangat. Earl ier there used to Bhan (Tejo), a Bhalla Khatri and Mata be a simple shrine here. Now with the Sulakkhani (Lachhmi) of village Basarke. initiative of Bhai Mohan Singh Akali, Rai Born on the 14 th ofthe bright half ofthe lunar Bahadur Sir Ganga Ram constructed the well month Vaisakh, lOth Jeth Sammat 1536 of the gurdwara in Sammat 1979. There is in corresponding to 5 May 1479 AD. On 1ph the same village seventeen kanals of land in Magh Sammat 1559, he was married to Mansa the name of the gurdwara. Devi to whom were born two daughters, Bibi This is about 1.5 miles east ofKot Lakhpat Bhani and Dani, and two sons, Baba Mohan railway station. >m-rnFft [amrasi] adj of the ,colour of mango and Mohari. Amar Das became a disciple of Guru Angad Dev in Sammat 1597 and served JUice. him with so much devotion that the latter ~Tfu' [amarhrbhratr] n an illusion of immortality born out of i.gnorance. chose him as his successor on )'d Vaisakh "amarhrbhratr choQ."-BG Sammat 1609. })f}-RJq [amarak] adj immortaliser, 2 imm0l1al, Occupying the religious throne, he unextinguishable. "so dipak arnarak sasar." preached Sikhism by sending out preachers far and wide and establishing hospices! for -ram kabir. 3 See 'H"O'a". ))f}-RI" chi" [amar kO$] a dictionary corhpiled in prayers and charity. With the introduction of Sanskrit verse:s by a Jain scholar Amar Singh. meal-taking by' the congregation sitting In it, words belonging to different groups are together in a row, he eradicated differences between the high and the low castes. At listed in separate parts. Bhai Santokh Singh Amritsar, he ordered Guru Ram Das to compiled a Hindi translation ofthis dictionary for public benefit and named it Namkosh. It construct a bathing tank. He also added to contains 2044 couplets. The Bhai has not the splendour of Goindwal, made efforts for given the year of its compilation, but has help to the sick, and for general welfare got an open well constructed in Sammat 1616 quoted at the end: "jamna tat jo buria grath karan lag tahr, with 84 steps leading down to the water level an sudhasar tir par kari samapat yahr." in it. He breathed his last on Bhadon Sudi ~ [amarakh] Skt»fHJ>j' n lack offorgiveness; 15 th (2 Assu) Sammat 1631 (I September anger, wrath. 1574) at the age of95 years 3 months and 23 ~ [am2 rkhal).] Skt i)f1-f1'f<Y n lack of days. "guru amardas jInr sevro trnr dukh forgiveness, it:dignation. "atul amarkhal). drrdr parhar pan:."-savEye m 3 ke.. ~ [amardasr] Guru Amar Das. "guru dharamdhuje."-akal. l1IHQ3" [amrat] Skt 3111"Cf adj deathless. 2 Skt~. amardasr kartaru kiau vasr."-savEya m 4 ke. n an elixir; an immortalizing substance said l1fH6OTEI' [amarnath] a spot in Kashmir sacred to Shiv. It is a cave in a range ofthe Himalayas -to have come: from the ocean. 3 See n-rfi:r3". IS ee twenty two Manjis. ~ [amratu] Skt ~ n immortality,

Page 216


east of Srinagar across Vaitarani stream. There is an interstice at the top through which water drips and turns into a column of ice which the Hindus worship believing it to be the Lingam of Shiv. The place is inexcessible in winter; a fair is held on Savan Sudi 15. It is 15000 feet above sea level. 2 a village in Thana district of Bombay presidency; it has a famous Shiv temple built in Sammat 1108. Shivratri fair is held here. 3 God Indar who is master (7i'EI') of gods (>')f}Rf). ~ [~m~rp~tI] n Indar, the king of gods. ~ [~marpadarath] n spiritual knowledge. "am~rpadarath te kIrtarath."-bhEr m 1. ~ [amarpfQ] adjimmortal body like that of gods. "amarpfQ bhae sadhu sagI."-bIla a m4. ~ [a~~rpur],~ [amarpurI], ~ [~marpuri] n the city of gods. 2 the fourth spiritual stage, salvation. 3 a holy congregation. 4 Goindwal. 5 Amritsar. ~ [amarbell See »f~ n dodder cascuta apidendron; a parasite plant which grows and spreads on tree branches and lives by sipping their juice, and is also called vrIk;mdni (eater of a tree). See ~. ~ [~m~r raj] n Indar, the king of gods. l')f}RRJTH ~ ORr lamar raj satrat k~r] n the arrow which killed Ravan, who was the enemy of Indar.-sanama. l')f}RI'fu [amaran] n the enemy of gods; a demon, monster. "amaran dh~rkhe lahI kar samra."-ram. 'Demons trembled on seeing the battle.' ~ [amarlok] n paradise, the land of gods. 2 the holy congregation, Sikh society. ~ [amarvaruDi] See ~. ~ [amrai] n a mango grove; a line of mango trees.


[amraj] A J',/I n plural of}ffijiJ', diseases. ~ [arnrMak] n >')f}Rf-l'lf3a'the killer ofgods; a demon, monster. "amratak sis ki or hua." -kacch. 'At the time of churning the ocean, the monster Vasuki turned towards Nag's head'. ~ [amrapatI] See ~. ~ [amra pad] n a stage of spiritual knowledge; state ofself-knowledge. "arnrapad pavr."-tIlag m 1. 2 adj imperishable. 3 the high spiritual status of Guru Amar Das. "amrapad guru agad hfJ."-BG ~'a' [amrapur], ~. [amrapuri] See ~. "amrapur basa k~rhu."-s kabir. 2 the congregation of Guru Amar Das. "akath katha amrapuri."-savEye m 4 ke. 3 Goindwal. ~ [amrardan] iil'->')f}Rf-»R'n demons, the killers of gods. "kop ~n~k bhare amrardan an p~re karvar ughare."-carItr 52. ~ })ffu [amrardan an] gods, the enemies of the demons, who are killers of gods.-sanama. ))f}RJ'fu [~mrarI] n >')f}Rf-»>fu enemies of gods. ~ [amralay] n >')f}Rf-~. the house of the gods; paradise. ~ [amrav~tI], ~ [amravti] n the city ofgods; the capital ofIndar. In the Purans, its circumference is mentioned as of 800 miles, "nIrakh lak arnravatI laji."-VN 2 a town in Guntur district of Madras Presidency. It is situated on the bank of Krishna river, and was once made the capitalofAndhra by Suraj Dev, a ruler of Orissa during the 12th century. ~ [amno] adj deathless. 2 reached, arrived. "kIS jatI te kIS p~d-hI ~mno." -keda ravdas. ~ [amrik] See »f~. "marida amrik chuQaIa."-BG 10. 1?O-Rfla' fi:fur [amrik SIgh] of Jambar sub-caste, a resident of village Meghiana. Baptised by Guru Gobind Singh, he displayed great

Page 217


bravery during the battle of Anandpur. '))I}rsf [amaru], })f~ [amm] See >m-Rf. 2 short name of Guru Amar Dev. "guru amaru hi viearIa."-var ram 3. 3 a devout dIsciple of Guru Amar Dev. ~ [ammt], >1~ [amrud] P J~' jf n a fruit and its tree jamphaI; E guava, L psid!ium guajyava. In Persian both these words signify a pear, but many writers have used them for jamphal. In Arabic it is named jf?. ~11 [amres], ~Jj~ [amresur], l',ff}f6'F.[~ [amre~var] n Indar, lord of gods, also called Amritesh. ~ [amret] See »'hj3'. >m-ffi'lffift [amro bibiJ daughter of Guru Angad Dev married to Guru Amar Dev's nephew in Basarke village:. It was on hearing from her the line, "bhaIa manuru kaeanu phIrI hOVE je guru mIlE tIneha."-maru m 1, that Guru Amar Das became a devotee of Guru Angad Dev. Bibi Amro's memorial shrine is at Basarke village. See~. ~ffiJ [amratar] adj immortal, ever living. 2 god-like. "gurumukh amratar. "-BG 3 (one) who rules over his own conscience. »f}R? [amaI] This word has been used for l®-/O. "bhalyu amalu satguru sagI nIvasu."--savEye m 4 ke. 'Noble is the compnay of Guru Amar Dev.' 2 S n opium or any inebriant. "amlan SJ;U amlilaptaIo."-sor m 5. 3 Ski an:rc:r adj without filth; dean. "Ioean amal kamaldal jEse."-NP. 4 n mica. 5 Ski ~ soiuness, -acidity. "hanat jal ag ko amal sur rag ko." -krrsan. 'Water kills fire and sourness spoils music.' 6 adj sour, acerbic. "madhur salvan su amal bIdh pun tIkat kakhaya."-GPs. See l:fZml. 7 A f n an act, action, character. "amal jI kitI.a duni Vl:eI se dargah ogaha."-s farid. Sa rule, principle:. 9 management. 10 government, goverance. "turak pathal).i amalu kia."·-var

asa. 11 pratcice. 12 A Jf hope, expectation. })f}fl?3'I}T [amaltas] a plant bearing light yellow flowers and long beanlike fruit containing pulp, medicinally used as a purgative. Its effect is warm and moist. Its name in Arabic is ~!f and in Latin Catharto carpus fistula. ~ [amaldar] P ..IfY adjan administrator, officer, a governor. ~ [amaldariJ n administration, government, rule" reign. })\')-/ffi') [amlan] ad} l')f (not)+ Hffio (dirty); not dirty. "amlan malan ehah nahidhup."-gau thIti kabir. 2 P [l.f adv practically; by implementing some rule or principle. l')f}f'W lamIa] A Jf plural of~, a team of workers; staff. 2 Skt 31l'C'fT tamarind. 3 bIj:Jri, a species of citron or lemon. ~ [amaIIt] Ski adjnot rubbed, or crushed, or split or trampil~d; uncrushed. >m-i'l'ft [amli] S an opium addict; addicted to any drug. "bInu amIE amli marIgaia."-bIla a m 4. 2 ~J'Tfi-wi. a performer of an act, or executor of an order, etc.; an official, a practitioner. See ~. 3 Skt ~ L Tamarimdus Indica, n Imli tree or its sour fruit used in sauc,es, etc. Its effect is cold and dry; if increases appetite and strengthens head and heart, and its use during cough and common cold should be avoided. ~ [amalu] See))f}-l(? l')f)1;Ii'iT [amarna] v to reach, arrive at. See l'lfrsor. l)f}{;ft [amriJ n mother. 2 adj who has reached or arrived (from the mortal world). See l?f>-SOT. l')f)-I'T lama] See >1fw. 2 Ski 3111T n noon, new moon; moonless night. :3 a house, home, residence. 41 this world, the earth. ~ [amau] Skt >mfor adj without measure, immeasurable, boundless. "uee agam amau." -majh dInrEI). m 5. 2 what cannot be contained, does not get absorbed.

Page 218


[ama!).] adjwithout pride, humble. 2 ~. which can't be weighed. 3 deathless. "sei rahe ama!). jIna satIguru bhetIa."-var maru 2 m 5. 4 n l')f}{I03". an entrusted thing. "parai ama!). kIU rakhie?"...,.var sar m 3. 5 Seel')fHT?j". ))(}f13' [amat], ~ [amaty] SkI ~ n a minister, councillor, advisor. "nnpatI amat bat mukh bhakhi."-NP. ~ [amatr] adjwithout a vowel. 2 unlimited, immeasurable. l')fHT?j" [aman] See '))f}fI(!". 2 n an insult, disrespect. "nic lie nahi man aman."-gcw kabir thIti. 3 l')f}{I03". money/object placed in trust. "avar vasatu tujh pahI aman."-asa m 5. 4 Skl3P'lFr adj immeasurable. "aman hE. "-japu. 5 humble. 6 unbelievable, unacceptable. "sune su hasy avai aman yak toria."-NP. 'Your word is unbelievable.' 7 P (;.ILl n protection. 8 protection given to jazia payers imposed upon non-Muslims during the Muslim rule. 9 See Eb-rro. >m-fT03" [amanat] A ..::.-=LI n trust money, anything entrusted to someone for safe custody. 2 protection. 3 sleep. 4 See fEHro3". 1?fH'i'j'mfF.f raman baxa~] P ~ti:JL' adj provider of refuge, saviour from suffering. ))f)-fIOT [amana] See l')fHT?j". 2 A ,.;LI trust money or anything given in trust for custody. "bEri kara!).I pap karta basatu rahi amana."-asa m 5. ))()-fTO't [amani] SkI 3111Tf.1~ adj without pride, humble. 2 renouncer of self-respect. "buri amani ritI."-GPs. l)fHI'lf [amap] adjunmeasured. 2 immeasurable. l')fW}f [amam] See l'>IH'W [amama] See fuwHr. ))f}fl1if [amay] SkI adj free from illusion. 2 wileless, guileless. l2fH1OcII" [amarag] n a wrong path, an evil course. ~ [amaragI] n on or in a wrong path or an evil course. "mar;:)gu ChOQI ;:)mar;:)gI


pa I."-bher namdev. [;:)mari] See ~. })f}{'5 ramal] See »fT}fl1? ~ [amavas], ~ [amavasIa], ~ [amavsya] SkI ~ n When the moon and the sun are under the same Zodiac sign, it shows the last date of a lunar month counting the 30th of it as the terminal one. "kilT amavas sac cadrama."-var majh m 1. ";:)mavasIa cad gupat gE!).ar."-bIla thIti m 1. New moon night stands for ignorance and the moon light for spiritual knowledge. ~ [amava!).], ~ [amavan] adj which cannot be contained. 2 beyond measure, uncountable. See ~. ~ [;:)mIU], ~ [;:)mIo], llffi.I>,r [amI;:)] SkI ~ n an elixir, ambrosia (P abehayat). "amIU hanr;:)s coIa."-bIha chat m 5. "amIa saravro piu h;:)n han nama."-bIha ch:'Jt m 5. ~ [amIadnsatI] n a life-providing glance, compassionate look. "amI;:)dansatI subh karE hare ;:)gh."-savf:ye m 2 ke. ~ [amIk], ~ [amIka] adj matchless, immutable, second to none. 2 SklWJ!fi adjthat one, so-and-so. 3 SkI ~ adj safe and sound. ~ [amIt] ad} ineradicable, inadvertent. ~ [amIt], »rf'H3'r [amIta] adj dateless; limitless, boundless. ~ [amItoj] SkI ~adjwhosestrength is boundless. "amItoj kahIjje."-japu. ~ [;:)mItopsa]l'>ffi.rg--~. See ~ and l'>ffi.rg-. l?ffi.r3m.Ir [amI topma] l'>Ifi.r3"-~. ~ [amrtr] n not a friend; an enemy. ~ [amIy] See llffi.I>,r. l7ffi.R;r [amII] adjseparate, incompatible. "amII jan kardayo hatavan."-GPs. >m-ft [ami] See llffi.I>,r. ~ lamia] a devotee belonging to Hehar sub-caste who became a disciple of the sixth

Page 219

185 4 during the next birth or life between death Guru and displayd great valour during the and the next birth. battles of Amritsar and Kartarpur. ~ [Clmiala] adj where ambrosia is l'>Il::fl? [amul], ~ [amulak], JoifJ:f1')T [amula], available. 2 n the moon; a ray of nectar. ~ [amulik] Skt ~ adj priceless, invaluable. "amul bhaI amula samahI."-jdpU. "cClrClnkClmClI sitClI Clmiale."-BG ~ [Clmi~ah] a village in police station "amulik lal Ihu ratan."-sukhmani. "harI ap Khalra in Lahore district which was visited amulClk h£ mulI na paIa jaI."-anJdu. by Guru Nanak Dev. A gurdwara of hard >mj [amu] See >mi. 2 A yf a paternal uncle. bricks was raised here in Sammat 1978. The ~ [ClmuQ-h] adj not foolish, wise. village has donated 25 bighas of land to it; l'>fl;f63' [amurat], ~ [amuratI] Skt~-~ the priest is an Udasi Sikh. This place is. 13 adjformless, shapeless. 2 n the sky. 3 the soul. miles south-west of lallo railway station. 4 the air. 5 direction. 6 the transcendent one. »iHlcr [Clmik] A J! adjdeep, bottomless, "amik »nj1? [amul] adj rootless, groundless. 2 See hE."-japu. ~. ~ u- [Clmikul Ima h£j -japu. 'has >m;fffiI' [amuly] ad} priceless, invaluable. deep faith; is d,eeply religious.' ~ [Clmurh] See ~. )}f}.fto [Clmin] A ~" adjhonest to a deep religious »nf{t [ameu] Skt »nftif adj beyond measure; faith. 2 n an official of revenue depmtment unlimited, boundless. "nanak apI ameu hE." who measures land and makes estimate of the --var bIha m 3. 2 which is not contained. produce. See fssrffi. »nfR [amej] See nrHF.L "bhojan meve amej karae."-NP. 'with fruit served food'. ~ [amingarh] Skt ~ 110' an old village on a mound between Thanesar and >mfc [amet] adjindelible, firm. 2 ineradicable, Taravari where Abhimanyu fell as a martyr. impersishable. At this place, a raging battle was fought »iHoo [amethan], '»IJfoor [amethna] Skt~;:r between the Khalsa and the royal army during v to twist, rotate. "satpat b£that bhuja the time of Banda Bahadur on 11 Maghar am£that."-NP. 2 to take airs. "Eth-hI Eth Sammat 1767 (November 1710 AD.) am£th gavavE."-cdrItr 266. >m-ire: [amir] A,/-" n a sovereign, king. 2 a chief. »iH3' [amet] adjboundless. "abha amet."-ddtt. 3 a rich man. 4 adjwho gives orders. 5 title of >mfq [amedh], >mf!lJT [amedhy] Skt ~ adj the ruler of Afghanistan; the present AmiI' not worthy of sacrifice. 2 impure. 3 n an Amanullah however calls himself a king. impure substance. 4 adj without intellect, l'>IlfRft [amiri] P J,/-'I n sovereignty, mastery, brainless, foolish. "se apClvItr amedh khala." affluence, liberality. -var gdU 1 m 4. >mi [Clmu] 'Skt pran your, to you. »iHtif [amey] See l~. ))fl:fUT [amuhal adj renegade, apostate. »iH'l'ft [ameli] adj unsocial, uncooperative. 2 imperious, intractable. See 2See~. l)flj'Q [amuk] Se(~ ~ 2. »f}fur [amogh] Skt adj who does not fail; >mjCil3" [amukat] adj not free, bound. 2 See~. unfailing, successful. "amogh darsan beat l')f)fif [amutr] Skt adv in the other world. apara."-majh m 5. 2 sure, unfailing. 3 n 2 there, at that place. 3 here, at thiis place. Vishnu. 4 Shiv. 5 Satguru.


Page 220


See >nI1j3' ~. 3 water. 4 ghee, purified is not fruitless. See l?fJfur. 2 n Guru Nanak Dev, butter. 5 milk. 6 wealth. 7 liberation, the true preceptor. salvation. 8 a tasty juice. "jIh prClsadI ChCltih nrih? [amol], ~ [amolak] See }ff}jC'). "guD ClmrIt khahI."-sukhmClni. See 68t<:r l?ffl:ro. 9 Clmol jISU rIde na vasIa."-sor m 5. god. 10 soul. 11 mercury. 12 corn. 13 ajuicy ~ fi:fur [amolClk sIgh] a valiant Sikh of Of delicious food. 14 a medicine that heals. Guru Gobind Singh, martyred during the 15 adj alive, not dead. 16 beautiful, lovely. battle of Chamkaur. ~ [ClmrItsClr] With permission from Guru ~ [Clmolva], »tJfw [Clmola], »rH-m [Clmoli] Amar Das, Guru Ram Das got a tank dug near See }ff}jC'). "ClgClm amola ClpClr Clpar."-bhlor m Tung, Gumtala and Sultanwind villages, 5. 2 without price, priceless. "kClrI dino jClgClt which was completed by Guru Arjun Dev in sClbh gol amoli."-gClu purbi m 4. 'enslaved Sammat 1645 and named Santokhsar. without recompense.' Again as directed by the third Guru, a >m-for [Clmak] adj which causes fear and disease. village named Guru ka Chakk was established See }ff}jC'). 2 n vice, sin. "Clmaka kClt£1a."-NP in Sammat 1631 and residences known as "gag tarag amakan bhag."-NP Guru ke Mahal built and to the east of them l?I1-forg [Clmagal] n opposite of}i(m;); lack ofbl iss near Dukh Bhanjani Beri a tank was got dug and prosperity; misfortune. 2 castor oil plant. in Sammat 1634 which remained, incomplete 3 adj inauspicious, evil. then. 1 >mfu' [Clmaq], ~ [ClmaqCln], ~ [Clmada] Guru Arjan Dev, on ascending the Guru's Skt ~ adj undecorated inelegant. "jotI throne, started completing the village and the Clmada bhanu prClbha."-VN 'The shine of the tank and called upon traders and workers from sword excels the brilliance of the sun.' 2 Skt far and wide to settle there, and named the 31T1'fU6 adj radiant, very pretty, glorious. "jCll settlement as Ramdaspur. Bhai SaIo's services thCll Clmad."-japu. in populating this sacred city were >m8 [Clmat] Skt ~ adj unadvised, without commendable. Paving of the tank began in counsel. 2 unaware. 3 an invitation. See~. Sammat 1643 when it was named Amritsar. 2 "sabh ko dClya Clmat pukari."-NP Slowly the entire settlement came to be known ~ [Clmatu] See >m8. 2 Skt ~ n a call, by this name. On 1 Magh Sammat 1645, the an invitation. "sClbhIn amatu dina khyati."-NP fifth Guru laid the foundation of Harimandir >m-f't: [Clmad] adj not bad; good. 2 not dull; in the middle of the tank and, after the smart. 3 adv at once, soon. "rIde vIcaryo completion ofthe mansion, placed Guru Granth cCllCln amad."-GPS. Sahib in it in Sammat 1661. In Amritsar the })f}\'or [Clmana] A ~f n protection, care. 2 fearprincipal shrine is Harimandir (God's house or lessness. 3 truth. 4 confidence, surety, certainty. temple) where hymns to the Almighty are "ClsbIdhI bIn mClm nClhi Clmana."-NP IGuru Ram Das first settled near the tank in about 1574 >nI1j3' [ClmrIt] Skt ~ n a drink that keeps and obtained a grant for the site with 500 bighas'ofland from Akbar in 1577 (Imperial Gazetteer of India). death away; nectar, ambrosia. 2 potion sanctified by Guru Gobind Singh and served 'The Sarovar (tank) is 500 feet long, 490 feet wide and to Sikhs on their initiation into the Khalsa. 17 feet deep.

~ [Clmogh dClrSCln] adjwhose glimpse

Page 221

Page 222

Page 223


Page 224


khalsa kalrj

naksa amrItsar
• nasan gurdvara ---- •

c ,

plppli sahIb

relve lain







Page 225


continuously recited. The annual Baisakhi fair was initiated by the fifth Guru himself and Baba Buddha started the Divali fair in celebration of Guru Hargobind's return from the Gwalior fort. During Phagun Sammat 1818, Ahmad Shah Durrani got Harimandir blasted the tank with gun powder and filled with earth. Foundation for its rebuilding was laid by Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia on 11 til Vaisakh Sammat 1821 and the complex was rebuilt with in a few years through the efforts Bhai Des Raj. Water for the tank comes through a hash (narrow canal) constructed by Udasii saints, Pritam Das and Santokh Das, in Sammat 1838 with the help of the villagers. It brought water from river Ravi but now since 1923 it is brought from the Bari Doab canal and put into the hash. Maharaja Ranjit Singh occupied this holy city in Sammat 1859 and decorated Harimandirwith gold and marble. He also got built Rambag garden in the name of Guru Ram Das, and Gobindgarh fort in the name of Guru Gobind Singh during 1805-09 AD. On the road to Lahore, the Khalsa College was built by the Panth (Sikh community) in 1892 AD.2
lThe circumambulatory passage ofHarimandir is 13 feet wide and the length of each side is 66 feet. The passage of the bridge from Darshani Deori to Harimandir is 240 feet long and 21 feet wide and is supported by 38 vaults. 'The foundation of Khalsa College was laid by the Governor of Punjab, Sir lB. Lyall, on March 5. 1892. On April 12, 1904, a huge conference was organised by Maharaja Sir Hira Singh, the ruler of the Nabha State under his own chairmanship in which representatives of the Sikh States took part alongwith Sir Charles M. Rivaz, the then Governor of Punjab. A large sum of money was collected and donated to bring the college on finn footing. The government ofPunjab and the Sikh States rendered a lot of monetary help to this institution.


This sacred city is 33 miles from Lahore, 1232 miles from Calcutta, 1260 miles from Bombay and 816 miles from Karachi. According to the last census, the population ofAmritsar city is 1,60,218 including 65,313 Hindus, 71,180 Muslims, 21,474 Sikhs, 1,446 Christians, 5 Buddhists, 738 Jains and 54 Parsis (Persian Zoroastrians). There are four more sacred tanks in Amritsar: (a) Santokhsar named after a Sikh, Santokha of Peshawar, was completed by Guru Arjan Dev, though its construction was started by Guru Ram Das. See qrg ~ 'lJ01if orft:r 2, a 12 and 13. (b) Kaulsar was got built by Guru Hargobind in Sammat 1684 in Kaulan's memory. (c) Bibeksar was got built by Guru Hargobind in Sammat 1685 outside the city as a residence for a rationalist Sikh sect, Bibeki Bihangams. (d) Ramsar was got buiIt by Guru Arj an Dev in Sammat 1659-·60. It was here, seated on the bank of the tank, that the Guru composed Sukhmani as well as compiled Guru Granth Sahib. Other gurdwaras and sacred spots in Amritsar are: (l) Akal Takhat. See ~ ~dJT. (2) DehraAtal Rai on the bank ofKaulsar; attached to it are 91 shops and 42 kanals of land in Sultan village and a 58 ghumaons hunting ground reserved in Amritsar tehsil (subdivision). Se:e ~ <:J'l'fu m. (3) Athsath Tirath. See »IC5Rf'o 3Tal:f. (4) Dharamsala Bhai Salo known as Bhai Salo's Tobha. Here Guru Arjan Dev held congregation on several occasions. See~. (5) Har Ki Pauri (lit. God's ladder) behind

Page 226


the Harimandir. Guru Arjan Dev started the excavation of the tank from this point, by taking the first palmful of its water from here. (6) Guru ke Mahal, residential quarters of the Guru, first got built by Guru Ram Das and completed by Guru Arjan Dev. It is now known as Manji Sahib where Guru Granth Sahib is always placed ready for recitation. Guru Hargobind lived here, and Guru Teg Bahadur was born at this place. (7) Churasti Atari (a mansion with four ways) at the end of the main street inside the city is a gurdwara in the name of Guru Hargobind near the Guru's residence. The Guru would often come and sit here. Now a small gurdwara with Guru Granth Sahib placed in it is at the corner ofthe street. A festive gathering is held in it on the first and fifth lunar date. (8) Tahli Sahib is a gurdwara dedicated to Guru Ram Das near Santokhsar tank, to the northwest of it. After Guru Amar Das ordered the construction ofa tank, Guru Ram Das used to sit here under a tahli (Indian rosewood) tree to supervisethe digging. I That tree is still there. It is a small gurdwara with shops attached to it. It is looked after by an Akali Sikh. An annual fair is held here on the first of Phagun. (9) Thara Sahib (platform) is on the circumambulatory passage of Darbar Sahib, close to Dukhbhanjani Beri. Like the adjacent gurdwara, it is dedicated to Guru Amar Das and Guru Arjan Dev. Both of them used to sit here supervising the digging of the tank. Maharaja Ranjit Singh got the place paved with baked bricks. (10) Thara Sahib II is a gurdwara near Takhat Akal Bunga. It is dedicated to Guru Teg Bahadur. When he came from Baba
IThe digging of this tank was completed under the supervision of Guru Arjan Dev.

Bakala to pay obeisance at Darbar Sahib, the priest denied him entry and locked the door fearing that he might occupy it. Five shops and 21 kanalland in Sultanwind village are attached to it. An annual fair is held on the full moon of Magh, and the death anniversary of Guru Teg Bahadur is observed. (11) Damdama Sahib to the north-east of the city near the cattle market is also a shrine of Guru Teg Bahadur, who stayed here for some time after leaving Thara Sahib. Since Sammat 1961 a beautiful gurdwara of baked bricks has been under construction here by Bhai Sant Singh, a lime merchant ofAmritsar; residential quarters are in the vicinity. The gurdwara has no landed property. It is one furlong to the west of the railway line and about two miles to the north-east of Amritsar railway station. It can be seen while travelling by train. (12) Darshani Deodhi (entrance porch) near Guru Bazar inside the city is a gurdwara of Guru Arjan Dev. This was got constructed by him as a portico to Ramdaspur. At that time there was no populated area between it and Darbar Sahib except Guru ka Bazar. It is a small gurdwara with a single priest. Here Guru Granth Sahib is always kept ready for recitation. (13) Dukhbhanjani Beri Uujube tree, the eradicator of sorrow) is a shrine within the circumambulatory passage of Darbar Sahib. Here a leper got healthy after having a dip in the tank. This gurdwara gets an annual grant of24 rupees from Maharaja of Nabha. It is a small shrine with Guru Granth Sahib kept ready for recitation. (14) Pipali Sahib situated on Amritsar Lahore road about one and a half mile north west of Darbar Sahib, is dedicated to Guru Arjan Dev who reached here to greet the

Page 227


the following relics are kept in the house of sangat of Kabul coming to participate in the Bhai Ram Saran and Bhai Gyan Chand digging of the tank. Once Guru Hargobind also came here. It is a small shrine. A Brahmins: These were btlstowed upon their ancestor congregational fair is held here: on Basant by Guru Hal' Rai : (1) Guru Hal' Rai's asa, Panchami. 5.75 feet long, bestowed upon Bhai Harra, (15) Bel' Baba Buddha ji is within the by Guru Hal' Raii. (2) Guru Gobind Singh's circumambulatory passage ofDarbar Sahib is long loose gown arid a pair of shoes bestowed where the savant sat with digging implements on Bhai Natthu son ofBhai Harra at Anandpur. and made baskets and distributed them to workers engaged in the actual digging, ~ 'J:fRaro [Clmnt saskar] This is the second main ceremony of the Sikhs performed as supervised them, made payment to artisans under: and disbursed wages to the labourers. In a congregation with Guru Granth Sahib (16) Manji Sahib in Guru ka Bag is near open and present there, five sword bearing Darbar Sahib where during the digging operation, Guru Arjan Dev held congregation. Singhs (duly baptised and practising the The gurdwara consists only of a cot (maji) on tenets) selected for their perfect conduct, sit in a particular posture, virasCln, around a steel a high pedestal. The marble dome-shaped pavilion was presented by the Deputy trough in which with a double-edged steel Commissioner Mr Cooper who had brought it dagger, khanda, they churn in turn water from Ram Bag after the mutiny of 1857. sweetened with pCltasas. 2 They keep on (17) Lachi Beri near Darshani Gate is Bhai reciting Japu Ji, Jap Sahib, Saviyas, Chaupei Salo's jujube tree. Sitting here he would and Anand, after which they do Clrdas, the supervise the work going on. The fruit of this supplicatory prayer, and then administer amrit beri is sweet like a litchi. Hence this name is thus prepared to those eager to take it one by given to this gurdwara. Guru Arjan Dev also one in turn. spent some time here. I The person eager to be baptised should (18) Fort Lohgarh is inside the Lohgarh have taken a bath and put on clean clothes. gate. Guru Hargobind got this fI)rt built for While amrit is beiing prepared, he should keep the protection of the city, and he fought a standing and continue repeating the name of defensive battle: here against the Mughal army Vahguru, with mind concentrated on Him. in Sammat 1686. Some traces of the fort are For taking amrit, he too sits in viraSCln still visible. Ajujube tree ofthat period is also posture. He is given five palmfuls of amrit to drink, then five palmfuls of it are sprinkled to be found there. Guru Granth Sahib is installed here, and a 2.5 feet long sword is 2It has come to be known from the aged Baba Nihal Singh preserved that is said to have belonged to Guru Ji and Bibeka Singh Ji that Guru Gobind Singh Sahib Hargobind. did not use patasas on 1st Baisakhi 1756 in Keshgarh (19) In Thakurdwara lane of Fort Bhangis, and the story of Mata Sundri mixing patasas on that
IThe aged Singhs tell that the valiant defender ofthe faith, Matab Singh, had tied his horse under this tree before beheading Massa Ranghar. day is a fiction. The practice ofmixing patasas with water started later in Delhi after Mata Sundri ordered Bhai Mani Singh to do so.

Page 228


on his eyes and another five palmfuls are ~ ~ [amnt gUD] adj salvation providing sprinkled in his hair. The remaining amrit is trait. circulated in the same trough to all the eager ~ UlG [amn t ghat] a pot of nectar. 2 a four ones to sip from the same pot in turn. With line matnk metre, each line having 29 matras each palmful of amrit given to him to drink with pauses at the 16 th and the subsequent 13 th or sprinkled on his eyes or in hair, the taker matra. of it is made to repeat aloud "vahguru ji ka Example: khalsa, vahguru ji ki fateh." Ifhis earlier name ram jana mIlI bhaIa l anada, was not given to him from Guru Granth Sahib, hdn niki katha suna I , a fresh one is now given from this Scripture. durmatI mElu gai sabh nikalI, After this the baptised ones are imparted satsagatI mIlI budhI paI. ...-ram m 4. instruction about the conduct of the Khalsa ~ i'!'1'? [amnt jal] n water, animated by the to be henceforth practised by them. The Guru's words, renders to the ceremony of the neophytes are made to dine together in the Khalsa the power of immortal ising the same vessel in order to remove any idea of recipient. 2 the name of God. 3 water of the sacred tank of Amritsar. caste and subcaste. The same procedure applies in the case of >m1:r3' 'QTij" [ amn t d h ar], »mf3" "QTiJT [ amn t women. To set a different procedure for them dhara] n unbroken concentration on God. would be a sacrilege against 'gunnat'. 2 as believed by the followers ofYog, flow of elixir in the forehead is caused with the force ~ W1? [dmnt kal] See ~ ~. of praDa yam (restraining breath). It is also ~ i'fm [dmnt kOQli] See 3J.Rr £k tT 21.f 3. known as amnt varuDi (spiritual liquor) 3 a ~ m [dmnt gdtI] a matnk and vdrDIk metre characterized by a stanza offour lines, medicine prepared by mixing sap of parsley, each line having 12 matras, ending in III mint and camphor taken in equal measures. It is a very good drug to cure ailments of the combination. stomach. Example: sumdtI mdha nkhI rdghuvdr. ~ [amntdhari] adj (a Sikh) who has taken amrit by undergoing the baptismal dOddbhI bajdt ddr ddr. ceremony. 2 a river ofelixir. 3 a flow of elixir. jdg ki dSU dhunI ghdr ghdr. 4 a melody sung in God's praise. 5 a spiritual pur rdhi dhunI surpur.-ramav. discourse. See ~. 2 Its second form is tvant gdtI which has four lines each structured as: III, 151, III, S. »rfii3' yfo [amn t dhunI], »rfii3' 1Jfo [amn t dhvanI] Skt ~ !:Rf.1 melodious singing of Example: sumatI maha munI sUluye, God's praise. 2 a matnk metre, having six lines, the first two lines forming a couplet, tan man f?ri nIj gunIye, each of the remaining four lines having 24 man mah hoy su kaluye, matras each with a pause after every eighth dhdn sab apan lahIye.-ram c;'}drrka. syllable; the initial phrase comes at the end 3 In its third form there are ten characters in of the last line and the last phrase of the each line, fifth and tenth ones being guru. This characteristic applies to the second form as well. 'It is pronounced bhdya here.

Page 229


kine an rO<;l mO<;l rudr ras bharyo jhO<;l couplet comes at the beginning ofthe thirclline. ph::>jan sudharan me bir ras kino hE, This form is used in heroic poetry as well. <;lak sun lak bhaybhit satru bam nf'da Example: vIkram prabal adbhut ras lino hE, thai thai dal khalbhal paryo, brahmgyan sam ras amnt vuajE sada bth ulatth palatth, / f?ri guru gobf'd raI navo ras bhino hE. jasvari ko phuat hE, hathi hatth pramatth, - / pnthme hE jayo prIthu ben nnp IE khIlayo hatth prematthath, thakIt na patthath, cum cum mukh dE dadhicI sukh dina hE, thIt jahI juthatth, / thai thai guthatth, thuat na sathatth, balI raj man bhayo han cad IE la<;layo calan sIkhayo kal kara!). prabino hE, thar thar guthatth, / thakat na kIthatth, thu thu cItthath, vIkram pa<;lhayo bhoj bhoj;m karayo jag dey pahuayo jag abhIlakh lino hE, bapu uplatthath, / thunyan matthath, thakat partthath, f?ri guru gobf'd raI amnt SUdnf?tI hi te mal dal thai thal.-GPS. tr to pratIpal clutIpal 'jas' kino hE. ~ ~ [amrIt vela] 11 early morning nffi:r3" o"lo [amnt nir] See nffi:r3" ~. »rfi:£3' ~ [amnt phal] Skt 11 a mango. 2 a comprising 90 minutes before the appearance custard apple. 3 a banana.4 a grape. 5 a pt~ar. of dawn. 2 time of salvation, heavenly time. 6 a pomegranate. 7 adjjuicy fruit. "bar:l tn!). ~ [amnta] Skt 3l1flT 11 a creeper plant, gilo; tnbhava!). maul I a amn t phal pai. "·-bas~)t var. Menispermum glabrum. 2 myrobalan. 3 fruit nffi:r3" 'If-e- [amnt bOd] 11 a drop of rain falling of piper longum, magh pIpali. 4 dubb, in a particular lunar mansion. 2 rain of God's Panicum detylon. 5 rasSt, a dried extract of name. "han amnt bOd suhav!).i mIlI sadhu the barbery root. pavi!).haru."-baramaha majh ~ [amntasu] Skt ~ whose rays have nffi:r3" ~ [amnt raI], nffi:r3" 010f [amnt ray] amrit (nectar); the moon. a poet in the COllJi of Guru Gobind Singh. He ~ ~ [amnta mnt] adjwhich lends taste to elixir; quintessence of nectar. "amntamnt was the son of Chhailrai Bhatt of Lahore. At the instance of the Guru, he translated the hE. "-japu. court-chapter of Mahabharat into Hindi verse. l?Ifl:r31;r [amnte$] 11 god, the master of nectar. Here is his translation: 2 Guru Gobind Singh. manhar ~ [amrItodbhav] adj born from nectar. jahi or jail atI adar taM te pau, 211 Amritsar, the pilgrimage centre. See~. ~ [amntyu] adj deathless, immortal. tere gun gan ko agau gane f?ef? ju, hir cir mukta je dIn pratI dan det, ))fljf lay] Skt ~ vr to go, run. 2 Skt ~11 fire. 3 iron. "banhI hem ay paras sath."-GPS. 4 a tInE dekh dekh abhIlakhat dhanef? ju, weapon. "ay dharan hE. "-kalki. gunIl1 me guni kavI amnt pa<;lhEya tero, jdb InE hero pyar kijE amref? ju, »IliIR [ayas] Skt ~, 11 opprobrium. 2 adj f?ri guru gobf'd sf'gh chirnIdhI par bhai, infamous, ignominous. kiratI tIhari tumE kahIkE sades ju. ~ [ayaskat] Skt ~ 11 a magnet. See pnya prem so sf'gari hasy so vInod bhari ~mx. dinan pE karu!).anusari sukh dino hE, ~ [aydaha] See'l'>lttt'<JT.

Page 230


})fliJO[<Jy<Jn] SkI n a house, home, place of unworthy, improper. 2 worthless, unintelligent. residence. 2 a period of six months; the ~ [dyodh<Jn] SkI ~. n a battle, war. movement respectively of the sun to the north 2 a battlefield. 3 See ~. and the south of the equator.! 3 a route, path. l'>Irlttr.iJ [<Jyodhy] adj which cannot be won, 4 See~. which cannot be fought against. ~urr [<Jya] A UI( adj clear, wide, free from »fiitu:;rr [dyodhyaF a principal town ofKaushal delusion or illusion. country on the bank ofSaryu river in Faizabad ))f'liI'1'Ff [<Jyas] SkI n an endeavour, effort. 2 adj district of United Provinces. It is counted untiring. 3 A J!( a sensualist, philanderer. among the seven sacred cities of the Hindus. l'>tlil":CJT [<Jyac] T i~' n a cup, especially of wine. Ram Chandar was born here and it was for a 2 SkI without a religious sacrifice. long time the capital ofthe Suryavanshi kings. ~ [<Jyad] SkI ~,adjwho does not beg; Balmik has written that it was founded by contented. Manu and that it was 12 yojan long and 2 ))ftiJ1Otf [<Jyamp] n state of ignorance, stupidity. yojan wide. There are three gurdwaras in ))fliI'T(")T [<Jyana] adj ignorant, unwise, stupid. Ayodhya. "nahI ram <Jyana."-asa kabir. 2 n a child. (a) Guru Nanak Dev's, gurdwara, not well})ftiIT)f [dyam] A (~Iplural ofiih-r (day). known now. })jlllld€lrOf.l [<JyardanI~] See n1~F'5.Ci:1'lM. 2 See (b) Guru Teg Bahadur's gurdwara near l?forro. Dashrath's memorial shrine on the bank of Saryu river. })jtifTl? [dya1] P J~' n the mane of a horse or a lion. 2 A J!( n family. 3 progeny. 4 one (c) a gurdwara near Vashishth kund where Guru responsible for bringing up; a servant etc. Gobind Singh stayed for a while on his way ~ [dyali] See l'ifFlTffi. from Patna to Punjab. l1fft;r [dyI] SkI part a pol ite word for addressing >$tfo [dyonI] adj un50rn, not liable to birth and death. 2 n God. £! he!. })jljj' [<Jya] SkI pron this. ~ [<JyUkdt] SkI ~ adj unsuitable, unfit. l?forro [<Jyyar] A j~ clever, smart. 2 deceitful, 2 not joined, separate. ~ [dyUt] SkI n ten thousand. "dYUt bdrdkh its root is ~Q, (horse-trot). trete cIt dhdrhi."-NP. })jQ [dr] part a conjunction; and. See)j.@". 2 SkI ~ [<Jyudhya] See »fiitu:;rr. 3R n the spoke of a wheel. 3 a corner. 4 moss, fungus. 5 some ignorant writers have used »fij" ~ [dyoauEl a combination of vowels »f~-~-})j'-»f: for practising children by rote instead ofl11tT in Sastarnammala. For example - "<Jr <JnujdnI ni." (page 941) instead of "dj learning. Similarly the Guru's dictum. "<JyoaD£ sdbh jdg aIa kakh£ ghaU£ ka1 bhdIa."-asa pati dnujdnIni." 6 obstinacy, stubbornness. 7 obstruction, disturbance. "kfh SIkh ko kardj m3. dr jaI."-GPs. ~ [dYOg] Skt n separation, difference. 2 a wrong time, bad time. 3 See »IiiioTJr. nRIR [drd~] A J/ n a throne. 2 God's throne. 3 a paradise, the world of gods. "xudavad ~ [<Jyogy] SkI adj unsuitable, unfit,
ISummer solstice (from 10 Poh to 9 Harh) and winter solstice (from 10 Harh to 9 Poh). 2From Ayodhya. the word Avadh came into being for the areas extending beyond the city into the countryside.

Page 231


metaphysics and other topics are the goals scholars aspire for. They decorate the libraries of rich persons. 7~npiles. In Europe, Aristotle is known as the master »RJR'Y ~ [aras-hu kuras-hu], >?-RTR" ~ [aras of the wise. His books have been translated kuras] See~. in to almost all European languages, and ~ [arastu], ~~ [arastti] ~ .11 E Aristotle G Aristoteles, one ofthe ancient philosophers students need to study them with diligence for selection to higher posts and positions in of Greece, born in 384 BC at the new Greek universities and academies. Aristotle died in settlement of Stagira. His father Nicomachus 322 BC. at the ag(~ of 62 years. "bol arastti was the royal physician. Aristotl,e lost his matr vIcryo."-carItr 217. parents while still young. At the age of 17, he reached the Greek capital Athens, became a })ffi}lT [arsa] A -"'/ n a period, timpe span, duration. 2 delay. 3, a plain, an open ground. pupil of Plato and received education th(:re for 20 years. After the death of Plato, he left l)ffiFfT3" [arsat] See ~ tT ~ 12. Athens and went to his friend Hermius who »ffiUG [arhat] Skt l?f<Rtl'c n a persian wheel; a was an independent ruler of Attornius. Here circular appliance for lifting water from a well. he married Pythia, the sister of King Hennius. After some time Hermius got caught in the ~ [arhar] n a type of grain/lentil. designs laid by the Persians, and Aristotle ~3' [arhat] See )~3'. "dhar arhat dey ko rupa."-arhat. alongwith his wife went to Mitilini. After two years he was sent for by King Philipposl of l')f'ijq [arak] Skt 3T9f. vr to heat up, admire. 2 Skt Macedonia and appointed tutor of his son 3l"'i n the sun. "kamal badan praci dISI jIh ko yak arak parmana."-NP. 3 »for. a wild plant, Alexander. Aristotle stayed at this honorable Calotropis. "arak javas pat bIn bhaIu."-tulsi. post for eight years. When Alexander left for 4 Indar. 5 copper; 6 fire. 7 a pandit, scholar. Asia with the aim of conquering the world, Aristotle went to Athens where he taught 8 elder brother. 9 twelve (because the suns are believed to be twelve in number) 10 A philosophy at th,e Lycium for 13 years. He 13/ perspiration, sweat. 11 sap flowing from used to teach while walking around with his a pipe. 12 essence, quintessence. pupils, for which they came to be known as l')f'ijq 1J'3' [araksut], l'>faCil'FI' [arkaj] n son of the peripatetics. sun; Dharamraj; the god of death. 2 Saturday. Aristotle wrote celebrated treatises on 3 Karan. 4 Sugriv. different subjects. According to one writer he wrote 1000 treatises. 2 His books, accepted in l')f'ijq wfeW [arak ba(iIya] P iJ~J~ J/ n aniseed Corpus Aristotelicum as authentic, prove that water. It has the same properties as aniseed. he was really a wonderful man. His books on See Ft'G. logic, ethics, politics, economics,poetics, ~ [arkan] See '~. rhetoric, natural history of animals, physics, nreoit [arki] adj pertaining to the sun; of the sun. 2 n son of the sun, Saturn. 3 Yam, the lSee~. 'See Zeller's Aristotle: and the Earlier Peripatetics Vol I, god of death. 4 Sel~ ~ 3. ~ [arkhan] See~. 2 Skt~. order P.49. baX$ad 0 £$ ara$."-jafar. 4 the sky. 5 a roof, ceiling. 6 Skt 3'R"B adj without sap, tasteless.

Page 232


or gradation of saint-scholars.
~ [arkheul Skt~nthe conduct of saint-

scholars. "gurumukh as nrras matr arkheu hE."-BG 1II"R"Gf HB. })fffiJJ'RT [argajal n a scented product prepared by mixing odorous substances for rubbing on the body so as to render it fragrant. "mrrg mad g;Jfa eoa eadan kusum dal sagal sugadhr kE argaja subas hE."-BGK. 'Musk, gloss of musk, perfume, sandalwood, saffron and rosepetals are ingredients of argaja.' ~ [argall, })RJ(JJW [argalal Skt wfm n a wooden bolt attached to the inner side of a door to work as a locking system. 2 a click or pawl. 3 according to books on magic, the act of stopping by means of a charm or spell. See

~ [argail Pkt

n silence. "jyo tag age ag

argai."-NP 'as an ignorant person gets mute in front of a metaphysician.' '»RJOI'TOT [arganal Pkt v to get silent, become mute. ~ [argarl, ~ [aragaral adj »rfu-~. the destroyer of the enemy. »RJUf [araghl Skt »fUf n a libation, offering, worship. 2 price, cost. 3 water, milk, kusha (soft grass), curd, mustardseed, rice and barley, which are offered to the god. 4 the act of giving water to the god. 5 a pot made in the shape of cow's ear for offering water to the god. 6 a jewel. "aragh garabh nrrp trryan ko bhed na payo jar."-eantr 1. 'The secret ofjewels (their exact spot in sea), what is there in the womb, the mystery of the king and the woman cannot be known' . ))RJUIT [arghal See 1lfOUf 5. l'>RltJ [arae] Skt 3T{ vr to worship, serve, honour, spruce, praise, establish. >mrtlO' [are;ml, »Rft3T [areal Skt ~;or, ~ n worship. 2 respect. See nrotr vr. "puja area

ahr na tori."-guj ravdas. [;marl Skt 3fClTIf adjfit to be worshipped. 2 honourable; worthy of esteem. "agar di rkk arear pagar di puja jab kupp-hr. "-paras. 'when honourable worship gives rise to anger'. ~ [araerl Skt ~ n a ray. 2 a flame. ~ ~ UIfu [am: kE gharrl in the company of woshippers. "areE kE gharr rahE udas, pareE kE gharr karE nrvas."-ratanmala. 'Getting . tired of worldly people, a spiritual person puts up with seekers of divine knowledge.' ~ [arehenl adj »rfu-~. destroyer of enemies. "arehen ben maha bali."-ben. })RIi1 [arajJ Skt 3T'i[ vr to produce, collect, earn prepare, strive. 2 A J/ n a request, supplication. "yak araj guphtam pes to." -tI15g m 1. 3 breadth. 4 P }1;'; longing, aspiration. "saea araju saci ardas."-asa m 1. S (;,11 rate. 6 price, value. 7 admiration. ~ [arajda$tl P ~IJJ / n an application; a written request. See ~. »RIHO [arjanl Skt»itl?l n earning See n1tf vr. 2 collecting. "sri arjan arjan kari arjan bani jES."-PP 3 Skt'Y;fffo. an evergreen hard wood tree also called jamala, flowering during March-April, also named L TerminaliaArjuna. 4 middle brother of the Pandavas, who was an unrivalled archer of his era. According to the Mahabharat, he was born to Kunti as a result of her union with Indar. In the forty fourth chapter ofVirat section, it is mentioned that he was named Arjun because of his transparent actions. In Dasam Granth, Arjun is mentioned as the twenty second incarnation: katha brrddh kas karo vreara? barsvo arjan avtara.-nar. 5 Sahasar Bahu, son of Kritviray, also called Sahasararjun. He was a famous king of the Haihay dynasty. See H()/jii!'Q and ~~. 6 a white oleander. 7 a peacock. 8 Indar. 9 the

Page 233

199 fifth Guru of the Sikhs, Arjan Dev, son ofGuru Ramdas and Bibi Bhani, was born on 19 Vaisakh (vaisakh Vadi 7) Sammat 1620 (15 April 1563 AD) at Goindval. all 23 Harh Sammat 1636, he was married to Ganga Devi daughter ofKishan Chand of village Mau. She gave bilih to their brave son Guru Hargobind. Guru Arjan Sahib sat on the pontifical throne on 2 Assu Sammat 1638 (1 September 1581 AD) He preached the Sikh faith in a very effective manner and framed the rule for contributing one tenth of one's honourably earned income to the common cause. In Sammat 1645 he got Santokhsar tank paved, and during the same year founded Harimandir. In 1647 Sammat he got a bathing tank constructed at Taran Taran. In Sammat 1651, he established Kartarpur town in Jalandhar district. During Sammat 1659-60, he got Ramsar constructed and in Sammat 1661 he compiled Guru Granth Sahib. At the same time he installed the holy book in Harimandir and appointed Baba Buddha as its granthi. For safeguarding the rules of Gunnat (the religious code) and teaching the Sikhs to be firm in their faith, he was martyred on the bank of Ravi river on Jeth Vadi 4 (2 Harh) Sammat 1663 (30 May 1606AD). The sacred shrine raised over his cremation site is now a place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs. The fifth Guru lived for 43 years 1 month and 15 days, out of which he remained at the helm for 24 years and nine months. The Bhat panegyrists sang, "guru arjun SIrI chatI' apI paramesarI diau." and "muratI pac pramaJJ purakhu guru arjunu pIkh-hu nayalJ."-savcye ill.5 ke. 'God himselfspread a canopy over the head ofGuru Arjun' and 'Look at Guru Arjan for the model of a man' 10 adj white, bright. 11 clean, chaste. Bhai Santokh Singh has combined the words arjan and arjun: So here, they are explicated together. arjan l sunat su dasan ko dan det moh ke VI darbe ko .vak sal' arjan, 2 arjan 3 yas vIstiran satokh SIgh jaha taha janIyat rnano taru arjan,4 arj,m S bhae gan mokhpad lae tIn syamghan tan hoy tore yamalarjan,6 arjan 7 janyojaI keto hE vIthar tero ESO rup dhar aI rajE guru arjan.-GPs. >'>RJRi'i ~ [arjan satIguru] See »RJ'i'I?i 9. >'>RJRi'i fi.r3r [arjan pIta] Arjun's father, Indar. »!OtI'Q [ arjanu] See >'>RJRi'i. '»RJR' il'oft [araj begi] P Jj ilt n an officer during the Mughal rule who received petitions from the people and forwarded them to the king. "kharo arajbegi tIS tham:."-GPs. In ladies' palace such an official was called Urda Begni. ~ [arajmad] P ~..If adj who petitions. 2 good. 3 honoured, honourable. 4 respectable, honourable. })ffiffT [arja] See ~ffi1T. ~ [arza] P JI)) adj cheap. ~ [arjadhI], n~ [arjadhe] n life, period or duration of being alive. "pal khmI chijE arjadhe."-asa ill 5. ~ [arjani], »R1"n'09' }f(? [arjani mal] son of Baba Mohri and grandson of Guru Amar Das, who after death was brought back to life by the Guru's blessing.
'arja (petitions). "Arjun (one of the paqavs). 'white. bright. 4Arjun (tree). ;clean, whose conscience is clear. "See tlJ-ffiTGt17i" (pair ofltrees).

w idth or expanse.

Page 234



~ i'M'Fr

l)fQ6" [drdth] Skt ~ vr to beg, desire, explore, afflicted with grief; grieved. "Istri drjari hoi encircle. 2 Skt ri n meaning, purport, sense. mdrd!). prdyat."-JSBM "dhdryO drdth jo sdbdd mdjhara, bar bar ur kdrl)RJtft [drji] A iff n an application, a petition. 2 hu vIcara."-GPs. 3 purpose, motive, aim. adj apparent, visible. "kalIka kal hi jIu drji "puchIa <;lha<;lhi sddI kE kItu drdth ill aId?" hE."-cJc;li 1. -var $ri m 4. "tirdth uddmu SdtIguru kia sdbh ~ [drzidan] P d~;.J' v to quote price; to 10k udhra!). artha."-tukha chJt m 4. 4 wealth evaluate. material. "drath dhdrdm kam mokh ka data." ~ [draju] See l?Rli1. -brla m 5. 5 a cause, reason. 6 five topics! l'>RJtfO [drjun] See ~. speech, touch, sight, taste and smell. 7 a result, })jdlj(')'l!!Q [drjunayudh] n Arjun's weapon, the effect. 8 wealth, property, dignity. "arath arrow.-sanama. 2 a bow, especially gadiv drabu dekh kdChu sagI nahi cdlna."-dhana m (Arjun's bow). 9. 9 adj»HIEf, without a chariot. »RJffi1 [drjunu] See ~. l)fQ6" 'f.Il'mI [drdth $astrd] Skt ~ n science ~ [drjoi] n a request. See l?Rli1. "dvIloko of wealth, or economics; study of skill and mam dIS drjoi."-GPs. trade. 2 title of Chanikya's book on political »t'd'ftr ifa'ftr '&" [drdjhI urdjhI kE] adv having economy. See Flon..rf:;r and ~. been entangled. "drdjhI urdjhI kE l)fQ6" ~ [drdth CItr] See ~ ~ -er g-tf (B). pdcImua."-s kabir. ))fd"EJ(')T [drdthna] Skt '»fEfoT. v to beg, ask for, ~ [drd!).] See~. 2 Skt»R! n a wave, ripple. solicit. "dSdn hin bdsna I1dgdn kdrdt drathna 3 flow. 4 a letter, an alphabet, a character. jJn."-NP ~ [dr!).dv] n a body of water; sea. "drl.).dV l)fQ6" ~ [drdth prdhelIka] See ~ ~ bhav nas ko."-NP and ~. ; ))fd(!I" [afl.).a] n))f1"d(').i1 a (forest) dweller; a male l)fQ6" l.ffi [ardth mall] eldest son ofBaba Mohri Ji, and grandson of Guru Amar Das. "tab-hI buffalo. See })ffi(')T 3. 2 adj wild. ~ [aral.).I], »RJit [ar!).i] Skt n the sun. 2 a ardth mal cal kar ayo."-GPs. tree L Premna Spinosa. 3 a wooden contraption l)fQ6" ~ [arath vad] Skt~. n a motivating used to make fire for oblation. "mathan gyan sentence, for example, describing comforts of agni ko arl.).i."-GPs. They would take two heaven to persuade people to perform pieces of wood, one placed horizontally and oblations and fire sacrifices, or mentioning the other fixed vertically in it.. Then wrapping the birth of a son or wealth as reward for a cord around the horizontal one, they rotated austerities. it vigorously and the friction produced fire. ~ [drthau], ~ [arthaI] See l?Rfa" and This fire was considered pure in the Veds and ~. n a principle; purpose, intent. "es its use in religious oblation was regarded as sabad ko jo arthavE."-srdhgosatr. "ISU pad sublime. 4 In Shastarnam Mala, »RJ<ithas been jo arthaI leI so guru hamara."-gau a m 1. 2 S used for the hostile army. ~ an example, a citation, an instance. ~ [ar!).es] See~. l">RJ"EI"'3" [arthat] Skt ~part that is, meaning, ~ [drl.).oddy] See~. or, namely. 2 in reality; really. ~ [ara!).y] See~. ~ ('MTFf [drthatdr nyas] abandonment of

~ [drjari] See ~. 2 P ~J;;,r adj

Page 235


dIkhavE."-krrs<:ln. difference in meaning, a literary figure: in which a common utterance is confirmed by a ~fd' [arthavnttI] See tfltrcr (d) special phrase, or a special phrase is confirmed ~ [arthi] Skt~. n a bier; a hearse. 2 Skt ~,. adjsuppliant, petitioner. "jab Ihu dhavE by a common one. Example: maIa arthi."-gau d m 5. "nic uc hw: jat hE, gurughar ki yahI ritI." ~ [arthia], ~ [arthiy] See i)fQlft. 2 "raje khan umrav ... sabhI han ke arthie." "satIguru sagatI te jatI patI mIt jat, dekho! mardana pujy bhayo guru sag te." -var brla m 4. "jo arthiy padarthan darsan Look! Mardana became worthy ofworship ko avE."-GPs. because of his being in the Guru's company. ~ [artheu] See l?RJEITfu. "gurumukh bhau b,hagatI artheu."-BG This is a common practice as regards the Guru's company, but Mardana's example or ~ [arad] Skt 3fc{. vr to beg; to go; to inflict case is a special one of being worthy of pain; to kill. ~ [aradan] Ski adj without teeth (~), worship. This is arthatar nyas. sakat sagu na kijiE durhI jaiE bhag}:, toothless. 2 Skt <IT'frr n crushing, grinding. "namo srol)virjardani dhumrhati."-cJqi 2. basanu karo parsiE tau kachu lagE dagilJ. -skabir. "rakatbij sDbhadlk aradan?"-GPs. 3 to kill; to destroy. 4 to bet, to crave. Here company of the worshipper of maya is a special case but blotch being caused by a ~ [ardali] E olrderly. n a batman, servant; black utensil is a common occurr,ence, one who carries out orders. (b) a second form of arthatar nyas is to l?f'd'eTFT [ardas], ~ [ardasI] Skt ~ (beg) confirm a specific statement with its reference ))fTR" (hope) vr to pray, request. 2 P .::,)I~ n a /" request, supplication. "ardas bIna jo kaj to a common one. sIdhav£."-t<:lnama. "ardasI suni bhagat Example: apuneki."-sorm5. In the Sikh religion, ardas "sIkkhan seva guru karE, vaQIyan ki yahI ritI." (prayer) is addressed only to the Creator and "satIguru amar ne datu ki sahari lat, it is said after the recitation of scriptural texts vaQe sada chIma ::>1' namarta dharat hE." l')RJCrTOT [arthana] v to interpret; to tell the or for the smooth completion of various meaning of. 2 to understand the meaning of a mundane tasks. It is performed standing with sentence. both hands folded together. "sukh data bhE ~ [arthapatti] Skt ~ n understanding bhajno tIsu agE kan ardasI."-$ri m 5. the unsaid meaning; an instance ofverification "ape jal)E karE apI ape al)E raSI, when one statement automatically proves tISE agE nanka khalI-I kicE ardasI." -maru var 1 ill 2. another, as 'it rains' automatically proves that "dUI kar jon karau ardasI."-bher m 5. the sky is overcast. See ~. 2 a figure of meaning in po~~try. See OlI~:IIidal "ttl thakur tum pahI ardasI, ~ [arthav] See ~ and l)ffiEI1(')1'. 2 n a jiu pfQu sabh teri raSI, bodily gesture conveying a mental condition. tum mat pIta ham bank tere, 3 a feat, performance or show of skill. "sastra tumri knpa mahI sukh ghanere, praharat suran pE kar hathan ko arthav kOI na janE tumra atu,


Page 236


uce te uca bhdgV;'}tu, sdgdl sdmdgri tumn: sutrI dhari, tum te hOI so. agIakari, tumri gdtI mItI tum hi jani, nandk das sdda kurbani."-sukhmani. ~ [ardasia] n someone, generally a granthi, leading the Sikh supplicatory prayer. 2 one who performs a prayer. ~ [drdag] Skt~ adjcrushed, pulverised. 2 begged, asked for. "deu sadhu S;'}gdtI drdagIo."-sar m 5. })ide 1fdl6 [drdagIO] begged, supplicated, asked for. See ~ and l?RfeTClT. })fQfts [drdIt] crushed, trampled See »RJe7i 2. "bhdjat drdIta dgha."-datt. 2 (something) asked for. l?fdQ' [drddh] Skt 3T~ part under, below. See »ffi'Q" ~O!I". 2 Skt 3Wf adj half. "aradh sdrir kataiE."-~ri a m 1.3 the middle, centre. "ddho urddh drdha."-japu. 4 Skt 3Tli worthy of completion. 5 obtainable, procurable, fit to be had. "aradh njak sabh jagat ko."-scmama. 6 Skt 3TRWf. adoration, adorable. See nrefq. 7 soul. See»ffi'Q" ~ 4. l?fdQ' ~ [aradh urddh] Skt})j'Q": W this and the next world. 2 the earth and the sky. "dradh urddh dou tdhI nahi."-gau kabir. 3 low and high. 4 creatures and God. "tau drddh-hI urddh mIlIa sukh pava."-gau kabir bavan. l?fdQ'mfRft [drddh sdriri] one's better half, wife. "dradh sariri nan na chocjE."-asa kabir. "10k ved gu.Q gyan VICC aradh sariri mokh duari."

})idQfRd l

[aradhsIra] Skt ~~. A ;J? Hemicrania (headache in half the head) Its causes are : eating meals without vegetable dishes; eating before digesting the earlier meal; taking too much ice and liquor; excessive copulation, carrying heavy load on

the head, excessive menstrual discharge. Its symptoms are headache in half the head, severe headache, excessive palpitation of the heart, weakening of eyesight, and heaviness in the eyes. Its treatment comprises: (I) Opium and gum of acacia tree should be rubbed into a paste which should be plastered over the temples and the aching half of the head. (2) About one ratti of saffron should be roasted in purified butter and rubbed on the aching part. (3) Purified butter and raw sugar mixed in warm milk should be taken. (4) One should drink castor oil mixed in hot milk. (5) Grains of rice which ripen in 60 days should be soaked and when dry should be finely ground and taken as snuff. (6) Oil of costus species, warmed in hot water, should be applied as paste. (7) Chebiolic myrobalan, buleric myrobalan, emblic myrobalan, wormwood and bark of margosa tree should be combined and thoroughly boiled in water with raw sugar mixed in it and taken as a drink. (8) One should eat ten leaves of basil with hot milk. (9) One should daub emblica ribes and black sesame seeds ground in water. (10) One should drink water of raw coconut. Ifhemicrania pain starts after sunrise, and increases as the sun goes up, but stops at sunset, it is called suryavarat. To cure this, two rattis of quinine and the same amount of burnt alum be ground together finely and taken with water at day-break, thrice after every two hours. "aradhsIra arv hndEsaghat."-c;~rItr405.

Page 237




[aradh kDbhi] See <tit 6. [aradh chadr] Skt »!!f ~ n the moon on the eighth day of the lunar month. 2 a kind of arrow with its tip shaped like a half-moon. "tarka~ te sar karyo nIkasan aradh sucadrakar saman."-GPs. :3 a semi-moon-like mark on the peacock's feathers. 4 half-moon-like clasp of hand and thumb around the neck of some one being driven out of a place. 5 a symbol representing gemination. See l?fftrcr. 6 a mark made by a nail pressed against a soft surface. l')ffitT tf~rfuit [afadh chadraIl).i] n goddess Durga who carries the sign of a semi-moon on her forehead. "namo aradh CadraIl).i cadrcura."--c.§c;ii 2. })RltIO [af dhan] See l'>RJlLI'O. l'>RI'Q" ~ [aradh mgsarupi] See 7iO!' ~gtit
l'>RI'Q" l'>RI'Q"



»RJtft [ardhi] a worshipper. See ~. l1Rlit l'>RI'Q" [ardho afadh] advexactly half. l1Rlit })ffifu [ardho aradhI] adv half and half,
in two equal parts, that is, in the centre or middle. "dutia ardho aradhI samaIa."-ram m 5. 'In dvapar, half the religion prevailed.' ~ [ardhag] Skt 3Tufs::r See ~. 2 n Shiv who has his body half male and half female. 3 adjhalfpmi, in two parts, bipartite. "ardhag kafe bhat kotI."-Cdrrtr 1. ~ ,ardhagak] n one who has made half his body female; Shiv; Rudar. "kEdh6 hE anag ardhagak ke atak te."-CdrItr 109. ~ [ardhagi] n wife. 2 Shiv. "nacyo hE ap taha afdhagi."-CdrItr 125. )')RIO [aran] See 1?f2<Y and ~. 2 v to take a firm stand; to clash. "naID aran ko aran dehfge aran karhI ran arcm saman."-GPs. ~ [army] See :~. »RJOT [arna] See )lS7)T. "hamre sag tumaro arna."-GPS. "arI s6 arkE atI yuddh machayo."-krrSdll. 2 to get entangled. "arIO prem ki khon ."-sar m 5. 3 n a bison; a forest buffalo. "moh rahi jamuna khag J harjacch sabhE arna aTU g£qa."-krrsdn. l')fQc')'t [ami] See »RI-al. ~ [armli] This is a branch of the princely state founded by Bhai Bhagtu in Kamal. Bhai Gurbakhsh Singh's elder son Bhai Desu Singh established his state at Kaithal and the younger Sukkha Siingh set up his separate state atAmauli. The wealthy sardars ofSuddhuval are also descendants of Sukkha Singh. See


[aradh nafaj] See 'i'iQTN »re<T. »re<T ~ [afadh nari~], »re<T ~ [aradh nari~var] Skt»!!f ~ n that form of Shiv in which his left side is that of a woman and right side that of a man. See ~ }jTij(JL ~ ~ [afadhnari nate~var] per Vedic medicine, a cure for pain in half the body. l'>RI'Q" tPmft [aradh padhri] See l..f'tI'ffi })fa-q. l'>RI'Q" ~ [aradh bhujag] See~. l)f6'QTar [ardhag] See ~ and »KJltcrr. ))RJQiaft [ardhagi] Skt 3T~. See })fij"q Rifuft. 2 3T~ n Shiv. See »forT ~. ~ [ardhabh], ~ [ardhabha] adj l~­ llfTOTLIJf worthy of worship by gods and ancestors. See »fog "japI man ram namu ardhabha."-prdbha m 4. 2 Skt 3T~ none who has assumt~d Parvati (Amba) in half his body; Shiv, Mahadev. l)RJftr [aradhI] Skil?flOT[lJf adjworthy ofworship. "aradhI kau afdhIa."-maru jedev. ~ [ardhIa] worshipped, adored. See })RltIO, »RIfq and tk re.
l'>RI'Q" 'i'iQTN

[amy] See >1oRfo. ~ [arpal).], »f"<Jl-Rl [arpan] Skt nrtf<Y. an offering, a present, donation. "arapI sadhu kau apna jiu."-sukhmdni. "arpIa ta sisu suthan gur pahI ."'-gdU ch.§t m 5. ))fQ'.Jtr [arpac] n something to which is made a


Page 238


dedication of a tightened bowstring; a bow. stork, crane. 3 a poetic form. See ~ ~ ~ "bh5han ki arpac kasi hL"-krrscln. 17. nRI8' [arab] Skt 3T{ vr to kill, murder; to go. 2 A lffiJ'dt [arbi] adj Arabian horse. 2 an inhabitant ofArabia. 3 the language ofArabia, Arabic. 4 ",:,,/ n a country to the west of India; a desert country across the Arabian Sea. Prophet See~. Muhammad was born there and lived in Mecca. ~ [arbud] Skt~ n ten crares, one hundred The principal religious place Kaaba is also in million. 2 a mountain range in Rajputana (Rajasthan); Aravali. 3 MountAbu. 4 a cloud. Mecca. Arabia is divided into five parts. Tihamah, Hijaz, Najad, Aruz and Yemen. 5 per Vedic lore, a disease of the body; a tumour. 6 an eye-disease. "mahadin tab prabhu upraja, arab des ko kino raja."-VN 3 adj Arabian, of Arabia, such as ~or [arbag] See ~ "kou aVE arbag ab an Arabian horse. 4 the Arabian sea. toko mar javai."-NP. 5 SkI ~ n ten crares, one hundred million. ~ [arbyan] n the enemy of the Arabian "bhaQar darab arab kharab."-ram parta1 m 5. horse, a tiger or lion.-sanama. ~ [arabh] SkI ~ n a child. 2 winter. 3 a ~ [arab-a] A 6.1 1 four. See}){OST (')'TFfij". ~ [arbad] See ~. 2 SkI ~c,T adj student, learner. commenced, begun. "arbad narbad ~ [arbhak] SkI ~ adj small, young. 2 a dhOdhukara."-maru solhe m 1. 'There was child, lad. "arbhak rup sIkkh hE sasar utter darkness in the beginning.' I See~. maddh."-BGK. 3 foolish, unwise. 4 weak, feeble. ~ [arabanI], ~ [arbani] n an army or cavalry having Arabian horses; an Arab horse- ))RI}fO [arman], ~ [armani] See fi:a'Ho and cavalry.-sanama.'t. })RJ8'l? [arbal], ~ [arbaIa] a short form for »RJl-I1O [arman] P 0U SkI l?flf-HO n a desire, wish, longing. "kari avaj ab au arman jIh." ~. age, life. "jIm dehI arbal chin."-aj. "mohI arbala nnp ki janhu."-carrtr 305. -gurusobha. 2 a regret, repentance. "rajan ko ~ [arbaIan] n the enemy of youth; old arman rahE jag."-GPs. })fffifI'i'jT [ar-rana] v to give a hoarse cry, give a age, senility.-sanama. shriek. 2 to challenge, roar. "SEn katocIn ki ~))jfa" [arbalan an] enemy of old age, . tabE gher lai ar-raI."-VN "log pre ar-raI." amrit, ambrosia.-sanama. }){OST [arba] See ~. -carrtr 23. ~ '(')'TFffi [arba nasar] A /,li*'~.Jl four ~~ [ar,al baral] adj})f-~ and fu-~, topsy elements: fire, air, water and earth. "arba nasar turvy; nonsense; absurd. 2 n a nonsensicr l talk. "osu aral'baral muh-hu nIkaIE."-var sor ill 4. ka tan hL"-JSBM "khak bad atIs J ab ko 'I)RJW [arIa] SkI »ffi12 n a variety of longish ralau hE."-akaF pumpkin. "bahu ajanu su arIa mano."-GPs. ~ [arbfd] SkI ~ n something whose 2 See l?Rl'OTW. petals are spread like spokes of a wheel, or which bursts open during the day, a lotus. 2 a ~ [arli] See l?Rl'OTW. 'which human beings cannot state. ~ larval] a sub-caste of Jats living mostly 'In Gurbani and in Sanskrit akash, is the fifth element. in Dera Gazi Khan. ~ [arvali] See ~ 2. , Here translation ofArabic-Persian books is given.

Page 239


[arvacin] Skt~. adjnew, modern. ~ [arvfd] See ~. nrm [arvi] or l?fO'8't n a variety of arum calocasia; it is like sweet potato which grows with autumn crops and is cooked like a vegetable; it has broad-leaves, which alre Illsed as disposable pllates. ~ [arrau!)a] See l'>RffiT(")T. "arravE bII-1avE nfdak."-asa m 5. ~ [arrakhol] n a contrivance to lock the gate of a cattle:-shed. 2 a winding passage through which one has to pass by bending or twisting his body. l'>RJTEf [arai] n~: a community mostly engaged in growing and selling green vegetables. Its members are also called MaliaI' iin Pothohar and Dhani areas. '))ffi'o!' [arak] A ." n a tree of Arabia, whose leaves are eaten by camels. 2 See ~ij1~. l)ffiIOft [araki] n camel; the eater of leave:s of the arak tree. 2 See ~. ))fijT(Jf [arag] Skt adj without 'ijliJf (love), devoid of love. 2 without colour. l?RI"fft [araji] A c.fl.,' n plural of~(land), lands, fields. 2 cultivable field. ~ [arati] Skt ~ n an enemy, foe. "aI sakE nahI nIkat arati."-GPs. l'>RJ"t!T [arada] See ~. "jag ,Hada karat bulad."-GPS. bRJ'Q' [aradh] Sel~ l'>Rl"tlO, »RI"tlO and })fTort:r.r. l'>Rl"tlO [aradhan], l?RJl'Q'OT [aradhna] Skt})fTQltI'O n service, worship, devotion. "han han nam aradhna."-maru am 5. ~ [aradhI] having worshipped. "tIs-hI aradhI sada sukh hOI."-ram m 5. 2 See



[arana] v to give a loud cry, involvl~ in. "ttkhal kanh araI."-krIsan. ~ [arapau] See l'>RJTtIO. l'>RJTtIO [arapan]Skt ~ n giving, entrusting,

offering. "hiu arapau."-sar ch{it m 5. 'I offer my heart'. »ffi1H [aram] a garden, See l1fTOl}f "bityo jab ek jam krirte aram bIkhe."-GPs. 'Three hours were spent having a walk in the garden'. l'>RJ'O [arar] adj without bickering or dispute. 2 without a fight. 3 stubborn, obdurate. ~ [aralak], ~tffior [araIIk] Skt~ adj walking aslant. 2 n a cook. "ayas din araIIk tai."-NP ~ [aravan] v to entangle, hook. 2 n an obstruction, a hitch. 3 a hindrance, an obstacle. "rnahi'!. kutII bahu paI aravan."-NP ~ [aravni] n an obstacle, riddle. 2 an entanglement, obstruction. l)ffu [an] Skt nan e!1emy, a foe. 2 a weapon. ~ [ano] got entangled. 2 got caught up. See l'lfa'OT. "ano prem ki khon."-sar m 5. ~ [anar], l ~ [anara] adj who resists, or contests. 2 stubborn, mulish. 3 })ffu of})ffu, an enemy of an enemy; a destroyer of the enemy. "arIar aSI."-scmama. ~ [ansat], ntR~ [an~t] Ski an obstruction. 2 a calamity, distress. 3 sorrow, agony. 4 a crow. 5 a margosa tree. 6 a demon whom Kans sent in the form of a bull to kill Krishan but who himself got killed. He was called Vrikhabhasur. "7 a soapwart. 8 son of Vishvamitar born to the daughter of King Yajati. "tIS te ek putr upjava, nam anst jahI ko gava."-GPs. ~I Dg a mud house. ".Fd':!'!jd [an~tasur] ~-~ See ~ 6. ~ [ankheu] See ~. ~ [anjananI] See ~. ~ [anjrt] See ~. ~ [arfq.] See i~. ~ [an!)], ~r [arI!)at] Skt 3f?!lUT adjwho does not have any debt to pay; free of debt. ~ [an!)i] See~. 2 })ffu-»fO'T an army of the enemy.-sanama.

Page 240

~ [Clrfd]

n an enemy. 2 a short form for

~ (destroyer of enemy). "gClmne Clrfd su

gubfd ne chuqaI din."-GPs. ~ [ClrfdClm] Skt ~ adj who destroys the enemy. "sunClt ClrfdClm tIt ko gCle."-GPs. ~ [ClrIdev] See ~ »!fu. ~ [ClrIyar] See l?ffuwo. ~ [ClrIll], ~ [ClrIlla] See ~. ))Rft [Clril See »f;ft. 2 See »!fu. 3 See nrffi. "Clri Clri tf' ka kClri, kClri kClri ki ritI. nah nah taka bhClli, bhClli nah 56 pritI."-anonymous. 4 a vocative for a woman. "Clri bail gobId namu mClt visrE."-guj trrloccJn. ~ [ClriCll] See~. "atI arialnahI calhI agare."-GPs. ~ [aritha] Skt ~ n a soap nut, seed pod. ~ [aril] See ~. })@' [aru] part and, as well as; a conjunction. "maIa phas badh nClhi pharE aru manu sGnI na luke."-asa kabir. l1@fu[aruCI]Sktlackofinclination; disinclination. 2 lassitude, hatred. 3 a disease in which hunger disappears. See~. ))@tJ [aruj] adjfree from disease (gtr); healthy. ~ [arujananI] cpd Chandarbhaga river; related to whom is the moon, who dispels disease.-sanama. ~ [arujjhan] v to get entangled. 2 to ride. 3 to get busy, be involved. ~ [arul).] Skt n sun's chariot. 2 sun's charioteer, son of Kashyap and Vinita and elder brother of Garur. He is a cripple in the lower part of the body, because his mother in her anxiety to see him had broken the egg while yet raw. Therefore he is also called ~.I In the Purans, he is described as deep red in colour, and that the pre-dawn redness is his. Arun's wife is named Shyeni; Sampati and Jatayu are their sons. "karam karI arul). pfgula ri."-dh,ma

(without) ~g (thighs), without thighs.

tnlocan. 3 vermilion. 4 adjblood-red. [arul).cur] Skt n one having a red plume; a rooster. "ClrUl).Cuf ka tan sas I bhayo." -sanama. 'The moon turned a cock.' ~ '8"fait [Clrun barIl).i] cpd Sarasvati river with red (~) water (m).-sanama. ~ [ClrUl).a] a tributory of Sarasvati which joins the latter near Pehoa. 2 a madder. 3 a potable red weed; cJlai; deracea. 4 seed of Abrus precatorius. 5 a red coloured cow. 6 Skt 3TIfun worship. "ghati pac b Clrul).a karkE."-NP. ~ [arul).e:;;l n Arun's master, the sun. ~ [arul).OdCldhI] n Red Sea separating Egypt and Arabia. ~i-eur [arul).oday] n the sunrise; the time when the sun appears; the redness before sunrise; dawn, morning, See ~. ~'Q3t [ClrGdhati] Skt ~udt n daughter of saint Karadam and wife of ascetic Vashishth. 2 a small star seen near the Great Bear; according to the Purans, one who cannot see Arundhati star dies within 40 days. 3 tip of the tongue. $ [aruddh] adj l?f (not) 2'v'Q' (busy), unobstructed. l?f§O' [arun] See ~. l?f§O' aifaFM [Clrun barInIn] See ~~. the land of Sarasvati river (Arun Barini). -sanama. ~ [aruj] A (:;,/ n rise; progress; increase. 2 height, elevation. 3 See ~ 2. ~ [ClrujhCln] n a complication, tangle. 2 an obstruction, impediment. 3 v to be busy with something, be involved. ":;;ah sag kIm bak arujhe."-GPs. l?fVf [aruqh] See ~ and ~. ~'lf [amp] adj formless, shapeless. 2 illshaped, ugly. ~ [Clrupa] a varl).Ik metre, also called karira, characterized by four lines, each line being

Page 241

207 bI¥ organised as ISS, 5. ~ [arogta] n absence of disease, sound health. Example: sabe jage, bhrama bhag~, ~ [arogi] Skt 3TUfTR~ adj not sick; hale and hearty, healthy. hatha tyage pagalage.-ramav. 2 If we double the length of the verses, and ~ [arogy] See :~. "arogya maharogya." organise the structure as ISS, 5, ISS, 5 then it is -sCJhCJS m 5. known as $uddhga. ~ [arodhan] Skt »@t:/O v to stop, impede; Example: to encircle. "ros arodhan krurbrIte."-CJkal. ~ [aropan], n-Ri1.f<riT [aropna] See~. jape joi tare soi. bhrama khoi nrIbhe hoi.. ,.. ~ [arora], ~ [arora] a trading community risen from Khatris, so named because of ~ [arur], ~ [arura] adj mounted, ascended. 2 firm, steady. "manu caltau bh"J!IO arura." having migrated iTom village Aror in Rohri sub-division of Sakkhar district of Sindh.\ -jEt m 4. 3 S~;:r a python, dragon. ~ [aruri] n a heap of garbage, waste and 2 Dg a fighter, brave warrior. animal manure. l1Rior [arag] ad} colourless. 2 ofbad or poor colour. "ffi' [are] part a vocative for addressing a man ~ [araj] adjfree from sorrow, grieforanger; of lower rank than one's own. "he!" "0". happy, glad. "ar;3jul aradhe."-CJkal. 'who »ffict [arek] adj ofl1ffu(enemy), of the enemy. renders free from grief those who worship (God)'. 2 colourle:ss, See~. "pataka tuk tak arek."-caqi 2. 2 })ffu-to!' many an enemy; enemies. "arek su mar mar pukar ~ [arajIt] See~. 2 not coloured or hi."-caqi 2. dyed. See '6110. ~ [arajul] See .11ffl';:r. I. ))fijcr [arekh] adjwithout a line, without direction, sea animals and products lying haphazardly; 'l'>Ri1f [araq] See fuffi:r. 2 adjwho is not a widow; happily married, her husband being alive. formless. "arekh hc"-japu. 2 ~l:f which cannot be written. ~ [arat] See ~3". 2 »IE, who sticks and stays, opposes, or encounters. See l?fS'()T. ~ [areDu] adj without ~ (dust), gritll~ss. 2 n god; according to the Purans, gods do not l?«fo [aran], »rm larany] Skt 3RWT n a forest. put their feet on the earth and this raises no ~ [aranyak] See ~. ~ [ar5bhl See Jo)fll"#g. dust. 3 the sky. ~ [arel] adj not pushed, without a push; ))RJ' [arhF ~ vr to worship, respect, be capable. 2 Skt 31i worthy of worship adj 3 capable, fit. stationary. See ~rn-. 4 n the Creator. 5 Indar. 6 price, cost. ~ [aret], ~ [an:!] adj who opposes, who 7 worship. 8 gold. 9 speed. fights. "dal 56 ard dhae turag nacaykc" ~ [arhDa] Skt 3riurr n worship, adoration. -krrsan. 2 obstinate. 2 capability, intelligence, sagacity. ~ [arohan] See ~. ~C{ [arok] adj without let; unrestrained, ~ [arhat], ~3" [arhat] Skt ~ adj worthy impetuous. ofworship. 2 n lin, god ofthe lains. 3 Buddhist 'The remains of this village are now five miles southeast ~ [arog] adj free from disease; healthy. ofRohari in Sakkhar district. ~ [arogat] adj not sick; healthy. "arogat 2S ee l1l<f. bhae sarira."-va,:;l chat m 4.

Page 242


sage who has attained nirvan or liberation through knowledge. ~ [aryara] See ~. l)R? [all SkI 3TI\ vr to spruce; to adorn; to push aside; to forbid; to warn; to be powerful; to worship. 2 ~ part complete, entire. "hoa ohi al jagat me."-var maru 2 m 5. 3 SkI 3R1 n poison. See »tC2J-R2. 4 a scorpion's sting. S orpiment. 6 a lock of hair. 7 See})ffu. 8 San obstacle; a hindrance, disruption. ~3T [alauti] SkI ~ n a tree, Bassia latifolia or Madhuca indica, mahua, bearing sweet yellow flowers used for making country liquor also named mahua.! "alauti ka jEse bhaIa breqa jInI pia tInI janIa."-gau kabir. 'Only he who has taken mahua drink, knows the exhilaration it brings.' See~. l')fffi1 [alas] SkI adj slothful, lazy, lacking in zeal. ~ [alas-har] n a remover of sloth; amrit, nectar.-sanama. »jl'SR'Q('f1 [alsauI).a], ~ [alsana] v to feel sloth; to get lethargic. 2 to be dull or drowsy. "nam japat gobrd nahI alsaie."-asa ch;;)t m 5. l'>IHJft falsi] SkI »BFft n linseed; flex seed, its plant and fruit. In the Purans, Vishnu's (;;omplexion is described like that of a linseed flower. 2 Linseed oil is used in paints and its powder is employed in bandaging boils. Many people eat balls of linseed flour mixed with butter and sugar. This is believed to relieve lumbar pain. Its Latin name is Linum usitatissimum. l'>I1?Jlc [alset] n a complexity, complication. 2 an accusation, stigma. l?R'Slf [alast] A .:lr""" This word appears in one of the lines ofQuran where it means 'God asked Adam's progeny, "Am I not your God?" They
ITraditional scholars by ;l!;luti mean sugar. 2ros y with tinge of blue.

replied "Yes, why not". In Bhai Nand Lal's works this word means 'We are engrossed in our resolve to believe in God as our nurturer and sustainer'.
-digo. [alah] adj invisible. "alah lahau tau kIa kahau."-gau kabir bavcm. 2 A, n God. "alah ram jivau tere nai."-prabha kabir. ~ [alahada] A ~~ adj separate, different, apart. ~He" [alahmad] A ), n the name of the opening clause of Quran which commences with this word, literally meaning praise. This clause is recited for the soul of the dead, and also during namaz (Muslim prayer). >mffiJ [alahI], ~ [alahu] See ))fl'S'ij'. "alahu ek masitI basat he."-prabha kabir. })fl'SQ [alak] n a strand of hair falling on or along the cheek; a lock. 2 on the Himalayas, a beautiful city according to Megh Dut. See ~ 2. })fl'SQ "ga i Qa1 [alak cukauI).i] v to spoil or remove decoration, pull hair; its transformation is »R?l:f ~. See })fl'SQ. })fl'SQifur [alaknada] a stream in Garhwal which joins with the Ganga forty miles upward Lachhman Jhula near Devprayag. Vaishnavites .believe that Ganga fell from paradise on Shiv's head at this spot. 2 a virgin girl. })fl'SQ ~ [alak bhujagi] adj whose locks of hair are like snakes. 2 n Shiv, who instead of strands of hair has snakes hanging from his head. ))j"('SC(T [alka] SkI n a ten year old girl. 2 Kuber's city said to be in the Himalayas. 3 fat. 4 a gaI).Ik metre also called kusum VIcItra. It has four lines, each line having this arrangement: III, ISS, III, ISS. Example: catpat SEI).a khatpat bhaje,



Page 243


horizontal like the flute. ~ [alachh] See 1~. 2 without blemish. "rijh rijh acchra alacch sur ko br'E."-kalki. 3 ~ indescribable, invisible. See?? >m?tf [alaj] adj shameless; brazen faced. "alaj asubh subh karam kamavan."-NP ))ffi3T [altalSkt ~ n a red dye prepared from lac used on marital occasions and during the Holi festival. "alta gan ~bir gulal."-GPs. ~ [aHaf] A .....HbJl plural of~., kindnesses. ~. "be adab xalist az altafe rabb."-j.fdgi. ~ [alkab] A ",:",~I n plural ofm:re, titles; distinctive appellations. ~ [aladdhl adj l?j"-E'8'"Q". rare, scarce, ))fffii[l}f [alkam] See i)f1? and ~. adj complete uncommon. 2 not found. work; whose all desires have been fulfilled. ~ [alap] Skt ~ adj a little, petty. "alap >m5fcm [alhs], ~ [alkfdr]' l~:r [alkesl sukh aVIt cacal."-sahas m 5. 2 ~ n >lffiOlT-Ehl, 1'Jffi'(i[T-~. master of Alkapuri, unsmeared, unaffected. "alap maIa jal kamal Kuber. "alkIs k£ jagdis."-carrtr 224. rahtah."-s<3h<3s m 5. "rahIt bIkar alap maIa l1ffi1:f [alakh] Skt })f(')~. adj invisible, te."-sar m 5. 3> a literary figure meant to suggest rather than describe. imperceptible. "agam agocar alakh apara." -brla m 1. 2 without sign or symbol, Example of alap : indefinable. 3 yogis' term for mutual politeness. "mme satIguru de pragtal) di ~ t/O(il1al [alakh cukaul)i] See ))fffi5[ 't!~. sIkkha jad sudh pai, ~ ~ [alakh jagaul)a] v to give a loud bhayo rumac tuttia tal)ia, call to draw attention of people for alms. 2 to n£na chahIbar laL" beg by giving a loud call, 'alakh'! The bodies of the Sikhs are inferior to their >m'51j [alakhu] See })fMl:f. minds which cannot subsume them. "ki'lkan kari h£ chap sou h£ Qhal Qhalat."-hanu. Sita's >m?cIf [alag], »r.~ [algau] adj ))j'-~ which is arm is more delicately described than the ring. not attached or engaged; uncommon, strange, rare. "algau JOI madhukarau."-va.r maru 1 ~ [alpahiaul, ~ [alpahia] adj unconnected, unengrossed. "lep nahi m 1. See HlJC~. l)fffiJItiTTJl [algayas] A ~~I n a loud call or cry alpahiau."-jEt m 5. 2 feeble heart. 3 feeble for justice. hearted. >m5trcJr [alpag], l~ [alpagy] Skt ~ adj })f'l?cJRIH [algaraj] A JjJl adjcareless, negligent; having little knowledge, ignorant. without desire. 2 lazy, sluggish. 3 selfish. ~ [alpatil n a pouch in a soldier's belt >mXit [algol See ~. ~ [algoza] P ~;j.ll n a kind of musical containing gun powder or cartridges. instrument made of wood. It gives: out a ))ffit( If'<!" [alap pranl Skt n unaspirated sounds, musical sound when wind is blown into it. It the pronunciation of which needs little force; is popular in the Western Punjab. It is: a pipe soft sounds k, g, D,C, j,]1, t, g, l), t, d, n, p, b, blown at the top keeping it vertical, not m, y, r, 1, and v; against them are mahapran jhatpat jujhyo lakh ral) raje, satpat bhaje atpat sur~, jhatpat bIsri ghatpat hur~.-ramav. ))jMO(ll1<!i [alkaut).a] to be or feel lazy, lethargic or sluggish. "nam l£t alkaIa."-asa m 5. "apne kaj kau kIU alkai£?"-sor m 5. ~ [alkadllIp], ~ [alkadllIpatI], ~ [alkapatIl n master of the cnty of Alkapuri, Kuber, and treasurer of gods. See

Page 244


sounds (aspirated sounds) kh, gh, ch, jh, th, Q-h, th, dh, ph, bh, and r. 2 adj feeble. ~ jfl:r [alap buddhI], }o)R?lf}-/'fu" [alap matI] adjoflittle intelligence; unintelligent, foolish. >m;~ tal palal] n a false show, an ostenation. 2 an insubstantial action. See >m; and ~. "gali al palalia."-gau var 2 m 5. >m?W talpa] See warr. ~ [alpaI] adjunengrossed, unconnected.
See~. ~ [alpahari]



adj who eats

less, detached, alone. [alpata] Skt ~ adj detached, alone.

See~. ~ [alpari] See ~.

[a1aph] A ...;JI n the first letter of Persian and Arabic alphabet. 2 indictor of figure one in arithmetic. See l'>I8ffi:. 3 abbreviated name of Allah (God). 4 indicating Monday in astrology and astronomy. 5 a horse standing straight on hind legs. ~ J:ITi'i" [alaf xan] Alifkhan, an army commander ofAurangzeb, who fought against Guru Gobind Singh at Nadaun in Sammat 1747. This battle is mentioned in Chapter IX of Vichitar Natak. 2 another Mughal army chief. See Ft'e" }:fT('). ~ [alpha] See 1'lfffift. ~ [alphaj] A J;lP!f n plural of~. 1'lfffift [alphi] A adj upright like the letter alaf. 2 n a long gown without arms worn by holy men; a khafani. It symbolises the oneness of God. ~ [albatta] A ~ part of course, no doubt, without doubt. 2 yes. 3 but. ~ [albal] See ~ . ~ [albalIt] Sktll1IM~fM3 adjsurrounded, encircled. "bal rahe a1balIt jal."-NP See




~ [albela] adj carefree, having no worry.

2 foppish, crooked. ~ [alabh], ~ [alabhu], ~ [alabhy] adj not obtainable, rare. "ISU jag mahI nam alabhu h£."-var sor ill 3. })fM}f [alam] adj suffering, afflicted. 2 A ~ a standard. 3 adj standing upright. 4 raised. "sam~er alam kine dhae sabhi sIpaha."-saloh. 5 See~. 1'>fMHR3" [almast] P ..:-11 adj inebriated, drunk. 2 carefree, lost in love. "harIrasu piv£ almasat matvara."-asa ill 5. 3 a devotee of Guru Nanak Dev and Baba Shri Chand, known also as Kamalia and Godria. Almast was born in the house of a Gaurh Brahman in Sammat 1610. Balu Hasana was his younger brother. After becoming a follower of Baba Gurditta, he became the head of a sub-sect of Udasis. Guru Hargobind went to Nanakmatta to the aid of Almast. pun a1masat sadhu ko dhir, dekarI bhale guru bar bir.-GPS. This pious person died at Nanakmata in Sammat 1700. See ~. ~ aaou:t1€i'i [alam barka~idan] P I.j~ ~ v to raise a spear high. 2 to raise a flag. })fIDffl" [almal] poison and dirt. See>m; and lffi. "almal khai SUI chai pai."-var asa. 'Ghoris disgraced themselves by indulging in drink and dirt.' ll1'MWR" [almas] P vL11 n a diamond, a hard substance. ~ [almari] Pg almerio or almirah n a chest of drawers. ~QT [almora], ~~ [almora] a city and capital of Kumaon region of the United Provinces. It was the capital of the kings of Chand dynasty in the sixteenth century. The British occupied it in 1815 AD. There is a story in the third chapter of the second half of Janamsakhi and Guru Nanak Prakash that

Page 245


a king had captured Bhai Bala for offering religion. 2 king ofthe Khilji dynasty who ruled him as a sacrifice to goddess Chandi. He was at Delhi from Sammat 1353 to 1373. He got the ruler of this place. Guru Nanak Dev the dome-like gate near Qutab Minar built in preached the name of God to the king and Delhi in 1310AD. the people of Almora and made them his Kings bearing this name of Sayyad and disciples. There used to be a gurdwara here Bahmani dynasties have also been there in Gaur and BengaL and the people were devoted to Guru Nanak Dev. Due to the negligence of Sikh pre:achers, ~ [alan] adj said, spoken. 2 sung. the gurdwara as well as the Sikh faith have })fWFf [alas] n See~. 2 Skt a disease of the vanished away from this region. tongue. ~ [alarak] Skt >lffiCI' son of Madalsa and ~ [alasi] adj l'W-wm. a female performer king Kuvalyashv l (Ritdhvaj). He was a great especially of lasy dance. "juala jayati alasi spiritual scholar also known as Bhumishth. anadi."-c~di 2. See Wl1.iI'. See <S~MGli~ and H~. 2 a mad dog, mbid l1fl?TU [alah] adj without gain or profit; dog. 3 rabies, hydrophobia. 4 a white-coloured profitless. 2 n Allah, God. "alah pakapak hE."-tIl~g kabir. "bhagatI nIrali alah di." coral tree. See ~. ~ [alaI] Skt nf-"M(iI" adj not playful or brisk; -asa a ill 3. firm, resolute. "cau al-IIa."-BG 2 S(~e l')fi'ffi". ~ [alaha!)], ~ [alah!)a] vto say, speak, utter. 2 to sing; to dilate upon the tunes. 3 to ~ [al-Iacin] Skt n a sea adjoining China. 2 per Janamsakhi, a mountain on the Chinese praise, sing praise. sea coast. 3 Bhai Santokh Singh has described ~ [alah!)i] n a song of praise especially for the dead. See Guru Nanak Dev's instructive the anal bird as al-Iachin. "al-Iacin bIhag jIh thana."-NP See l')fi'ffi" 4. hymn under the title ofAlahini commencing. "dhanu sIrada saca patsIsahu." ~ [alvan] A l.:J'}1 n a woollen sht:et, a mantle of Pashmina wool. ~ is a plural })IWiONI't! [alahabad] See l;fliI"OT. of'fu> (colour). Alvan used to be multi- l'HWfu [alahI] See })ffiT(OJ'. coloured, hence this name. In the We:stern ~ [alaka] A j~ relation, connection. 2 See Punjab it is called ~ which is redfuwa'r. ~ [alat] Skt~,T?Jn a spark, flame, firebrand. coloured. })fl?;'f [alar] See nR3;'. 2 an ember, a burning coal. »{W3";:rq [alat cakr] n red circle created in the })fW [ala] A j, n God "soi lagE sacu jIsu tU dehI ala."-asa ill 5. air by whirling a firebrand. "cakr alat ki bat ~ [alau] Skt))flWl...f n a statement, speech, baghuran."-cadi 1. 2 According to music, a dance in which the dancer whirls with the conversation. "manmukh phika alau."-sor ill 3. See))flWl...f. right arm extended. ~~ [alau!)a] See l'lfTWl.I?jT. "kahe pharid ~ [alaniyah] A d'~ advopenly, publically. saheliho! sahu alaesi."-suhi. meannng that })fWtf [alap] See ))fI(?Ttf. 'With God's call shall reach the message.' ~ [alapi] SkI' 3TIC'fTft'R~ adj a singer of the prelude. ~tflo [alauddin] A IiJ..M~ adjwho uplifts l1R?'H [alam] A (LIo; adjknowing all, omnicient. 'He was king ofPritshthanpur (.Ihusi).

Page 246


2 a highly knowledgeable scholar; a savant. "kI akal alamE."-japu. "kI alamasc.-gyan. ~ [alamat] A ...::--"IJr n a characteristic. 2 mark, spot. ~ [alami] A JIJr adj very clever, expert in war tactics. "rakhas baQe alami bhajj na jal)de."-cadi 3. 2 See >l1§MGHM. ~ [alalat] A "':')IJr illness, sickness, indisposition. ~ [alaval)], ~ [alavan] Skt))'). v to deliver a discourse. "mukh alaval) thothra."-maru var 2 m 5. "nahI tum kijE kachu alavan."-GPs. ~ [alava] A ~J/Jl; adv besides, in addition to, without that. m [alI] Skt n a large black bee, bumblebee. "jEse alI kamla bIn rahI na sakE."-asa m 4. 2 Indian cuckoo. 3 wine. 4 See })ffi't. ~ [alIk] Skt l'lfTfMor n a forehead, brow. 2 See })fMOlT. »rfMfcm [alIkIs] Mount Kuber. See ~. ~ [aIIkh] See ~'l:f. ~ [alfgan] See~. "cahIt alfgan ~ri kartara."-NP. mfo [alInr], ~ [alIni] Skt mfo n a female black bee. "kamal badan te nIkasi na alInI grra."-NP. })fft?tr [alIp], ~ [aIIpat] Skt ~ adj unsmeared, undaubed. "jo alIp rahe man mahi."-sar m 5. "alIpat bJdhan rahIt karta."-bIha cMt m 5. ~F [alIpat gupha] n pure conscience. 2 a clear head. 3 a scholar's family-life. "alIpat gupha mahI rah-hI nIrare."-ram am 1. ~ [alI pta] unsmeared, pure. See »!fMts. ml./OtJ [alI panac] n whose bowstring consists of black bees, Kamdev; god of love. "janu alI panac kach tanu kacha."-raghu. ~ [alIpna] adj unengrossed, unsullied, unattached, pure. "nanak thakur sad a

alIpna."-bavan. [alIpaI], ~ [aIIpat], ~ [alIpata], ~ [alIpari] adj unattached, unsullied, pure. "brahamgIani alIpaI." -maru m 5. "jIu jal kamla alIpari."-sar m 5. "ghatI ghatI puran hE alIpata."-sar chat m 5. "alIpat ardhi."-paras. one who worships Brahma. ~ [alIf] See })fMG. ~ ~ [alIf xan] See})fMG}:flO. ~ [alII] See »fi'ffi 4. ~ [ali] Skt l?fTffi. n a female friend. "kaVI syam kahE sag radhe ali."-krIsan. 2 a row, line, class. 3 Skt »rfMo'T a black bee. "ali al gDjat ali al gDjat hE."-asa cMt m 5.4 a bumble bee. 5A J husband of prophet Muhammad's daughter Fatima. See ~. ~ [alia] Skt~ adjwho lies. 2 n untruth. "jagat rahE na alia bhakhE."-ram beI).i. 'should be on guard, and not tell a lie'. ~-mr [ali $er] a village in Patiala state tehsil Barnala, thana Mansa. It is three miles away from Bhander. Guru Teg Bahadur visited this place. A gurdwara is there to which the state donates Rs. 25 per year. The railway station is 11 miles away from Mansa. ~ [alik] adjwithout a line; undistinguished. "alik hE."-japu. 2 Skt a lie, falsehood. 3 A ..T- J very intelligent. ~ [alil)], ~ [alil)a], nrn'to [alin] adj unengrossed, separate, extraordinary, peculiar. 2 engrossed, absorbed, rapt. "puja car pakhaQ alil)a."-BG ~tIem [ali bakha~] an officer in Shahjahan's army who was killed by Bhai Nanu during the battle of Hargobindpur. ~ [alim] A ~ adj knowledgeable, wise, scholarly. ~ ~ [ali muhamad] an army commander of Saharanpur. Leaving the city undefended,

Page 247


he escaped in Sammat 1767 on hearing that Dal Khalsa was coming to attack him. ~ [alil] A ~ adj sick, indispos(~d. See

[alival).], ~ [alivl).a] v to be rapt, absorbed, or engrossed. "sahIj alivl).Ci."--BG ~ [alival] a village on the bankof Satluj in tehsil Jagraon of district Ludhiana where a battle took place between the Sikhs and the British on 28 January 1846. ~ [alir] See .~. ~ [alumalu] See))R? 3. l'>IF [aluha] ad; unburnt, unscorched. 2 new. 3 young. "ali anup subEs aluhan."-sCI,loh ~ [aluca] See~. 2 adj not villainous; good, gentle. ~ [alul).a], >l~it [alul).i] adj without salt. 2 uninteresting, insipid, dull. "sIl jog alul).i catiE."-var ram m 3. 3 inglorious, inelegant. "phIt alul).i deh."-var bIha m 5. ~ fi:ffir [alUI~i sIla] See fi:ffir ~it. ~ [aluda] See ~. ~ [alupha] .A j}w n pay, salary. 2 stipend. ~ [alur], ~QT [alura] a town in Ne:llore district of Madras. "nam alura taka SOhE." -C;;JrItr 339. ~ ~ [alul jaluI] S unmethodical, rude or foolish talk. ~ [alula] Pkt n a ripple, wave. 2 a bubble. 3 sudden bursting into fire, combustion. 4 adj unflickering, not frivolous, calm. "raj ke dharam alule."-akal. 5 not crilPpled, ablebodied. ~ [ale] part "are!" a vocative. 2 sujindicating a vocative verb as in "tajiale sasara" and "pekhiale dharam rao."-sri trrlocan. ~ [ales] adj without viscosity, not sticky. 2 unattached, unengrossed, without company. 3 See-gR. ~ [alekh] adj which cannot be wriitten.


"alekh hE."-japu. 2 ~, l'>fm:f. invisible. 3 Yogis shout alakh when asking for alms. It was with this call that Ravan approached Sita. "bhekh alekh ucar kE ravan."-ramav. 'Ravan in disguise saying alakh approached Sita'. 4 unaccountabl{~ "tate janam alekhE."-asa kabir. 5 who has no fate recorded on his forehead; free from bonds of Karma. "alekh hari."-akal. "God without any bonds." ~ [alekhi] See nfficr. ~ [alep] adj unattached, unengrossed, unsullied. ~ [aIel] n a line. 2 a current, a stream. "chuti hi:' sis pE sr:m alele."-kdlki. 3 adj adolescent, inexperienced. ~ [aloa] Look, see! See ~lffi') and ~. 2 full of wonder. "magar pachE kachu na sujhE ehu padam aloa . "-dhana m 1. 'It is a rare posture.' ~ [aloan] Skt~. n the act of seeing, looking. ~ [aloI] See nffireo. 2 Skt ~. adj strange. 3 adv having seen, after seeing. ~ [aloIara] adj seen. "nm aloIara han janiara."-ram chat m 5. ~ [aloIa] saw. See ~. ~ [alOIn] n seeing, beholding. "aoad rup sabh nEn aloIa."-asa m 1. "dusar nahi aloiE."-dev m 5. ~ [aloiE] Let us see. See ~. ~u [aloh] adj without iron i.e. without a weapon. "gayo k;m bira su yate aloha."-VN 'Who is that valiant who has not suffered the weapon of death?' ~ [alok] Skt ~or. n light, a miracle. 2 a glimpse, look. "sOdar badan alok."-sar surdas. 3 Skt 3rm-Cfi adj not within sight; invisible. "alok hE."-japu. 4 n desolate, lonely. 5 the other world. "10k alok gavaI durananI."-ramav. '0, evil faced Kekai, you

Page 248


have lost both the worlds'. 6 Skt~. unworldly, strange. ~ [alokanl Skt ~ v to see; to peep. "it ut dah dIS alokan."-ram ruti m 5. »tior [alogl, ~ [alognil, ~ [alogil adj not of this world; strange, uncanny. 2 untouched, unattached, unengrossed. "surag pavItra mIrat pavItra, paIal pavItr alogni."-ram m 5. "nanak log alogi ri sakhi."-asavri m 5. ~ [alonal adj See ~(!T. ~ [alopl Skt ~l.f adj invisible, hidden. "hoi alop bhavani deva raj de."-cac;li 3. 2 })f not (~l.f) secret; evident, manifest. ".n [aloll adjnotfu? (frivolous or frolicsome); serious, settled. ~ [alovl).al, ~ [alovanl vto see, behold, observe, watch. "m~n alovau sadhjano."-gCJU CJ m 5. ";:jtCJrI baharI Iku m~n alovna."-var guj4 m 5. ~ [abkIk] adj not of this world; other worldly, unworldly. 2 strange, wonderful. ~ [al;:i] Skt 31C'fl1. part all, entire. 2 only. 3 able, capable. 4 n an ornament. ~ [al;:jk] short form for»fiORf. 2 ~upto Lanka (Ceylon). 3 the celestial sphere, firmament, sky. "s£1hI dabat £1 parat al;:jk par."-GPs. })RofCFa' [alakarl Skt ~ n an ornament. "al;:ikar mIII thdi hoi hE."-dhCJna m 5. 2 literary figure of speech which adds to the beauty ofa poetic expression without obvious ornamentation. I This is of two kinds: ~abadal;:jkar or ornamentation ofwords as in a rhyme and alliteration, and arthal;:jkar or ornamentation of meaning such as a simile, metaphor, allegory. Where these two types are merged together, it becomes ubhyal;:jkar or a double-edged ornament. In this book they
I3IMs~q;i1J1R1 ~.

have been shown in the alphabetical order. nffi# [al;:jke] Skt 31""C'lS~~(f adj adorned, ornate. "alakar alake."-japu. 'An ornament was adorned'. ~ [al;:jkrItl See~. "alakrIta sudehya."
})Rofcit [alaki],

[alakhl adjwhat cannot be written. 2 what cannot be seen; invisible, imperceptible. "sace sabadI alakh."-sCJva m 3. »fiaT [alag] adjunattached, unengrossed. 2 Pkt n direction, side. 3 adjwithout lameness. See

[alagh], »fiur.r [alaghy] adj impassable; difficult to cross. ~ [al;:jb] Skt ~ n a support, stay, shelter. 2 a refuge. »fiao [alabanl, »fi~. [alabanul Skt ~ n stay, support. "hasat alabanu dehu prabhu." -gCJu m 5. 2 See ~. ~ [alabu~al See FRnJ3'. ~ [alharl adj unthinking, thoughtless. 2 ignorant. 3 inexperienced. S~. ~ [all] Skt ~ or l?fO'CJ n a longish variety of pumpkin; a gourd. 2 A Jf sub-caste. See >m? name of a dynasty. l'lfw [aHa] adj not fully ripe. 2 n God. See nfW. l?fwF.rru [aHa:';iahl, ~ [allayar] a Pathan trader of horses in Delhi and Lahore. Bhai Para Parmahans of Dalla village met him one day on the bank of Beas and impelled him to see Guru Amar Das. Not only did he turn a Sikh but also became extremely pious. The third Guru assigned him the duty ofpreaching Sikhism. ~ ray] Skt 31C(, vr to protect (the word €nf evolved from this root); to please; to go about; to be loved; to satisfy; to understand; to enter; to wish; to adopt. 2 Skt~ a prefix indicating determination, disrespect, dearth, fall, etc .. See~,~, ~ etc.

Page 249


~ [avastha] See ~.


~ [avclIya], ~ [avaia] adj who

comes or arrives. "yadu bir ke dham ~ ~ [avastha catu~tay] n four stages avarya."-krrsan. of life: childhood, boyhood, youth and old »WA" lavas] Skt '~ adj helpless, powerless. age. 2 See ~ and BTQ ~. 2 See ~. 3 ~, n help, aid. 4 grace, ~ ~ [avastha tray] three states: waking, kindness, beneficence. dreaming and deep dreamfree sleep. ~ [avastha] Skt ~ n condition, state, ~~ [avastha dvay] two states, prosperity circumstance. 2 age. 3 four c:onditions: and poverty. 2 know lege and ignorance. wakefulness, dreaming, profound sleep and 3 pain and pleasure, etc. state of blessedness. 4 stages of age: ~ [avasthrtr] Skt n a halt, stop. childhood, youth and old age. ~ [ava$y] Skt part surely, certainly; ~ [avsar] Skt n a chance, an opportunity, without doubt. occasion. 2 leisure, recess, respite. 3 rain. 4. a ~ [ava$yak] adj necessary. See ~. poetic embellishment describing timely »j~J:1J1adl [avai?yakta] necessity. See »j1~HJtadi. execution of work as the right uSle of time. ~ [avharl See:~. Example: ~ [avhrt] Skt adj alert, attentive. jab lagu jara rogu nahi ara, ~t:f [avahrtth], ~'EfT [avahrttha] Skt jab lagu kalr grasi nahi kara, ~ n poetic de:vice of cleverly hiding,joy jab lagu brkal bhai nahi bani, because of modesty and fear. bhajr lehr re man! sarrgpani" ~'ij(! [avheraJ)] v to see, look at, behold. ab na bhajsr bhajsr kab bhai? 2 to insult. See l'}f~. 3 See ~. aVE atu, na bhajra jai.-bher kabir. ~ [avhelan] Skt n an insult, a disrespect. kal karata ab-hr kar, ab karta su Ital, 2 disobedience, contravention of order. pachE kachu na horga jab srn: aVE kal. "avhalan nahr trn ko kijE."-NP -5 kabir. ~ [avka:;;] Skt n a place, post. 2 the sky. ~ [avsarprJ)i] See ~ mrftrtt. 3 a distance, space, gap. 4 leisure, respite. ~ [avsan] Skt n ~ sense, wiit, pnese:nce ~ [avJkiraJ)] Skt ~ adj spread. of mind. "avsankedrvEyaho."-akal. "satrun 2 scattered. 3 extended. "nar avkiral). ke avsan gae chut."-krrsan. 2 Skt rest, repose. jahfkaha."-GPs. 3 limit, extent. 4 death. 5 end, conclusion. ~ [avkhad], ~ [avkhadu], ~ 6 evening, sunset. [avkhadh], 1~ [avkhadhu] Skt >?fRq. n a ~ [avsari] adjworthless. 2 unappreciated. medicine, drug. S,ee~. "harr harr namu "vaJ)aspatr rahE ujar adar avsari."-BG 3 Skt avkhadu mukhrpara."-sor m 5. "avkhadh ~ which d,ecreases, or comes to an end, sabhe kitran, nfdak ka daru nahI."-var gau come to end. 1 m 5. "rog mrtE harr avkhadhu lar." ~ [avsekh] Skt~ adjremainder, balance. -sukhmani. 2 n end, a conclusion. ~ [avgaJ)] See ~. "guJ)ah vasr avgaJ) ~'ffi') [avsecan] Skt n watering, irrigating. nasE."-asa cMt m 1. 2 Skt to insult. 2 getting wet with sweat, perspiring profusely. ~ [avgaJ)r] adv because of faults and 3 extracting blood from the body; phlebotomy. foibles. "avgaJ)r muthe cota khahi."-asa m 3.

Page 250


[avguI).] opposite of virtue; a fault, vice. 2 a sin. 3 a crime. ~ [avgUI).I] because of demerit, due to vices. See~2. ~ [avgat] Skt adjknown. 2 fallen, apostate. ~ [avguI).Iara], ~ [avguI).Iari] 3 Skt ~ adj unknown. "vahguru jo avgat adj vicious, devoid of virtue, "avguniari kat hE us di gatI i?abad kar lakhde hen."-JSBM vIsari."-dhana chat m 1. "avgat lila satguru keri. "-GPS. ~it [avguI).i] adj having faults; accused, 4 indestructible. 5 Skt ~ invisible, criminal. 2 full of drawbacks. "avguI).i formless. 6 n Kamdev, god of love. 7 the bharpur hE."-oakar. 3 with or because of Creator. 8 soul. demerits. ~ [avgatI] Skt n intellect, understanding. ~~ [avguI).u] See ~<Y. "gUI).u avguI).u 2 fall (as against rise) "teri gatI avgatI nahi mera kIChu na bicana."-vaQ eMit m 5. jaI).iE."-basat m 1. 'Your rise and fall is ~ [avgun], ~ [avguni] See ~ and beyond comprehension.' 3 low speed. ~. ~m [avgatI baI).I], ~wfo [avgatI ~ [avguniara] adj having a flaw. "avguniare manSE bhalo na kahI hE koI." banI] speech of the unspeaking One; God's unsaid utterance. 2 immortal word meditated -skabir. upon with complete concentration. "avgatI ~ [avagya] Skt 3TCOO n an insult. 2 a defeat, baI).I choqI mntmaqalI tau pache setback, reverse. 3 disobedience. 4 a literary pachutaI).a."-sri beI)i. figure of meaning, used for renouncing or denouncing even a good thing by mentioning ~ [avgan] See ~<Y. "avgan katI kie some of its demerits. This is also known as prabh apune."-prabha m 5. 2 Skt ~ n counting, reckoning. "Ira pfgla sukhman tIraskar (lit. reproach). Mde e avgaI). kat jahi?"-gau kabir. 'Where do Example: they go (after death)?' kIt hi kamI na dhaulhar })jiijdl()ijld l [avganhara], ~ [avg,miar], jItU han bISrae, ... ~ [avganiara] adj having faults or jalIjau ehu baqpana demerits; vicious, sinful. "avganiare pathar maIa laptae, ... bhare."-kan m 4. ESO raju na kItE kajI jItu nahI tnptae, ... ~ [avgam] Skt n sure knowledge, factual information. pat patabaru bIrthIa jIh raCI lobhae. -suhi m 5. ~ [avgahan], ~ [avagahanu] Skt n a bath taken by dipping in water; an ablution va sone ko janye jas6 tutE kan.-vrfd. by immersion. "bhatI bhatI ban ban ~ [avghat], ~ [avghat] adj a difficult way, rough path. "Ik avghat ghati ram ki." avgahe."-majh m 5. 2 churning. 3 an investigation, search. "sagal dev hare -s kabir. 2 difficult, inaccessible. "avghat avgahI."-sukhmani. galia bhiria."-maru m 4. "avghat utar sarovar majan karE."-BGK. "avghat sarvan navE." ~ [avagIa] See~. "jo jo karE avagIa -asa a m 1. 3 See u.rfc ~. jan ki hOI gaIa tat char."-dhana m 5.


[avgaI).Ian] adj having demerits, sinful, vicious. "kamaI).I kamI na avai khoti avgaI).IarI."-sri a m 1. 2 insulting, degrading.


Page 251


[avghat] Skt n an injury, a wound, concussIOn. })j'i;e09G1 [avacniy] Skt adj unspeakable, unutterable, beyond words. 2 not fit to be spoken. ~o [avchfn] Skt ~ adj separated, parted. 2 without an attribute; an adjective or epithet. 3 See ~ and ~. ~ [avched] Skt ~ n a secret, separation, a difference. 2 a division, partiition. 3, an investigation, a scrutiny, critical research. ~ [avchedak] Skt ~ adjwho divides, or separates. 2 who investigates. ~ [avachedy] Skt~ adjdifferentiable. ~ [avcMn] Skt 3rqce~?T adf covered. 2 spread. ~ [avjhar] See ~. 2 adj which does not drop or fall off, infallible. ~ [avjhera] n a dispute, controversy. 2 an enigma, a complication. "cltr IhE avjhera."-gclU kabir bavan. ~ [avat], ~C<Y [avatar:l], ~o [avat'an], ~ [avattal).] v to boil on constant low heat. "sam nirhI ki avatEh6."-krIsan. 2 to melt, mould. "kanak avat sace janu CJhara."·-dIlip. 3 n heat of fire. "sahE avattal). agg da."-BG ~ [avl).e$] Skt ~ n the master of the earth, a king. "avl).e$ al).in sudharhfge." -kalki. ~ [avat] See ~. ~ [avtar] adj without a son; childless. 2 Skt ~ n going across, crossing. 3 imitation. 4 a ladder. 5 birth; assumption of body. ~ [avtarak] Skt »rf~3Cf. n lack of estimation or guess. "kaha tarak avtarak." -akal. ~ [avtaral)], ~ [avtarna] See ~ 2 and 5. ~ [avtarr] adv having been born, having


taken birth. "avtarr aI kaha tum kina."-suhi kabir. ~ [avtarru], })j'i;3dJl€? [avtaryu] took birth, was born. "nanak kul1 nfmalu avtarlu."-savEye m 3 ke. ~ [avata] adj~ caught in a vortex. 2 S ~. opposite, contrary, reverse. "phrrhI avata 10I."-gau var 2 m 5.3 wayward, crude. 4 headstrong. ~ [avtar] Skt n birth, especially human. "manukha avtar durlabh."-asa ravdas. 2 taking birth, being born. 3 descending. 4 birthofagod in bodily form. SeeBm~ and t!'R ••~. "avtar na janhI ;'it, parmesar parbraham bI;'it."-·ram m 5. 5 a four line matrrk metre, each line having 23 matras with two pauses at the 13 th and subsequent 1Qth matra, the last two matras being laghu and guru. This metre is found in Dasam Granth where the writer has erroneously given it the title of a couplet by mistake as: "asthan mukh IE krrsn tlh, upar 501 gae, dhaI tabE brrj 10k sabh, god uthaI lae." -krIsan. ~ [avtari] who takes birth. 2 who descends. 3 in taking birth. "kIsanu sada avtari rudha."-vaQ m 3. })j<;3'a'1H<;3 I d [avtarisavtar] adj ~-EtF.r­ ~ chief incarnation. "avtarisavtar dhara ke bhar utaral).."·-kalki. ~ [avt;'is] Skt n an ornament. 2 a crown. 3 a bridegroom. 4 a king. 5 a knoll on a high mountain. 6 a pinnacle of a temple. ~ [avad] See ~. 2 adj ~ which cannot be described. ~ [avdat] Skt adj white. 2 clean. 3 beautiful. 4 superb, grand. "bas-hI vlpr Ik tahI avdat."-GPs. ~ [avdan] Skt n a virtuous action, meritorious wOlrk. 2 good moral character.

Page 252


the earth, Sita. See lfBr. 3 refutation, demolition. [avady] Skt adjcriticised, condemnable. ~ [avnIp], ~ [avanIpal], ~ 2 sinful, mean, vile. [avni$], ~Q [avni$var], ~ [avnip], ~ [avadh] n Koshal country. 2 a principal ~ [avne$], ~ [avn;'ibar] n the master town of Koshal, Ayodhya. 3 See nmtr. "dIn of the earth, its nourisher, God and husband: a king. "sunat rIs-hI bhej£ avnip."-GPs. dIn avadh ghatatu h£."-sri kabir. 4 See~. ~ [avdhan] Skt n concentration of mind, "k;'ibar jy6 jark;'ibar ki q,hIg tay6 avnabar tir meditation. 2 attention, vigilance. 3 pregnancy, suhae."-aj. conception. "tako patI margayo jab tahI ~ layman] SkI n a disregard, an insult. rahyo avdhan."-carItr 15. ~ [avyav] SkI n a limb. 2 a part, segment. ~ [avadhI] Skt n boundary, border. ~ [avar] SkI adj not grand; low, mean. 2 appointed time. 3 age. 4 time of death. 2 inferior. "rrdhI sIdhI avra sad."-japu. ~ [avdhIs] n ~-ElF.r. king of Avadh, 3 close, contiguous. 4 SkI 'l?flRr first. 5 last, Dashrath. "avdhIs gaj-hfge."-ramav. previous. 6 second. "jhur marhI dohagl).i ~ [avdhut] SkI adj made to tremble, jInI avri laga nehu."-var mala m 2. 7 who opposes; who contends. exorcised. 2 destroyed. 3 n a person freed from vices through exorcism; a sadhu, saint. ~ [avaral).] SkI ~. n a slander. 2 adj 4 a renouncer, a recluse, an ascetic. See~. colourless. 3 outcaste. 4 beyond words and letters. 5 ~ indescribable. 6 See ~. ~ [avdhutani] a female saint, renouncer or recluse. They rub ashes on their bodies and ~ [avrat] SkI adj devoid of love. 2 separate. wear robes of monks. The first female monk 3 static. 4 See ~. 5 See ~. was Ganga Giri after whom the sect started. ~"ElU [avarataethah] SkI 31TCITfit2.TT: say They are initiated only by nuns because again and again. "avarataethah sudh monks cannot initiate them. The nuns do not acharl).ah."-sahas m 5. have the right to sit in a line formed by the ~ [avarda] n age, life. "han dhIai£ sagal monks. avarda."-majh m 5. "hau hau karat bIhaI ~ [avdhes], ~FRr [avdhesar] king of avarda."-sorath m 5. 2 See ~. 3 See Avadh, Dasharath. 2 Lord Ram Chandar. ~. ~ [avadhy] SkI adj not fit to be ~ [avran] See ~. 2 adj »n-RJ"-?i", not slaughtered. See l?{'8"(f:1f. immortal; mortal. "kI Ihu man avran sada ~ [avan] SkI n I?rotection, defence. 2 the aVInasi."-malar m 3. 'Is this conscience act of pleasing some one. mortal, or ever indestructible?' ~ [avnat] SkI adj bent, humble. 2 fallen, ~ [avarI] part other, another. "avarI outcaste. nrraphal kama."-suhi m 1. ~ [avnatI] SkI n humility, bowing. 2 fall, ~ [avrit], ~ [avrita] adj >'>f-~. not downfall, degeneration. covered; free from the defect of cover or screen; whose veil of ignorance is removed. ~ [avallI] SkI n the earth; land, ground, soil. "hau balrhari sajna mita avrita."-suhi chat ~ 1331' [avanI suta], ~ cgwm [avanI m 1. 2 contrary custom. 3 opposite motion, kumari], »iWo ci'o:sr" [avallI k;'inya] n born of reverse routine.

Page 253


[avaru] part and, other, another. "kahE prabhu avaru, avaru kIChu kijE."-bIla am 4. 2 pron stranger, other than self. "avar updesE apI na karE."-sukhmani. 3 See })f~. ~ [avrekhan], ~ [avrekhna) v to engrave, carve, draw. 2 to write. 3 to see, watch. 4 to guess,estimate. "rajan mahI raja avrekha."-raghu. ~ [avrev] Skt n a zig-zag gait. 2 an ironJical statement; which conveys an oblique meaning. ~[avrohaJ:l] Skt n a descent, fall. 2 going downward, descending. ~ [avrohi] Skt ~ n a musical ton,e in which tunes are set in descending pitch. 2 adj descending. ~ [avrodh] Skt n an obstacle, impediment. 2 an encirclement, a siege. ~ [avrag] emperor Aurangzeb. See »j~. "avrag kur karyo baq. bada."-GPs. ~[aval] A JJI n origin, beginning. 2 adjfirst, topmost, foremost. ~ [avla] See '»tm?'". 2 See~. ~ [avaII] advin the beginning. "avalI alah nur upaIa."-prabh kabir. 2 See~. ~ [avli] Skt ~ n a multitude, crowd, group. 2 line, row, file. "avli su hiran kJi jati si."-NP. ~ [avlehan] Skt n lapping with tongue. 2 a thing to be lapped. ~ [avlom], ~ [avlokan] Skt~l?f'€iJia:o seeing, viewing. "karI kupa prabhu nadarI avlokan."-asa m 5. "avlokya braham bharam sab chutkya."-savE'ye m 4 ke. 2 an inspection, a scrutiny. ~ [avlab] Slrt n a support, prop, basis. ~ [avlaban] v to support, adopt. ~ [avalla] adj slanted. 2 irate. ~ laval n ~'. a brick kiln. "dEt jare jEse it ava pE."-cik;fi 1. ~ [avaIl] A J,JI adj plural of~~ first,


initial. 2 old, anciient. 3 habits or ways of childhood. See ~~. ~ [avail n arrival. 2 vagrancy. 3 adj unfortunate. "manmukh ram na japE avai." -maru solhe m 1. 4 fruitless, in vain. "manmukh pacE avai he."-maru solhe m 1. "chaq.q., avai karhf ju bat."-NP. ~ lavas] adj without clothes, naked. 2 Skt, ~ n a house, home, residence. ~ [avasa] See l?~. 2 adjwithout clothes, naked. ~ [avasi] n a yawn; it is a sign of indolence and sleep. It is written in Mishkat that a sneeze comes with div; 'le grace and a yawn with divine anger. One who does not cover his mouth with hand during a yawn is laughed at by Satan. In Sikhism there is no question of good or bad; a yawn is a natural activity of the body. See ~. ~ [avahan] adj without a carriage or conveyance. "kavan gupha jItu rahE avahan."-sIdhgosafI. 'Where is the cave in which a soul settles after giving up the conveyance of life?' 2 See ~. ~ [avak] adj who does not speak; silent, mute, dumb. ~ [avac] adj silent. 2 Skt ~ adj not worthy bf being uttered. 2 not fitto speak to; low, mean. ~ [avaci] Skt n south direction. "kahU lakhyo harI avaci dIsa mahI, kahu pachah ko sis nIvayo."-akal. 'Some (Hindus) see you in the south and some (Muslims) bow their heads to the west (Kaaba)'. 2 a dumb person, mute. 3 a woman with a downcast face. 4 goddess Bhavani. ~ [avajl See ~. ~ [avajar] See ~. ~ [avatar] Skt 3lCfRf{ adj inner, interior, internal.

Page 254


[avadhy] Skt adjunstoppable. 2 without hindrance, unobstructed, unhindered. ~ [avan] P ~ n a house, building. "lut line avana."-VN. 2 a Muslim caste living in an abundant number in Jehlum district and along the Indus river. 3 Skt dry fruit. 4 breathing, respiration. ~ [avay] Skt ~:;r adj unstoppable, irremovable. ~ [avar] Pkt n delay. 2 Skt nearside bank; nearside. 3 ~ which cannot be obstructed, unstoppable. 4 This word has also been used in place of »faro. "chapran ke jahf u<;le avare."-carItr 93. ~ tJTij' [avar par] near and far banks. 2 this and the next world. 3 Skt a sea having two coasts. ~ [avara] adj unrestrained, stray. 2 P ~JI,1 adj lazy, worthless. 3 ruined. ~ [avI] See l?ffu. ~ [aVIakat] Skt~ adjwithout body, formless. 2 n God. 3 soul. 4 Kamdev, Cupid. ~ [avIavar] adj or unable to conceive. 2 barren, sterile. "aVIavar na vIavai."-BG ~ [avIhIt] Skt adj arbitrary, unnatural, prohibited. ~ [aVIkat] See ~. 2 Skt ~~ unchanged, unadulterated; original, real. "avIkatua abhaga."-gyan. ~ [aVIkal] Skt adj unbewildered, calm, unfl ustered. ~ [ilVIkalap] Skt ~tf adv without doubt, surely, without a alternative. 2 defin ite. ~ [avIkhad] Skt~. adjwho is never demoralised; ever in high-spirits. 2 without lethargy. 3 without bafflement. ~ [avIg] See ~. ~(JJ' [avfg] adj without a bend; straight. "navam avfg ju sudha brse."-GPs. ~ [avIgatj, ~ [avIgatu] SkI adj


which cannot be narrated, indescribable. 2 ~ indestructible, ever-existent. "tatu aVIgatu dhIaIa."-guj a ill 1. 3 See ~. 4 See d'I8 ~. 5 See 'fuoB. ~ [avIgy] Skt ~ adj who does not possess full knowledge; ignorant. ~ [avIgyata] Skt ~ n ignorance, naivety, simplicity. ~ [avIghat] See ~. ~ [avIcal] See ~. ~ 'i'i'aRf [avIcal nagar] See ~ C'i'ilTO. ~ [aVIcar] See »rfuBro. ~ [avIcari] adjunthinking, thoughtless. ~ [avIchin] Skt~ adjnot separate, continuous, unbreakable. ~ [aVIjat], ~ [avIjata] adjbelonging to a low caste. "tumra jan jatI aVIjata han japIu."-basJt ill 4. 2 not well-known, unknown. })jf~,.l'f3 [avIjatI] n a low-caste. 2 not casteless, well-born, of gentle blood. ~ [aVIt] Pkt n without a body; Kamdev, Cupid. "alap sukh aVIt cacal."-sahas ill 5. 2 Skt adj protected. 3 without money, poor, penniless. ~ [avId], ~ [avid] Skt ~ adjwithout knowledge, ignorant, foolish. 2 See ~. ~ [.wIda] adj who comes and stays. "ag ag me avida."-gyan. ~ [aVIdat] See ~. ~ [aVIdIa] See ~. ~3' [avIdIt] adj not revealed, not manifest; hidden. ~ [aVIdy] SkI adj uneducated, illiterate. ~ [avIdya] Skt n ignorance, foolishness. 2 state of human life which entangles the soul 111 Ignorance. »iMT [avidh] See ))fTf?rr. »Mq [avIddh] adj not pierced. »rfuol;r [avInay] Skt n lack ofdecorum or good

Page 255


behaviour, impertinence, crassness, obtuseness. ~ [avInasi] adjindestructible, immortal. "hangul.). sUl.).iahI aVInasi."-suhi chat m 5. 'Let us listen to the virtues ofthe imperishable god.' 2 n God, the Eternal. 3 Vishnu. "krudhkE yuddh kIyo bahu cac;lI, na eto kIyo madhu s6 aVIna!;,i."-cJ<;ii I. ~ raVInE] See ~. ~ [avutha] See ~. ~ [avual] SkI adj without interstice; dense, thick. 2 without a gap. ~ [avuita] See ~. ~ [avI10I], })jr~M re(,) [avIlom], »rfuM"cro [avIlokan] See ~cro 1. "avIlokan punah punah karau jan ka darsar."-suhi m 5. 2 See ~cro 2. "sastra bed puran aVIloko,,"-dev m5. ~ [aVIlab] SkI ~ advwithout dday, soon, at once. :~ SkI ~ n a basis,. prop. "tere nam aVIlab bahut jan udhre."-g5<;i

[avIvek] See ~. ~ [aVIveki] See ~. ~ [avicaril adj devoid of prudence, d iscrim inate. "ham din murakh avicari." -malar m 3. ~ [aves] See~. »wfJ:rnrr [avesIa] SkI ~. adj entered, settled. "sabad avesIa."-BG ~ [avesta] See ~. ~ [aveha] adv like this, of this kind, such. ~ [aver] See :~. ~ 1Wa' [aver saver] See ~ mre. ~ [avEdIk] SkI adj not provided in the Veds. ~ [avEya] adj(one) who comes, the arriving (one). ~ [avEya] See ~. ~ [avEv] a limb,See ~ 1. "sut aVEV sabh dekhan lagi."-NP


[avEfa] adjcrooked. 2 perverse, devious. 3 obstinate. ~;:r [avoj] adj ~-€;:r protector of force, conservator of strength or splendour. "avojasc."-gyan. ~ [avatIka], ~ [avati] SkI ~ a town on the bank of Avanti (Shipra) river in Gwalior state of central India. It is also named Vishala and Ujjain. It is counted among the seven Puris (cities) of the Hindus. "ajudhya gomti avatIka krdar hImdhar hE."-BGK. 2 where river Avanti (Shipra) flows, Malwa. ~ [avyakt] See ~. ~ [avyay] SkI adj which does not deteriorate but remains unaffected. "!;'uddh / vIapak avyay sou."-NP 2 n the Creator. 3 in grammar, a word that does not change its form, like »to', fGO, and })fl'fu. 4 a miser; a niggard, who does not spend money. })j~:;l'rq3 [avyaknt] SkI ~ adj not liable to change, in constant state. 2 hidden, not visible. 3 in Vedant, ignorance is the cause of the world. "jIs agyan vIkhe Ih khat hE tIS hi ko avyaknt kahiE."-GPS. 4 according to Sankhy philosophy, material cause of the universe. ~ [avyapat:t:] SkI ~ n opposite of ~. 2 a defect of the symbol, when it is not applicable to th~ whole but only to a part. For example, when we define cow as a brown quadruped, this definition does not apply to a reddish brown, white or white-spotted cow. ~ [avral).] Skt adJwithout a wound or tumour, blameless. 2 spotless. ~ [avval] See ~. »r;I tar] n stubbomness, obstinacy. "Im ar hfdun ki jab tuti."-GPS. 2 obstruction. 3 interruption. })j;fq [arak] See nfc~. »s3W[artala] n a place of shelter. "upbanlehu


Page 256

222 artala larbe."-GPs. Example: ~ [ardal] n the job or post of an orderly, a "vIdya se anurag, n:n dIn kijIye, group of peons, despatch riders. 2 attendance nIj ~akti anusar, sabhIn sukh dijIye, upon some officer as the "mE ap di ardal VICC svarath ka va~ hoy, na parhani karo, ha." prabhuta ar dhan man, rrde me na dharo." 4 The fourth form of afIll has 21 matras per ~ [ardali] an orderly. See~. line, each ending in SIS combination with ))f;fOT [arna] v to get stuck, stay. 2 to fight. 3 to oppose. "gurmukh SIU manmukh arE."-var pauses at 11 th and subsequent 10th matra, with the proviso that the fourth line begins with a majh m 2. ))S'8' [arab] adj obstinate, obdurate, stubborn. vocative like ho! harM! which are not counted among matras. This is also called "cJbola." ~ [arbail n obstinacy, stubbornness. Example: ~ [arbag] See l'>S8". })f3T [ara] suf added to words, it indicates "sum: gug jo yahI, su rasna pavai, sum: murh CIt laI, caturta avai, triviality; its form is only ra also. See~, ~, f'l::n:I;p-, ~, etc. dukh darad bhJ nIkat, na tIn nar ke rahE, ~ [afIa] a vocative of endearment for a ho ! jo yaki Ik bar, cJpai ko kahE." -benti c:Jpai de at. male addressee, its feminine equivalent being ~. 2 See))f;fOT. l)f;ft [ari] n stubbornness, obstinacy. ~ [afIara] adj stubborn. 2 opposing. ~ [arial] adj stubborn, obstinate. 3 belligerent. ~ [ariel a vocative for female addressee showing familiarity. ~ [arIll, ~ [arIll] a four-line matrrk metre, each line having 16 matras and ending ~ [aruha] a four-line varl).Ik metre, also with an 511 arrangement. called sayukta with each line organised as Example: 115, 151, 151, S. "q,olat jahf tahf purakh apavan, Example: lagat kat-hI dharam ko dayan, "saj SEn bhart cale taha, arth-hI chaq, anarath batavat, ral). bal bir maq,e jaM, dharam karam cIt ek na lavat."-kalki. bahu bMtbir sagharhi, sar ogh progh praharahl."-ramav. 2 In the second form of afIll, each line has sixteen matras in ISS combination. ~ [arokcll).] n a support, stay, an obstacle. Example: ~ [arag] adjobstinate, stubborn. 2 entangled guru nanak sIkhya man dharo, in limbs. "kI aragasc."-gyan. 3 curved. gurujan ki riti na vIsaro, 4 contentious. kahI kar yak kadi n<lhI haro, l)fT [a] Skt part from all sides. "a samudr b phui duhai."-dIlip. 2 to, upto, unto. 3 prep saty dharam jag me parcharo. 3 The third form of afIll has 21 matras in which preceding a verb denotes profusion as each line with pauses at 11 th matra in 151 in ~, l?fTOT)-I?), ~, ~~, etc. 4 in combination and subsequent lOth matra in SIS Punjabi, it replaces terminal 'h' of Persian combination respectively. It is also called words as in tRre'" for tre'eU. "cadrayal).." »fT [a] Skt part expressing wonder. 2 yes. 3 P

Page 257


d 1 pran he, she, that. "na rIjak d21sat a kase."var majh m 1. 'No one (but God) controls the wherewithal of living creatures.' ~ time, occasion. 5 a moment, an instant. ~ [au] See ~. "au sat mit pIare."-majh m 5. 2 SkI l')fl1!f n age, duration of life:. ~ [aukha] SkI ~ n age, life-span. ~ [auqhi] See >li"';ft. ~ [aUJ.)a] SkI l'>fTOTH(') advent. ~ 8-0 [au bEth], ~ ~ [au bagat] n welcome, reception. "au bEth adar sab thai." -sor m 5. ~ raul] Sklf3"~ n placenta, foetal membrane. 2 See~. ~ [aula] SkI' ~ n a kind of myrobalan tree and its fruit; (L Emblicmyrobalan). It is sour in taste and is used in pickles and preserves; its effect is cold and dry and is constipative; it cures diseases of stomach and liver, and strengthens muscles of heart, eyes and brain; it stops nosebleading. It is a component of itrIphala (lit. three fru:its), the other two being chebidic myrobalan and the Bellerie mYJrObalan. It is good for inflammation of gall bladder and gonorrhoea. ~ [auIi] n fate, predestination, destiny. 2 Skl~ a kind of small-sized myrobalan; forest myrobalan. ~ [au] See »fl'~. 2 will come. 3 some one to come, the awa:ited one. nrr>1faT [a-ag] See l'W and nfor. l'Wfu [aI] n age. 2 adv having come. "aI mIlu gursIkh, aI mJ:lu."-tIlag m 4. 3 one c:orning, arriving, that is, taking birth. "aI na jai thn sada."-sri a m 5. 4 See })f'ljf. ~ [awl came, arrived. 2 SkI <\Wf: n profit. "jEdev aIU tas saphuta."-guj 'evidently gains from him.' ~ [aIaTa] adj one arrived. "gharI 2lIaTe sajna."-suhi c11Jt m 1.

[ara] adj arrived, came. 2 was born, took birth. :; n birth. "aIa tIn ka saphalu bhIa hE IkmanI jIni dhIaIa."-vaQ alaha1).i m 1. l'WfuJ:r [aIs] SkI »i1tifl1 adj of iron or steel. 2 n an armour, a helmet. 3 steel. "aIs patI pItl).i."-sanama. 'king of armour, Indar, and the earth of his father Kashyap.' 4 Skl))fTtjflj. command. l'>f'fuJJ [aIsu] order. See'l?fTfuR" 4. >wfu3" [aIt] SkI l?rrf€3J:r n the sun. 2 Sunday. 3 See l'}[TljJ'3', l'Wfu3o [aItan] See l'WOI3O. l'>f'fE-er [a:rda] P 6",1 future. l')fTfuq [aIdh] See l'WWT. nrrfu'S' [aIbo] v to come. "na kachu aIbo na kachu jaIbo."-dhcma pipa. 2 to take birth. ~ [aITa] See ~. 2 n the letter })f. "aITE apI kare j:rnI choqi."-asa pati m 1. ~ [aITIa] advon arrival, after those who came. "je mE hoda varIa mIta aIpa." -s farid. ~ [ail n death. "ai na metal). ko samrath." ---:oakar. 2 age, llife-span. 3 aymata, goddess Durga; a temple of a goddess of this name at Baibhilara in Rajputana is famous. See >wEt tfEr. 4 wealth or illusion. "ai puta Ihu jagu sara."-bila thIti m 1. 5 past tense of~. 6 future tense l'>f~. "Ihu vela kat ai."-gau kabir. 7 Smother. 8 a calamity. 9 Dg a rope for tying an elephant. ~ lain] p I n management, administration, government. 2 law, rules. ~ [aina] P ~'i" n a mirror. In ancient times a well-rubbed piece of iron (ahan) was used for this purpose, hence this name. ~ [aiputa] See ~ and ~ tf'Ef. 2 creation ofthe material world, maya. "aiputa Ihu jagu sara."--bIla thIti m 1. ~tr [aipath] a radical wing of shakits, The worshippers of Shiv and power, opposed to



Page 258

dak~In marag. See l'>1dQ(')'dlJ;!d and ~. Singh. She was very religious, brave and See >wit 3.2 one ofthe twelve sects of yogis judicious by nature. which is more liberal in its dealings with other ~ [a~caray] See ~ and })ffiQji. sects. ~ rasa})] SkI l'>fTR'()" n a place, state, seat; an ~tft [aipathi] a worshipper of mother Ay act of sitting. 2 a cloth spread to sit upon. (iron, weapon, fire). 2 Gorakhpanth yogis who 3 third stage of yog during which the are worshippers of shakti (power). 3 See >wit practitioner assumes his sitting posture. In yog tIEr 2. "aipathi sagal jamati."-jdpU. 'befriending shastar 84 postures have been taken from all is to be an ai pathi.' various movements of animals, birds and l')fTR" [as] SkI 3m:[, vr to sit; to be present; to be; positionings of some other objects. Four of to forsake. 2 SkI 3TN1T n hope, expectation, them are considered paramount. They are: desire, longing. "as anIt tIag-hu tarag." (a) sIddhasan: keeping left heel under the -sukhmdni. 3 direction, side. "tat khel jfh rectum and right heel under the phallus. as."-NP 4 SkI ~. mouth. "namo as ase (b) padmasan: placing ofleft foot on the right lldmo bak bake."-jdpU. 5 a face. 6 SkI »fTF.r, thigh and the right foot on the left thigh and food, meals. 7 SkI »fTR", ash. See E ash. 8 a catching with the right hand extended from behind the back, the big toe of the right foot seat. 9 a bow. 10 soon, quickly. "kalu ko bulaI and catching the big toe of the left foot with raI lin tab as hE."-NP See~. 11 P vI the left hand and keeping the chin away from a millstone. See l'>fTRHT()". 12 P Jl an essence extracted by boiling some object, as the the chest, by a width of four fingers to essence of barley. concentrate the gaze on the tip of one's nose. l')fTR""fTi.t [asase] See »fTR" 4. (c) sfhasan: sitting with ankles placed tightly under the rectum and the phallus, and placing ~ [asak] A cf... SkI ~ adj who loves. "nanak asak kiiQhiE sad-hi rahE samaI."-var both hands on the knees fixing the gaze on asa m 2. 2 SkI an eater, a guzzler. See »fTR" 6. the tip of the nose. (d) bhadrasan: catching the big toes while ~ [askat] SkI ~. adj who loves, rapt, engrossed. "bIkhE ras SIU askat mure."-kan keeping the posture of padamasan. "jog SI dh asa}) caurasih ebhi kan kan rahI a."-sor d m m 5. 2 SkI ~ powerful, mighty. ~ [a~kar] P .J~r adj apparent, manifest, 5. 4 SkI ~jaw. obvious; its pronunciation as ~ is also ))fTR3' [asat] See l'lffir. 2 ~. adj a believer in correct. God and in the other world. 3 n west. "UdE ~ [aski] P j?.. n love, state of being in nahl asat."-maru solhe m 1. 4 a weapon, a love. "eh kInehi aski dUjE lagE jaI."-var asa missile. "asat dhare nIhare."-gyan. m2. >wFI3Or [astak] See~. nf1'R9 [asaku] See ~. ~ [astarl, ~ [astara})], »fTFI'3'"d?i ~ [a~ke] part bravo! well done! S~. [asataran] ~-3JTttRUT n a bedstread; a bed for a newly married couple. "astaran bar l')fTR" cia" [as br] queen of Raja Sahib Singh of Patiala. She carried on the administration bIsad vIsala."-GPs. 2 a warm covering for during the reign of her husband and during an elephant. the minority of her son Maharaja Karam l)fll'ET [astii] P (:,Il;:-l n a place. 2 a door. 3 a

Page 259


function. ))fTRl.ITH" [aspas] near about, around, in the vicinity. "as pas ghan tursi ka bnva."-gau kabir. nrrH" ~ [as pIas] n strong hope, intense desire. ~ [aspurI).a], ~ [aspuma] n caste goddess of Chauhan Rajputs who believe her to be the fulfiller fo all desires. 2 service of the spiritual guide. 3 spiritual knowledge of self. ~ ~ [asphul d:Jla] See l?IFI"e' l::fTO. l)fTR}-fI'i") [asman] See })fFI}fl('). l)fTR}-fI'i") 1:fTi"i [asman xan] son-in-law of Painde Khan who stole Baba Gurditta's hawk, and together with Painde Khan fought against Hi'i"W. Guru Hargobind at Kartarpur in Sammat ~ [astin] P JI n the sleeve ofa shirt, coat. 1691. He was killed by Baba Gurditta in this ~ [aste] See ~. battle. ~ [asthai] See ~ 4 - 5. l)fTR}-fI'i") '6'a" tasman car] n a rambler of the sky, ))fl'FJ(') [asan] See ~. "nIvli karam asan bird. 2 an arrow.-sanama. caurasih In mahI satI na aVE jiu.."-majll m 5. ~ [asmudr] adv up to the sea. "asmudr 2 a saddle. "asan ae bag gahI balvac;l vIsesa." b phni duhai."-GPs. -GPS. 3 Skt 3mT., thunderbolt of Indar, ~ [asmat] Skt W-'fflf3". adv on all sides, lightning. 4 Indar. 5 one who serves meals. all around. 2 with full ceremony, very ~o [asanaksun] adj who siits in pl~rfect properly. mental tranquillity. "asanaksun anbIkat ))f'1"f.I'lif [a$ay] n an aim, object, intention. 2 a rag."-datt. longing, wish. })j1"H'(")T [asna] Skt n state, stage, situation. 2 See ))fTR'a" [asar] Skt~ n a prop, basis, stay. 2 an ~. asylum, a resort" refuge. "jIh asar Ia bhavjal ~ [asnai] See ~. tarI).a."-bavan. "Ih asar puran bhae kam." l'>I'Hfo [asanI] on or in a seat. "pna aI base -gaum 5. gnh asanI."-mala m 5. l)fTffiJ}f [asram] See »fTlJH. })jiHf(')ii@'H [asnxvas] adj home of all hopes; l'>fTFI'eT [asra] See ))fTR'a". whom people trust for the fulfilment of their ~ [asav] Skt n life breath. 2 a type of wine hopes. See })jTfjT f'iwtH. not extracted through distillation but prepared ))fIFIO't [asni] n lust, hope. "prabhu puran asni by fermentation, like somras and toddy. mere mana."--asa m 5. 2 See »fTJfu:i. :J See lWl1;/t [asri] n a hope, desire, an expectation. »rHo. "nanak asri nI'bahI."-var jet. })('FI1.It!' [aspad] Skt })j1'"P1.R'. n a place, spot. 2 a l')flW rasa] Skt })flBT n a desire to have, hope. position, rank.. 3 reputation, honour. 4 work, "asa karta jagu mua."-var guj 1 m 3. 2 a hermitage. l1fTRfd" [asatI] See l?fflJ. 2 short form of~. 3 ~ existence. See ~. ~ [astIk] Skt ~ adj who believes in the existence of the Creator and of the other world; a theist. })jIHfdCld l [astIkta], ~ [astIky] n theism; firm beliefin the Creator and in the hereafter, Theist. ~ [astik] Skt 31mlTcr a sage who was the son of sage Jaratkar and Mansa, sister of Vasuki, cobra. During a sarapmedh (killing of snakes) ritual, he saved the tribe of his mother, the Talkshak and Anant snakes. "atyo astika maha vIpr sIddha."-janmejay. See

Page 260


direction, side. "turn nahI avo tab It asa."
-NP. "magan manE mahI cItvau asa nEnhu

tar tuhari."-kedam 5. 3 a musical measure in its own right, sung in the early morning. Guru Angad Dev started the daily routine of singing Asa di Var in the presence ofGuru Nanak Dev. Guru Arjan Dev added to it twenty four stanzas composed by the fourth Guru, one stanza to each balladic measure. Now it is daily sung in the gurdwaras. "gaI rababi asa var."-GPs. In Sikh way of life, Asa is also sung in the course of evening prayer. In this measure, all notes are pure.! gadhar measure may be added to Asa in descending but not in ascending tone. The descending tone of Asa comprises sa, re, rna, pa, dha, ni, sa, and ascending tone has re, sa, ni, dha, pa, rna, ga, re, sa, in that order. 2 Among the Rags in Guru Granth Sahib Asa is the fourth in order. 3 4 aim, intention, purport. See >wF.ItiT. "ta babe us da asa jaJ.).Ia." -JSBB. 5 A (..,f' a club, heavy stick. "asa hatth kItab kacch."-BG "mansa man nIvanhu asa."-rnaru solhe m 5. 'Killing or eradicating of desire is hope. '4 ~ [asar] Skl>wF.ItiT n an object, a purport, meaning. "puran asaI."-bIla m 5. ~ [asaIs] See l)fIFl'Ttiff.f. ~ [asaIti] adj hopeful, expectant. 2 A ~r adj grieving (woman). "asaIti as kI as puraiE."-phunhe m 5. 'Fulfil the hope of the sorrowful' .
'For various notes See JVl" and ore. 2In view of differences in different places, singers join Asa with rishabh and dhaivat soft also. 3Many writers have considered Asa as a subordinate submeasure ofMegh and the time ofits rendition as sunrise. 4Muslim hermits also, like monks ofDandi sect, consider holding a club as their denominational sign.

[asai] n hope, expectation. "man mahI cItvau Esi asai."-asa m 5. »fTH1FIfu [asas-hI] See »fTRlRO. 2 See P (;i~bl.A. 3 to praise. 4 to raise, lift. l')fTWffi'; [asasan] Skt WlfFlO n an assurance, a consolation. 2 support, suCcour. "sIdh sadhak asas-hI."-sdveye m 3 ke. "chIa darsan asasr."-sdveye m 3 ke. lWW ft:fur rasa SIgh] a clerk of Guru Gobind Singh. Once, in order to help a poor Sikh, he sent a demand draft for Rs. 500 to another Sikh. That Sikh made the payment. When the demand draft was presented to the Guru, he enquired why it was sent without his order. Asa Singh got frightened and fled during the night, and sent the following couplet to the Guru: "mukh kara mero karE karat na parupkar, tIS ko mE phIl karogi pa1ta is darbar." This meant that the offence was of the clerk's pen which now says, 'if my face was not blackened for a good deed for another's good, then I would have in turn blackened the face of the clerk'. The Guru was pleased at Asa Singh's note and he called the latter back and reinstated him in the same job. ~ [asasE] See »fTRlRO. lWW tft ~ rasa di var] written at the end of Asa measure in Guru Granth Sahib, it is a composition in saloks and balladic stanzas, by Guru Nanak Dev, though it also includes a few saloks of Guru Angad Dev. Since olden times it is sung early in the morning. Guru Arjan Dev also included in it 24 stanzas of Guru Ram Das to correspond to each balladic stanza, and taught the Sikhs to sing them. See BTQ~. "paryo bhog jab asavar."-GPs. l')f'WQ" [asadh], nrwfl:r€ [asadhIO] incurable. See l?fRl!T. "diragh rog maIa asadhIo."-geJU thItj m 5.


Page 261


[asan] P l.:Jl---l adj easy. rasa nlvas] See })fl11 ~,. "guru amardas asa nlvas."-savEye m 3 ke. l1f'FI'Td'Q' [asabadh], ~ [asabadhu] adjtied down because of hope; hopeful, expectant. ))fIW)f [asam] a country north east of Bengal and south of the Himalayas, mostly covered with forests, mines, rivers and streams. It was visited by Guru Nanak Dev and Guru Teg Bahadur. It was also known as Kamrup in the past. »fTRT H7iW rasa mansa] hope and desire to acquire things. "asa mansa dou blnasat."
1?fTFrO lWW ~

-asa m 1.

P J!l.-1 n comfort; a happy state; this word is derived from the root )~. >wJtTij" [asar] SkI n a severe downpour or shower; rain. 2 Dg clouds. 3 A .1171 plural of 'I?fFRf, signs, indicators. 4 a trait. 5 breadth, width. ~ [asavri] This is a complete! musical measure, one of the ten arragements of musical notes or modulations oflndian music. It is sung for three hours of the day from the sunrise onward. It has three soft notes of gadhar, dhnrat and nl~ad, the remaining being pure (See ~ and '(5T'C) In asavari, dhEvat is basic but gadhar is only suppOlting, the remaining ones are all basic notes. During the ascent nl~?ad and gadhar are not used but all notes are applicable during the descent; five notes sa"re, rna, pa and dha figure in the ascent but seven notes sa, ni, dha, pa, rna, ga and re are uSI~d in the descent. Owing to the difference of place and opinion among most musicologists, many have accepted asavari singing in bhErav and bhnvi measures. In Guru Granth Sahib, asavri has been combined with asa measure also.
'Arohi has five and Avrohi seven tunes.

lWR"tiI'f.I' [asaya~]

t!t ~. hopeful, desirous. ~ [asavati] See~. "asavati as gusai, puriE."-var jEt. })f'I'A'I;f [asar] SkI ~ n the month of Harh. See ~. "asar suhada tIsu lagE jIsu manl hancaral). nlvasu."-majh baramaha. i)fTR1;1f [ asa r a] See ))fFIT3T. ~ [asap] during the month of Harh. ~ [asaru] See ~ and ~. ~ [aslkh], rwfRl:fI' [aslkha] SkI ~ n a blessing, benediction. >mIT [asi] A u~ adjwho sins, or is an evil doer, or a criminal. >mfb:r [asis] See nrrf'm:f. "puta, mata ki asis."


rasa va]'] See


~ [asavat] Slct31NrfCKf.adj

-gujm 5.

»rJflo [asin] Skt adj sitting, seated. "sagal
manorath puran asina."-bIla m 5.2 situated. [asina] See 'l?fTFfto. })f'I'ffta' [asir] Skl)~ a blessing. 2 See l?flfur. l?!IA~a'i@eo [asirvacan], l?!iA~a'i@'t! [asirvad] SkI n a blessing, benediction. See nrrf'm:f. >WJJ [asu] Skl»jTff adv at once, promptly. "asu hi tichan IE aSI ~ri han."-knsan. 2 See»fIJ. l?filJ [asu] n a tear, tears. ))fI}jCIT [asug] adj quick-footed. 2 n wind. 3 an arrow. 4 light. >WJJ3cr [asutokh] Sk/~ adjeasy to please. 2 n Guru Nanak Dev. 3 Shiv according to the Purans. ~ [a~uftah] P ":pI adj upset, perplexed. Its root is ~30. ~ [a~uftan] P ~1 v to be distraught, bewildered or deeply agitated. ))fTJJQ' [asur], l?!lJg''dT [asuri] adj concerning a demon, of a demon. 2 n an ogress, a giantess. "suri asuri kfnll"i rijh rahlt purnan."-carItr 2. 3 See~ 2. ~ J:i'ufd" [asuri sapatl], ))fl1J'ffi Htrer [asuri sapada] SkI ~~ ~n wealth or glory earned

Page 262

through demonic means. 2 excess of foul Hinduism: brahrncharay, gnhasth, vanprasth actions like lust, anger, etc. and sanyas. "car varan car asram hahI, jo ~ [asures] king of demons. See ~R. han dhIavE so pardhanu."-g5c;i m 4. See tr'O "asures kopa h;"lkari."-cac;ii 2. »fl1Jlf. »l"I;I [asu] soon, quickly, See i>fTl.J 1. "gaman ~ [asrmai] See~. "kamal bIgSE tayar bhae kayo asu."-NP. madhu asrmai."-sri m 5. 'Lotus blooms and >WJ;f [asu] n tears. honey drips.' ~ [asu!).i] n hope, desire, wish. "vatI asu!).i ))fTlJ}ft [asrarni] adj who lives in a hermitage. banI."-s farid. 'having tied the luggage of 2 who lives through the four-stages of life. countless hopes'. 2 adj an unrealizable hope. »fTlllif [asray] See »fTffiJ. "tat asray;"l nanak." -sahas m 5. ~ [asudan] P (,;)JYI v to be comfortable, be prosperous. »f'TFJ~ [asrav] Skt n flow, current. 2 n a ~ [asuda] P o ';l adjin comfort, prosperous. dripping, falling in drops. 2 happy. 3 living in comfort. "gaj baji asude »fTfJIs [asnch], l"lfTfi:r3" [asnt] Skt l'>fTftI3" adj karkE."-GPS. staying on support, dependent. 2 n a servant, >m'hr [aseb] P ~f n a distress, suffering. 2 a an attendant. shock, trauma, blow. 3 the shadow of an evil >ml [asr£] l?f11IlJf. See »fTffiJ. ~TRO [asvasan] See l')fTFITA7j. "asvasan yut spirit; its entry in the body or the mind. l2fTff [as£] See »fTF(1jf. sikh ucar."-GPs. ~ [asok] See ~. 2 »fT (from all sides), ~Tt!" [asvad], ~re?i [asvadan] n savour, taste. 2 tasting, sucking, relishing. F.t'a" (grief); excessive sadness. l11"'U [ah] v is. "jIn kau dhun IIkhIa ah."-gau ~ [as:m] an unlucky omen. See ito. lWFfW [as;"lka] Skt ~ n a doubt, worry, var 1 m 4. 2 n a desire, an inclination, wish. "jogi jati sIdh han ahE."-gau m 5. 3 part a suspicion. 2 fear, dread. lWlftrO [as;"ljan] Skt 3Tffi01,\if;:r n binding and word indicating grief and surprise, ah. 4 pran connecting. 2 hanging, suspending. See Htr this, that. and Jt:ro. l1j'1'(JG rahat] Pkt a noise caused by someone's »flJi'o [as;"ln] Skt ~ adj sitting near. 2 adv arrival, sound of footsteps. 2 a battlefield. near, close by. "ath pahn ahat bIkhE juddh bhayo bIkrar." ~ [as;"lbhau] adj who has not been born, -cCJrItr 97. birth less. "as;"lbhau udvIau."-savEye m 5 ke. ~ [aha!).] n locust. See >Wm'l 1. 'The birth less has appeared.' 2 See ~. >WU3" rahat] adj injured, wounded, beaten up. See l11?)I(J3". ~ [a$caray] See i>ftl'"6i1. ))fTJc'j [ahan] See~. "ahan manfd brfd ae ~ [astIk], ~ [astrkta] See l>fTFlfuor and l1jIHfdCl(3 1• dal."-GPs. 2 P <:1 1 n iron, steel. 3 a sword. ~ [ahangar] n an ironsmith, blacksmith. ~ [astik] See ~. »fTffif [asy] See l1j'TR" 4. ~ [ahni] adj made of iron. See >Wm'l. l)fTJJH [asram] Skt llfTlIH n a place to live, »fTU}f [aham] See »RJH. 2 See ~. residence. "caran kamal guru asram dia." »fTIDf Jt"H<!' [ahm 0 sam!).e] See l'>fTH 'H"l-f<!. "ae ahmo sam!).e bher pIa karara."-jagnama. -bIla m 5. 2 four stages of life according to

Page 263

ka aharu jia."-var ram 1 m 2. "det sagai ahare jiu."-majh m 5. '(God)'. ~ [ahara] adj thoroughly estimated or measured. "agam agocar be~t atoIa, hE nahi krchu ahara."-maru solhe m 5. 'There is nothing which has not been measured by the 4 adjwho collects. Almighty'. ~ [aharaD] Skt n snatching. 2 stealing. »fTfu [ahr] v is. "sadhusagatr bEkuthE ahr." 3 taking away. Pkt~. -g;;m k;;,bir. "jalr thair ramaia ahro."-sor m »fTUQ}fO [aharman] See 1?RRJHO. 1'WUfu [aharr] with zeal. "ja aharr harr jiu 5. See~. 2 adv having desired (ah). "nanak parra."-sodaJr. 'whereas the Almighty is ahr saraDr prabhu aro."-asa m 5. exerting zealously.' l)f'Tfu§- [ahrol, ~ [ahra] adj desired, ~ [ahri] adj energetic, vigorous. wanted, needed. "ahro tumra dhora."-guj m ~ [aharu] See ~. 5. "eko suami ahra jiu."-majh m 5. 2 See ~ ~ [ahlu valia] See~Tt!t·f1..Im? »fTfu. 3 is. "'jat kat pekhau ahro."-kan 2 adj connected with Ahluvalia misl. m5. 3 belonging to the house of Sadda Singh. See l'>fTfuR3'r [ahrsta] P ..;-;1 adv slowly, gradually. )){I'tit [ahi] is. See 'l?{l(J and nfTfu. "punarpr janam qlfOCfW. na ahi."-g;;,u m 3. "nanak ghatr ghatr ahr." ~ ~ tft ~ [ahiu valia di mrsaI] Sadda Singh of Ahlu village; 5 kos east of -asa m 5. 2 desired, wanted (for feminine object) "mE ahi or tuhari."-g;;,u majh m 5. Lahore, was a celebrated prosperous Sikh. He established theAhluvalia house. In his family 3 may want, may need. "jrs sag Iage praD was born Jassa Singh in 1718 AD whom trsE bu ahiE."-phunhe m 5. 4 Sis. 5 a hardship, calamity. Navab Kapur Singh brought up as a son. Mata Sundari blessed him and bestowed upon him ~ [ahid let us desire, let us seek. See nfTfu and )){I'tit. the mace of Guru Hargobind (which is now in Akal Bunga). The misl grew a lot under »fT'y lahul See »fTtT. 2 short form of~. Jassa Singh as a confederate branch of the (called, summoned) rising Sikh power. First of all it was he who ~ [ahuk] See ~. conquered Lahore, founded the Khalsa state ~ [ahut], ~~ [ahu<;l.] Dg n a battle, war. and issued his own currency. Now Kapurthala 2 tiredness, fatigue. state belongs to this misl. See ~J"EINl' and;:fw ~ [ahutr] SkI' n calling (invoking) god. 2 an oblation to gods, pouring purified butter ~ [ah;:)v] Skt n a battle, war. 2 fire oblation. in fire by addressing the deity. 3 fire, sacrifice, material needed fOi" this ritual. 3 a challenge or call to battle, shout. »fTUT [aha] v is. "harr s~tjana pahr aha."-dev ~ [ahuma], ~ [ahurna] v to bend, spring at, pounce at. "ahure jag."-ramav. m 5. 2 was. (past tense of ~). "taIv~<;l.i vrc vasda aha."-JSBB. 3 part a word indicating ~ lahul P ,;i n a deer, buck. "dadan dur surprise and gri,ef. oh! vah! ahu ca~am."-s;;,loh. 'teeth like jewels and ~ lahar], ))f1i~ [aharu] n See »RJlO. "jia eyes like those of a deer.' 2 an appeal.
l'>I"mI" lahar]

n an impulse to be active, effort.

2 an endeavour, attempt. "sev;:)k kE thakur hi ka ahar jiu."-majh m 5. "ahar sabhr karda phrrE aharu rku na hor."-var ram 2' m 5. 3 Skt a sigh, deep breath indicating grief.



Page 264


SUDae."-maru m 1. [akbat] A ..::.;;~ n the next world, the hereafter. 2 the end, finis. See »rmr. l)fTOI"d' [akar] See ~. 2 Skt n a mine. 3 treasure. 4 a store, stock. 5 a caste, class. -NP 6 adj good, superior. 7 more, excessive. ~ [ahe] See ~, l'if'TZJT and >wfu. "hE hosi l)jT(SRJl:f [akarakh] Skt ~ n a sense organ. 2 a ahE. "-maru m 5. 'is, shall be and was.' test, touchstone. 3 a magnet. 4 attraction. "jab "nanak saraDI ahe."-asa m 5. akarakh karat ho kab-hii, tum mE mIlat ~ [ahE] See l')fT(J' and lWfu. "jogi jati sIdh han dehdhar sabh-hii."-c.Jpai. "citi sas ahE."-gau m 5. 'Jogis desire to realise God'. akarakhte."-sahas m 5. "jaha trIkha man ~ [aho] See ~ and l'if'TZJT. "w aho kerhe tujhu ak'}rakhE."-sukhmani. kam."-s farid. 2 part yes; that is right. 3 or, ~ [akarkhaD] Skt l?f'W'f'~ n attraction, else. 4 otherwise. pull. 2 act of ploughing. ~ [ahag] P ....t.:r n a desire. 2 a resolve, an ~ [akal] Skt~ adjperplexed, confounded. aim. 3 time, occasion. 4 a prelude to singing. "hau akal bIkal bhai bIn dekhe."-bIla am ~ [ahvan] Skt n a call, summon, invitation. 4. 2 A J~ adj wise, intelligent. "kI akal 2 an invitation letter. 3 a name. 4 an edict. alamE."-japu. 3 a carpenter Sikh of village Vadeghar who was the maternal grandfather ))fICl' [ak] n})fO( a wild plant, calotrosis procine. "dhan joban ak ki chaIa."-dhana chat m 1.' ofBhai Rup Chand. "akal kah'E tahI ko namu, man me gurumat ko VIsramU."-GPs. See 2 P Ji a trouble, a conflict. 3 a vice, fault, ~m. 4 a spiritually awakened devotee demerit. 4 A J~ adj disloyal. 5 disobedient. »Pa" [ak] See l?fcx. 2 S a weight; 1/16th of a seer, of Guru Arjan Dev from Sultanpur. a Chhatank. 3 an anna, a coin, I/16 th of a rupee. ~ [akall Dg n a branded and cauterized bfia'R' takas] P viii pron that person, that man. bull set free, a stud bull. l)jlaeaMo1 [aktarloni] Sir David Ochterloney, ~ [akar] n pride, arrogance. 2 rigidity. 3 a village seven kos north of Patiala in Sirhind son of a noble American. He came to India tehsil and under Musepur police station and made himself prominent with his bravery visited by Guru Teg Bahadur. There is only and prudence. He was a general in the Bf''lgal army. In October 1804 AD, he allied himself one platform and no building where the Guru stayed. The priest is a Nirmala Sikh. It is two with general Lake and drove out Jasvant Rao Holkar from Delhi. The British appointed him miles north ofKauli railway station. to oversee British-Sikh relations, and on l)j1CfT [aka] T Iii n a master, an owner. several occasions he entered into l'>f"aTA' takas] See nrcxrFI'. 2 all-pervasive God. 3 space, the sky, paradise, heavenly spheres. correspondence with Maharaja Ranjit Singh. On the occasion of the marriage of Prince "trE gUD mohe mohIa akas."-asa m 5. 4 the Kharak Singh in 1812, he was Maharaja's sun, the moon, and other planets which emit light or shine. SeeOTOl7)~. 5 pride, conceit. guest at Lahore. He died at Meerut on 15 "upan caraD talE akas."-ram m 5. 'Humility July 1825 at the age of 68 years. l)jrat:f [akath] See )o)fqEf. "nanak akath ki katha is superior to pride'.
~ }j3'O ~

3 asthma. 4 Skt a summoner. 5 the summoned. [ahu xutcm] deer of Khutan (in China). See ~. ~3" [ahut] Skt adj was called, was summoned; sent for. "gayo beg kalu ahuta."

Page 265


[aka1? kusum] n a flower of the sky. 2 impossibility, improbability. l)fI'a'TB" ofiIfT [aka1? gaga] n a celestial niver, named madakIni mentioned in Purans which flows in the sky. In Punjabi it is known as 'bachelors' road.' a galaxy called the Milky



[aka$ car] n birds. 2 an arrow. -s;mama. 3 a god. 4 a star, planet. 5 an aircraft, a balloon, etc. 6 adj who wanders in the sky. ~ m [aka1? balJ.i] n a celestial 'utterance. 2 according to Sikhism, a divinely inspired idea or speech of a spiritually awakened person. ))f1'(il"Ifi:r [akasI] in the sky. See ~I(Y. ~ [akasi] ad} concerning the sky; cellestial, . heavenly. mror'l3 [akasu] See ~ . ~ [akak1?a], ~ [akakhIa], ~ [akakhya] Skt 3Wf>f~ n a desire, wish. 2 the need of one word for expressing the mt~aning of another word, as for example in the phrase "Read this lesson", the lesson is the need of reading or in "Go there", there or that place is the need (akaksa) of going. ~ [akar] Skt n a form, structure, semblance, "hukmi hovanI akar."-jdpU. 2 stature, bulk, figure. 3 composition, construction. 4 a mark, sIgn. ~ ftr:I [akar cItr] See ftr:I ~C{TO 3. ~ [akaru] ad} having a shape, form or figure. "soi gupat soi akaru."-asa m 5. 2 n a form, shape. l)fifQ [akI] P ,.it pron that, which, he, who. ~ [akIl] See l'>fTm? ~ t!"H [akII das] a priest of the Hindali sect who assisted Lahore officials to apprehend many Sikhs. ~ [aki] A J~ad} defiant, rebellious. "aki marhI aphari."-maru m 1.

~ 'tl'Q

[akGcan] Skt ~O\~ n contraction, shrivelling, shrinkage, constriction. See~trO. ~ [akull Ski ad} diffused, pervasive. "ramaia akul ri bai."-gu} namdev. 2 ))f-~, without a pedigree or lineage. 3 without birth. "amar hOI sdd akul rahe."-prdbha namdev. 4 n God. "akul k£ ghan jauge."-ram namdev. 5 perplexed, confounded. "1?okakul rodan ko kina."-GPs. ~ [akramalJ.] Skt n an attack, assault. 2 crossing the limit. >wi!To [akrat] Ski adj surrounded. 2 spread, expansive. 3 assaulted, attacked. 4 helpless. "jdb hot dharanI bharakrat."-rudr. 'helpless under pressure'. See §lidigi::s. ~ [akntI] Skt ~ n a shape, form. 2 stature, structure. 3 an idol, image. ~ [ak1?epl Skt 2;rr!ffq" n the act of throwing. 2 a taint blemish, stigma. 3 a literal figure of meaning (irony) having self-abuse in the utterance. Example: "kabir rora hOIrahu bat ka tajI man ka abhImanu, Esa koi dasu hOI tahI mIlE bhagvanu. kabir rora hua ta kIa bhaIa? pathi kau dukhu deI, Esa tera dasu hE jIu dharni mahI kheh. kabir, kheh hui tau kIa bhaIa? j:> UQI lagE ag, hdrIjanu Esa cahiE jIu pani sarbag. kabir, pani hua ta kIa bhaIa? sira tata hOI, harIjanu Esa cahiE jEsa han hi hoI." -skabir. (b) a second form ofAkshep or irony is where utterance appears legally sound, but is intended to reject the ideas; Example: "bhag phim mad Ira chako raho mdst dIn rat, In seVdn te turdt hi ndr vIdeh hVEjat." 4 an irony, a sarcasm, sneer. ))fllf [akh] See Jo)ficr. 2 See »fTfu. 3 See ))fl1:f(!T. l)fil:f [akh] Skt »!fu". n an eye. "tdb te kou akh


Page 266

tare nahi anyo."-ramav. [akhaJ)], ~ [akhJ)a] v to say, speak, tell. "akhaJ) vala kIa vecara."-asa m 1. ~ [akhaJ)I] n something said or spoken of. "akhanI akhE bakE sabhukoI."-asa m 3. 2 n a statement explanation. "akhaJ)I aukha saca nau."-sodar. ~ [akhaJ)u] v to say, utter, speak, tell. "akhaJ)u sUJ)na teri baJ)i."-bher m 1. 2 n a speech, an utterance. ))fTl:f3T [axta] P ':;1 adj castrated, sterilised. axtan means to pull, axta thus means whose testicles have been castrated. l')f'l:fO [akhan] See ~. 2 adv every moment, always. ))fll:Itif [akhay] Skt~n a name. "bhavbhadhan ke am ko akhay bhekhaj car."-NP. 'The four characters of the name Vahguru are a medicine against the disease of worldly bondage'. l1fTl:re" [akhar] Skt"Y)f6(Q a letter of the alphabet, a character. "kine ram nam I k akhar." -sukhmani. 2 A j i adj last, ultimate. 3 n the end, a finis. 4 a result, consequence, outcome. ~ [akhauJ)a] v to be called, named or described. "paqIt akhae bahuti rahi."-var ram 2, m 5. ~ [akhaJ)] Skt »fTl:fjfI'O n a tale, story. 2 a description, explication. l')fTl:I1'ij" Hm [akhar maqli] n a theatre, stage. "akhar maqli dharaJ)I sabai."-ram m 5. 2 a group of actors. ~ [akhara] See ~. "rasJ;maqal kino akhara."-suhi parta1 m 5. ~ [akhar] Skt~. n Harh, a summer month in which occurs the full moon in the mansion of purabakhara. l)fTl:fr;1T [akhara] See ~. "racanu kina Iku akhara."-maru solhe m 5. "gurumati sabhI ras bhogda vaqa akhara."-var maru 2 m 5.

l')fTfl:r [akhI] n mouth, which is used to utter

everything. "akhaJ)u akhI na rajIa."-var majh m 2. 2 adj mentionable, utterable, fit to be talked about. "akhI no japE akhI.."-var sar m 1. 'The mentionable one (God) is not visible to the eye'. 3 n an eye. See Example 2. 4 adv having said. "mada kISE na akhI jhagra pavJ)a."-vaq chat m 1. 5 See })fTl:fJI'. ~ [akhIr] at last, in the end. See l?fTCRf 2. "akhIr bIaphtam."-trlag m 1. ))fTl:ft [akhi] See~. 2 n an eye. 3 with or by means of eyes. "dekhIa gurmukhI akhi." -var sri m 4. "gurmukh hOVE ta akhi sujhE." -maru solhe m 3. ~ [akhiphor] n a wink, a moment, an instant. ~ [akhiphon] advin an instant, instantly. "udharsI akhiphorI."-guj m 5. ))fT1:fta" [akhir] See »n:fur. l')fT1j [akhu] Skt n a digging animal. 2 a rat, mouse. 3 a mole, porcupine, etc. ~ [akhurna] See ~. lW11 [akhu], »fl1j [akhu] adjwho says. 2 fit for saying, mentionable. "akhu akha: sada sada."-var sar m 1. 3 See >'ifTl3. ~ [akhut], l?fT¥T [akhuta] See l'>fl3C. "bahut khajane merE palE parIa amol lal akhuta." -sarm 5. ~ [akhet], ~ [akhetak] Skt n hunting, game, chase. ~ [akhetil Skt ~;:r,adjwho hunts; who chases wild animals. ~ [akhepl See ~. ~ [akher], })flifQ firafu [akher buatI], ~ [akher], ~ ftref3" [akher bIratI] See~. n hunting as a means of livelihood or profession. 2 interest in or practice of hunting. "akher buatI baharI aIo dhaI."-bher m 5. "akher bIratI rajan ki lila."-g;:w m 5. l?flif [akhE] name. See »fTl::lJf. "nanak akhE guru

Page 267




ko kahe."-var ram 1 m 1. and "vaje pavCIl.).u ~3T [aganeta] countless. See l?fICII?i'3'. 2 a akhe sabh jaI."-dhcwa m 1. 'The airstream fire-carrier. striking (the throat and the palate) reminds of »fTiJIH [agam] Skt n arrival, coming. "man cau Him.' bhaI a prabhu agam SUl).I a." -;m:Jdu. 2 future. ))f1l:f'$1? [akhacJal] See ~ 2. "agua janu agam kanh janae."-krIsan. 3 Ved. })fQf.if [akhy] Skt >:ff'C[ilT a name, noun. 2 good 4 Shastar. 5 Tantar Shastar, book of charms reputation, prestige, renown. and mystical formu lae which has seven parts: 1')fT1:fMJ [akhyar] a letter, a character. See »f1::Rf. creation, dissolution, worship of gods, "kine ram nam Ik akhyar."-sukhmani. practice of mystical formulae, performance l')fTl:f:iIT [akhya] See })fQf.if. of sacrifices and repetition of the name of ~ [akhyaIka] Skt~. n a story, some deity with a definite aim and tale, fable. contemplation. "agC:1ill nIgam kahe janu nanak l'>fTl:f.iITi') [akhyan] Skt n a story, tale. 2 history, sab dekhe 10k.. 1 sabaIa."-toQi m 5. chronicle. ~ [agaman] Skt n arrival, advent. 2 profit, ~ [axvud] See ~. gain. l?f1(Jf rag] n sugarcane; the top portion ofcertain ~ [agamapai], ~ [agamapayi] tall grasses like sorghum etc. 2 fire, "ag Jlagau Skt31IJIJOOIlqlf£li,adjwho comes and goes, visitor. tIh dhaulhan jIh nahi han ko nau. "-s kabir. 2 subject or liable to birth and death or to 3 an order, command. See >wfur. 4 adv in front, growth and decay, transient, impermanent. ahead. "p:m ke g:m te ag calyo."-knsan. l?f1(Jf ~ rag yatar] Dg a fire-arm, weapon like 5 Skt n a crime, sin. a gun, musket, etc. ~ [agasat] See })f(JJR3'. 2 Skt >:>fT"a'TJf;r adj 'l?fTiIT'a' [agar] n a miine, quarry. See d3(')'dld. connected with the sage Agast. 3 ofAgastya's 2l?-1dJ adv before, at first, earlier. "sabad tarag sub-caste. 4 n the: southern direction. pragatat dIn agar.. "-savEye m 4 ke. 'A wave ))fTiJIU [agah] Skt lWqrr n persistence, obstinacy. of recitation appears before daybreak.' 3 »rdJ.if 2 ad'T forward, in front. 3 adj second, oth,er. adj a headman, chieJI~ "can mran kah-hI bahu "dos det agah kau adha."-bavan. agar."-gau kabir. 4 Skt n night of the new l)(Id'Jj1 [agaj] See »l'd1Tff. 2 Skt»tqfffn elder brother. moon, moonless niight. 3 a principal officer, leader. 4 Brahman. ))fTdI'QT [agra] Agra, a city on the bank of })fI(JJ3' [agat] Skt adj arrived. 2 n a guest. Yamuna in United Provinces. Sikandar Lodhi l)f'I(JJ"O ragan] See nfOTfn. 2 See l'lfdTf'cE3'. 3 See first made it his capital and built Badalgarh »rioTo. fort on the bank of Yamuna. Later at a cost of »rioTo ragan] Skt 3Rl:,rruT a compound, courtyard. Rs. 36 lacs, emperor Akbar got built a grand ))fl'dJ03' [aganat], l?fl(JlO3T [aganta] adj countless, and strong fort at the same site through Mir innumerable. "parbrahameso aganta."-bavan. Muhammad Qasim Khan. })f'I'd1"fo [aganI], »fi"aTf?5' [aganI] in the courtyard. Akbar greatly added to its prosperity and "sobha mere aganI."-brla m 5. "aganI sulch renamed it Akbarabad. See ~ and F.JTill1(JT. basna."-phunhe m 5. 'living comfortably in In and around the Maithan sector of this the compound'. "ghan aganI na sukhai."city are gurdwaras dedicated to Guru Teg sri be1).i. 2 See »IOffo. Bahadur and also a gurdwara of Guru Gobind

Page 268


Singh. According to Guru Partap Suray, Guru Hargobind also came here with emperor Jahangir. ~ [agal] adj foremost, leading, chief. 2 excessive, abundant. "sukh magat dukh agal hOI."-gau a m 1. 3 adv in front, ahead. 4 n the next world, hereafter. "bahut sIal)ap agal bhara."-gau m 5. ~ [aglara] adj of the past, former. "maIa moh m;mI aglara pral)i."-sri trrlocan. ~ [aglare] plural of~. 2 adv in front, face to face, "tInI aglare mE rahII) na jaI."
-sri trIlocan.

nIvari agI jotI di paiE."-suhi ;;J m 1.
~ [agIo], l?fTfcn>w [agIa] Skt 31mT an order,

[agvan] See


1WaT'@'I-fi"ft [agvamni] n a gun or musket (which

pukes fire }-scmama. raga] n the front part, front side. 2 a forehead. 3 a chest. 4 Skt adj near, closelyrelated. 5 future. 6 the hereafter "aga apan sudharan karan."-GPs. 7 the result, effect, outcome. 8 T ~1 a transform of~, a master, owner. »fl(II"'R" ragas], >WOJTff [agasu] See ~. "lakh agasa agas."-japu. ))fl(II'Tij" [agah] adjbottomless. 2 P 0(1 informed, knowing, privy. "garab jIna vaQIaia dhan joban agah."-s f;;Jrid. l)fI'iJI'T'UT [agaha] towards the front, to the future. "agaha ku tragh pIcha pher na muhaQra."

command, "man gobfdE agIo."-gau m 5. "agIa manI bhagatI hOI tumari."-asa m 5. ~ [agIakari] Skt 31nrFflTf't'l, adj obedient. "agIakari sada suhagal)I."-var suhi m 3. ~ [agIras] ~ adj belonging to the clan of sage Angira. 2 n Vrihaspati, the teacher of gods. l1fTCIft [agi] n fire. "dekhI nIvana jal mahI agi."-pr;;Jbha ;;J m 1. 'absorbed dark traits in the qualities of goodness'. ~ [aguri] Skt ~ n a finger. ~ [agu] adj a leader. 2 a guide. ";}dha agu je thiE kIu padharu jal)E."-suhi chJt m 1. 3 Skt n a vow, solemn declaration, commitment. '»fTiit [age], ~ [agE] adv in front. 2 after this. "agE gham pIchE rutI jaQa."-tukha bar;;Jhmaha m 1. 3 future. "agE dayu pachE naraIl)u."-bher m 5. 'In between the future and the past is the eternal.' ~ ~ [agE pachE] adv before and behind. 2 in this world and the next. "agE pachE madi sOI."-gau m 5. ~ [agaj] See l>fOf;:r. l2f1OftB [agajat] adj free from destruction, indestructible, immortal. "agajat paga."-ram
var2 m 5.

-maru var 2, m 5.

[agahi] P (j~1 n knowledge, acquaintance, vigilance. >woJTN [agaj], l?fl()JTj=fT [agaja] P ;~, n a beginning. 2 the origin. "jIhva dhunI agaja."-ram m 5. ~ [agami] Skt3WTTflf:r,adjcoming. 2 future. ))fT(J[TO [agar] Skt n a home, residence. 2 a store. 3 a treasury. ~ [agI] fire. "agI lagaI m;}dar mahI sovhI."-g;;JU k;;Jbir. 2 Skt 31T~rT an order, command. See ~. 3 ignorance. "sabadI


[ag;}tuk] Skt adj (one) who comes. 2 n a visitor, guest. ~ [agya] See ~. })IidlOiiIC(Id'J [agyakari], ~ [agyapalak]
See~. ~


[agyI] with or by order. "mE sukh paID guragyI."-jet m 5. ~ [agrah] Skt n obduracy, obstinacy. 2 perseverance, persistence. 3 a shelter, place, abode. 4 grace, kindness. 5 an arrest; a grasp. 6 an attack, invasion.

Page 269


»fla]tft [agrahi] Skt~adjobstinalte, obduralte.
See l'JiTO]U. [aghl See '»fl.lf. 2 Skt Y>fUf n price, rat,e, cost. "taba suvaran sag te suvaran agh brkaI." -alijkar sagar sudha. ~ [aghaUI:tal See ~. "jIni cakhIa premras se trIpat rahe aghaI."-barahmaha majh. 'Those who tasted the juice of love, remained satiated and content'. "aghae sata."-maru m 5. ~ [aghaIa] adj satiated, content, surfeited. l1fIUIT3" [aghatl Skt n a blow, stroke. 2 an injury, hurt, wound, push. "karE: bahu aghat sastra prahara."-VN 3 a butchery, slaughter-house. l)fTU(TOT [aghana] See ~. 2 adj satiated, surfeited, content. "harI pi aghane."-sri chJt m5. ~ [aghavan] See ~(!T. "nam japat aghavE." -sukhmani. >wufti:rr [aghija] See })ftlflw. "trIpat rahe aghija he."-maru solhe m 5. ~ [aghulna] See. ~. ~ [aghu], l'>f'Uf [aghe] S adv in the prese:nce of, face to face. "sacu jaDe kacu vEdIO tu aghu aghe salve. nanak atsari majhI nEDu bIa qhalI pabaDI jJ:u jDmIo."-var maru 2 m 5. 'You consider false things which shall pass away as true, and you go forth to get them, but they are fle~:ting like butter in fire and a lily in water'. >wUrn [aghor] See nJtlto. 2 adjhighly frightening, terrible. "param aghor rup tIh."--par2s. lWlY<!" [aghraDl, :~T(!" [aghraDl Skt 31T'iJrcrr n smelling, sniffing. 2 adj satiated, surfeited. ~ [a~aD] See .~ and ~. ~ [a~aDI] in a courtyard or compound. "pIr bajhpahu, mere pIare! a~aDI dhurI lute."-asa chJt ill 4. nrrtr lac], l?fitr lac] Skt 1?fftf n a flame of fire.

2 heat. "jal dudh nIai ritI ab dudh ac nahi." -asa chJt m 5. "ac na lagE aganIsagar te." -de v m 5. ))fItJ'O [acan] v to eat; to drink. "raktasur acan."-akaI. See »fTtJ}fO. l')f1~llf!J~' [acprabhavl Dg n a Rajput dynasty born from fire. See ~. »fTtJ}fO [acaman] Skt })fT-IDf (vr IDf to eat), n drinking water. 2 rinsing mouth to clean it before starting recitation of prayers; in Gautam Simriti the quantity mentioned for this is of fifteen drops. 3 eating. ))flIDfIi') [achamanl See »fTtJ}fO. ~ [acar] See ~. ~ [acaraj], l'li"'tRfiJ [acaraju] See ~. "acaraj suarni atarjami." -mala chJt m 5. "acaraju qitba arnru vutha."-asa m 5. l')fltJQ<!" [acaraD] Skt n conduct. 2 behaviour. "jadr brdhr acaraDa."-guj jedev. 3 a mark, trait. ~ [acarDi] See l'l1 i tld<!ll11. 2 adj inert, inactive, "cari acarDi."-krIsan. ~ [acarDiy] Skt adjfit to be performed, capable of being dealt with. ~ [acarIa], .l?'1"tl'ftr3" [acarIt], ~ [acri] Skt l?fltI'fdo. adj dealt with, brought into use. ~ [acal] See ~. l')fTtl'T [aca] See ~. ~ [acar] See 1?11'tl""d". "gavE ko gUD vaqrai acar."-japu. ~ [acaraj], ~ [acaray] Skt~. n a teacher, religious teacher. 2 an educator. 3 a sub-caste ofBrahmans who live on money or material taken on account ofthe dead. They accompany the dead to the cremation ground and are popularly called maha (grand) brahmans. ~ [acari] Skt31T~Tft~adja practitioner. adv by or through moral behaviour. "acari nahi jitra jaI."-asa m 1.

Page 270



[acaru] See l'ifi3"TQ. "srmran suami rhu "aje rse nEn."-kalki. sadhu ko acharu."-sar m 5. })fIffif [ajam] A ~ S adv ve~ great. »fTfu [acr], ~ [acu] See »Mr. "acu kacu })f'N}f WU [ajam $ah] ~~ ~ third son of qhanpahi."-mala a m 1. 'Glass melts in a Aurangzeb born to Banu Begam whose name fire.' in Sikh history is Tara Aazam. He was born })f"'G tach] adj good, nice, excellent. 2 free from on 11 July 1653. He died fighting against his disease; healthy. 3 n an eye. 4 desire, wish. elder brother Bahadur Shah at Jaju or Jajovan "surag na ach-hr ."-bavan. See~. 5 S a sea. near Agra on 8 June 1707. Bhai Santokh ~ [ach-hr] See })f"'G. Singh writes that he died of an arrow, shot by ))f'I'S3" [achat] was. See l'ifiiS. "re nar ! garabh Guru Gobind Singh. See. ~ >mn-r. kGqal jab achat."-sri bel).i. ~ [azmar$] P J:!U7' n a test, trial. This »rio [achann] Skt ~ adj covered. word has been derived from l'ifTBljt?l meaning to test. ~ [achar] n a letter; a character. 2 imperishable. ~ [achall See nrttm". ~ [azmudahkar] P A"oJ";7' adj '»flilT [acha] adj good, nice. 2 healthy. 3 clean. experienced, clever. 4 n desire. ~ [azmudan] P (;}J';;7' v to test; to examlOe. ~ [achadan] Skt ~ n garment. 2 the act of covering. 3 a roof. 4 a lid. l?fT W [a ja] P lf7' that place, there. ~;:r [achrjj] See })fftt;:r. "kr achrjj desE." ~ [aja!).] See ~. ~ [aja!).ata] Skt 3j-Pr~t7;1\i1rr;H:r.:'i\:;<adjnotknowing, -japu. ~ [ache] See »fT5T. ignorant, unacquainted. ~ [achep] See ~. ~ [azad] P .1UI adj free from bondage; n ~ [achE] See })fIG and >?fTGT. "achE kamal independent. anup."-bIla kabir. 2 })fG1tjf immortal. "sac ~ [azadgil See. ~. mahr achE sacr rahE."-var asa. 3 (he) wants, ~ H:aTi:T [azad maGaz] P T.1UI adj who desires. "darsan nam kau man achE."-dev m produces new ideas. 5. 4 is. "bhu maqal khaqal prabhu tum hi ~ [azadi] P ~U7'- JJU7' n freedom, n achE."-maru m 5. independence, lack of restrictions. ))fI'iJl7i [ajan] See ~ and ))fR'T('). 2 Skt 3IT\i1R n nrri [acho] See '»flilT. ~1f [achop] adj untouchable. "tas ki jatr gods born at the time of the creation of the universe. "ajan bah."-japu. 'inspires gods.' achop chipa."-mala ravdas. 2 See })jWtf and 3 creation. 4 nature. 5 See ))f'ItfIQ. §1.f. ~ [aj] Skt ~ adv to-day, this day. "aj ))fI'iJl7i wu [ajanu bah] See »fTRT('j and ))f'ItfIQ ~. hamarE magalcar."-basat m 5. 2 Skt »fTi1 n ~ [ajanul upto the knee. See ))f'ItfIQ ~. goat's milk (»ftlT). 3 A ~ ivory, elephant's ))fI'iJl7i ~ [ajan bahu] adj long-armed; whose tusk. arms touch his knees. l)fltfIS" [ajab] See })ftfIS". lWtttr [ajajJ See l?f'ft:rt:r. »fii:ro [ajan] Skt~. adjconcerning collyrium. >wWa' [ajar] See »IFRf. 2 n Anjana's son, Hanuman. >wftr [ajr] Skt n a battle, contest, encounter. ~ [ajna] v to put collyrium in the eyes. 2 a battlefield. 3 a path, route. 4 surpassing.


Page 271



5 See >1fTFl'Jf.

lWfi::rtr [ajIj] A .7.100 adj humble. "ajIj ria bat."
-japu. 2 upset. 3 poor. 4 incapable. 5 helpless.
~ 'i'iWB" [ajIz navaz] P JI}.7.16 adj who

encourages the helpless. n helplessness, humility. l?fTftD.r [ajIm] See »flIDf. l?fTftD.r F.RT [ajIm ~ah] See »flIDf 'F.ll(J. ~ [ajivIka] Skt n means of livelihood; a vocation, profession. See A ..:iJjj. })f'tf [aju] today. "aju kalI manjair pra!)i." -mart! solhe m 1. 2 advon going day. ~ [~jurda] See ~. l'>fTijOl [ajuni], ~ ~ [ajuni sabhau] See ~ M. "ajuni sabhau."-maru solhe m.5. >Wit [ajr] See »fiii:roT. 2 Skt ~ vr to refine; to shine; to produce. "jo ajE so disE kal."-lnla a m 1. 'Whoever is born is subject to death'. >wRo'l [ajonil, }J~ [ajoniu] adj ilfGifo. See ~it. "ajoniu bhalyu amalu satIgur sagI nIvasu."-saveye m 4 ke. 'your stay with the birthless, decent and true guru (Amar Das)'. l'>fTilit JfertI [ajoni sabhau], l1I"Ftit Ff~ [ajoni sabhavIau] See >lfWi1 M. "parbraham ajoni sabhau."-sar m 5. "ajoni sabhaVIaU jagatguru bacanI tarayau."-savEye m 4 ke. ~ [ajy] Skt n butter, ghee. 2 oil. 3 milk. »fTW [ajha] ad} without a master, humble. 2 needy. lWG [at] M obduracy, willfulness. ntiG [at] Pkt n the space between the: thumb and the forefinger. "at seti nak pakarhI:" -dhana m 1. 2 a trick, tactic. 3 connection, consonance. 4 S sharp sight. 5 smartness of sight. 6 Dg tenacity. »fTGO [atan] See »teO and ~. >WeT lata] n ground corn, flour. "Ikna ata agla Ikna nahi lo!)u."-s farid. lWO lath] Skt~. adj eight, 8. "ath pahar apna khasamu dhIavaU."-asa namdev.
~ [ajIZi] ().7.1oo

lWO fmr3T o1rdc:l'() ~ lath sIphta nitIvan dial Eight qualities of a statesman are: "pnthme Ese lijr her, sabh karaj me hoy dIler. dusar apno kadar pachan, dn~atI dharr nike man man. tntIye agya svami sath, rahr prasan cahr ya~ gath. caturath maram apno joy, ta ko kahE patr jo hoy. pacam bat chupavr rse, kou lakhr bhed nahf jEse. kha~tam rse karo ucar, bad~ah ko jo darbar, ta mahI nIkti jo sad rahe, sag ~ah ke bata kahe, tIn ko CIt rnithe kahI b£11, karr hath me budhI ko rn. saptam sukhan sabhar nIkale, darja apna ap sabhale. a~tam suhbat lahI pat~ah, rahE xamo~ ho~ ke mah, jab b nahI puchr ko bat, tab b nahI bhakhE kusarat. jIS mahI sIphat ath yahI ahI phate paIhr s;)b bIdhI mahI." -buddhrvaradhr m 1. »flO ~ lath srav;)!)] one with eight ears, Brahma. Having four heads, he had, therefore, eight ears and eight eyes. lWO iPH lath jam] eight periods of three hours each, meaning a complete day and night. "ath jam caUS;)thI gh;)ri tU;) nIrkh;)t rahr jiu." -s kabir. See ~F!O URft. lWO ~ lath dngl See l1iRC ~ and lWO~. l)fI'QT [atha] n a group of eight. 2 eight. 3 the digit 8. ~ [athol adj y.ff1P1 eighth. "tat bhayo jab atho."-krrsan. ~ [aQ] Pkt n a cover, shelter, refuge. 2 a

Page 272


screen. 3 a support, basis. 4 a nose-string ~ [aQo] n an egg, "jEse aQo hIrde mahI." -mali m 5. which is attached with a hook to the hair so that the weight of the ornament does not ~ [aQabar] See nrchRr. "meri sejriE aQabar ba1).Ia."-asa chat m 5. impinge on the nose. "ajcm aQ sudhar bhale pat."-krrscm. 5 See~. "aQ sIpar ko rokas ~ [aQh] See ~. "aQh dam ko chipro hOIO aga."-GPs. 6 in Punjabi, a water channel is lakhi1).a."-asa dMna. 2 n support, basis. 3 See also called aQ. ~. ~ [aQ] n an egg. 2 an ovary. ~ [aQhak] Skt n one fourth of a dron; four ~ [aQa1).] Dg n a shield. seers in weight. 2 a measure ofsize, ten fingers ))fT'33" [aQat] See ~. brokerage. 2 a soldier in breadth from each of the four sides. 3 S of Soini sub-caste who was a sepoy in the message. King's army at Delhi. He became a disciple ~ [aQhaII], ~ [aQhalu] adj dependent. of Guru Arjan Dev, who besides giving the "nanak so sahu ahI jake aQhali habhuko." former the gift of God's name taught him to -var guj 2 m 5. 2 dependent, needy. l)fTW [aQha] n a dispute, a violent fracas. 2 adj be brave for the good of here and hereafter. ))fI'lJT [aQa] adj crooked, aslant, awry. 2 a needy, wanting, dependent. competition. 3 an obstruction, obstacle. >wfu [aQhI] Skt ~ adj complete. 2 with, 4 basis, support. "hamro kou ::>r na aQa." including. "dhanaQhI aQhI bhaQan han nIdhI hot jIna na cir."-guj C'J m 5. 'Those -knsan. 5 a halting place, resort. 6 a band who had no garment to wear became far richer for a hawk to perch. "bakh$I$ guru ki baz than the rich on receiving the treasure of sahIt tfh aQe par bathaI sukh man."-GPs. ~ [aQa] n an egg. "phuto aQa bharam ka." God's name'. 3 See ~ and ~. ~ [aQhi1).i] adj worth a quarter of a pice; -maru m 5. 2 (the egg shaped) universe. cheap. "aQhi1).i hoi lakhi1).i."-BG l)I'T itw [aQa tika] n a slanting forehead mark worn by Shaivites shaped like the moon of ~ [aQhu] See ~ and l?R:iT. the second night of the bright fortnight; a ~ [aQhy] Skt adj strategic, tactful. "sarba tnpuQ. "aQa tike mukh-hu na lag." bhar1).aQhy."-japu. 'is inclusive of all metaphors.' 2 rich, wealthy. -rC'Jtanmala. The Vaishnavites regard the slanting forehead mark of the Shaivites as a ~ [a1).] See ~. 2 See~. 3 S subjection, allegiance. 4 obedience, dutifulness. 5 Dg a derogatory. See ~ Y~. ~ [aQa1).], ~ [aQan] See ~OJ<!" "bhE cry for mercy or justice. VICI aQa1).e akasI."-var asa. 2·n (1@PEI'(,) the ))fI(!C!" [a1).a1).] S to bring, fetch, Skt~. See celestial sphere, the vault of heaven, the sky. ~. ))fT(!O [a1).an] Skt ~ n bringing, fetching. "bajh kala aQa1). rahaIa."-maru solhe m 1. lWfir [aQI] See l'>fTfu. "jaharnavi tape bhagirathI a1).i."-mala m 5. >wit [aQi] Pkt n a raised boundary line; an 'The Ganges was brought by Bhagirath.' embankment made in front of the trenches of "a1).agu rasI."-sava m 1. "ape a1).E rasI."-var maru 1 m 2. "vas I a1).Ihu ve jan, ISU man a fort. "aQi parbal maIa."-bhE'r kC'Jbir. 'a kau." -suhi chat m 4. strong boundary of illusion.' 2 adj slanting. bfTf.!' [a1).I] n fire. "SdCU bujhd1).U a1).I jdlaiE." lWk [aQith] invisible. See >'If&.

Page 273

-sri m 1. 2 SkI 31TfilT a custom, tradition. 3 an oath, vow. 4 honour, reputation. "nam deu taci al).I."-mClla namdev. 5 adv having brought. "prdbhI al).I al).I mdhfdi pisai."-lnla Cl m4. "f'C!t [al).i] brought, See })fT(!O and }m. "guru al).i ghdr mdhI ta Sdrdb sukh paIa."-asa m 5. 2 S n selfishness. 3 hope. 4 practice. 5 trust. l1fi3" [at] SkI 3F?f n a bowel, an intestine. nf'3Fr [atas] P .jr n fire. "atds dunia khumk nam khudIa."-var mCJla m 5. ~ [at~dk] See ~ "fu€or. l')ji3F.1€i(') [atd~dan] P (jl..&r n a fireplace, portable hearth. l')fI3mJ'M [atdsbaj] P ;If'~r n one who makes and displays fire works, a pyrotechnist. l')j13Ha i Hl [atdsbaji] P l5;~r n fireworks, pyrotechnics, a display offireworks. 2 firing, bombing etc. during the war. "atdsbaji sar vekh rdl). VIC ghaIl hOI mdrada."-BG ~ [atsdTi] n fire. See ~. l'>i"'3'Fft [atsi] adj of fire. "agE sagdru atsi.."--m 1 Mno. ~ [at-tail, l')j133 i Fw) [aHayIn] See

[atdp] SkI n sunshine, sunlight. "atdp chav dIVdS nISI sdhE."-GPS. 2 heat. 3 fever, temperature. l'>I'3t5 [atpdt], l')j~ [atpdtu], ~ [atpdtr] SkI 3ll(f'1?f n protector from the sun's heat, an umbrella; a parasol. 2 a canopy or umbrella as a mark of royalty. "SIr atpdtu SdCO tdkhdt."-sCJveye m 4 ke. ~ [atdpdtfdl).i] army ofa crowned king. -sCJnama. ))f'3H [atdm] SkI ~n God, for full detail of this word, See under »fT3HT. "atdm ram tISU nddri aIa."-sukhmCJni. 2 individual soul. "atdm mdhI ram, ram mdhI atdm."--bhEI" CJ m 1.3 mind. "prdbhu kdU SImdrhI tInI atdm

jita."-sukhmCJni. 4. one's own self. "sdbh te nicu atdm kdrI mandu."-dev m 5. 5 a body, corpse. 6 patience. 7 nature. 8 SkI 31T-~ deep darkness, meaning darkness of ignorance. "nfda kdrI kdrI ndrdk nIvasi, atdrI atdm japE."-maru CJ m 1. I ~ [atdmhatya] n a suicide. ))f'3H ~ [atdm gdUl).U] n entrance into the self. 2 travelling to attain self-knowledge. "atdm gdUl).U kdrenI."-var ram 1 m 3. ))f'3H 'ar.3' [atdmgdr], })fT3}f ~ [atdmgdru] n a fort of the mind, mind as a fort. "atam gdTU bIkhdm tIna hi jita."-majh m 5. ~ [atmdgy] SkI ~ adjone knowing the self. ~ [atdmgyan] SkI ~ n knowledge of the self. 2~ knowing God. ~ [atdmgyani] n a Brahmgyani. one who has attained knowledge of the supreme spiritual reality. 2 a knower of the self. ))f'3H t.lf13' [atdm ghat] n a suicide. »fT3lf t1fT3l [atdm ghati] adj who commits suicide. "nam nd jdp-hI te atdm ghati."-gCJu m5. ~ [atmdj] SkI ~ n own-born son. 2 Kamdev, Cupid. 3 blood. l')j13}ffiT [atmdja] n daughter. ~it [atdmjol).il] Dg n one's own source of origin; mood; Cupid, Kamdev. ~ 3lw [atam tirdth] n pilgrimage place of the self; spiritual knowledge of the self. l')j'TO)f '3TIrFa' [atdm tirdthI] in the sacred precinct of the self. "sac tapdru jal).iE ja atdm tirdthI kdre nIvas."-var asa. l')jT3}f ~ [atdm ddrds] a glimpse of God.
ISome ignorant persons, without following the meaning hold that the writer, has written erroneously 'atas' as 'alam'. Following their suggestion, some persons have dared to print 'atas' there. See Guru Granth Sahib's bir of 1430 pages published by MufidAam Press p.l 0 13, line 3.

Page 274





2 Dg a mirror in which one looks at one self. ~ [atam darsi] Skt 3TT('l1 ~ adj who sees spiritual reality; for whom God is a visible reality. ~ [atamdan], ~ [atamdanu] n a gift of the self; self-sacrifice. 2 a gift or donation of spiritual knowledge. "gurujevaQu data ko nahi jInI dIta atamdan."-sri m 5. })f'3}f ti~ [atam dravl)a] v to feel pity or compassion; to soften. »fT3}f 1;fCIT'R' [atam pragas] n spiritual light. 2 a miracle of self-knowledge. ))fl3}f~ [atam prabodh] n spiritual knowledge; knowledge of God. "dukh bhajan atam prabodh."-savEye m 4 ke. })f'3}f '8'R' [atam bas] adj who has one's self under control. 2 self-reliant. "atam bas hE." -japu. 3 n continence. ~ [atambhu] n born from self, God. 2 son. 3 Brahma. "atambhu bhal ritI pachanat."-NP 4 Shiv. 5 Vishnu. 6 Cupid. l1fT3}f 'ij"R' [atam ras] n a relish of spiritual knowledge. "atamras jInI jal)Io."-savEye m 1 ke. l'>fT3H ~ [atam rak$a], l'>fT3H -a'fcf>w [atam rakkhIa], »fT3}f 0CfJfT [atam rakhya] n selfdefence, protection of one's own self. 2 protection of mind or soul "atam rakhya gopal suami."-sahas m 4. ~ [atamrat] adj who loves the soul. 2 who has attained spiritual knowledge. 3 proud of one's body. "atamrata sasar gaha te nar nanak nIhphalah."-sdhds m 5. 'Those who take pride in their body, donot attain salvation'. »fT3}f Q'H [atam ram] n such a soul in which those possessing spiritual knowledge dwell; the supreme Soul; God. "gurmukhI man samjhair atamram bican."-sri m 1. 2 a yogi frequenting the spiritual domain.

~ [atam vId] Skt ~ adj equipped with spiritual knowledge; possessing mystery of the soul. »fT3}f~ [atam vIdya] n theology especially as taught in the Upanishads; knowledge or science of the self. l'>fT3W [atma] Skt ~, (31\f,-"J1f.1;:rj by which knowledge is acquired; the basis of knowledge got from the Guru's teaching. Knowledge of the soul is the central element in living beings which is the source of many desires. In human beings it is the source from which knowledge of! and mine arises. Some have accepted its location in the brain, and others in the heart while still others believe it permeating the entire body. According to Nyay philosophy, the soul possesses qualities of comfort, pain, knowledge etc., Their presence is the proof of the soul's existence.

"~~~ B'@G':<8 ~HHII\' f(1':S.llfflR1." ~ ~ ,

-nyay dar$an, a ahnrk 1, maxim 10. According to the Vedant, atma is the reflection of sentience in ignorance, abode of ignorance in consciousness, and ignorance itself. Jivatma or spiritual essence is one, as the reflection of the sun in thousands of pots is one, similarly spiritual essence (atma) in different bodies is one and is not separable from the supreme Soul, the sachchidanand (truth, consciousness and joy) or from timespace continuum. Individual soul is not different or separate from Brahm; it only appears so because of the different names given to it. Reflection of Brahm in Maya (physical nature), abode of Maya in conscious beings, and Maya - these three together constitute Ishvar or God. If Maya and abode of Maya are taken away, what remains is pure Brahm. The atheists c.onsider the soul also

Page 275




transitory and impermanent like the material substances. Scientists consider the brain cortex as an attribute of ganglionic cells. For Sikhism the soul and the superme Soul are one. "atma pClratma eko kan:."-dh"ma m 1. 2 God. "atmadeu pUjiE gur kE sahajI subhaI. atme no atme di pI'CltitI hOI, ta ghClI' hi pClrca paI."'-var sri m 3. 3 inner self, mind, soul. "atma ac;lolu nCl dolCli gurkE bhaI subhaI. "-var sri, m 3. 4 character, temperament. 5 body, physique. 6 patience, forbearance. 7 intellect. 8 sun. 9 fire. 10 air. 11 son. ~ [atma~I'ClY] n own support, self support. 2 acc:ording to Nyay Shastar, it is a literary defect where subject of a verb is taken as its object. Any topic which anticipates itself is called "atClma~ClrClY" or self-supportiing. ))fT3}-/T ftrfufcr [atma tnbldhI] the mind which possesses three qualities of peacefulness, enjoyment and anger. "atma tnbldhI terE ek lIvtar."-saveye m 2 ke. 'Your mind possessing three aspects is singularly oriented and concentrated on the One'. ))fT3}-/T -e-~ [atma deu] God. "atma deu pujiE." -var sri m 3. ~3" f'an,fro [atmavat gIan] "atClmgyan vat."-saveye m 2 ke. >w3'fi..ra" [atmIk] Skt ~ adj relating to the soul; spiritual. 2 own. 3 mental; of the heart. l?fT3}j" [atClmu] See »JT3'}f and »fT31-IT. 2 God. 3 the individual soul. "atClmu cinE su tCltu bicare."-gau a m 1. 4 conscience. "atClmu jita gurmClti gU!) gae gobfd."-gau thlti m 5. >w3lf 390 s'fr ~ [atme tin bahe hE]·-knsan. three minds (of Rukamini, of her father, and of her brother) are floating in the river of anxiety. l)f13Q [atClI'] Skt n a tax on unloading of charges on boats. 2 See~.

l'>fi3faq [atClnk] Skt 3TR1ftcf; adj internal.

[atrag] a disease of the intestines, also known as chJ:drodClr, or bClddhgudodar, ~m (J' in Persian, and phlebitis in English. According to the vedic books on medicine, if along with eatables, sand, straw, thorn, bone, hard crust of wood, etc. enter the intestines and peel it, pus starts seeping and sometimes causes phlebitis. Besides, there are several diseases of intestines such as ileus, or bloating due to phlegm. Their treatment should be done by some expert physicians as early as possible. Patients of intestinal disease should not eat hard and heavy eatables and should take measures to avoid deposits of impurities in the intestines. "kete at rag te tClre."-cantr 405. ~ [atai] See ~. »fl'fuF.r [atI~] See »fT3F.f. nrrfatr [atlth], J~"Tf3aJr [atlthy] n hospitality, respect for and service of guests. ~ [atit] See »I"3E. ~ [atur] Skt adj perplexed, confounded. "mohI atur teri gCltI nClhi jani."-dhana m 5. 2 sick. "atur nam bIn s;'isaI'."-sar m 5. 3 humble. "asan te uth atur hVE."-krIsan. 4 adv soon, quickly, at once. ~ [atuI'ta] Skt n disease. 2 pain. 3 distraction, bewilderment, confusion. 4 haste, hurry. 5 humility. 6 submission. ~ [atak] See 1'iI3'or. ~ [atI'] Skt;m;:;f n an intestine, lower part of the alimentary canal. l'>fTEf [ath] See )?fEI". 2 »n:f wealth, money. 3 sensual pleasures. 4 ~ disappearance. 5 31Tff engrossed, seized, possessed. 6 injured, beaten. 7 See l?fTfu. ~ [athCll}.], »rE1~ [athVCl!)], ~ [athVCl!)o] Skt ~ n setting of the sun. "dInClSU CClfE phln athvE."-sri m 4. 2 direction in which


Page 276


the sun sets; west, "ugval).hu t€ athval).hu cahu ~ [adat] A -=-)~ 11 a habit, nature, addiction. caki kianu loa."-var ram m 3. ~ [adam] father of Bhai Bhagtu who was »i'a'U [athah], ~ [athaha] See»fEITU"bhagat a devotee of Guru Ram Das, See ~ m. vachal athaha he."-maru solhe m 3. 2 EAdamA (J1 the first man whom, according >wfEr [athI] See l?fTEr. 2 l?fEf money, wealth. to the Bible and Quran, God made with earth "athI sd nic ghan hOI, athI dekhI nIV€ jIS and in his own image. "baba adam kau kIChu dOI."-o~kar. 'If the lowly and the foolish nadan dIkhai."-bhE'r kClbir. According to a possess wealth, the clever and the noble, also Biblical story, while Adam was sleeping, God bow in respect.' 3 in sensual matters. See took out one of his ribs and turned it into Eve. ~. 4 set, disappeared. "mero janam God put this couple in the garden of Eden maran dukh athI."-bCls~t kClbir. 5 1'ifq here. telling them that they might live there in "mna bhuli athI."-o~kar. 6 tired. "bhukh pleasure and eat fruit. He instructed them not pIaso athI kIU dan jaIsa jiu."-dllCina ch~t to eat fruit of a particular tree. Satan came m 1. 7 ~ supplicant, desirous, aspirant. and lured Adam and Eve to eat the forbidden "bhulo marag athI."-sri CI m 1. 8 the rich; fruit, for which act they were expelled from the wealthy. 9 a word with »rtf in the Eden with the curse that Adam's progeny shall beginning. "suasatI athI bal).i barmau, satI have to toil for living and shall be liable to death. In the Bible, Adam's age was 930 suhal).u sada manI cau."-jClpu. Words like years, and Cain I, AbeF and Seth were his sons. those beginning with ~ and »rEf enthuse the mind (like the Arabic word sub-han or the T.P. Hughes writes in his Dictionary of Islam that after explusion from heaven, Adam Sikh formula satInamu) See »rEf and ~. Professor Teja Singh interprets these lines fell in Ceylon and Eve in Jeddah in Arabia. as 'Salute is to Him who Himself is Maya, They remained separated for 200 years, after which the angel Gabriel brought Adam to Bani and Braham. He is truth incarnate, Mount Arfah and united him with Eve. Adam beautiful and in the form of infinite then went with his wife back to Ceylon where pleasurable desire for doing good'. l?fTfa3:;r [athIty] 11 instability, impermanence. there is a 7426 feet high hill and also a bridge 2 See >wfu3:;r ~. 3 See ~. named after Adam. According to the >wfu3:;r ~ [athIty bhavan] 11 the world, a Ramayan this bridge was made by Ram Chandar. Some poets think that Ram was guest house, an inn. "atya t asa a thI ty bhavna."-sClhCls m 5. 2 a transient home. Adam, and Sita was Eve. 3 adj wrapped in ~ [ad] Skt l')fTfu adj first, initial, basic. 2 11 leather. 4 of wheatish colour. the beginning; origin. 3 the primary cause. ~ "f.l('j1'J:ft [adam ~anasiJ 11 test of a man; a method to assess man's merits and demerits. 4 part others. ~ [ad] See nP3" and ~. jJP€ dey jivan to sajjan sanehi sag ~ [adak] See l1flfuor. 2 SkI »fTt!-q 11 fresh jJP€ dey mic to bhali hi bhumI ka~i ki. jJpE dey dand to han ke bhajan yut ginger. See ~ 2. ~ [adagg] adj burning, aflame, afire. jJP€ dey lacch bane seva aVIna~i ki. 2 shining, lighted. "adagg jog sOdar sarup." 'This pronounced as 'QT?)'. -datt. 'This is pronounced as '~'.

Page 277


of previous actions. "adI akur ala."-bIha chat m 5. >wfu nffi:r [adI atI] adv in the beginning and at the end; birth and death. "adI atI jo -n~}Val sIgh. rakhanharu."-sukhmani. 2 at any or every time. ~o [adamxor] adj (one) who eats men; »fTfu"Fr [adIs] See ~. 2 See ~. 3 adv cannibal. »f1t!}f ~ Y1? [adam da pul] Adam's Bridge, a all around. "adIs phIrEya teto bhut kE pachaniE."-akal. 4 See l?fTfuF.r and >wtfu:r 2. 17 miles long low ridge extending from Rameshvaram in Madurai district of Madras l">f"'fua" [adlk] part etcetra, and others. 2 Skt to Munnar in Ceylon. According to the >wecf n fresh ginger. "adlk ke blkh cabat Ramayan tale, it is a bridge wh ich Ram bhorE."-kl'Isan. 'munches aconite root instead of fresh ginger'. Chandar got constructed through Nal and Nil for transporting his army to Lanka (Ceylon). >wfu ~ [adI kavI] n the first poet; Valmik. 2 Shukrachary. See~ 2. ~[admi] A (]Jf n man; progeny of Adam. >wfu~ [adI kumar] n Brahma's sons, Sanak etc. "kai dey adIkumar."-dkal. "ham adami hii. Ik dami."-dh;:ma m J. [adI ~ [admiyat] n humanity, human nature, »fTfe" gwfu [adI kuman], "l?-fT"fu gentlemanliness, civility. kumari] n goddess Druga. Parvati. 2 Lachhmi. l)fTt!O radar] Skt n respect, regard, hospitality. nrrreQJO [adr gur] n Guru Nanak Dev. "adIgurae namah."-sukhmani. See~. 2 welcome, reception, hospitality" "adaru dlta parbraham."-suhi d m 5. »fTfe" tfcJf'fe" [adI jugadI], »rfu tf~ [adI ~ radar] See~and~. jugadi] from the beginning of time. "adr ~ [adaras] Skt l?fIt:F.f n a mirror. "darsE jugadI dalalu tu thakur."-asa a m 1. "adI VIC adaras badan ko."-GPs. 2 an annotation, jugacii rakhda."-majh m 5 dInl'E1) I. a commentary. 3 a sample. 4. a principle, ~ [adlt] See :I~. 2 the sun. See »fl"fe3:;r. l)t'f€3<;id [adrtvar] the day of the sun; Sunday. purport. ~ [adaru] See l)fTt!O. ~ [adlt van] on or during Sunday. ~ [adal] See ~. "adlt van adltpurakh hE soi."-brla val' 7 ~ [adla] See l1f1"f'ew. m3. l)fTt!T [ada] See ~. ~ [adIU], ~ [adrty] the progeny of ~ [adat] plural of~. Adity; from the dynasty of Adity. 2 Adity's ~ [ada] adj brought. "majanu gun ada son, the sun. '''kr adrtt sokhE."-japu. rase."-sol' n1 5. 'controls even the sun'. 3 the god Vaman. ~ [adab] plural of»R"a". 4 lndar, the king of gods. 5 god, angel. >wfu [adI] See })fIt!. "adI anil anadI."-jdpU. ~ ~ [adrty var] See ~ ~. 2 n God. "adI kau kavanu bicar kathiale'?" >wfu 0'Ef" [adI nath] n the primal Lord, God. 2 according to Yogis' belief, Shiv. -sIdh gosatI. »fTfe" nri!o [adI akur] n the result of past >wfu y~ [adI purakh] n Skt>wfu Y"§1'f n God. actions. 2 manifestation or cumulative effect "adI purakh ades."-japu. jJpE dey lag nIj gharni ke ag sag sagatI na dijio karor kotI dasi ki, jJpE dey cakri to thakuri hE yahi teri jame matI hOI nEk adam ~anasi ki.



Page 278




»flfe- ftr3'" [adI bnt] Skt ~. adj a rule or
cust-om in practice since the beginning. "dusat nL--kadan adI bnte."-akal. 2 ))fTfu f{fu" subsistence since the beginning of time. 3 pristine habit of the mind. >wfuH [adIm] See})fTt!}f. 2 Skt adjfirst, initial. 3 in grammar, first part of a sentence which is related to the final part, for example in "vIdvan gyani sigh, uttam ketha karda hE", vIdvan gyani sigh is »fIfBH. ~ [adImatu], ~ [adImatr] n Rf30Ttf the primal formula. "satInamu tera para purbala."-maru solhe m 5. "dehI ta japi adImatu."-basat m 3. ~ radII] A JJ~ adjjust, impartial, fair. "adIl adal calaIda."-BG ))fl'fuw [adIla] adj the first, initial. 2 vocative, '0, Judge 1.' ~ [adIle] of ancient times, aboriginal. "adIle bhagat jItu lagI tare."-savEye m 4 ke. ~ [adi] See »flfe-. 2 adj brought, fetched. "jInI sita adi qauru vaI."-var ram m 1. 3 A l5J~ adj habituated. 4 practising. ~ [afdi] See nrtft 2. >wtfu:r [adis] n »flfe--EIH. primal, master, God. 2 P J!JI fire. ~ lades], ~ [adesu] Skt~ n an order command. 2 news, intelligence. 3 instruction, advice. 4 in grammar, replacing a letter with another. 5 Yogi's mutual salutation. "adesu tISE adesu."-japu. ~ffi') [adelan] Skt n repeated oscillation, swinging. 2 a disturbance, a commotion. 3 excitement. 4 a noise, clamour, uproar. ~ lady] Skt adj initial. 2 principal, great. 3 n a thumb. 4 eatable, food. ~tP3'" [adyopat] Skt adv from the first to the last, from the beginning to the end, throughout. ~ [adns], ~ [adnsy] Skt~ adj

invisible. 2 SktYWt!ff a model, standard, norm. "adnsy dharam."-japu. ))fI'l:f [adh] adj half. "adh ghari kou nahI rakhr." -dev m 9. 2 See »rfu. l?fTtIfo [adham] short form of~; king's army. -scmama. ~ [adhar], l)fimjT [adhra] adj blind. "adhar ki padvi kahi pavr."-VN. 2 ignorant, stupid. 3 arrogant, conceited. n{ltIT [adha] adj half. ~ [adhan] See »fQ1?l. ~ [adhar] See l'>fLI'TO. "nam tera adhar mera."-gau kabir. 2 food. "jIn pEdaIs tu kia soi deI adhar."-tIlag m 5. ~ [adhari] See ~. 2. n stay, support. "sabhna jia ka adhari."-maru solhe m 3. 3 a mendicant's bag. "qaqa mudra khftha adhari." -bIla kabir. nMi:r [adhI] Skt n mental suffering. See OR. 2 worry, anxiety, concern. nMi:r ~~ [adhI dEVIk] Skt adj (suffering) caused by gods. 2 n a calamity caused by heat and cold, rain, lightning, a natural calamity. nMi:r Yfuor [adhI bh::>tIk] Skt adj (suffering) caused by living beings. 2 n (pain) caused by snakebite, tiger, dogbite, etc. l?fTt:ft [adhi] adj (feminine) half. "ek ghari adhi ghari."-s kabir. 2. See »rfu. 3 Skt n vigilance. ))firft [adhi] n a fierce blinding storm; a dust storm "gIan ki ai adhi."-gau kabir. ))fTtfur [adhit] See lIfl=ft3'". l)f!tflo [adhin] See l'>Itflo. ~ [adhunIk] Skt adj of the present; modern. l'>f"9" [adhu] adj half. 2 suffering mentally. ))fTih;r [adhey] Skt n something which stays on some support like a bangle on the arm. 2 adj sustainable. ))fTihr [adher], l?fi'iloT [adhera] See l?iilo "adherE rahu na koi."-var majh m 1.

Page 279


[adhor;:n:d Skt n a keeper and driver of an elephant; a mahout. ~ [adhyatmIk] Skt 31T~~<fi adj spiritual; pertaining to the soul; concerning the mind. See 3'l.f and ~. »flO [an] See »!T(Y. 2 Skt })f(').if adj other, alien, stranger. "an apna karat vicara."-sor m 5. 3 n honour, glory. "jInI rakhil an s~Hani." ~sar m 5. 4 Skt face, mouth. 5 self-respect; pride. "In logan te an manau."-NP 6 P 1;,(( wine. 7. savour, relish. 8 beauty. 9 See})fr 2. })fTO'C{ [amk] Skt n a battledrum, kettledrum. 2 a thundering cloud. 3 adj sound producing, clamorous. ~ ~ [amk dOdbhi] Skt »fT0""a" ~~~gj- n a high sounding war-drum. 2 Krishan's father Vasudev. There is a story in the Purans that gods had sounded war drums at Vasudev's birth, therefore he got this name. I "balak amk dodbhi ke bhayo dodbhi bajat an ke dvarE."-rahim kaVI. 'A son was born in the house of Vasudev but the drum is being beaten in the house of another (Nand).' l')fl'(')Cift [anki] n where war drums are sounded, army.-sanama. »fT03" [anat] Skt adj bent, humble. 2 A ..:::;~, n aid, assistance. »fTire [amd] See ~t: "anad rup sab nadri aIa."-bIla m 5. »fTire ~ [anad dOdabh] See ))IIT('iO[ 'g'~reft. In krisnavtar, page 185, some scribe has written ~~ instead of~~ as the name ofVasudev. "anad dOdabh chaum:." Krishan son of Anak Dundubhi. »fTire lfl'i [anad mull adj root of joy. "anad mul jagjivan c1ata."-guj m 4. ~ [amdu] See »flit. 2 Guru Amar Das's composition 'Anand' in Ramkali measure. "anadu sUl)hu baqbhagi hO."-an.§du.
ISee Vishnu Puran, Ch 4, Section 14.


»fTi'i'q [anaddh] Skt ~ n a musical instrument

in which metal or cotton cords are tied in knots as markers indicating different notes and pitches. 2 a musical instrument tightly stitched in leather. "anaddha murjaclIka." -amar kO$. 3 adj tightly stretched. 4 tied, bound. »rOO [anan] Skt n face, mouth. "an;:m ras kas laVE na lai."-gau m 5. 'Tastes of the palate can't compare with those of His name.' 2 face and head. "anan kaj bIda bnjraj pE ayo." -krrsan. 'Khafag Singh's head has come to Krishan as if to bid farewelI'. ~ [anpaIni], ~ [anpavnil See

[anyan] Skt n bringing, fetching. »fl"i')ij'ff [anras] See ~'. "rasa anrassa bhali bMt bhugga."-VN. ))fl'01? [anal] fire, See llfi'5"1? "pavan pavan, anal anal, nabh nabh, bhu bhu sag."-carrtr 108. 'Breath blended with air, body's heat with fire, ethereal fluid with the sky, and earth with the earth'. »fIOT [ana] v to come, arrive. 2 Skt ~ n a coin; an anna, 'North one sixteenth of a rupee or four paisas. 3 an eyeball. 4 adj})f(').if, other, another, different. »fifo [anI] adv having brought, having come. "anI anI samclha bahu kini."-kalI am 4. ~ [anit] Skt adj brought, colIected. 2 See

[anita] See~. 2 adjhelpless (without God). "bIn han han anita re.,,_asa m 5. ~ [anile] l,et us bring. 2 adv having brought; having come. "anile phul paroile mala."-asa nalndev. »fTQ liQ1ft [anu purbi] Skt »fTOl/m adj serialIy, in order. ~ [anuvak] See »IQ ~. »fTQ1.f [anup] See~. "japI japI karhI anad

Page 280


jdn dCdrdj anup."-jE't m 5. in by Sardar Sundar Singh Majithia, on 27 ~ [anek] See »mar. August, 1909 report was called for from a ~ [anet] See ~. 2 See l'>fT013'. select committee, and on 22 October 1909, ~ [aneta] See ~. 2 Skt ~ one who the Anand Marriage Act was passed. I brings; a fetcher. ~ fRur [anad sigh] A pious Sikh who ~ [anera], ~ [aneru] n darkness, gloom. became an ascetic on reading from Anand the "bIn sdbd£ atdrI anera."-majh <J m 3. "ghdtI line: "Ihu kutab tu jI dekhda cdlr nahi terr canI).a aneru bInaSdI).I."-Var ram 1 m 3. nale." He came into the service of Guru »fTi'f3' [anat] See ~3'. "hdrkhdvat anat Gobind Singh and got entitled to the highest ddIala."-maru solhe m 5. spiritual glory. ~ [anad] See ~. "anad guru te jaI).Ia." ~ [anad gdrh] one of the forts of Guru -<Jnadu. 2 a metre. See ~. 3 the Eternal, Gobind Singh. See ~. the Creator. 4 According to the Sikh custom, ~ 11/0 [anad ghan] a famous Udasi saint, the marriage ceremony comprises who lived mostly in Kashi. He wrote a (a) a Sikh girl be engaged to a Sikh youth; commentary on Japuji in Sammat 1852. Bhai (b) in age, physical condition, etc., both should Santokh Singh has strongly criticised and be suitable for marriage and both should be rejected it. 2 a Kayasth poet who wrote Sujan Sagar Granth. He was killed during Nadir desirous of having mutual marital Shah's invasion on Mathura. relationship; (c) the engagement should take place after ~ ~~ [anad dGddbh] See l'Wi'it!' t~. ardas (supplicatory' prayer) in the presence })fTift!Y'a' [anadpurl See ~. 2 Guru Teg Bahadur, having purchased land in Makhoval of Guru Granth Sahib; village near Nainadevi hills founded this town (d) the day of marriage be fixed on a religious on the bank of Satluj river in Sammat 1723. day or with the consent of the five beloved ones; It is now in Una sub-division of Hoshiarpur (e) the marriage party should consist of as district. It flourished a great deal under Guru many persons as the bride's parents/guardians Gobind Singh. It is known as the home of the Khalsa which signifies that the home of the invite, and both sides should meet while father of the Khalsa is also the home of his reciting sacred hymns; (f) early in the morning, after asa di var, the progeny, the Khalsa. bride and bridegroom should be imparted In Sammat 1746, Guru Gobind Singh got instructions according to the scripture, and five forts built for the defence of the city: (a) Anandgarh, (b) Lohgarh, (c) Fatehgarh, their marriage be confirmed. Then the lava (d) Keshgarh, (e) Holgarh. Now gurdwaras (circumabulatory) text and anad be recited add to the prestige of these sites. Following and consecrated pudding distributed. The anad form of marriage is very old is the detail of the gurdwaras at Anandpur: among the Sikhs. Nabha's heir apparent, (1) Akal Bunga is Guru Gobind Singh's prince Ripudaman Singh tried to give it a gurdwara within the compound of Gurdwara legal status. A bill was presented in the IThis has been printed in several languages and is Council on 30 October 1908. With efforts put available with book sellers.


Page 281



Page 282



Page 283


nak~a anadpur na~an gurdvara -----.




rasla pahari n£11a I;devinu'

caran gaga

s arakuna


- -=---


Page 284


Sisganj. Here he was consecrated as the: Guru. It has a beautiful building in which Guru Granth Sahib is placed. (2) Anandgarh Fort is less than half a mile to the south. It was raised as one of the forts for· the defence of the city. Inside the fort there is an open well of which the steps are difficult to ascend and around which there are cells where, if one enters, it is difficult to find one's way out. The gurdwara is also very elegant and recitation of Guru Granth Sahib goes on here. It has a grant of land worth Rs. 1600 a year in villages Chandpur, Burj, Chikuna and Mehandri in Anandpur police station. A cash grant of Rs. 37\14 per annum is given by the Kalsia state. The gurdwara has 125 ghumaon of land. It was to destroy this fort that the hm chiefs sent a drunken elephant whose head was pierced 'by Bhai Bachittar Singh with his spear. (3) Within the town of Anandpur Sahib is gurdwara Sisganj raised in the memory of Guru Teg Bahadur. Here Guru Teg Bahaclur's head brought from Delhi was cremate:d. Attached to it is grant of land worth Rs. 900 sanctioned from the time of the Sikh rule. Besides this there are annual cash grants ofRs. 371;4 from the Kalsia state, Rs. 60 from the Patiala, and Rs. 70 from the Nabha states. (4) Close to Anandpur to the south,~estjis Guru Gobind Singh's gurdwara Keshgarh Sahib" where Khalsa Panth was forged on Baisakhi day of 1756 Bikrami. This gurdwara has the following relics: (a) a Nagni spear 8 feet 9 inclhes long. (b) a bhala (spear) half an inch less than eight feet in length. Its front pike is two feet and nine inches long. There is

a long wooden grip in the middle. (c) a sEf (straight sword), 4 feet 3 inches in length including the grip; the grip is 3 inches broad decreasing to two inches in the middle and lastly tapering to a pointed end. The sword weighs two seers. 1 The inscription on it is: one side

.,-':?d"'r!dY!..:fC~ b! ,;:, ~Lr:t?LI~LI

the obverse

(d) a double edged broad sword, 3 feet 3.5 inches long with its blade 1.5 inches broad in the middle and increasing to 2.25 inches at the end. This is the sword which was used to test the faith of the five beloveds. (e) a dagger 2 feet one inch long including its grip. On the grip are carved figures of elephants and lions. Details of the grant of gurdwara Kesgarh: half the annual rent of the entire land of village Baddon equal to Rs. 1150 was offered

According to Giani Sampuran Singh, a senior aged priest of Kesgarh Sahib, this weapon was given by the Caliph Muhammad IV of Rome to Aurangzeb along with a ceremonial gown but Bahadur Shah presented it to Guru Gobind Singh. From the inscription, it seems unlikely that a Caliph would have given it to a king belonging to Sunni faction oflslam. The author's father Baba Narayan Singh used to tell that this weapon was presented to Guru Gobind Singh by Pir Budhu Shah ofSadhaura.

Page 285


by Sardar Baghel Singh Jathedar, at the time The gurdwara is on a low hillock, and its of taking amrit; Rs. 400 per year from village building was raised by Sardar Gujjar Singh Giganval, district Jalandhar donated by an aristocrat of Surakhpur in Kapurthala Sardar Mit Singh Jathedar; Rs. 1100 per year State. A banyan tree close to the gurdwara from Mothepur village under police station has been there since the time of the Anandpur donated by Sardar Charat Singh Sahibzadas. Dallevalia; Rs. 75 per annum from village (9) Bhora Sahib (cave-like structure) within Mahain under police station Anandpur in the gurdwara Guru Ke Mahal to the West of Bilaspur State. Other annual grants are Anandpur is dedicated to Guru Teg Bahadur who used to meditate here on the Almighty. Rs. 375 from Patiala state, Rs. 169 and 10 annas from Nabha State and Rs. 37Y4 from It is about 8 feet below the land surface and Raja ofKalsia. The gurdwara itself is located ten descending steps lead to it. in a plot of 33 ghumaons. (IO) Fort Fatehgarh is a gurdwara of Guru Gobind Singh located inside the town close Total income is about Rs. 3000. Offerings to the police station. The fort built by Guru during Hola Mohala fair are also Gobind Singh for the defence of the town, is considerable. (5) Guru ke Mahal as got built by Guru Teg 10 rums now. Bahadur as his residence. Guru Gobind Singh (II) Lohgarh Fort is about one mile southwest of Anandpur which the tenth Guru got built also lived here. Some walls of that time still to protect the city. This fort was destroyed by exist. the Satluj river as also throgh the negligence (6) Damdama Sahib. To the west of the town of the Sikhs. Now a small gurdwara stands is a gurdwara of Guru Gobind Singh. Here here to which belong about three ghumaons the Guru held congregations and it was here of land. 3 See lJQR' }j1;) and m. that he punished masads (preachers-cum-title~-a- ~ fcffi [anadpur de kIIe] See ~ collectors). (7) Manji Sahib is Guru Teg Bahadur's yo 2. gurdwara close to Guru ke Mahal. Here the ~ lj1i5' [anad mull n God, the source of all Guru held his daily congregation. It was here joys. "anadmul anath adhari."-dh;ma am 1. that the pandits of Kashmir appealed to the ~;: ~t( [anad rup] God whose form and attribute are ajoy to behold. "anad rup anup Guru to protect their religious faith. agocar."-maru solhe m 1. (8) Manji Sahib (2) is a gurdwara dedicated to the sons of Guru Gobind Singh, Baba Aj it ~ [anadi] Skt 3TRffi, adj happy, joyful. Singh, Jujhar Singh, Jorawar Singh and Fateh ~-g [anadu] See l?fTi;:. Singh, who were trained in games and got ))fTtf lap] Skt 31ft{ vr to happen; to acquire; to satisate. 2 ~"pron one self. "karhu sabhar their education here as young boys. It has an sard'h ki ap."-GPs. 3 polite words for 'you' annual grant ofRs. 80 from village Surewal, police station, Anandpur since the time of and 'he'. "gurusIkkhi ko bhakhf;lo ap."-GPs. Maharaja Ranjit Singh; and annual grants of 4 n selfhood, ego. "ana VICI ap varatda karI).a kIChu na jaI."-maru m 3. 5 God who is the Rs. 18 and 10 annas sent from the Kalsia state self of all. "jaM lobh tahI kal hE jaM khIma and Rs. 25 from the Patiala state.

Page 286


tahI ap."-s kabir. 6 self-knowledge. "apE no ~ [apad], ~ [apda] n a calamity, ap khaI m;mu nIrmaIu hOVE."-l1ar sri m 3. disaster, adv.ersi~~r. 2 hindrance. "taM dukh sab apad."-sar m 4. 7 adj one's own. "Isat mit ap bap na mai.." -gau m 5. "so dhan kIS-hI na ap."-asa m 4. ~o [apan] pron personal, belonging/ 8 Skt 3ffiT adj active, smart. "Iae sarab SEna kie pertaining to. "apan bapE nahi kISi ko bhavan ko han raja."-sor ravdas. 2 self, oneself, ap rupa."-parOls. 9 ~ n water. "jEse dhar sagar me gaga ji ko ap hE."-c.Jc;ii 1. "avar mue kIa sog karijE, tau kijE jau apan ~ tapas] n mutual relationship. 2 an jijE."-gau kabir. 3 n a shop. See })jTl.j(y. "banaj alliance. 3 brotherhood. 4 See l'>fTtf 7. 5 adv sJj s6 apan puri."-NP mutually, among ourselves. })fTl.[i')'3T [apanra] pron of the self, one's own. ~ [apsuarthi] adj selfish, self-seeking. "apanra prabhu nadIr kan dekhE."-vac;i m "manmukh apsuarthi."-var sor m 3. . 4. "apanrE ghan han rago ki na maI).ehI." ~ [apkari] See ~. 2 See })j~~"ijt. -tIlag m 1. l'>fTtf ~ lap gaI).auI).a] v to include oneself ))fTtIOT [ ap na] See l'Ifl.IOT. among the gentry or important people. "je ko ~ [apbhes] adj one's own dress. 2 pride ap gaI).aIda so murakh gavar."-var guj 1 m 3. incarnate, pictun:: of self-conceit, "bhayo ap ))fTtfiJTT [apga] Skt n a river, in which ap (water) bhesa."-ramav. flows. "cft apga bhai mahani."-NP. See ~ [apmuhahu], ~ [apmuhara] adj ~. self-willed, headstrong, impulsive; impervious l')fT1.fajU [ap grah] See >'>f1.f'O]"fu. to advice from others. 2 who can do things })fT1.I"(!" [apaI).] Skt n a shop. 2 a market 3 See on his own wJithout external prodding. »f'l.IO. "apaI). lia je mIIE."-majh barahmaha. 3 speaking spontaneously without refinement })fIlf<!T [apI).a] See '»'iT. "aplW coj karl vekhE "mukhI bolE aprnuhahu."-sor m 4. ape."-var bIha m 4. l1fT 'l«JR' [a parasl See l?fl..RJFf. "nIrhar varti a })fIlf<!T ~ [apI).a bhaI).a] n narcissism; selfparsa."-sri a m 5. seeking wilfulness. "apI).E bhaI).E jo callE bhai! l'>fTtf ~ lap IakhauI).a] v to reveal oneself; VIchurI cota khavE."-sor m 3. 2 God's will to try to make oneselfwell-known. 2 to expose and pleasure. one's real self. "ratna sar na jaI).ai, aVE apu l)fTtI3" [apat] SkI })fl'l./fu n a calamity, distress. IakhaI."-var ram 1 m 2. "sapat harakh na apat dukha."-gau m 5. ))fll.f ~ rap vaJ1auI).al v to lose selfhood; 2 Skt ~ ego, pride. "kam krodh Iobh moh to shed pride. apat pac dut bIkhaQIO."-SaVEye m 3 ke. l'>fTlIT tapa] n one's own self, selfhood. 2 pride, 3 SktYWlJ adj received, acquired. 4 wise; shrewd. ego. 3 one's real worth orreal self. "jannanak 5 who tells the reality. 6 n a sage, hermit. bIn apa cim: mItE' na bhram ki kai."-dhana ~ [apatkam] Skt ~ adj all whose m 9. 4 M l?fTLr' father. desires have been fulfilled; fully satisfied. l2fTtIT [apa] pron. plural of l'>fTtf. we. ~ [apatI] See ))fTLf3' 1. 2 Skt 1'lfT1\r n l)fT1.(ti! [apau] Skt ~:;Pl;ro n watering, acquisition, profit. irrigation. "salIl apau saragpaI).i."-sri m 1. ~ [apatu] Ski ~ n ego, pride. 2 love of 'Irrigate with water i.e. with God's name'. the self. "choQ apatu bad ahakara."-toc;ii m 5. 2 See~~.

Page 287



~ [apaut).a] See~. 2 v to adopt, make

(something) one's own, "prabhu gahI bhuja apaIo."-gau am 5. ~ [apaIa] adopted as one's own. See ~. 2 merged in 'his Qwn form. "kama apI karavan ape, kahu nanak apI apaIo." -sar m 5. l?fTU1U [apah] disinterested. See l")ftIT(T. "karat). karat). samrath apahe."-maru solhe m 4. ))fTl.fTQ [apar] See })fl.fTO. "kautak karE rag apar."-sukhmani. l'>fTfi.r [apI] See )){Tl.f. 2 part self, by oneself. "apI chute nah chutiE."-var mala m 1. 3 SkI n a friend, a chum. ~ [apIa] adjowned, made one's own. "l;'lk bhabhIkhat). apIo ho."-sor namdev. ~ ~ [apit).E apahu], ~ >wRr rapine apI] by onself; without another's help. "apinE apahu."-var suhi m 1. "jInI apinE apI sajIa sacra alakh aparo."-va<;f m 1 alalu)ia. >n'Y [apu] one's self. See)){Tl.f. "apE jat).E apu." -japu. "apu savarhI :thE mIlhI."-s farid. 2 selfcpride, egotism. "apu tragI s;'lt caran lagI."-prabha partal m 5. 3 part self, one's 'self. "apu gae auran hu khovhI. ','-gau kabir. lWU))fIt( [apeap], lWU>wRr [apeapI] See~ 'nfTfJ. "han ape apI upaIda."-sri m 4 vaI)jara. lWU lWU [ape ape] selfalone, one's self. 2 vain, conceited. "ek mahaii til ape ape, ek mahalI garibano."-gau m 5. 3 See lWU >wRr. ~ [apodhap], ~ [apodhapi] n rat race for one's own interests; extreme selfishness; ,action to please oneself alone. "apo dhapi hOIkE nyare nyare dharam calavE."-BG 2 SkI ~ ill-intention, illomened thinking, perplexity. l'>f'l1 [ap:>] See)){Tl.f and~. pride. 2 by oneself. "nanak je ko apo jat).E, agE gaIa na soh£." -japu. 'if some one thinks that he is able to

achieve anything.' [afat] A .,:;,1 SkI l'>fTlR n a calamity, adversity. 2 a distress, affliction. 3 a turbulence, tumult. . ~ [aftab] P ",:""Dl n drier of water, the sun. "aftab sam uday na hov£."-GPs. ~tiIHO [aphtabe yaman], ~ liIWi'i' [aphtabe yaman] P ~",:""Dl-l:Jlt",:""Dl the sun of Yemen; bright and very hot. "caraGe falak aftabe yaman." "kI mahe falak aftabe yaman."-hakayats. ~ [aphart).a], ~ [aphama] v to bloat, swell with pride. See l?fGTO. ~ [afadl P J.jl part a term of applause and approval; well done, bravo. 2 adj -This word meaning 'who produces' comes at end as in jaM afd, the creator of the world. ~ [afridah] P &,~.)1 produced, gave birth to. »)jIO~idlt!(') [afridan] P l:J-t)1 v to give birth, produce. ~ [aphridi] See ~. ~ [aphrin] See ~. ~ [afat] A .::-Gl plural of~. "sarka::; hVE aphat uthai."-GPS. ~ [aphar] See l?fGTO. ~ [aphu] See • . "amli mI::;ri cha<;l.k£ aphu khat sarahI ."-vrfd. 2 See~. "gunhI us ke sagal aphu."-trl.§g m 5. ~ cit [aphua ki bari] n a pill or pailet of opium; a dose of opium. "amIt aphua ki bari khaI ca<;l.hai bMg."-carItr 111. »fllf lab] P ",:",,1 n water. See )){Tl.f 9 and ~. '''darakhatabaskar.''-varmajhm1.2mercUl)'. 3 jewel. 4 glory. 5 honour, dignity. 6 price, value. 7 rank, status. 8 custom. 9 habit, nature. "sac ki ab nIt dehI pat).i."-sri m 1. 'Irrigate the act of telling the truth". »!Ta" lab] n a mango. "pakan lage ab."-s kabir. 'Seekers of spiritual knowledge have begun


Page 288

-asa k<;Jbir. 'Bad actions turned into good to ripen with good qualities.' \J1iI"3" [ab hayat], l2fT8" V~ [ab hEvan] P ones.' See ~. ..::.-~,_J - LJIY _1 water of life; amrit; elixilr; ~ [ahro] See "~. "gai abro diragh aj." .. . .. . -GPs. nectar. lW8a"6" [abkar] P .J~1 a distiller. 2 a distiller ~ [abli] n an unripe mango. 2 tamarind. or maker of wine. 3 fruit of tamarind. 4 See ~. ~ [abad] A )~r plural of~ an aeon. 2 P ~ [abkari] P i5.J~1 n a distillery. 2 a wine a habitation, town. 3 praise. 4 adj populated, factory. inhabited. ~ [abxora] P vY-1 n a pot for drinking; a cup, bowl, goblet. ~ [abadan] P lJb~1 populated. "abadan bfl80fuJ [abgir] P n a pit or tank for holding sada mas-hur."-g<;Ju r<;Jvrdas. 2 a famous city water. 2 a trench, stream. 3 a pot for water, a in Arabian Iraq. pitcher. ~ [abadi] P i5)~r n a habitation, populated place, residential area. 2 population, census. ~ [abgu] P l:Jf1 adj water-coloured. 2 glittering like water. 3 a shining sword. ~ rabId] A -t lr for adj who worships; a 4the name of a canal in Persia. devotee. l2fT8";:m;:n.r [ab jamjam] water of zamzam well. ))111ft [abi] P J1 adj related to water, watery. See B'M and RHffif. 2 n moisture" 3 short form for~. "bajaQ sath ahian lehi."--c<;JrItr 111. ~ [abdar] P A-r1 adj shining, having a glitter. 2 n a servant who always waits upon ~ [abu] Skt l?Itt!' n Mount Abu, a hill top of his master with a flask of wine or water. Aravati mountain in Rajputana. It is said to have been the residence of sage Vashishth. ~ [abnus] P vr.1 ebony; heavy blac:kwood used for making pen holder stands, picture Its average height is 3930 feet and the highest frames and other beautiful articles. Its tree is top, Guru Shikhar, is 5650 feet high. Here is found mostly in South India, its Latin name an ancient fire pit from which Rajputs are said is diospyros emenum. G ebenos E ebony. to have emerged. There are also some very ghughat ughar kari naIka didar.din, old Jain temples here. Rich people of dekhat hi bhaqigai haqi dadhi phus ki, Rajputana come here to spend their summers. bheqan ke dJr pari hJI pari ghusan ke, ~ ~ [abe hEvan] See l2fT8" ~. kavvan ke rJr pari apne jalus ki, ~ ~ [abe baka] P I#! ":":, n elixir of life; kabri nIkari kari kola ki bIgari kul, nectar; ambrosia. bhanat "puran" na agari kuhu hus ki, ~ [abr] n a mango. tava me na tab rahi kajar be ab bhai, >wm [abhni] n splendid army.-s<;Jnama. teri ab dekhe ab gai abnus ki. ~ [abharaQ] Skt n an ornament. "harrnam ~ [abpa$i] P J~1 n irrigation, watering. ra g abharQi. "-fets<;Jri m 5. 2 fostering, 2 sprinkling of water. ' nourishing, tending. ~ [abm] P u 1 n gloss of face; honour, ))fI9T [abha] Skt n splendour. 2 lustre, radiance. reputation, dignity. "VIC sabha abm khoI 3 praise. tohI."-GPS. ~ [abhas] Skt n a reflection, glimpse, ~ [abre] n a mango. "kakri abre pakae." image.


Page 289


[abhaga] See l'>IWaJT. "janmat ki na muo ~ [amdad] P .t..1 they came. abhaga."-maru solhe m 3. lWHO raman] Skt ~ n a disease, sickness. ~ [abhani] n a splendid army.-scmama. l)f1}fOtliI" [amnay] Skt ~ n Ved. 2 practice, ~ [abhar] Skt n weight, load, burden. 2 a exercise. 3 a ceremony, custom. 4 sectarian, responsibility. 3 a favour, benefaction. 4 a communal. varnIk metre, See mit ~ ~ 27. l)fT}f l.P3" [am pat] abortion. See '(J]'Og 1J~. ~ [abhIkhek] See ~. 2 adj relative, 2 exuding or oozing of undigested food relation. through the arse. Due to the weakness of the ~ [abhIgy] See »rfu"aJJr. belly-heat, the raw sap of food deteriorates lWfim [abhIj] See ~. and exudes in the form offoul-smelling greasy ~ [abhul] See~. "ap abhul na bhulau." faeces heavier than water. The patient should -saveye sri mukhvak m 5. take soft and light food like rice or sago. If ~~ [abhukha1).], ~CfO [abhukhan] Skt the intestines develop inflammation and pain, it results in dysentery. A patient of ampat ~ n an ornament. "jIh prasadI abhukhan pahIrijE."-sukhmani. 2 a literary figure of should be given hauberry, fresh ginger, motha speech; a figurative expression. grass and oldenlamdoi boiled in water, bifora ~ [abhog] in music, the final part of and pith of mannalos mixed with jaggery dhrupad, etc.; climax of sexual pleasure. should be eaten or drunk like tea. A powder ~ [abhaj] See >$N. of ginger, white cumin seeds, rock salt, 1WH [am] Skt n»fT(f the sap of undigested food asafoetida, nutmeg, mango seed, onarmulos, which oozes through the anus. See})f1}flfl3" 2. catechu and ground bharingi eaten with curd is effective. "ampat aru sro1).at pata."-carItr 2 Skt ~ a mango. 3 Skt nf'}fljf. a disease. "sun lahI1).a harkhyo rIde jyo ami khvE 405. am."-NP. 'just as a patient becomes happy nf'}fljf [amay] Skt n a disease, malady. 2 loss, on getting rid of his illness.' 4 A (~ adj harm. 3 indigestion, dyspepsia. 4 a camel. common, general, frequent, not special. bfTl-Rf lamar] See})f}Rf. "ap gavaI amar rahe." -asa a m 1. "hOI amro gnh mahI bEtha." 5 famous. 6 n a year. ))fI)ft:f [amakh] See llfIfi../l:r. -sor ill 5. 2 /1 who gives an order. "dhur ki bheji ai amar."-asa m 5. 'Maya is sent by the 1WH 1:f1Jf [am khas] n a session of the court of Almighty per His will.' 3 A }I weak, kings of Delhi in which special courtiers as powerless. "Ihu amar ham gUrI kie well as common people presented themselves. darbari."-asa m 5. 'This maya became 2 a royal function which anyone could attend; powerless and we became supreme'. an open court. "am khas me kari prasasa." -GRS. l)f'}ffi)i [amaras], l?fIl-RJl:f [amarakh] Skt l'>fTHJ'f n anger, ire. "Irkha parukha chal amarkha." ))(T}1t! [amad] P ..I came, "kuja amad kuja raphti."-trlag namdev. 'Where did you come -NP. 2 Skt l?fTHF.f an intimate touch. 3 a consultation. from, where do you goT. 2 n income Skt'tl%f. })fTHfu [aman],))fT}Rft [amri], ilfTH'2 [amaru] See "amad xarac sabharan kare."-GPs. »f}f'Q and })f11-fQ. "aji amri nIvalka karam .~ [amdan] P d ..r v to come, arrive. 2 n vare."-datt. 'unborn, deathless practitioners income.

Page 290


absorbed or accommodated. "cClkha dvar amey vahya su aVE."-NP ))fl}Rr [amer] , ~:. lamer] an ancient town near Jaipur which once was a capital. See»'iw and

of Yoga.' ~ [amrud] See ~. ~ [amro] See '»fl}Rf. }')f'}IH' [amCll] See »fT'fI.ffi. ~ [amlClk] See~. "hath amlak atClm gyana."-NP ~ [amli] See nn-rc;ft. l')fT)-fTf.I1jf [ama$ClY] SkI n the stomach wherc~ raw food (am) settles. 2 the first part of the small intestine, where liver and gall bladder meet; duodenum. ~ [amat] See »fH'3". ))fl}fIt!(J [amadClh] P ~AT' ready, prepared. ))fT}I'I'5 ramal] A Jlfl n plural of ~1-IC? actions, doings, pranks, tricks. »f'fi.r [am I] See »fTl-/liT and 3'1'fi.f. lWfHcr [amIkh] SkI ~ n meat, flesh. "pnthClm tClj-hu amIkh ko khana."-NP >wfi.rn' [amIl] A J~ doer, performer, practioner. 2 n a worker, servant; an employee "amII mulkCln ke JIS thai"-GPS. 3 a revenue official of old times, whose descendants are still called amils in Sindh. 4 an artisan, craftsman. »fl}ft [ami] adj suffering from a disease; sick, patient. See })fI)-f 3. 2 A Amen l part be it so ! 3 please accept, approve. lW!1 [amu] P ,:r n river Oxus ofBukhara which flows through the middle of Turan and Iran (Persia). "amu adI bakhankE israstra kahI ;}t."-scmama. 'Varun is the husband of river Amu, and his weapon is execution.' -Semama. ~ [amextClh] P ;t'r adjblended, mixed. ~ [amextan] P v to join, mix. l'lfIHi:r [amez] P Xl adj mixed. 2 mixed; used after a word as 'ffiwHt.r. ~ [ameZI:;;] P J;tT' n mixing, mixture. »f'lfur ramey] adj See~. 2 which cannot be

))fTlf ~ ramo samI).e] adv face to face.

"lakkh nClgarevCljjCln amo samI).e."-c~di 3. ~. [amokhtClh karl P .Ill' ~,...T' adj trained, skilled in doing work. l?fT'lft:so [amokhtCln] P v to receive instruction or training. 2 to teach or train. ~ [amod] SkI n happiness, pleasure, enjoyment. "ur amod sag bhe gClhIvClr."-NP ~ [amol],})fI}j-W [amola], ~ [amoli] See ~. 2 priceless. "guru pClhI SIr bec amolia." -var geJU m 4~ [amatrCll)] SkI n an invitation. 2 a solicitation. l'lfI'Ii [amr] SkI n a mango. l'lfI'Ii Ho [amr mJr] n pollen of a mango. ))fTtiJ' [ay] SkI n income. l'lfIliI'R' [ayCls], l?{ll:if;1:J [aysu] n permission. See



l?fTfuR .
2 spread. "mClstClk ayClt 10cCln lone."-NP. 3 A ..;;:..;1 a line of the text of Bible or Quran. 4 a sign, mark. S prophet's miracle. l?f"liI'8i') [aytCln] SkI n a house, home, residence. 2 god's house; a temple. ))fTljj'3' [ayCltt] SkI 3jTIr'fT adj subordinate, subservient. ~ [ayCld] P ~:r adj likely to come. 2 A ~~ returning. 3 appllicable. l'lfItiIO [a ycl n] S ee »!lifO. »flljJT [aya] v past tense of~. "bClga bhI aya cau."-var vac;i m 3. 2 Pg a nurse. 3 P ~1 part what; if; or. lWtiI"H [ayam] SkI n extending, pervading. 2 act of bringing within rules. See ~. 3 See l'}fljfT)-f.
»fTliI3' [ayClt] SkI adj broad.



'This is originally a Greek word meaning 'really', 'infact'. Christians and Muslims utter it loudly after their supplicatory prayers.

Page 291

>wl!!'. [ayu] Skt n age. 2 ghee, clarified butter. 3 a Chandarvanshi king, son of Pururva. 4 food, corn. 5 air. 6 an offspring. 7 medicine, drug. ~ [ayusman], ~ [ayukhman] Skt ~ adj long Iived, lasting for a long time. >wl!!'l:fT [ayukha] Skt ~ n age, duration of life. >wl!!'l:f.if [ayukhy] Skt ~ adjwho gives life. 2 n eatables fit for a sickperson. 3 strength, power. ~ [ayut] See ~ and l?fTliI3". ~ [ayudh] Skt n a weapon. 2 a horn or conchshell, which is helpful in a battle. ~ [ayudhan] a battle, See ~. "ghor ayudhan ESO bhayo."-carrtr 405. ~ [ayur] n age. "chIn chIn ayur bitat jai." -NP. See >wl!!'l:fT. ~ ~ [ayur ved] Skt ~\: n a minor Ved about the age of human beings; a medical science. Ashvini Kumar is regarded as its chief preceptor; he taught it to Indar, who in turn taught it to Dhanvantri. This Ved is derived from Atharv Ved. Now there is no book bearing this name, but all books on medical science are covered by it. "ayur ved kiyo parkasa."-dh ana tar. ~ rayed] P you come. This word is coined from »fl}R'O. ~ [ayodhan] Skt n a battle, war. 2 a battlefield. l)f1Q far] Skt n an awl. "ar nahijIh topau."-sor ravrdas. Here})Rf' stands for sharp intellect. 2 a tooth ofa circular saw; an axle ofa wheel. 3 a raw metal. 4 a pointed prod for driving an animal. 5 A ./~ shame, modesty. 6 S to cajole, express love or fondness. lWQR' [aras] n sloth. "bIsar arsa sabE prdbhat 10k jag-hi."-suraj 2 Skt l'>fll'f' adj concerning a sage (rishi); a sage's composition. 3 n a

book respected for its association with a sage. l1f1OR3T [arasta] n laziness, sloth, lassitude. 2 See ))fIQTR'3T. l)fTOR't [arsi] Skt ~ n a mirror, a looking glass. "Ihu manu arsi koi gurmukhI vekh£." -majh a m 3. "j£se'taro tari :lr arsi sanah sastra."-BG See~. 2 an ornament with a mirror fixed in it which ladies wear on their thumbs. "kaha su arsia muhI b~ke."-asa am 1. 3 also used in place of~. ~ [arakat] Skt~ adjred. 2 with a tinge of redness. ~ HHfo [arakta jdlanI] n a river of reddish water; Sarasvati.-sanama. l')fI"6il [ara jl See »fTQljf. l')f'OR3T [arajta] Sktnrrri?;r n culture, civilization. "sIrjan arajtay."-NP. 2 superiority, eminence. 3 candour, simplicity. ~ [arjani] Skt »itfo't adj white as silver (»RI'iJO), bright. 2 a female collector. "nama arjani marjani."-caQi 2. ~ [arjay] Skt ~ n simplicity, serenity, honesty. "arjav bma kutIlta jOI."-GPS 2 adj simple, guileless, innocent. ~ [arja] S n age. state. 2 See })flOlj1T. "je jug care arja."-japu. 3 Skt »rttJIT mother. 4 a metre. See QJTUT. 5 adj noble woman, virtuous lady. "bhan£ nIj bharja s6 arja ! srava!). kar."

l')fTijWfu [arjadhI] n ~-~. duration of life. See })fij'FJTfu.

[arjan] n the enemy of age; old age. -sanama. ~ ~ [arjan an] n enemy ()f))flijj1T (old age), amrit, elixir.-sanama. ~ [arjari] See l?RJtI'1'fu. 2 age. "bmu sImtan jEse saraI' arjari."-gau a m 5. ~ [arji] A if.;~ adjtemporary, impermanent. ~ [arzu] P ,;./' n a desire, wish, hope.


Page 292


[aralJ.] n an anvil; ironsmith's block. See ~. "kaIa aralJ. man VICI lona."-maru m 1. 2 Skt depth, solemnity. 3 a pilt, pond. 4 Sa war, battle. ~ lJ3" [aralJ. sut] n son ofAran (pond); lotus. "aralJ.sut kar prabhu SIr layo."-NP. 'the master taking it as lotus put his hand on the head'. 2 the moon, which is son of the deep ocean. ~ [aralJ.I] in a furnace or forge for melting or heating up metals like iron. "j:cu aralJ.:I loha paI bhanI gharail:."-suhi a mI. 2 n an eddy, a whirlpool. ~ [arat], »fTO"3T [arta] Skt amf adj coward, timid. 2 suffering, in pain. "arat dual' ratat pfguria."-gau m 5. "gopal tera arta."-dhana dMna. 'Your timid slave seeks shelter with you, master of the earth.' Some ignorant people interpret this as l'ifT03t (a ceremonial worship of gods by moving lighted lamps in front) holding that it is Dhanna Jat's 'l?f~)T'.1 ~ [aratI] Skt 3TTftf n pain, humility, poverty. 'l?f'a"31. [arti] SkI' ~ n what happens even without night, that is, to do worship by revolving lighted lamps for which reason it is called non-night worship. According to Hinduism, lamps are revolved four times at the feet ofthe image, twice at the level of the navel and seven times around th<~ entire body. The number of lamps may be anywhere between one to a hundred. Guru Nanak Dev rejected this nitual and said that God's arti is already being performed by nature. See Dhanasri Shabad : "gagan m£ thaI raVI cad dipak'1;Jane." See~. 2 Arti Sohila, a balJ.i recited at bed time. "sodar artigavi£ amnt vele japu ochara."-BG
'Though word arta is not in the sense of arti but Sikhs do employ it this way as well. Udasi Saints declaim: "arta kijE nanak $ah pat$ah ka. din duni ke $ahan$ah ka."...


l?f'a"31'1ffi:Jw [arti sohIla] n song ofjoy in which
true arti is described. Here, recitation begins with "j£ ghan kiratI akhic" "tItU ghan gavhu sohIla." and culuminates as "k£si arti hOI bhavkhaQna, teri arti anhata sabad vajat bheri." l?f"'6t!" [arad] P J./I n flour, ground corn. 2 from vr~. let one bring, brings, will bring. ~ [ardra] SktY'tfTt! adjwet, soaked. 2 soiled. l?fTQO [aran] adjred coloured. "jari sag jare rajr aran uchar."-NP 'Red coverlets interwoven with golden thread look beautiful'. 2 See ~. 3 Bhai Santokh Singh has used »fIiJO in place of ~ (forest). "aran jIt dIS ghani nIhari."-GPS. 4 See l?fTO?M. ~ [aranjat] lotus grown out of a pond (~). Se'e »fTQ~'3'. "anan aranjat suhaL" -NP ~ [arnya] Skt 31"f{UIf adj relating to forest; wild. ~ [arnyak] Skt ~ related with forest; vanprasth, the third stage of life for a Hindu. 2 those Brahman parts of Veds which were studied while Iliving there because saintscholars staying in forests taught them to their disciples. See ~ ~liT ~ etc. 2 ~ [araph] A ..J./!l; adj a possessor of spiritual knowledge (~)."araph kamIl vaH valayat." -GPs. l'){'IOlT [arab] n Arabia. 2 Arab, Arabian. "arab ke arbi aradhl': tere nam hl':."-akal. 3 the language of Arabia; Arabic "kahu arbi torki parsi ho."-aka1. 4 an Arab (or Arabian) horse "kache arbi pabb mana sapaccha."-paras. ~ [arbal], ~ [arbala] n »rrq-~. strength and age. 2 age, duration of life, lifetime. "barakh bahattar bhai arbal."-GPs. l?f"a'8t [arbi] See :~.
2Four forests vnhad, tEtnriy, Etrey and b$itki are well known.

Page 293


[arbhati] SkI n that part of a drama consideration of truth versus falsehood. which shows courage and terror. 2 a theatre. (6) The welfare of the world is the basic 3 courage, intrepidity. objective of Arya Samaj including its ~ [armenia] See ~. physical, spiritual and social progress. ))JTffiiJ' [aray] SkI 3TTUf adj superior, superb, (7) Relations should be maintained with all virtuous. 2 worshippable, venerable. as far as possible in accordance with dharma. 3 belonging to a superior pedigree. 4 a (8) Removal of ignorance and spread of resident of Aryavart; Indian. knowledge should always be the aim. l)fI'6lif HH"tJ [aray samaj] Mul Shankar, son of (9) No one should be content with his own Amba Shankar, a Brahman ofTankara village, progress, but should consider it as a step in Moravi state, was born in 1824 AD. He the progress of all. became a disciple of Sanyasi Parmanand and (l0) All men should be inter-dependent, in adopted Dayanand Sarasvati as his name. He following rules for universal good, and should studied Sanskrit grammar under Pandit be independent in adopting every beneficial Virjanand of Mathura. Taking note of the rule. preaching of Christianity in India, he was l'>RJliIT [arya] SkI anu:rf n feminine of l)fI'6lif. a woman of high or noble birth. 2 mother. enthused to spread the Vedic religion. According to his own thinking and the culture 3 grandmother. 4 mother-in-law. 5 the of the time, he interpreted the Veds and goddess, Durga. 6 a stanza. See (Il"TIT. 7 adj noble, virtuous (woman). promulgated new rules. He named his sect Arya Samaj and Satyarath Prakash is his l1I"'"a'W ~ [arya varat] SkI 31W!f <nf n the country of the Aryas; the country with religious treatise. Himalayas in the north, Vindhyachal in the The saint Dayanand died on 30 th October south, Bay of Bengal in the east and the 1883 AD. Arabian sea in the west.! Now the whole of The rules ofArya Samaj are: (1) All truths are discovered through education India is called Aryavart. and material sciences and they all have their l1f"aT lara] n a serrated tool with which wood is sawed, a sawing machine. 2 noise, din. origin in God. 3 near side bank, "kachu ara par na sujh." (2) God is truth, mind and joy, without form, all-powerful, just, kind, birthless, -gau ravrdas. 4 SkI n a big needle for making a hole. 5 sufwith or having qualities of, as in endless,unchangeable, without origin, ~. "avganIare pathar bhare."-nat incomparable and the source ofall that exists. His worship is the only proper one. m4. (3) The Ved is the book of true knowledge; its l')fiw lara] P 1;1 to that, to him. study, teaching and listening comprise the ~ [arau] P 1,,1 adjwho decorates; this word is lIsed as a suffix. 2 Skl))fTQT}-f a garden, "jake prime religion of the Aryas. rukh bIrakh arau."-sri m 1. 'whose grass and (4) One should always be ready to learn the truth and to unlearn the untruth. trees provide relief.' See gtT. (5) All tasks should be performed according l~ ~ ~j>,'1f<;lfI~~I<), ~I to the dharma, that is, with knowledge and ~ ~ fTI4'hl'lfi.1n ~m: I-manu a 2, $ 22.


Page 294


[arasat], ~ [arasatahl, l?fTd'Tff3T [arasta] P ,,:;--1./1' adj spruced, adorned; its root is vrl?RJTlFi. "arasat la:?kar sabh kinas."--GPs. ~ [aratI], ~ [arati] SkI 31T.c1R'f n an enemy, adversary. "janu kalmal kaJiI bal arati."-NP l?f'"6TQ" [aradh] See l?fTa'Ilfc') and l?fl"ijTQ";r. l?fTWQO" [aradhan], l?fTQTl:T?iT [aradhna] SkI n making happy, worship, dc:votion. 2 meditation on God's name. "aradhna aradhanu nika han han namu aradhna." -maru am 5. l?j1ijIQo1G1 [aradhniy], l?[Td'TQJf [aradhy] SkI adj fit to be pleased and worshippe:d, adorable. l?f"dT ~ lara par] See l?f"dT and l../TO. n thiis side and across "kaehu ara par na sujh.'''-gau ravIdas. 2 this and the next world; here and hereafter. l?fTd1}f [aram] P (1.1 1 n comfort, happiness. 2 rest, relaxation 3. SkI garden" l?RJTH F.I"'U [aram :?ah] son of Qutubuddin Ebak who sat on the throne at Delhi for one year in 1210 AD. See Muslim Rule in India. l?fT6TGI'F.r [araya:?] P .JVr n qecoration, adornment. ~ [araIIk] See l?RJ'l'fua'. ~ [anf] See 1?fI"ffir. l?Rft [ari] n a hand-saw, a small saw. 2 s~iffix of, possessing (feminine of van, am, etc). ",wgUI:lIari kat vIsari."-dhana chJt m 1. 3 A J.1~ adjnaked. 4 good-for-nothing. 5 heIpless, unable. l?f'9U [aruh] See ~. 2 See l?Irsfl:f. ~ [arun] adj red. See~. "raeyo rag aWl) 10k navino."-krIsan. ~ [arul)c:ur] See ~. l?f'Sfl:f [aruddh] Skl3TT% adj stopped, hindered, obstructed. 2 busy, engaged. l?f19O [arun] See ~ and l?fTOO. ~ [aruncur] a cock, rooster. See l?firc:~.

"kr5e su aruneur pukarat."-GPs. »fT[ [am] See l':ffJ~. ~ [aruqh], ~r;r [arur] Sk/~ adjascended, mounted, riding. "arurte asv rath nagah." -sahas m 4. 2 fiirm, resolute, determined. ~ [are] plural of l?fTi3T. 2 sui meaning 'one having or with.' See l?fTQT ~. "avganiare pathar bhare."--kan m 4. l?fTID.r [arem] P (-!vr we bring, we shall bring, we may bring. ~ [aroah] SkI ~ adj ascended, mounted. "jara jamhI aroah."-savEye m 4 ke. 'You are mounting old age and messengers ofdeath' means that you are above weaknesses and not subject to them. See~. ri~ [arohal)] SkI n a ladder, steps. "mokharohal) pragat gIra aghkhaql)i."-GPS. ~ (ladder) of Hl::f (salvation). 'steps to salvation.' 2 mounting, riding. l?fTffift [arohi] Skt~~adjwho rides. 2 going upward. 3 progressing. 4 n ascending notes in music as :?a, JI:e, ga, rna, pa, dha, ni. ~ [arogl, wd'l1T3' [arogat], ~ [arogi] See ~or, ~CfT3' and ~oft. "jIh prasad I arog ka eandehi." --sukhmani. "arogat bhae sarira."-suhi chJt m 4. ~ [aropa!).], ~ [arop!).a] SkI 3TTUGuT n setting, fixing. "tahI aropan kinas mali." -GPs. 2 imagining qualities of one thing in another. 3 a fallacy, false knowledge. ~ [arora] See ~. ~ [aran] See l?RJ?iJf. ~ [aranak] See ~. ~~ [arabh] SkI n the origin, beginning. "arabh kaj rac:aJ:a."-suhi chJt m 4. 2 genesis, creation. l?fIig- ~ [arabh vad] the theory ofVaisheshik and other philosophies that the formation of the world, took place with the fusion of atoms.

Page 295



j;'}jal bIkar te rahIte."-sukhmani. [a11).a] See '»fT1i?<'iT. ~ [a1] Pkt n moisture, humidity. 2 Skt adj ~ [a1at] A .,:)1 n a pole, mace. 2 genitals. excessive, more. 3 all, entire. "a1 j;'}jal bIkar 3 a tool, an instrument, implement. te rahIte."-sukhmani. See E all. 4 Skt 3llC'f1:f a '))fI'l?c') [alan] n grain flour used for mixing with house, living place. 5 A JI a·dynasty, a leafy vegetables to make them thicker and tastier. ~. descendant. 6 daughter's children. 7 P a type of wine. 8 Ta king. 9 adjred, scarlet. 10 See '»fT1i?<'iT [a1na] n a nest. P ,..;.jJl. "susak alne te nm. trI1). gere."-GPs. lWHJf [alas] n laziness, sloth, indolence. "alasu. ~ [alpatal] n the celestial and the nether ehij gaIa sabhu tan te."-dhana m 5. 2 Skt adj world. 2 praise and nit-picking. "gavhI raje lazy, indolent, slothful. ral).ia bolhI al patal."-var asa. 3 topsy turvy. ~ [a1sahar] n a remover of laziness; "al patal muh-hu bolde JIU pite mad amrit, nectar.-sanama. matvale."-gau var 1 m 4. 4 high and low, l'>fI'lm1 [alsi], ~ [a1sia] See ))fl"(?R" 2. good and bad, auspicious and inauspicious. "janamu gavaIo a1sia."-sri trIlocan. "likhlIhu a1 pata1, mohI jam Q;'}Q na lagai." ))fTHJJ [a1asu] See l1fTffi1. -gau ravIdas. ~ [a1pa1al] See l?rn and ~. 2 See ~ [a1sun] a village near Nadaun. Guru Gobind Singh punished its riotous people and ~. also stayed here for some time while on his ~ [a1bal] Skt ~ n a round plot; a mason's mud of lime pit. 2 a circular low way back to Anandpur. See Vachitar Natak eh 9, e;'}d 24. Due to the negligence of the ground around a tree where water collects. l')jIMsIFti'S3 [a1ba1It] See l')jMsifti'S3. Sikhs, no gurdwara has been set up here. >mmiJ [a1sya] Skt n laziness, lack of zeal and >wM1f [a1am]A (~adjscholarly, highly learned, erudite, pandit. "janat bed bhed ar alam." endeavour. -c:Jpai. 2 n the world, universe. "alam kusaI l)f"Iffiir [a1ak] n laziness, sloth. "kw SImrat kij£ xubi."-ramav. 3 time, period. 4 living beings. a1ka ?"-var guj 2 m 5. "e;,}dihajar alam ekal khana."-tIl;)g namdev. ~ 1St [alka pati] See nmar tBt. 5 a poet in Guru Gobind Singh's court. Here ~ [a1aku] sloth See ~. "e;'}gIai a1aku is a poem of his: kare."-var guj 2 m 5. sobha hu ke sagar naval neh nagar hE, })f'ffi1 [a1aj] See »fTffi3. ~ ii'H' [a1 ja1] See ~ and tl"'"l? n bonds of bal bhim sam si1 kaha b ganaie, bhumI ke vibhukhan ju dukhan ke dukhan, family life and progeny. "al ja1 bhram moh samuh sukh hii ke sukh dekhe te aghaie, tajav£."-guj m 5.2 S adjmuch, plenty. 3 adv hfmat nIdhan an dan ko bakhan£ jan? mostly. a1am tamam jam atho gun gaie, ~ [a1ajI], ~ [a1aju] adj shameless, praba1 pratapi pat~ah guru gobfd ji! brazenfaced, immodest. "ue nie tum te tare bhoj ki si m:Jj tere raj raj paie. a1aju s;'}sar."-bIla ravrdas. 6 a well-known poet of Persian and Hindi who ~ ~ [a1 j;'}ja1] See l?rn. and ~. n bonds translated Madhvanal Sangit in Braj language of family life; snare of love for children. "al

))fTtif [aryl, ~ [arysamaj] See



Page 296


in 991 Hijri. JR.agmala is a part of this very the world. book. 7 a devotee of Guru Gobind Singh. "jab l1f1IDf YQ" [alampur] a village in Dasuha tehsil of Hoshiarpur diistrict, about two miles north dal par nadi ke ayo, an alme hamEjagayo." of Tanda Urmur railway station. It has a -VN. 8 A Brahman poet converted to Isllam who attended the court ofBahadur Shah" King gurdwara of Guru Hargobind who once came here from Kartarpur for hunting and stayed of Delhi. for several days . l1f1IDf fi:fur [alam sIgh] a Rajput resid~mt of The gurdwara has only a platform under Sialkot, who received initiation into the the care of a :I\Tirmala Sikh. The shrine Khalsa at the hands of Guru Gobind Singh. possesses 75 ghumabns of land. A The Guru used to call him naccna (dancing) congregational fair is held here annually on Alam Singh as he was very active, smart and the 16 th of the lunar month of Harh. ebullient. ~ [alamku1?a], ~ [alamku1?aI] })fTffiif [alayl, ~:m [alyah] Skt 3lfc'[lf n house, home. 2 place '''sarab arath alyah."-sahas m p ~(~ adj who conquers the worllel, "alam 5. Here 'ij" stands for the visarg (:). kusaI khubi."-ramav. ~ [alamgir] P ;:P~ adj who holds or l'JI'I'W [ala] n door or window, leaf. 2 (figurative) , conquers the world. 2 a title of emperor the tenth door, a mystical orifice of the brain Aurangzeb. "alam gir ahE til ek."-GPS. 3 n a "upan hat, hat par ala, ale bhitan thati." village seven kos south of Ludhiana. Guru -ram be1).i. "(in the valley of the supreme Gobind Singh came here from Machivara person) there is the shop (man) on the shop is carried on a bedstead; from her,e he rode on a window (head) and over the head is the horse-back. Since the Sikh rule the gurelwara material (of God's name)." 3 the house of material existenee (Maya) "ala te nIVarl).a." owns 70 bighas of land. It is about two miles south of Gill railway station. The priest is a -dhana namdev.. 4 A ltJ adj superior, very good "badgi ala:h ala hujra."-maru solhe m 5. baptised Singh. ~ [alamgi:lj] a village in Patna district 5 high, aloft. If) ....1'1 an instrument, tool, a mechanical device. of Bihar. "mohal). alamgi:lj raMda."-BG ~ tit! [alam ci:ld] a preacher-cum-agent ~ [alau"l, })f'l(1)Ifi: [alaI] n an utterance, (masi:ld) of Guru Arjun Dev,at Lahore:. 2 a speech, "manmukh jhutha alau."-sava m 1. Hada Rajput Sikh of Guru Arjun Dev. 3 a "uthdIa bhi guru alau."-suhi a m 4. "harI commander of the hill army who alongwith ras na chakhE phjka alai."-gau m 3. Balia Chand used to operate against the Sikhs ~ [alaIa] adjsaid, uttered, stated, sang. at the head of a roving army. They suffered a >wW fi:fur [ala s:Igh] son of Ram Singh and heavy defeat at the hands of Udai Singh and Mai Sabi ofPhul clan born at Phul in Sammat Alam Singh. Alam Singh severed the hand of 1748. 1 For initiation into the Khalsa, he took Alam Chand. Balia Chand was also wounded amrit at village Thikrivala at the hands of Baba Dip .Singh Jathedar. He founded a mud and he fled the battlefield. fort at Patiala in Sammat 1810 and started l1f1IDf ~ [alam dunia] universes and worlds lIn Twarikh by Khalipha Muhammad Hasan is given' "khak nur kania alam duniaI."-trHig m 4. Sammat 1752 (1695) as his year of birth. l1f1IDf 1.I"i')1(J" [alam panah] P ~~ (~ adj refuge of

Page 297

264 replacing it with a permanent fort on 4 Phagun Sammat 1820. He died on 27 Savan Sammat 1822 (22 August 1765 AD) at Patiala where his beautiful mausoleum exists, and cooked food is served to all visitors, See~. ))fIW fl:fur ~ ~ [ala sfgh da burajJ See~. ~ [alah!}i] See ~. ~ [alat] See l'>5'3'. 2 plural of~. See l)fTW 6. ))f'I'l?1O [alan] Skt n rope or chain for tying an elephant. 2 See Ewo. ~ [alap] Skt n speech, conversation, dialogue, parley. 2 in music, the process of producing a proper note; a prelude to singing, "gU!} gobfd gavhu sabhI han jan, rag ratan rasna alap."-brla m 5. ~ [alapan], ~ [alapna] v to say, speak. 2 to establish the form of music by arranging the sounds in the prelude. 3 elaborating of a note. ~ [alapI] having sung the prelude. ~ trr [alav dI] See ~t!lo. ~ [alavat] adjhaving a house, who owns a house. "alavati Ihu bhram johE."-mala namdev. 'The owners of the house are under the misconception that low caste persons cannot pray to God there.' ~ [alavati] to the master of the house.

>wfi? [alI] n of the house. "man laga alI jajal."
-sri m 4 pahrre. 2 Sktwffi a (female) friend. 3 a row, line, class. ~ [alIsy] See >m?ffiT. 2 Skt 3ITffIB:r the act of making the dancers dance well; making the world dance. "alIsy karam."-japu. ~ [alfgan] Skt ~ n an embrace, a clasp. ))f1'fim [alI m] See l?fTIDf. wffi [ali] Skt n a female friend. 2 a line, row. 3A J~ adjgreat, high. 4 superb, grand. 5 Bhai

Santokh Singh has used l?flffi(female) in place ofthe Sindhi word ~ (wet). "ur sulgat lakri jImI ali."-GPS. See~. >wID fi:fur [ali sfgh] a resident of village Salaudi. Along with his brother Bhai Mali Singh he was in the service of Vazir Khan, subedar of Sirhind. When Banda Bahadur, at the head of Khalsa force, reached Punjab, the subedar jeered at them. They felt insulted, quit his service and joined the Khalsa force. After the conquest of Sirhind, Ali Singh was made its deputy Subedar. He was later, martyred along with Banda Bahadur in Delhi. ~ [aliq.h] Skt adj licked, lapped. 2 n lying down during the hunt so that the quarry comes close to the hunter unafraid. ~ [ali!}], ~ [aliDa], »fTffio [alin] See~. 2 Skt»l'ffio adj absorbed, become one in thought. "janak raj vartaIa, satjug aliDa."-savEye ill 4 '. ke. 'Satyug came to prevail in Kaliyug'. ~ [alu], ~ [alu] Skt n a potato, an underground crop, commonly used as a vegetable. Its seed was first ofall brought from America by Sir Walter Raleigh in 1584. Its scientific name is Solanumt uberosum. 2 a flask, sieve. 3 P }i Skt l'>fl1JOf a kind of fruit which ripens in summer and is sour-sweet in taste, "naspatI pIsta ral alu."-GPS. See ~ and l'>fl1J '§"l:flW. ~ [aluca] P ~"i Skt ~ and ~. n potato a fresh plum (when fully ripe it is called alu bukhara), E Plum, L Prunus domestica. ~;m mm:r [aludah maGaz] P T ~-,,,r adj having a depraved mind. See ~. ~ [aludan] P d-,,Ji to smear, besmear. ~~ [aluda], ~fun.rr [aludIa] P ~)}i adj smeared, bedaubed. 2 dirty, filthy, unclean. vr l'>fl1J~. "nanak VI!}U naVE aludIa."-var maru 2 m 5. ~ ~}:fI'ijT [alu buxara] P vir. }i n a plum,

Page 298



alucha from Bukhara, potato of Damascus. arousing terror; suppuration etc. for creating Greek physicians used it in various medicines a sense ofdisgust and loathsomeness; strange and its effect is cold-moist; it softens things for creating wonder; transient, imperintestines and cures bilius humour, clears manent things for a feeling of tranquility; and blood and cures vomiting, stops thirst and children for arousing affection. despite being sour it does not increase cough. ~ [alhl)a] See ~. [ale] See l'Wffi 3. ~ lay], ~ lay] i)fll;i!" n age. "av ghatE tan ehijE." ~ [alekh] Skt n writing. 2 See l'lffi1:f. -vac;l m 3 alah1)ia. "av ghatE dIn jaI."-sri m ~ [ala] S wet, moist. "pat palo bhi alo hm." 1 pahrre. 2 come (imperative). See~. "av ~GPs. 2 green. av su bhav s6 kahI."-paras. "je tISU nadan ~ [ala harakh] a village iin nazamat na avai."-japu. Sunam, police station Bhavanigarh, Patiala ~ [avail comes, may come. See ~ and state. Here, half a mile south ofthe village is ~. a gurdwara of Guru Teg Bahadur who came ~ lavas], ~ [avasI] See ~. 2 See . here from Gunike. ~. 3 (s)he will come. A beautiful gurdwara was built here in ~ [avaf?yak] Skt adj necessary. Sammat 1966. Five copies of Guru Granth i)j''ilBOIIClld l [ava~y< kta] Skt n necessity, Sahib are kept open side by side. The room requirement. where the Guru stayed is separate (from the ~ [avhul, ~ [avho] come (imperative). main building.) The priest is an energetic "avhu bhEl~e galI mIlhI."-sri m 1. "avho Sikh. The gurdwara has 125 bighas of land satjanhu !."-suhi chat m 4. donated by the Patiala state. It is close to ~ [avagr] (she) will come. "avagI agIa Bhavanigarh road, nine miles west ofNabha parbraham ki." -asa m 5. railway station. ~ [avgir] See ~. ~ [alok] Skt n light, miracle. 2 a sight, ~ [avagyak] adj 3TTCIWfl adj who insults; glimpse, view. contemptuous. 2: discourteous, rude. ~ [alocan] Skt n a sight, view. 2 an ~ [avaj] See~. 2 Pkt n a kind of musical investigation, consideration. instrument. "sores ke avaj sur ke nad sune ~ [alocna] Skt n an investigation., deterdarvaje."-carrtr 108. mination ofgood and bad points. 2 a revision. ~ [avatal)], l?fl~~ [avatal)u], ~ [avatan] 3 a review. v to heat, boil thoroughly. 2 n water added to l1f'h [alab] See ~'8". milk for boiling. "avatal)u ape khaVE dudh kau ~ [alaban] See ~ao. khapal) na deI."-sri m 1. 3 Skt 3TTC!ftf;:r, a ~ [alaban vIbhav] a supporting whirlpool, an eddy; eddying water. 4 Skt ~ cause of emotion; a factor helping the rise of n circle, circuit, round. 5 churning. 6 melting a particular feeling, for example, a hero and of metals; smelting. 7 beating, thrashing, "jahI heroine in the sentiment of love; an enemy in avate bahut ghan sath."-asa m 5. arousing terror; a strange shape or speech for ~ [avate] See ~ 7. ridicule or mirth; a heart-rending speech or ~ [aval)] n coming, arrival. 2 taking birth. situation arousing pity; fearfulm~ss for ~ tI"'<!" laval) jal)], ~ tl"I'<!'" laval) jal)a] n


Page 299

birth and death, transmigration of soul. See ~. "aval) jal) rahe sukh paIa."-suhi ch5t m 3. "tan man thapI kia sabh apna eho aval) jal)a."-ram m 5.2 adjmomentary, liable to break up in a moment, impermanent. 3 v to come and go, pass through. ~ tl'"'it laval) jal)i] See ~ ~. 2 impermanent, perishable. "InI manI c;lithi sabh aval) jal)i."-majh am 3. 3 n created world, creation. "nam tera sabhkoi let hE jeti aval) jal)i."-asa am 3. ~ ~ laval) jal)u] knowledge of coming, knowledge of the purpose of human birth.

birth and death. "avat jat rahe sram nase." -kan m 5. ~ [avadh] Skt '»fT(if1:f n a weapon. "kotI avadh tIsu bedhat nahi."-suhi m 5. "praharel) lakhy avadhah."-sahas m 5. 2 Avadh, Ayodhya, Audh. "avadh raj trIya jahI sobhat."-ramav. 3 See~. ~ [avadhraj] King ofAyodhya, Dashrath.

~ [avaddh] Skt~ adjnot fitto be killed.

laval) javal)] See ~ ~. "aval) javal) tau rahE, paiE guru pura."-asa am 1. ~ ~ laval) var] adj who arrive. 2 n time of birth. "bahurI na aval) var."-prabha m 1. ~ [avl)a] See ~. [aVal)I jal)I] adv in coming and going; in birth and death "aval)I jal)I VI guci£." -o5kar. ~ [avanu] See ~. ~ ~ [aval)u jal)u] See ~~. "aval)u jal)u na cukai.":"'sri m 1. 2 n knowledge of the purpose of birth and death or of why we are born and what we are required to achieve. "aval)u jal)u bIbhutI laI jogi! ta tin bhavan jIl)I laIa."-ram am 3. ~ [avanu vaj1al)u] n birth and death; transmigration. "aval)u vaJ1al)u c;lakhro."-sri a m 1. 2 v to be born and to die. 3 coming and going. l'Wd ~ [avl)e javl)e] adj(those) who come and go; (those) who take birth and die. "avl)e javl)e khare c;laravl)e?"-suhi ch5t m 1. 2 adv while coming and going. ~ [avat] coming. See ~. »f'I3 i1'3" [avat jat] adj coming and going, taking birth and dying. 2 n transmigration;

~ ~

nrm m


2 difficult to kill. 3 Skt ~ pierceJ, strung, threaded. "avaddh savat kheta."-gyan. 'warrior lying pierced in the battlefield'. ~ [av;m] n arrival. 2 birth. "avan ae SrISatI mahI."-bavan. ~ [awmjanu], })j1~(,)HI~(j [avanjavanu] See ~ ~. "avanjanu Ik khel racaIa." -sukhmani. "avanjavanu maIa dhadh."-ram m5. ~ ravallI] (they) come. 2 (they) will come. ~ ~ [avanI athatrE] sen an utterance from Guru Nanak Dev's proleptic hymn in Tilang measure addressed to Bhai Lalo: "avanI athatrE janI satanvE horu bhi uthsi marad ka cela." 'They came in the year seventy eight and shall depart in ninety seven by which time another disciple ofa brave man shall also arise.' It means that in Saidpur (Eminabad) Mughals would enter in Sammat 1578 to destroy the vainglorious Afghans but they shall depart in Sammat 1597 when another brave man will arise from the Afghans themselves and will drive them away. Babar invaded India five times. It was during his third invasion in Sammat 1578 that he killed the conceited Afghans of Saidpur (Eminabad), and it was in Sammat 1597 that Babur's son Humayun was defeated by Sher Shah Suri at Kanauj and he fled from India. The word' also' with other brave man suggests

Page 300

that the conquered Afghans would also rise again. Thus Sher Shah rose and won the throne of Delhi. Some scholars extend this prolepsis from the sixteenth to the twentieth century Bikrami and imagine Guru Gobind Singh, Banda Bahadur etc. as the 'Marad ka Chela', but this is their mistake because the Guru uses only yearly and not the centurial figure. He is talking of the then current sixteenth century only. These years are therefore 1578 and 1597 respectively. ~ ~ [avam vaJ1am] See ~ RTfu". ~ [avanu] See ~. ~ [avar] P on! derived from vr l')f~dt:c'i'. suffixed to words, it turns them into adjectives; for example added to 'f'e?:s' (heart) it becomes ft:w-~. ~ [avarak] adj which covers. ~ [avara1)] Skt n a cover, screen. 2 a shield, skin. 3 ignorance. ~ [avarat] Skt 31TCffi n an eddy, a whirlpool "tinI avarat ki cuki gher."-ram m 5. 2 worry, care. 3 transmigration of soul. l)ji~ijde EW [avaratethah] See l)j",,~-;::rd3=>"@trcEl':Ttl. ~ [avarad] n mixing of high ancllow notes in music producing a ripple effect. 2 P m! (he) may bring, brings or will bring. ~ [avarda] Dg n age. "sakat ki avarda jaI bnthari."-dhana m 5. 2 P ~JJjr adj brought. 3 presented. See ~. ~ laval] See )~. 2 a Jat subcaste, See ~C? 4. 3 Skt ~ adj unclean, filthy. 4 perplexed. "hau phIrau dnlani aval baval."-dev m 4. ~ ~ laval kheriJ a village; according to Bhai Santokh Singh Guru Gobind Singh coming from KUlrukshetra had camped here. "caqhe Ikaki satIguru aval kheri gram . pahuce tIS thaI jaIkar utre hIt bIsram."

[aval baval] surprised and bewildered; mad, See~. ~ [avla] »fTH~)cif. See ~w "ja1)u qalI camutte avle."-caQi 3. ~ [avalI] Skt n a row, line, class. ~ [avarna] See ~ to occur, strike; to come to mind. ~ laval n. a brick kiln, potter's kiln. ~ [avaIl] actions of the early period or of the beginning" See ~. "man samajhu Ch::>qI avaIle."-g5Q ill 5. ~ lavas] See ~. ~ [avahan] Skt n (an act of) calling, or summoning. 2 invoking a god by reciting a mantar. "avahan sagre sur kare."-GPs. ~ [avagau1)], ~ [avagaun], ~ [avagaman], ~ [avagava1)u], ~ [avagavan], ~Ci: [avag::>1)], ~ [avag::>n] Skt ~ n the act of coming and going; arrival and departure. 2 birth and death. 3 passing through 84 lac lives of different kinds so as to undo the effect of actions of earlier births. The soul is liberated from this cycle by the acquisition of spiritual knowledge and then becomes free from transmingration forever. kai janam bhae kit pataga, kai janam gaj Inin kuraga. kai janam pakhi sarap hOIO, kai janam hEvar bnkh jOIO. mIlu jagdis mIlan ki baria, cIrakal Ih deh sajria. kai janam sd gUI karIa, kai janam garabh lun khana. kai janam sakh kan upaIa, lakh caurasih jonI bhramaIa ...-asa ill 5. udam kar-hI anek hannamu na gavhi, bharamhI jonI asakh man janamhI avhi. pasu pakhi sEl tarvar ga1)at kachu na avae,
~ lP'~

Page 301


biju bOVSI bhog bhog-hI kia apI).a pavae... -jEt m 5. nIjghan mahalu pavhu sukh sahje bahun na hOIgo phera. -gaum 5. phahe kate mIte gavan phatIh bhai manI jit, nanak gur te thItI pai phnan mIte nItnit. -bavan. janam maran ke mIte adese, sadhu ke puran updese... thItI pai cuke bhram gavan, sunI nanak han han jasu sravan. -sukhmani. saranI gahi parbraham ki mItIa avagavan, apI tana kutab SIU guI). gubfd prabh ravanu. -gau thrtr m 5. Indians have believed in metempsychosis or transmingration of souls since ancient times. According to the Greek historian Herodotus (11,53,81, 123) ancient Egyptians also believed in transmigration. Greek metaphysicians too have been preaching this view. Modern theosophists think that ancient Jews, Christians, Muslims and others also be,lieved in it in some form or the other. Now only those people accept transmigration whose religious leaders were once related to ancient Indians or those who still have respect for archaic beliefs. Buddhists, Jains, Hindus, Sikhs and neotheosophists all accept this philosophy. Scholars ofthe modern times have divided this view-point into three branches: (a) When a child is born, God does not invent a new soul for it; an already existing soul in the bodiless form assumes this new body for the first time and will never adopt a body in future. This theory is called the doctrine of pre-existence. (b) The soul has already been roaming in millions of men, animals, trees, etc. and after

quitting the present body too, it will roam as born in different bodies. This is what is known as metempsychosis or transmigration of soul. (c) Human soul before coming in the present bodily form has been living as man or woman, but not as animal, bird or tree etc. and after the present life it will be born again and again in human form until its redemption from the cycle of birth and death. This is the theory of re-incarnation. ~ [avaj] P jl,1' n a sound, a word. 2 a call, cry. 3 See ~ ~. ~ ~ [avaj lEI).i] Taking order from Guru Granth Sahib, in the following form. When Guru Granth Sahib is opened, two of its pages are in front of us. If, on ti1e left hand side page a hymn starts at the top, this should be read. if it contains a hymn continuing from the previous page, then the left hand page should be turned backwards and the hymn continuing from the previous page should be read as complete hymn ending on the left hand page first opened.The same procedure is adopted at the time ofthe naming ceremony for a new born baby. ~ [avajai] n coming and going; usual traffic. "avajai saCIvan keri."-GPS. 'coming and going of ministers'. 2 a cycle of birth and death. ~ [avIgyak] adj disobedient, insulting, "surag dey aVIgyak hOI."-GPs. See~. ~ [avfdh] Skt 3TTfc.t;ur adjup to Vindhyach I. See 'Mr. ~ [avnat] Skt »fT-~ adj indifferent towards worldly affairs. 2 Skt })ff~ continuously, uninterruptedly. 3 See~. ~ [avnbhav] Skt~n manifestation, appearance. 2 birth, origin, creation. ~ [avi] n a small kiln for baking pots of

Page 302


clay. "gh<)p bhaQe jlnI avi saji."-asa pati m 1. 2 ~. See ~. "m<)nmukha no partitI nC} avC}i."-sar a m 3. 3 Skt a pregnant woman. 4 travail; pangs of child birth. ~ [avurdC}n] P (;}J.JJI adjbringing. ~ [avurda] See~2. Its pronunciation as ~ is also correct. riB" [ave$] Skt n an entrance, entry. 2 enthusiasm, fervour, vehemence. :~ a fit, epilepsy. 4 according to superstitious people, entry of a spirit in the human body. ~ [ave$t<)n] Skt n encircling, enveloping, wrapping. 2 a cover; screen. 3 a quilt cover. 4 a compound wall. . ~ [avext<)n] P ~;r v to hang, suspend. 2 v to be suspended. ~(JJ" [aveg] Skt n excitement, zeal. 2 paroxysm, a strong fit of excitement. 3 in poetry, an auxiliary sentiment of distraction for acquiring something contrary to the real desire arising from the heart. ~ [avepnJ, ~~ [averu] Skt »t~¥ n wrapping, enveloping, convering. 2 a wrap, shawl, scarf. "pal averu mala sar<)b bhUIaga."-bIla m 5. l'Wi3' [avat] coming, See ~. "av~}tjavat th<)kat."-s.;lh.;lS m 5. ~ [avan],;,.rr.ffo [avanI] See~. "nanC}k se dlh avanI."-SahIla. ~ [avnt] Skt 3TT¥ n enclosed, covered. 2 enveloped, surrounded. 3 hidden. ~ [avnttI] Skt 3ll'1.ft1 n repetition, a repeated practice. 2 learning again and again. 3 repeated reading of a book. ~ ~ [avnttI dipak] See~' (d). })f"I;f tar] n a cover, safe position. 2: refuge, asylum. 3 crookedness, obliquity. 4 See"»fTft:r. ~t!" [arbad] n a loin cloth, wrapped to cover private parts. ))fY;JT iltit lara goti] n a diagonal move of a

counter. 2 deceitful game "ara goti nIt k<)r£ hfdu musalman."-m.;lga. 3 S l')fO;ft. clt:r obstruction, impediment. lWftr [ap] Skt 3TTR5 n at species of fish; cod. "til kEse arI phathi jaII?"-mala am 1. 2 a kind of heron. S~. l'>fl3t [ap] See})flfu-. 2 n a friend, pal. 3 friendship. ~ [aru] Skt >w::.~ n peach tree and its fruit, L Prunus persica.. It ripens in summer, and is moist hot in effect. ~ [arhC}t] n an obstacll'): 2 a commission agent's trade, taking aQh<)k (4 seers) grain as commission.' 3 material received as wage. ~ [arhtlya], ~ [arhti] n a commission agent, See ~ 2. ~2 [E] used in Punjabi for ~ of. "h<)nprem bhini coliE."-dev m 4. 2 P a vocative he! re!. l?m [ES] pran this. "ES j<)ga aVE."-JSBB. 2 adv such, in this form "ES ghat phrr hath n<) EhE." -VN. 3 A ~ n life. 4 fun and frolic; enjoyment. 5 sexual bliss, pleasure. "ES hi ES su bES bltayo."-akal. ,;rnr [Esa] adv like this, thus, of this kind. "Esa s<)tIgur je mIIE."-sri .;lm 1. ,;n:rr [Esi] adv such. "Esi krrpa k<)rhu pr<)bhu nan<)k."-ba V.;ln. ~1Jt«J1W [Esupraja] sen ~w-~. created such (a thing). "m.;lt Esupraja."-arhj"t. 'introduced such a religion'. ~ [EsurC}j] See ~. ~ [Ese] like this. "Ese sat na mok<)u bhavhI." - asa kabir. 2 thus, in this way. "ram j<)p-hu ji<) Ese Ese."-gClu kClbir. ~R [ESO] See nlw. "ESO gIan brrloi pae." -bIla m 5. ~1!otr [Esv<)raj] ~~~tfJl" n godhood, godship, sovereignty. 2 wealth, dignity, glory, majesty. "das<)n ko b<)khs£ Esv<)rja."-GPs.
lIn olden days commission was paid in kind. 2Punjabi equivalent of Skt 'it.

Page 303


[EhCldl See ~. pavhI thau."-sri m 5. ~ [EhEl future tense of~. "ES SClmo phu hath »ta- {ffi- [EthE othe] adv here and there; in this nCl EhE."-VN 2 part a term expressing grief. world and in the hereafter "EthE othE sada "hE! hE." sukh hOI."-mala m 3. ~ [Eky] n unity. »to [En] a house. See ))flifO. "daya en sun bEn ~ [Ekhl Skt fu"J5 n an arrow. "lage tISE Ekh." e." -NP 2A ~ n an eye. 3 eyesight. 4 paradise. -kalki. 5 the sun. 6 a ray. 7 wealth. 8 adj like that, bn:ft [Ekha] short form of'~ l?fTl::IT." 2 short resembling him. form for fu(J N. ~ [Enak] P ...£w n eyeglasses, spectacles. ~ [EcCln], ~ [ecna] Skt ~ . to pull, ~6MGlC!ll() [Enulyakin] a correct belief; knowledge to drag. 2 to shrivel; to contract; to cramp. free from doubt. Scholars have accepted three forms of belief. (a) Ilmulyakin: sure, certain, ~ [EjCln] A ~J part ditto, the same. J?h:it [Eji] part a polite vocative, 'I say, sir'. "Eji! believable knowledge, like. "Amritsar is a city in the Panjab." (b) Enulyakin: knowledge na ham utam nic nCl mCldhClm."-guj am 1. ~ [Eth], »ro [eth] n pride, arrogance. 2 pride, as seen through eyes, visible truth as seeing Amritsar is believing it to be there. obduracy. "Ese gClr mahI eth hathilo."-brla m 5. 3 a wrinkle, coil, twist, tangle. (c) hakkulyClkin: knowledge of the founder, foundation of Amritsar, its development in [ethna] vto strut; to walk pompously; to history, its area, form, population, etc. factors behave insolently. 2 to twist. >Me [EthI] adv pompously and insolently. of factual belief. m'ol [ethi] adjproud, arrogant. 2 foppish. "ethi ~ [Eb] A ~ n a bad habit. 2 a defect, fault. "eb tanI cIkro."-sri m 1. s6 b~dh gClYO saneha."-c<'JrItr 351. ~ [eq1).a], »t's'oT [£qna] v to behave ,;mt [ebi] adj (one) who has bad habits. arrogantly, conceitedly or foppishly. "Ihu ~ [Eyar] See ~. jClgU hE S~PCltI supne ki dekhI kdha Eqano." ~ -am [Er gEr] adj unknown, foreign, unacquainted. -b<'Jsat m 9. ~ [Eda] adj so large.. ~ [nak], ~ [Eraki] See l'>f6'T& and fuota". »tiP [£Qa], »tif [£Q;)] adj proud, conceited, nh:ro reran] See ~. arrogant. "taka car gathi eq:J teqhJ jat."-sar nt '6"'lI"3" [ Era pat], nt O"l-f'fo [ £r apat I ], »t~ [Eravat] Skt ~ n an elephant which came kabir. »t3" [Et], »t? [Etu] n ~ the sun. 2 Sunday. out of ~ (sea). There is a story in the 3 ten thousand. See ~3". "Et turag camu Purans that gods and demons churned the hanqari."-krrs<'Jn. "tis EtU pEdal kahf ocean and brought out fourteen jewels maryo."-carrtr 52. 4 Skt »fTliIf::r progeny, including a white elephant having four tusks offspring. 5 birth. "pntham Et bhav paI bahur which was given to Indar as his carriage. parmesvarpayo."-carrtr81. 'firsttook birth ~ [Eravati] Skt ~ n the river Ravi, Parushni . See ~. "eravati ul~ghClt cala." in this world, and then found God' . ~ [Ethau], »tit [Ethe], »ta- [EthEl advhere,at -GPs. 2 a river in Burma. 3 lightning. this place, in the world "Ik hoda khaI calhI ~ [El] SktEc? adjrelated to I1a; I1a's progeny. Ethau."-var asa. "ethE mIlhI vaqaia dargahI 2 n Pururava, son ofIla. 3 a tree which grows



Page 304


from the earth (fuw). 4 grass. 5 the planet Mars. See fuw. 6 A Jt roaming, wandering. 7 talking loudly to a deaf person. 8 noise. "cale jat pavat bac;! El."-GPs. 9 S imprisonment, imprisoning. 10 the idea of subjugating. ~ b [El gel] n noise on the road; all round noise. "c;!aph ar basri bajai El gel bhayo."--GPS.
See~ and~.

the serpent. 3 the earth.
~ [Jsat] A lv,1 n average; the idea ofequality

or generality.
~ [Jsadi], ~ [Jsadhi] See~.

[El bhEl] n a frightening noIse. "paryo El bhEla."-GPs. See ~ and ~. ~ [darac;!] Allard and Ventura were officers in Napoleon Bonaparte's army. I After Napolean's defeat at Waterloo, his army got disbanded. These two came to India via Iran in search ofjobs.Ventura was an Italianwhile Allard was French. They arrived at Lahore in March 1822, and requested Ranjit Singh to give them jobs. The Maharaja employed them to train his army on European lines at a salary ofRs. 2,500 per month but on a written promise laying down the following conditions: (1) In the event of war between the Sikhs and the Europeans, they shall remain loyal to the Sikh government. (2) They shall not correspond with any European government. (3) They shall not trim their beards. (4) They shall not eat beef. (5) They shall not smoke tobacco. Both these generals remained completely loyal to the Maharaja. Ventura performed excellent service under Prince Kharak Singh during the conquest of Peshawar. ~ [Eve], ~ [Eve] adv uselessly, fruitlessly, in vain. 2 thus, in this manner. ~ [J] part short form for »hr. "J matI sigh sajyo tan bc."-krrsCln. 2 SkI 3ft n Sheshnag,
INapo1eon was the emperor of France during 1804·· I 5. He was born in 1769 and died in 182 I.


[Jsar] See ~RO. 2 adj»f-~. (a cow or buffalo) not yet calved. ~ [JsaI:d, ~: [Jsan] See ~. ~ [Jsaf] See ~. ,)tift [5si] SkI 3T'iR B'Rrr. line (Fft3r) drawn on the earth (~('i). This is an old belief especially among Hindu women who unequivocally profess it. Lines are drawn on the ground without counting, and if they are found exactly divisible by two, it is believed that a relative gone abroad will return soon; if not so, the belief goes that it will yet take some time for him to return. "more patI pardes sIdhare... tate mE 5si ko c;!ar6."~CdrItr 70. "kama!) tu!)e :'Jsia."-BG ~u [Jh] pron that, he, she. 2 part a word expressing grief and surprise. 3 This word is used to point to something at a distance, that. ,)juo [Jhath] wrong insistence, obduracy, obstinacy. See ~ and ~. ~ [Jkar] n difficulty, hardship. 2 misfortune, trouble. ~ [Jkat] A ..::,,{j,I plural of~ times. >lh:r [Jkh] See ~r. >ncre [Jkhad], 1?h:fq [Jkhadh] See~. ~ [;:>kharna] v to stumble; to flounder or trip. ~ [Jkha] See ~1:fT. ~ [Jga!)] See })iW. >1hn3" [Jgat] SkI l?f1.fdE' adj absconding, gone. 2 withdrawn. 3 dead. ~ [Jgan] Skl»flfOl"f3" n bad condition. ~iJTIUi'j [Jgahan] See ~. "Jgahan sabh kIy puran tIn."-cClrItr 266. ~ [JgU!)] See n-~. 'l1htr [Jgh] SkI n innundation, flood, deluge.


Page 305


n:rurc [::>ghat] See~. n:rus- [::>ghar] See ~.
})tuft. [::>ghi] n a long whip used during the training of horses. n:reor [::>cak], ~ [Scak] adv suddenly, at once, unexpectedly. "paryo ~or ;)Cak hi drrg lah."

2 See


~ [::>tar] See ~. ~ [::>tra] See ~.

~ bd] A J ~ to return, come back, tum round. »j-q [::>dh] See ~.

~ [::>car] See ~. ~ ffiI(!T [;)Car canJa] v grazing which is rare.

"sabad suratr lrv lil.) hor apru pial.) hE ::>car carl.)a."-BG 'to be absorbed in understanding "the word" is drinking the undrinkable and eating the uneatable'. 2 to eat the uneatable. ~ [::>chak] See ~. ~ bj] See fur. 2 A (;,,1 n expansion, progress. 3 the top, a pinnacle. 4 height, summit. ~ [::>jaa] A 0lr" n plural of~, troubles, afflictions. 2 A 0L.P,' plural of~. methods, means. ~ [::>zar] A )1),1 n a tool, an implement, instrument. 2 a sin, crime. ~ [::>jhar] See~. ~ [::>talna] v to shift from a place; to slip away. 2 to get lost; to be untraced. ~ [::>taul.)a] v to render hot; to boil. n:rcw. >lfG'O [::>tan] n heat, high degree of warmth. 2 boiling, seething. >kw [::>tana] See »j~. ~ [::>qhar] adj easily or readily relenting. 2 hard-hearted, obstinate. 3 S a curtain. 4 help, assistance. [Sqha], n:rm [Sqhi] a town 15 miles east of Pandarpur in Bombay presidency, where Bhagat Namdev's elegant temple Nagnath is situated. "pher dia dehura name kau, paqian kau pIchvarla." This hymn is inscribed in the Audhia Nagnath temple at Dhar in the Central Provinces. lihr btl See ~.

adj reversed, upside down. "badh Sdh srhja tar lrya."-carrtr 306. ~ 0T'CII0'Ef [::>dhia nagnath] See »to [::>n], »tfo [::>nr] the earth. See ~ and~. "monan me nir ::>nr qarE brfd bOd kO."-GPS. »Rr [::>r] part a coordinator; and. 2 adj additional. 3 excessive, abundant, surplus. »hm [::>ras] Skt n related to ~ (breast), born of Wo; son, begotten from father's semen. 2 progeny born from a (wedded) wife's womb. ~ [::>rat] See ~. ~ irer [::>ra b::>ra] adj half mad, carefree, indifferent. "nath suno ::>ri b::>ri bate hE bakat

>iii:r [Sdh], nfW [Sdha]


~ [::>rotri] sen~-~. (used negatively)


not any other than the born one. "as sOdar nahr ::>rotri."-carrtr 319. »hfar [::>rag] P .1.", n a throne. 2 short form for Aurangzeb. "tab ::>rag jry mahI rrsae."-VN 3 wisdom, sagacity; 4 deceit, guile. 5 happiness. 6 woodworm, weevil. nf~i1r;'hr bragzeb]1 ~;••{", third son of Shahjahan and Arajmand Bano born on 3 November 16182 at Dohad3 of district Panch Mahal in Bombay Presidency. In 1658, having imprisoned his father in Agra fort, he ascended the throne of Delhi on 21 July. Having obtained a religious decree that his elder brother Dara Shikoh had acted against the tenets ofIslam, he got him killed in Delhi in September 1659. He told his younger
'His full name was Abuzafar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb. His title was Alamgir. 210 October 1619 according to some. 3literally, it means 'two boundaries' being right on the border of Gujrat and Malva.

Page 306


brother Murad who was an aspirant 1to the throne that he did not want the kingdom; and that after killing Dara with his help, he would put the crown on his head, and leave for Mecca. Unfortunately Murad was thus deluded by Aurangzeb's plan, and along with the later he defeated Dara at Fatehabad near Agra. After his victory, Aurangzeb held a grand party during which he made Murad drink heavily and put him in prison at Gwalior. Three years later, he accused him of the murder of a Saiyad and had him killed. Thus having members of his family imprisoned and murdered, Aurangzeb assumed the title ofAlamgir (possessor ofthe world). His full name was Abu al Muzaffar Muhaiyuddin Muhammad with the title Alamgir added to it." This staunch folllower of the Sunni creed of Islam was a highly learned, sagacious, industrious person, expert in the art of governance. His dress and food were very simple, and he did not take liquor or any other intoxicant, and spent very little money on his personal neeas. During leisure he made caps and prepared copies ofthe holy Quran, did not consider Islam and Hinduism as equal, and did not hesitate to commit deliberate acts of grave injustice. He was extremely glad to have the title ofMuhiuddin c{.J\t (animator of religion) from his correligionists. He ordered the closure of Hindu fairs, temple functions and Vedic schools, and having demolished famous Hindu temples at Mathura, Benaras, etc. he got mosques built in their place" He reimposed Jazia (a tax) on the Hindus which had been stopped by Akbar. With the reimposition of !azia and other taxes and the persecution of HJindus, all Rajput whom Akbar had befriended became

hostile to him. In this connection a letter which Raja Raj Singh wrote to Aurangzeb in 1680 AD as quoted by colonel Tod in his book "Rajasthan" is worthy of note: "Your elders had fostered Hindus, Muslims, Jews, Christians, as also the atheists with equal care, but during your reign many have become homeless and have left the country. There is virtually a doomsday all around, people are dying of hunger; your subjects, trampled under the feet of soldiers, are crying; traders are beating their breasts. How can the rule ofan emperor who demands tax from such suffering subjects, remain stable? If you have faith in your own sacred book you will see that God is common to all and is not only of the Muslims. He is worshipped in the mosques but his gongs are also struck in the temples. When we spoil the picture painted by an artist, we without doubt are displeasing him. Similarly, one who spoils the work of God becomes liable to His displeasure. The tax which you demand from the poor Hindus is unfair because they do not have the means to pay. But ifyou must impose Jazia, ask me and Maharaja Ram Singh to pay. By kiHing minor flies you are stigmatising your greatness." This emperor was a staunch enemy ofmusic and considered it against the teachings of Islam. Therefore all the royal musicians were dismissed. Once, all the musicians of Delhi created a great clamour while following a hearse passing in front of the emperor palace. On enquiring the emperor was told that music had died during his rule and the people were going to bury it. Aurangzeb told them to bury it so deep that it may not come out again. It was Aurangzeb's oppression and tyranny which made Shivaji his enemy, and the

Page 307


~ [Jlia] See ~.


Marathas began uprooting the Mugal rule. By assassinating Guru Teg Bahadur, he sowed seeds of enmity in the hearts of all the Sikhs, the consequences of which had to be faced by his succesors. Guru Gobind Singh sent him Zafarnama, which contained some pieces of sane advice. At the time of his death, Aurangzeb repented over his actions. He wrote to his son: "I brought nothing butdemerits with me when I came, and 1 am now going with bundles of sins. 1have committed horrendous errors and 1 do not know what punishment shall be meted out to me. 1am seriously worried about my salvation". Having ruled for fifty years, Alamgir died, at the age of 90 years and 17 days', at Ahmadnagar in the South, on 21 February 1707 (Sammat 1763), and was buried in a mausoleum near Daulatabad. Aurangzeb had five sons (Sultan Muhammad, Bahadur Shah, Azam Shah, Muhammad Akbar and Kam Bakhash) and four daughters (Zebunnisa, Jinnutnisa, Badrunnisa and Miharunnisa). At the time of his death the annual income of the kingdom was to the tune of Rs. 317, 935, 050. ~ [Jraga] emperor Aurangzeb. "Jraga carIa juddh m} jebunIsa pukare."-jagnama. ~ bragabad] a famous ciy in Hyderabad Deccan which was formerly known as Khirki. Emperor Aurangzeb renamed it after his own name in 1653 AD. ~ [Jl] See ~ and ~. 2 n white yarn, L Arum Campanulatum. ~ [Jla] A L,I adj very good, the best. lif~ [Jlad] A Jli,I n plural of ~ (son), offspring, progeny. 2 dynasty, clan, race.
'According to Hijri.

~ [;wal] See ~. »i;r [Jr] absence of rain, dry season, See $ . "mas bhadrpad Jr lagi as."-GPs. ~ [Jrna] v (some idea) to come to mind; to strike. ~ bray] a musical composition with five notes. See ~. nf [a] See »f}f. 2 Bhai Santokh Singh has used nf in place of ~ "a parmatam atambhu." -NP. 3 nf also appears in place of l'lfO. See

[aakIt bhev]-datt. unwritten or unmeasured secret. nfl:r [as] SkI ~ vr to divide into parts, partition. 2 SkI »fR. n a part, segment. 3 nfl:r is also used to mean ~R (family or pedigree) as in "gurua$". 'guru family'~ 4 sixteenth part, a phase of the moon. 5 See l?flJ. 6 SkI 3fB a shoulder. nfl:r [as bhevi] adjborn from God's divine power. 2 lightning, the rays of which are frightening. "gajE gEl). devi, maM as bhevi." -VN. nfl:r l-fli [as mala] See~. nfw ~ rasa autar], nfRr ~ rasa avtar], ~ [asavtar] SkI ~ n The Purans mention the supernatural powers of gods; some ofthem are seen in divine incarnations. Those with a few (not all) powers called a$avtar are partial incarnations. Some may be having nine powers, some sixteen powers. "asa autaru upaIonu."-var guj 1 m 3. "anIk purakh asa avtar."-sar a m 5. lim [<"lsi] SkI 3T~Fl, adj holding a part, shareholding. 2 possessor of some art, craft or skill. nflJ [asu] Skl>itrJ n a ray, sun-beam. "jIS mahI namu nIrajanasu."-mala m 1. "kahu kabir Ihu ram ki asu."-g5c;f kabir. 2 the sun. 3 a

nf~ ~~


Page 308


thread, yarn. 4 books with the sun as pan: of their titles, have chapters called a:?u. Se,e Gur Pratap Suray. ~ [a:?uk] cloth made from cotton yarn. 2 a sheet, wrap. 3 a silk garment. ~ [asubhevi] See l?ffi ffi. ~ [a:?uman] grandson of Sagar, king of the solar dynasty and son ofManjas, See FIOlO. 2 adj having rays. ~}fT(? [asumal], ~'lJJ-Il'fu [asuillaII], ~.~ [a:?umali] Skt ~i~1,l1IffF\n the sun, which wears garlaiids of rays. "bhdi prabhat udyo asumal."-GPs. ~ [asu] n a tear. 2 a chapter, See »fff 4. ~ [ak] Skt ~ vr to mark; to count; to walk exist; take in the lap; talk ill of. 2 Skt ~~ n a mark, spot, sign. 3 a letter of alphabet. 4 a writing; a written piece. 5 body. 6 a count of nine because there are nine major parts ofthe body. 7 a sin, fault. 8 a lap, bosom "dtI sdneh s6 lino ak."-GPs. 9 an attire. 10 heart. 11 a stigma, blemish. "bIn ak illdyak bdnyo badna."-NP. 'blemish free moon.' nfcm takas] See ~. ~ ~ [ak sahelri], ~ FI€tm [ak saheli] a bosom friend, dear friend (feminine). Se,e l'lf&. "ak sdhelriah."-sri ill 1. ~ [akdsu] See ~. "akasu gYanu ratan hE khevat bula sat."-s kabir. ~ tnreT [ak palai], ~ tffit [ak pali], Jiior 'l..rnT [ak pali] Skt 31~ n the alphabet or list in which numerals instead of letters are used. There are many akpalia but here is given one indicated by Guru Gobind Singh. R H Q ~ U ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20









3000 4000

5000 6000 7000 8000 Matras are attached to these figures as to Gurmukhi letters:




800 6 50 T 101 Arabic and Persian scholars, too, have framed several akpalis. 2 Skt ~Cfi"11lffr n a female, midwife, wet nurse. 3 embrace ~ [akvar] H n a lap, hip, arms. ~ [akar] n rigidity, pride, arrogance. 2 See
~. l)jfQ [akI] adv with a limb. "akI illIlai."-jet







30 40







200 300 400 500


700 800

cMt m 5. 2 in the heart, See a ~ 10. "guru ka kdhIa akI samavE."-oakar. ~ [akIt] SkI ~ adj written, scribed. 2 marked with some sign. 3 smudged. "fg [aku] n a dress. See ~ 9. "aku jaldu tdnu jalidu."-sri a m 1. ~ [akus] Skt 31~ pressure ofthe government. 2 iron rod for goading elephants. l'>f90 [akur], ~gsr. [akuru] Skt ~~ n blood. 2 water. 3 germination mark, spore, sprout, micro organism. "purdb kdrdill akur jdb· prdgte."-gau m 5. 4 luck, fate, destiny. "akur bhdlo hdmara."-toqi m 5. 5 seed, root. "bhdgtdn ka akuru rakhIo."-dhana ill 5. ~ [akura] n a hook, loop. ~ [akur] See~. "purdn lIkhdt nIsan kdrdill akuf hE."-BG l'>f1:f [akh] Skt 3l6~(,\ vr to float, be carried by the current, continue to do something. 2 an eye. "for rag] Skt ~, vr to mark, walk, engage in some work. 2 Ski 316;!T n body. 3 a limb, hand, foot, head etc. 4 a way out, measure, effort. 5 a friend, dear one. 6 a point of view,

Page 309


espousal. "jIn ka ag karE mera suami."-sar m 4 partal. 7 a part, share. 8 a numeral, figure. 9 a kingdom around Bhagalpur in Bengal whose capital once was Champapuri. "tIS dIS ag bag te adi."-GPS. There is a story in Mahabharat that Bali's wife Sudeshna gave birth ag, vag, kalfg, pUQar and suk~, the five sons ofsage Diraghatma who founded different kingdoms after their respective names. "far}fllT rag sag] adjwith the body, embodied. "guru ag sag rahe." 2 always accompanying. ~ [ag-hin] adj limb-less, crippled. nfort:r [agaj] Skt adj born from a limb. 2 n a son, progeny. 3 pore, hair. 4 disease. 5 Cupid. ~ [aga1).] Skt ~ and ~ n a courtyard, compound. 2 going about, roaming, rambling. ~ [agtra1).] Skt n the protector of the body, clothes; a dress. 2 a helmet, breast plate, armour. l?fare' [agad] Skt ~ n decorator of a limb; an ornament, anklet, bracelet. 2 son of Bali and Tara, and nephew of Sugriv. He went to Ravan's court as an emissary ofRam Chandar. "It kapIpatI ar ram dut agad-hf pathayo." -ramav. 3 one ofLakshman's sons, who founded the town Angadi in his name. 4 See ~~. ,,£~ 'Rf3qr~ [agad satIguru] The second preceptor of the Sikhs, was born on Sunday, 15 th day of the lunar month of Vaisakh (5 Vaisakh) 1561 Bikrami era (31 March 1504 AD). He was the son of Pheru Mal Khatri and Daya Kaur of village Matte di Sarai (district Firozpur). He was named Lahina. He was married in Sammat 1576 to Khivi, daughter of Devi Chand Khatri of village Sanghar, the ruins of which are near Khadur. Two sons, Dasu and Datu, and two daughters, Amaro and Anokhi, were born to them. Initially Bhai Lahina, like his father, was a devotee of goddess Durga, and used to visit Vaishnav Devi every year as the head of the

devotees. During Sammat 1589, while going to Vaishnav Devi (Javalamukhi according to Nanak Prakash) he met Guru Nanak Dev at Kartarpur, and, forsaking the worship of the goddess, he became a disciple of the Guru only, who, pleased with his devotion and service, renamed him Angad and made him his successor on 17 Harh Sammat 1596. He started functioning as the Guru from 23 Assu 1596, and preached the doctrine of Nanak Dev with rare efficiency. In Sammat 1598, he began Propagating knowledge in Gurumukhi script without any discrimination of caste. He got the biography of Guru Nanak Dev written in Sammat 1601 of which a distorted version is now known as Bhai Bale wali Janamsakhi. After having functioned as Guru for 12 years 9 months and 17 days, he breathed his last at Khadur on 3 Baisakh (Chet Sudi 4) Sammat 1609 (29 March 1552 AD) at the age of 47 years, 11 months and 29 days. liaro ragan] See~. 2 short form for l?foror. woman. "sudar madrr agan seja."-NP. See

,,£tJrOT [agna] Skt 31S:,1T";fr n a woman with

beautiful limbs. "agna adhin kam krodh me prabin."-akal. ~ [agnyas] Skt ~ n (according to Hinduism) touching individual limbs in turn, while reciting the mantars. See 0('3"1'G!(') fl:rl7:/f3", part 1,~: 5 to 8. "far~ [agpharakl).a],,,far~ [agphur1).a] v (for muscles) to throb, quiver or flutter involuntarily. Among the Hindus throbbing ofmuscles is variously considered auspicious or inauspicious. See ~ ~ ~ ~, »1': 59. In Sikhism such a belief is not given any credence. "devi dey na sevka, tat na mat na phura1). vIcare."-BG ~ [agbin] See ~.

Page 310


is accepted as the chief priest of gods and the god of oblations. Some say that Angira is the broken. 2 n absence of some part ofthe: body. "fcm.r [agam] Pkt adj dear, beloved. "ttl agam offspring ofUru and Agneyi. At one place it is written that he was born from the mouth of vaQ ja!).Ia."-tukha m 4. Brahma. Simriti, Shradha and Swadha were ~ [agrau] n Guru Angad Dev. "gurujagat his wives; Utathy; Virahspati and Mrikandu, phrra!). sih agrau."-savE'ye m 2' ke. 'the lionhis sons; and Bhanumati, Raka, Sinivali, like son of Pheru, universal guru Angad'. Archismati, Havesmati and Punyjanika were 2 Angira rikhi, a sage. See ~ and >:ff(JRlT. his daughters. ~ [agrakhal n a stringed dress for protecting In the forest chapter of Mahabharat it is limbs, reaching down to the knees, is also called aga. written that Angira was the son of Agni and "foRrr [agra] See l'lff'arer. 2 n an ember., burning his wife was named Shubha. See~. coal. "agra brrhaganI ke nIkre."-kr:rsan. nfaft [agi] Skt ~~ adjhaving a body, animate, living "rakho agi aIJ."-suhi m 4. 2 a resident ~ [agrai] See ~. ~ [agrag] Skt n a paste of saffron, musk, of Ang region "bagi kalfg agi ajit."-kalki. sandalwood, for applying to the body for 3 partisan. 4 a bodice, stay. fragrance. 2 clothes, ornaments, etc. for ~ [agia] See l?ffaror". adorning the body. 3 an armour. ~ [agikar], ~ [agikaru] Skt ~ Jiararor [agrana] v to stretch the body in order n something\.vhich has been accepted or adopted. "agikar kio men: kart£."-guj m 5. to remove languor. ~ [agrej], ~ [agreji] See '~fc[tr and ~ [agiknt], ~ [agikrItu] Skt~ adj accepted, approved. "prabhI din daIal »j!lJffi' [agn:] n the sage Angira. See 1~fuRr". kio agikntu."-kan m 4. "parurau agn: guru na!).ak jas gaIao."-SavE'ye "faftoT [agitha], :I?fafIo't [agithi] n a fire place. mIke. 'Pururia and Angira'. 2 xa a funeral pyre. »j!CJSTit [agrai] n stretching of limbs due to ~. [agusatJ" ~ [agusth] Skt ~ n a languor. thumb. "kubIja udhri agusat dhar."-basat a nf<nr [agal of a dear one. "baranI na sakau gu!). m 5. 'Lord Krishna pressing the thumb of the foot of Kubja with his foot and pressing aga."-maru solhe m 5. See :~or 5. 2 See upward her chin gave a sudden jerk and her >i0f0l:fT. »j!arro [agar], ~ [agIar] Skt ~R n a crooked body was straightened.' See~. burning coal or piece of wood; amber. ~ [agu$t] P .:~ n a finger. "kachua kahE agar bhI lorau."-a8a kdbir. ~ [ago$tri] P n a ring, finger. Here agar means spiritual enlightenment. ~ [agun], 1~~ [aguriJ, ~ [aguriaJ ~ [agIka] Skt ~ a lady's garment, Skt ~ n a finger. See ~. bodice, stays "agIka suragi nat var ragi." ~ [agul] Skt n a measure equal to the width -ramav. of a finger. 2 See ~. "ffin'aT [agrra] ~ n the author of several ~ [aguII] Skt ~n a finger. 2 a thumb. verses of Rig Ved, counted among the se:ven The five fingers are named thumb (agu$th), great sages and the ten lords of creation.. He fore-finger (tarjni), middle-finger (madhyma),

"far ¥aT [ag bhag] Skt adj who has some limb



Page 311


ring-finger (anamIka), and little finger (kanI:?thIka). ~ [agulIka] See ~. 2 See ~. "fqr~ [agulItr], nr~~ [agulItral).] Skt n a protective leather cover worn on the thumb and the fore finger while using bow and arrows. According to Valmik this protective cover used to be of the hide of large-sized lizards. The second cadi carItr also quotes. "badhe baddh godhaguIItral). baddha." "kahu agulItral). kate pare hE." -carItr 320. 2 a housewife; a metal cap worn on the finger by a tailor. ~ [aguli] See ~. ~ [agulik] Skt 31"''5rn:!b-d'C1~\-rri'Q=Cf1 n a glove. 2 a ring, seal. "kahu agulikadI ke ratan rajE." -carItr 405. nli!!Ml~ia [agulitral).], nli!!Mlf~a [agulitrIl).] See nli!! fPlg la. "su sobh agulitnl).a."~ramav. ~ [aguliyak] See ~. ~ [agutha] thumb. See ~ and ~ 2. ~ [aguthi] n a ring worn on the thumb; a thumb-ring containing a mirror. 2 a ring. "fW6' [agur] See ~. "pachE hano agur." -sTirn 1. 2 P ./1, grapes, seedless dried grapes called kI:?mI:? and with seeds called munakka. Superior quality of wine and vinegar are prepared from grapes. In India grapes ofQuetta and Kandhar are ofa superior quality. 3 grape vine. "fqrcT [aguri] n newly sprouted crop. "cori mIrag aguri khaI."-oJkar. "hari aguri gadha carE."-gaukobir. Here gad-ha means pride that feeds on green sproutings i.e. aguri means virtues of good deeds like charity, etc. 2 drink such as wine, vinegar, etc. made from gtap~s. 3 adj of the colour of grapes, light green. ~ [agocha] Skt something to clean a body, especially a towel; a large handkerchief, "Isnan dio kar ap agochan poch sudhare."

-gurusobha. ~ [agrez],


[agrezi] See recrr;:r and

})[ur tagh] Skt ~ vr to go, begin, gamble,

stain, mark, stumble, complain, make haste. nffiy: [aghnl, llf1.y-T [aghri] Skt ~ n a root. 2 a foot, which leaves a mark on the ground. See nfur vr "aghri sam arbfd saras tav man sam madhup karijE."-NP >mr [a!)] See nfq, nfar and ~. ~ [a!)al).], ~ [a!)al).u], ~ [a!)anl, ~ [a!)anra] See~. "sahu bEtha a!)al).u malI." -var maru 2 m 5. Here a!)al).u means 'the mind.' "mIratkara a!)anre bare."-vaQ olahl).ia m 1. ~ [aDu] See nfq and nfar. "ham mEl bhare duhcaria han rakh-hu agi a!)u."-suhi rn 4. 'Take our side, 0 favouring God.' nrn- [a!)E] nr-l?f: See ~nrn-. l?hr lac] Skt ~ vr to bow, worsh ip, decorate, beg, reveal, remove, spread, collect. 2 Skt 31fif n a flame, i.e. sorrow, woe. "rati ac dukh na Iai. "-bhEr a m 3. 3 Skt ~ a scratch, abrasion, "bhumI ragavli majhI vIsuIa bag, jo nar pir nIvajIa tIna ac na Iag."-var ram 2 m 5. 'Living in the thorny garden of the Divine, one does not get a scratch.' ~ [acar], »ftrer [acral, ~ [acaI], ~ [ada], ~ [acaIu] Skt ~ n the end part of a scarf or a headcloth, fringe, border. "acal gahIa sadhu ka."-asa m 5 bIrhare. "ada gahaIo jan apne kau."-nat rn 5. 2 a garment. "kahu cada ada ko banaVE.,,_carItr 405. ~ [acuri] See nfi:r1;ft. "f;:r raj] Skt 3I0f,~ vr to clean, go, admire, brighten, rub oil, decorate. >,f;::ra' [ajal).] See nft:Io. 2 n bringing. "CUl). cUl). ajal). butia."-BG nffio [ajan] Skt ~ n antimony ground into collyrium, "gIan ajan gun dia agIan adher bmas."-sukhrnani. 2 black ink. 3 wealth

Page 312

279 "ajan mahI nHajan rahic:."-suhi m 1, 4 a mountain of collyrium mentioned in Valmik's Ramayan. 5 night. 6 a past(~ for massage on the body. See }}\';:r" vr "gIan ajanI mera manu Isnam:."-dhana am 5. 7 a lizard. 8 Skt 3TGf"l sitting in a solitary place; isolation; seclusion. "ape sab ghat bhogvE suami, ape hi sab ajan."--var lJIha m 4. "jia upaI jugatI vaSI kini ape gurumuklhI ajan."-mala a m 1. 9 in the dialec:t of Chamba hills, ajan stands for the knot tied on the clothes of the bride and the bridegroom. "ffio furFa" [ajan g:ErI] See "ffio 4,. l1fi::Ior [ajna] v to apply collyrium to the eyes. "ajan tEsa ajiE jEsa pHU bhavc:."-suhi chat m 1. 2 Skt n a sty, a pimple on the eyelid. 3 In Sastarnammala, a young maiden doing a faciial makeup is mentioned as ajna. "ajnan ke nam IE." 4 Hanuman's mother. See l?fMol }}\'trfo [ajam] adv with collyrium. 2 with massage paste (abhyajan). See »fffi'i 6. »ft::ro'l [ajni] Skt ~ n wife of the monkey (or forest dweller) Keshri and mother of Hanuman; Anjna. 2 maya (wealth, illusion). 3 woman with body covered with sandalwood paste etc. "ajni ke dhir hE."-ramav. 'Horses are as volatile as pupils ofa woman's e:ye.' 4 a sty. }}\'t=r09JI 3' [ ajnisut], }}\'R7i9t=r [ajnij], }}\,i1c'i9"30liI" [ajnitanay] son of Anjani; Hanuman, Anjani Kumar. >m:mo [ajman] See nhrHo. "f;::rft;r rajah], }}\'j,m [ajIi] Skt ~ n palms joined in the form of a cup. 2 palmfuls of water thrown as dedication to the dead forefathers. The Sikh Gurus have rejected the practice and have advised the people to accept the will of the Almighty. In Guru Granth Sahib. under the title ajli in malar measure in the line "sajog vIjOg dhur-hu hi hua." we are advised to abide by the will of the Divine. 3 See ~. l1ffitH [ajam] P (~;, n an end, a consequence, finale. 2 result. ~ [ajiE] Seen,h=rot". ~ [ajir] Skt ~ P n a fig tree and its fruit. L Ficus carica. Its fruit contains seed. It is sweet in taste. Physicians of the Greek system of medicine use it in several prescriptions. Figs ofKabul and Iran are very sweet; their effect is hot and moist. 2 a town, 30 miles away from Qilat in Balochistan. >ffi:fu;) [ajil] See &tfm. ~ [ajum] A (' pl.!!ral ofOffif (planet). stars. ~ [ajuman] p ~ n an assembly ofeminent persons. nftn-r is plural ofOffif (star); a place where eminent persons, celebrities ofsociety, gather. . ~ [ajuril, ~I' [ajuIi] See ~. 2 joining of both hands in salutation "karI sadhu ajuli punu vada."-sohIla. ~ [ajhu] n a tear. ~ [aj1], ~ [aj1uI adv thus, like this, in this way. nrn- [a~l] Skt 3TU6 n an egg. 2 a testicle "tab tere dou ad cabEhE."-carItr 43. 3 the universe, which is be egg-shaped. 4 a musk-carrying navel. 5 Kamdev, ICupid. 6 cupola ofa temple. 7 semen. 8 short form for ~ (oviparous) "ad bInasi jer bInasi."-sar m 5. 9 a son of king Yayati. ~ [adaj] Skt n born like fish, birds, reptiles etc. from eggs, oviparous. "adaj jeraj utbhuj setaj tere kite jata."-sor m 1. 2 the world, the universe, the earth. "adaj phor jor vIchor." -bIla thIti m 1. See ~ and f'I:rf11 ififc'iT. ~ [adtuk] n egg-like world whose one half is the earth and the other half is the sky. ";'idtuk jacE bhasmati."-mala namdev.


Page 313


'Mortal persons are the residue.' See IDlH3t. [aQ baQ] n incompatible speech. 2 out of context babble. 3 adj crooked, bent. nf-g f{fu [aQ vnddhI] ~L~ Hydrocele. accumulation of serous fluid about the testes. It is caused by living in a flatulent way, eating rheumy substances, copulation by restraining normal excretary system, drinking too much toddy wine. In medical books its seven forms, each born of winds, bile, impure blood, etc. are mentioned; its patient must get.himself treated at once by a competent doctor. Good medicines for rubbing, pasting or eating should be used so that the cause of the enlargement of testes is removed. The following medicine has been found to be effective: Take a bark of large myrobalan, terminalia chebula, wormwood, carriander seed, each 2 tolas, cloves 1 tola, cassia acufolia 4 tolas, all ground and sieved, add to it one and a half times sugar and same amount of honey. Mix all these and keep them in an earthen vessel; this should be lapped up or eaten with water in quantity according tq the patient's age. One tola intoxicating hemp mixed with brown lump sugar should be bound around the testes; alternatively the fruit of dhak tree soaked in water and mixed with ghee (clarified butter) should be rubbed as well as bound around the testes. ~ [aQa] See ~. nfiPOfTO [aQakar] Skt adj egg shaped; oval; elliptical. 2 n geography and astronomy. ~ [at] Skt 3RL vr to tie. 2 Skt 3R1 n the end, death. 3 a consequence, effect, result. 4 boundary, extent. 5 the last breath, the time of death. "at ki bar nahi kachu tera."-g;m kabir. 6 centre, middle. 7 See l'>f3Jr. ~ J11:fTit [at sakhai] adj who helps at the last moment (death). 2 who remains a constant

friend till the end. 3 n religion. 4 God. 3R":~21 adj who is at the centre; situated in the interior. 2 n in grammar, four characters tif, 0, 1?, ~ which are between kavarag and U$mavaraI)., (w, lSf, B, 6") characters. 3 human soul. l'>Iaclaa<! [atahkaraI).] Skt 3R1:~ n the inner organ of sense in alliance with which the external sense organs function. It has four forms: (I) mind (}f() from which arise will or volition, doubt and error. (2) intelligence (iffq) from which come ideas and decisions. (3) cerebrum (ftl'3") in the sense ofthought and memory. (4) ego (~) by which the relation with things is established; the selfhood; selfassertion. Guru Nanak Dev has referred to these faculties in Japuji: "tIthE ghariE suratI (mind as consciousness), matI (selfhood, 1ness), mam (mind as will or volition) and budhI (mind as thought and memory)" "fau 1fa" latah pur] Skt 3R1:~ n a palace for ladies situated between (~) the city (yo) and the king's court. 2 the interior part of a house. }){aC{ [atak] n death. 2 Yam, god of death. 3 adjwho ends or causes death. "5tak jam jab lme aV£."-krIsan. 4 This word is also used for atak meaning terror. "an5g ardhagak ke atak te."-carItr. 'Cupid for fear of Shiv.' nf3a" ~ [atak dham] n the land of the Yam. "5t ko atak dham padhare."-akal. nfa'ao't [atakni] n a gun, rifle, musket.-sanama. ~ [atkal] n the time of death; death. ~ ~ ~ [at ke dham] See »f3a" 'QlH. ~ fqw [at knya] n death ceremony. 2 funeral rites. See ~ and ~~. nf3H [ataH Skt ~ n born in the lowest caste; a shudar. 2 lowly. Rishi Atri has mentioned

nf3Ftf [atasth] Skt

Page 314


seven low castes: washerman (i:t"m), leather worker (ID-fTO), actor or acrobat (CiZ), house breaker (~), water-carrier (~), distiller of liquor (~) and bhil (~). ~ ~ [at ddsan] n reducer to the last stage; death; Yam, the god of death. "tlh updr atddsanhI dhayo."-krIscm. >i3H [atdm] See nffuH. ~ [atdr] Skt~ n a distance, space, interstice. "nISI dIn atdr jyo atdr bdkhanIYdt."-GPs. 2 a cover, curtain, screen. "jln kdU plas tumari pritdm tIn kdU atdr nahi."-mala m 5. 3 difference, distinction. "hdrIjanharI antaru ndhi."-s m 9. 4 a secret. "Ie tako atar muhI kahlyhu."-cantr 55. 5 inside. 6 mind. 7 intestine, gut. 8 >?8-»!fu arrow. "pl"Ithme bhikham nam Ie at sdbad drI dehu, sut adr atar UCdr nam ban Idkh Iehu."-sdnama. Bhisham's enemy Arjun, Arjun's charioteer Krishan, Krishan's enemy an arrow. ~~ [atdr sdkhai] adj bosom friend. ("atar sakhai prabhu sor."-vac;f m 3. ~ ~ [atdr hrrda] n conscienc(~, soul, innermost organ of sense. "jlsu atdw hrrda sudhu he."-bIlla m 4. ~ [atdrgdt] Skt 3RJ1fu adj achieved to the innermost extent. ~ [atdrgdtI] n inward condition, state of mental poise bereft of evil thoughts and actions. "mdn tdn drplO atdrgdtI kini."-gau am 1. 2 adv achieved at the innermost level. "atdr gdtr tirdthr mdlr nau."-japu. ~ [atdrjam], ~ [atdrjamIl, }lf3atr'J-it [atdrjami] Skt 3P(1<fTflr~, adj knowing (or perceiving) innermost thoughts. 2 persuasive by settling in inner mind. "thakur atarjam." -sar m 5. "jdtdn kdre manukh Q.dhkavE ohu atarjdmi jane."--dhana m 5. ~ rro [atdr dhan] Skt ~ n concealment, hypocrisy, secrecy. 2 adj hidden, secret,

disappeared. '»j!3Q f1l>,r-o [atdr dhran], »f3Q UJ!1?) [atdr dhyan] See ~ "Q1('). 2 n a mental view of the soul. ~~ [atdrbhav] Skt3Rf'l'flCrn heart's object or desire, intention. 2 internal understanding. 3 non-existence, destruction. »f3Q ~3" [atdr bhut] Skt 3P'Cf~(l adj existing within; included in the self. 2 n an individual soul; spiritual essence of a living being. ~ l-R? [atdr mdI] Skt 3RPfc;r n mental impurity, pollutiC'n ofthe mind. 2 filth in the stomach. ~ ljCf [atdr mukh] Skt ~ adjwho turns mental impulses inward. 2 one with face turned within. »f3Q 'li5"fua'r [atdr Iaplka] Skt 3l~dC1frqCfiI n a poetic figure of speech. See ~. »f~t:!" [atdrved] Skt ~G adj a country having altars of different religions. 2 n a country lying between the rivers Ganges and Yamuna, mentioned as Brahmavarat in the Hindu scriptures. 3 a country between two rivers, doab. ~cl [atdrvedi] adj who dwells between two rivers. See ~. an inhabitant of an inter-river basin; a resident of Brahmavarat. nf3"or [atra] n a re:frain and pause in the text of a hymn. 2 a distance, gap. 3 a cover, shield, obstruction. "jln kE bhitdrI he 2Jtra, jEse PdSU tese UI ndra."-bher namdev. 4 according to Yog, 5tra is what disturbs mental traquility. See 'GrOT ~ 1-30. 5 adv without, except. »f3fu [atdrI] adj internal, inner. "atdrr rag mdha dukh."-maru solhe m 3. 2 advwithin, inside. "nandk rdvr rdhro sdbh atdrI."-mala m 5. 3 in the mind or the heart. "atdrI blkhu mukhI amrItu sUI).ave."-gau m 5. "atdrI efta nid nd sove."-var sor m 3. »f~ [antrIkf;'], »f3ftfcr [atrIkkh], »f3'els

Page 315

282 [atrich] Skt 3R1ft~ n space between the earth and the heaven. 2 the sky. 3 the other world. "atrich bhae pache 10k pachtat hE."-BGK. 'People do not honour saints during their lifetimes but repent after they are gone.' ~ [atariy], ~ [atariv] Skt 3R!fr<T adj inner, internal. 2 n garment for the torso; shorts dhoti. ~ [ataru] See l?f3'o. "ataru sitalu satI hoI." -asa am 3. 2 mind. ~ ~ [ataru hIrda] See l?f3'o ~. ~ [atrag] Skt ~ adj from the heart. 2 internal. ~ JrnT [atrag sabha] an assembly or committee of special members; members managing a committee. ~ [atvat] Skt ~ "CRf adj liable to meet with ruin, destructible. ~ [atri] See l'>fi3". l1f3r [ata] See »ff3H. l?ffir [atI] at last, in the end. "atI gaIa pachutaI."-sri m 3. 2 the last time, at the time of death. "ffu}f [atIm] Skt ~ adj last, final. ~ [atIvar] See l'li'B. "atIvar namu gahI1)a."-asa m 5. ~ [ati] adj last, final. "jahI ati ausar a I banat hE."-kalI m 4. ~ [atu] See nfo and l?f3Jr. "atu na japE kita akar." -japu. "j'3" [ate] at last, at the last time. "ate sahguru bolIa."-sadu. ~ [aty] Skt 3Rl1" adj last, final. 2 n Yam, the god of death. 3 the numeral 10,000,000, 000,000,000. See F\1:r.rr. ~ [atyaj] See >ii'oFr. ~ [atyatak]l?f3Jr-~ the word ~ in the final position. "ad I $abad khak ucarkE atyatakpad din."-sanama. 'Adding ~ to 'l:ffi" (wicked person) it becomes ~ which means a noose. ~TR" [atyanupras] See))fQ1;fTR" 5. ~ [atye$tI] See ~ and ~. ~ [atr] See l?f3'o. 2 Skt 31-'?f n an intestine (that ties the body tightly). ~ [atrak] n difference. 2 adjinternal, inner. "Ih atrak man me pahIcano."-NP. ~ ifQ [atr jvar] n fever related to intestine, See 3Tl.f (i) ~ t:I"'i'i [atr dhan], ~ 'Q'Jl'TO [atra dhyan] See l?f3'o t:I"'i'i and l?f3'o 11:P?fro. l'li':{m [atrik] See ~. "bahay ka atrik bakhana."-NP. 'external and internal.' rk [ad] Skt 3R\ vr to tie. 2 P JI n a desire. 3 wonder. 4 period of five hundred or fifteen thousand years. 5 short form for tl1ft!" are. In this case it comes at the end of a word as "marda akII ad." ~ [adak] P ..itl adjlittle, some, less, short. ~ [adar] P ./JI adv in, inside. 2 A rare. 3 n barren land. 4 a threshing floor. 5 See »j't!"2. l'li'~ [adarhu] from inside, from within. "adarhu jIn ka mohu tuta."-anadu. ~ [adaru] See~. "adaru sital satI."-var bIla m 3. 2 mind, soul. "adaru laga ram na'mI."-sri m 5. ~fug [adaru cItU] n mind, soul, conscience. "tIs da adaru CItU na bhIjai."-var guj 1 m 3. ~ [adruni] P j,lJI adj inner, internal. ~ [adIib] A -:-:!.P n a nightingale. ~ [adaxtan] P ~JI v to throw, cast, drop. ~ [adaj], ~ [adaja] P &JW n an estimate, guess, conjecture. 2 weight. 3 measurement. 4 part, portion. 5 an instance, example. 6 proper, appropriate, suitable. "balI sake na adaja."-bIla kabir. 'God cannot be talked about even on the basis ofguess work.' "laphaj kamaI adaja."-maru solhe m 5.

Page 316


[;}dam] P (I..c l 11 body. 2 management, administration, arrangement. 3 beauty. ~ [ade$] P V:..c' adj who thinks; used terminally in a word as in ~;r. ~ [;}desra], ~ [;}desro], I[;}desa] P 11 apprehension, anxiety. "sabh rahIO ;}desaro rna I o."-sor m 5. "jo jan bhaja][lu kare prabhu tera tIS£ adesa nahi."-sor m 5. 2 doubt, double-mindedness, diffidence. 3 fear, apprehension, misgiving. ~ [;}doh] P 11 grief, sorrow. ~ worry, anxiety. "dukh adoh nahi tIh thau."--gau ravrdas. ~ [;}dokhtan] P cf, v to gather; to accumulate; to serve; to repay debt. ~ [;}doIJ SkI ~ vr to shake, rock, swing. ~ [;}dolan] See ~. ~ [;}dr] See ~. 2 See ~. ~y [;}drhu] adv from inside, from the heart, heartily. "tapa na hOVE ;}drahu lobhi."-var gau 1 m 4. ~ [;}draul] 11 ~-~ intestines (wIon), guts, See~. "ftr [;}dh] SkI 3F~T vr to close eyes, not to see. 2 SkI adjblind. :~ ignorant, devoid of thought. 4 11 a blindman. 5 water. ci an owl. 7 darkness. 8 ignorance. "agIani adh kamaI."-var sor m 3. 9 a defect in poetics where the poet writes contrary to the rules, as "nasIka kamal j£si n£n hE nagare se." See ~ 'fTN. 10 SkI ~ 11 a chain. "jaria ;}dh kadh par Qare."-datt. 'with the net and chain on the shoulder.' ~ [;}dhau] blind; who cannot see. 2 ignorant. 3 vain, proud. "ftr ~ [;}dh ;}dhar], nfq llfrror [adh adhara] 11 heavy darkness, pitch darkness. 2~ ignorance, lack of education. "bajh guru h£adh adhara."-majh a m 1. 3 adj who has no knowledge of a shape or appearance. ";~g:[ani


adha adh adhara."-majh am 1. 11 son of the blind (Dhritrashtar); Duryodhan and his brother Dussasan, etc. ~ [;}dhak] SkI 11 a blind person. "tam prakas andhakah."-sa.has m 5. 2 a sub-caste of Yadavs which started with Andhak, son of Yudhaj it. 3 a demon, son of Kashyap who drank so heavily that he came to be known as Andhak (blind with drunk). I He is said to have one thousand heads and two thousands arms. He stole the wish-fulfilling parIjat tree from Indar's garden in heaven. Shiv destroyed him. "jIm ;}dhak s6 har yudh karyo."-rudr. 4 A blind ascetic of Vaishya caste, whose son Sravan (Sindhu) was thought to be a wild animal in the dark night, and shot to death, by King Dashrath with a sound-directed arrow. l?fmm [;}dhakah] to the blind one. See ~ I. "ftr CIIDf [;}dh karam] 11 a thoughtless action; actions taken in ignorance. "jag ;}dh h£ ;}dhe karam kamaI."-var brha m 3. ~ fuy [;}dhak upu] 11 Shiv, See l'>fqor 3. ~ [;}dhkar] SkI 11 darkness. 2 ignorance, lack of education. "adhkar mahI bhaIa pragas."-g5Q m 5. 'Light of knowledge appeared.' ~ [adhkup] adja blind well, 2 permanent darkness within a well. 3 11 world as ignorance. ";}dhkup te k;}Qhe care."-majh m 5. 4 an underground cell close to a well. 1?l'trcf"Q' [;}dhkadh] nftm"-nf"Q', demon Andhak blind with drink. ";}dhkadh phIryo tab£ jay dGdbhin bajaI."-rudr. 2 ignorant and imbecile.

"ftr lJ3" [adh sut]


An ancient tale is there to the effect that once, laughingly, Parvati covered Shiv eyes with her palms. From this was born Andak. He gained his eye-sight through meditation.

Page 317


litJ cfu [adh kam] See l?ftr ~. litJ'iIIfu [adh gatI] n the gait of a blindman.
2 thoughtless behaviour. '\lhuQat Qolhf adh gatI."-8 kCJbir. litJ Uhf [adh ghar] n pitch darkness; terrifying darkness. 2 hugely ignorant. 3 a terribly ignorant person. "asakh murakh adh ghar." -japu. ~ [adhtamISr] n a particular hell so dark that one cannot see one's own stretched hand. 2 ignorance, which is a form of dense darkness. litJ ~ [adh dhUd], l?ftr tjtT [adh dhUdh] n darkness intensified with fog. 2 a bad custom, wrong conduct. 3 injustice. 4 ignorance. l?ftr t:ii:r [adh dhadh] See ~. 2 S tyranny, cruelty. 3 disorder, mismanagement. litJ ~ [adh netra] ~ j ":,,V Amaurosis is a disease ofthe eyes, resulting in partial or total loss ofsight. It is caused by head injury, brain tumour syphilitic boil, excessive copulation, diseased eyelids, studying in dim light, . headache with pain in eyeballs, taking too much liquor or smoking, and sudden stoppage of menses in women etc. Its treatment should be had from an efficient physician or doctor who after exhaustive t~sting may properly treat the patient. A patient of amaurosis should take rich invigorating food and should completely abstain from copulation .The following medicine is very good for a patient suffering from eye-diseases: melt one tola of pure lead, mix it with one tola of mercury while it is hot; then take blue glass, oxide of zinc, cardamom, parched borax, mother of pearl, stone of Basra, caltha patustri, dosel, cold sugar and camphor all one tola each, white antimony four tolas, black antimony ten tolas, raw opium three masas. All those

things should be finely ground and dissolved in one bottle of rose water. Two chhatanks juice of margossa leaves, two chhatanks of bould myrobalan, bellax myrobalan and embile myrobalan, one chhatanks extract of root of amonum anthorhiyam or berberis aristate, be mixed and ground fine like collyrium and put in a blue bottle. By putting this in the eyes with a needle, diseases of the eyes are cured. But care should be taken to ensure that the needle, used by one person is not used by others without thoroughly cleaning it. Medicines prescribed for green cataract are also useful for this disease which also has two more forms; one blind by day but able to see during the night; and two vice versa that is blind during the night but not so during the day. This disease is cured by putting drops of the liquid of the shell of Bellorica myrobalan in the eyes and eating bread of wheat flour with fresh ghee poured on it while it is still hot. This is to be taken for seven days. Daily licking of the powder of the three myrobalans mixed with half tola of ghee of cow's milk is also useful. Seeds of Kulpha (patulaca olerecca) three masas, coriander seeds three masas, ground and mixed with mucilage of the seeds, quince fruit three masas is also beneficial. White sandalwood rubbed in rose water should be rubbed on the forehead. "pathn baIphnag adhnetra."-cantr 405. litJ trftr [adh patI] n night, See HtJTfoR'. >itT mr1.RJT [adh parapara] n a thoughtless observance of an old custom; blind faith. l?ftr fin? [adh bIll, »It:r fuw [adh bIla] n a dark hole; vagina; vulva. 2 illiteracy, ignorance. "adh bIla te kaQh-hu karte."-dev m 5. litJ 1lTtro [adh bicar] n blind or incomplete

Page 318


thought. "adhIa adh bicar."-var sar m 1. "ji:reT [adhra] n a blind person. See »fr.r. ~ [adhrata], nfmJTT [adhratra] n night blindness, amaurosis. See ~r. nftRft [adhri] adj dark. "jese rat adhri."-BG nfm¥ [adhla], nftrn1 [adhli] n a blind person, the blind. 2 adj ignorant, thoughtless. "~ldhri matI adhli."-suhi chat m 1. 2' Shravan's father and mother. "frr ~ [adh vartara], nfrr ~!T [adh vartava] n thoughtless behaviour. "adh vartava bhau duja."-scwa m 1. nfrr~ [adh vI~vas] Skt n blind faith; belief without reason. nfrrr [adha] blind and ignorant. Se,e nfr.:r. "adha agu je thie kw padhar jal).£."-suhi chat m 1. "nanak hukam na bujhai adha kahif SOI." -var ram 1 m 2. "adhe ehI na akhicmr jIn mukhI 10 I l). nahI, adhe SOI nanka khdsamhu ghuthe jahI."-var ram 1 m 2. nfrrr »(l:fij" [adha akhar] See ~ . nfrrr ¥ [adha kup] See nfrr ¥. 2 stubborn and ignorant persons who do not let light from outside come inside. "manhu jI adhe kup kahra brrad na jal).ni."-var sar In 1. nfQr "lj'Q" [adha dhOdh] See nfrr tjrl". ~ [adhar] ignorance, See nft:IalQ. "pausat sarl).i lagu carl).i mIte dukh adhar."-sri m 5. ~ [adharjJ adj dark. 2 lacking kne wledge; ignorant. "deh ~dhari adh."~vad. chat m 5. nf~ [adhali] temporary blindess and giddiness because Of some defect in the stomach and the brain or because of d,ebiility. "ffl:mrra" [adhIar], "f~ [adhIara] n darkness. 2 ignorance. "nam mIlE canal). adhIar."-bIla m 1. "kIU karr nrrmal kru karr adhIara."-sIdh gosatI. ~ [adhIari] adj (feminine) dark. 2 n ignorance. "bIn satIguru adhIarL"-gujm 5. nft:ft [adhi] adj (feminine) blind, uneducated;

See ~ and nfrr. "adhi rayatI gIan VIhul).i." -var asa. "ftft ~o't [adhi kothi] n a dark cell. 2 an ignorant mind. "adhi kothi tera nam nah!." -asa m 1. 3 womb, mercy. ~ [adhulau], :I?fgw [adhula] adjdark, with or in darkness. 2 ignorant, devoid of knowledge. "adhulau dhadh kamai."-bher m 1. "bharamI bhulal).a adhula."-sri m 1. 3 intoxicated with pride. 4 n a blind man. "f~ [adhula] See nfyw. 2 adj smeared or stained with dirt. "matu bhasam adhule garab jahI."-basat a ill 1. nfit ~tf [adhe kup] See nfrr ¥. "manhu jI adhe kup."-var sar m 1. "f-qQ' [adher], nf:la-QT [adhera] See nf'Q'WQ. "agIan adher bInas."-sukhmaili. 2 injustice. 3 ignorance. 4 adj being ignorant. 5 blind. "kotI pragas na dIse adhera."-ram m 5. 'In spite of countless lights, a blindman cannot see.' See fuR. ~ [adheri] See: ~. ~ ~ [adheri kothril n a cell in a prison which generally has no light. 2 womb. "fii [adh:l] See }>f'Q" and "f~. "adh:l bob mugadh gavar."-prabha m 1. 'mentally blind, enamoured fool, deaf to Guru's sermon.' nft:r:;rrQ [adhyar], l'l1i~ [adhyara] See >?ft:roRr. 2- igrrorance. "dukh drIdr adhyar ko nas." -saveye m 4 ke. "ta m-ItIa sagal adhyara." -sor m 1. l?fq [adhr] 3RJ n a hybrid caste of hunters and fowlers. 2 at country lying between Krishna and Gudawari rivers. It is now called Tilangana. 3 people of Andhra, originally independent, were conquered by Ashoka. After him they again became independent and progressed so much that their rule extended upto the western ghats where they began to

Page 319




scriptures, this ceremony should be performed rule after deposing the' Kanav' dynasty.These when the child is six months old. Andhra kings, thirty in all, ruled for about 450 years and at last their rule ended around ~ [anmayko~] See 225 AD. The title of these kings was ,,:j1;T [ana] blind; devoid ofthinking, thoughtless. "ana bola kIChu nadan na avr."-majh am 3. Shatkarni, Pulmai IV being th~ir last king. >Mo [anI] with or by food. "dehuri calE paI).i })j'q ~ [adhr va~] See })j'q 3. anI."-S farid. See»f(')jf. "fo [an] See l?fo. n corn, grain, edible stuff. "an te rahta dukh dehi sahta."-prabha am 5. >ifo>,rr [anI a] other, another, some other, different. "jIh saman kahf lagE na ann." 2 vital air. "lagria pin an."-var maru 2 QakhI).e m 5. 3 some other. See »f(')jf. "an -VN. nfQ [anu] See"fo. "anu nd khahI dehi dukhu marag taj-hu."-savE'ye m 4 ke. ~ [ansal], ~ [an~ala] n a community dijr."-ram am 1. kitchen; an alms house. "ghar ghar ansal ~ [anha] See nfq. 'lifo:;r [any] Skt})fOJf adjother, some other, another, karchaQa."-d I lip. different. 2 not one's own, stranger, alien. ~ lanka] n the earth, producer of grains. ~ [anyacl See l'>fotr. 2 goddess Anpurna. ~ [aI).kut] Skt ~ n a pile of food; a ~ [anyatr] Skt~ advsomewhere else, at some other place. 2 without. Hindu festival falling on the day following Divali. On this day devotees place food in front ~ [anyatha] See ~. of the deity, but religious books allow it to be ~ [anyay] See >lfc'j'j1Tljf. celebrated on any day between the moonless ~ [anyony] See ~. and full moon day of the month of Katak. ~ [anvay], ~ [anvE] See ~. l'>fotr [anac] Skt ~ adv others too; more ~ [anvIt] Skt 3Tf.=cRf adj included, enclosed. >is' lab] leaves of gram plant; chaff of only agam. leaves of gram plant. 2 SktYmj a mango plant ~ [anchetr] Skt a:rFIB'f n a place where the and fruit. 3 Skt ~ vr to go, make a sound. hungry get food; a free public kitchen. "fo3' [anat] Skt~ advsomewhere else; else 4 n a call, shout. 5 going. 6 father. 7 an eye. where. 8 water. 9 See >1fw and~. 10 See~. ~ [anatha] See ~. »i1rRG [abasat], ~ [aba~th] Skt ~ n a ~ [andata] n a provider offood; a patron, mahaut of an elephant. 2 son of a Brahman guardian; nourisher. 2 adj a title of kings in father born to a Vaishya woman. 3 old name of central Punjab; Majha. "Ik abasat des Rajputana. nIrpala."-caritr 274. ~ [anpurI).a] Skt ~ n a Hindu goddess who fills the devotees' houses with food. Its l'>faor [abak] ~ n father. 2 copper. 3 an eye. "abak abuj me abu chae."-NP 'water (tears) famous temple is in Kashi and the festival for swelled in lotus like eyes.' worshipping it falls on the eighth of the bright half of the lunar month of Chet. nfaa'r [abka] See ~. "fo tpBO [an pra~an] Skt 3m "5I"NR n a Hindu ~ [abI).a] v to suffer from a disease (amay), custom of first feeding the new born baby by be sick. 2 to get tired, be fatigued. 3 to making it lick food. According to the religious stretch, be stiff.


Page 320

~ [;'}bar] Skt ~ vr to gather; to accumulate.

2 Skt ~ n the sky, firmament. ";'}bar dharatI vIchopanu."-var ram 1 m 3. 31 brain, the tenth door; brain. ";'}bar kl1ja kurlia."-suhi m 1 kucaji 'The brain resounded with the sounds of water fowls.' 4 clothes, garments. "duhsasan ki sabha dropti, ;'}bar let ubariale." -mali namdev. 5 a perfume produced from the fat ofa whale. A ? 6 mica. 7 cotton. 8 Amber (Amer), an old town ofRaj putana, which prior to Jaipur was the capital of Kachhvaha Rajputs. See »'fiRr. 9 Some ignorant scribe has written ~ instead ofl)fifare" in Dasam Granth. "bhajat bhayo ;'}bar ki dara. "-cJdr. 'Tht: moon enjoyed sexual union with the wife ofAngiras (Brahaspati).' 10 P ./.1 tweezers, nippers, pincers. bhre" cjW [;'}bar kl1ja] See bhre" 3. bhre" ~ [;'}bar cur] n a scented paste made with perfume of whale's fat used by rich people to massage the body. bhre" 81? [;'}bar bel] See ~ and »fHo ~. "jaaifi?(!i [;'}braur:la] v to convey, deliver. "jIn jiu dia so njak JbravE."-suhi ravrdas. ~ [;'}brai] See l?1'aa i fi?(!i. 2 n l?f)~, a line of mango trees; a mango grove. »hRit [;'}bri] adj related to the sky. See 2 n unirrigated Iland relying only on rainfall. ~ [;,}bti] P 1/.)6- adj smelling like the perfillme of whale-fat and black in colour. ~ [abris], ~ [abrik], l'lhRi'h:r [abrikh] Skt ~ n a hearth for parching grain. 2 a trough used for parching grain. 3 Vishnu. 4 the Sun. 5 Shiv. 6 a battle, war. 7 according to Valmik's Ramayan, son ofSuryvanshi king Prashusharuk, who was Ikshaku's descendant in the 28 th generation. I To protect him,


lIn Bhagvat Ambarish is mentioned as son of Nabhag, See chapter 9, item 4-5, Mahabharat also confirms Bhagavat.

Vishnu's Sudarshan Chakar chased sage Durvasa whose story is as follows: On 12th ofKartik, king Ambrik was ready to break his fast on the eleventh day, when sage Durvasa arrived. The king invited him also to eat but th,e latter said that he would first take a bath. The king waited a long while but Durvasa did not return. On the advice of his priest, the king then broke his fast. Durvasa on return got very angry. He pulled a tuft of his hair with which he created a smart person who started beating the king. Vishnu sent his Sudarshan Chakar to protect the king which killed the smart person and chased Durvasa who ran for his liife but did not receive any refuge in the world. Tired at last, he sought refuge with Ambrik himself who saved him from the Sudarshan Chakar. 2 Another story in Ling Puran is that Narad and sage Parvat, on seeing the beauty of Sundari, Ambarik"s daughter, fell in love with her and approached the king for her hand. The king replied that he would marry his daughter to a person of her liking. Both of them then went separately to Vishnu, each asking the god to turn the other into a monkey so that the princess might not marry him. The god granted their request. So both of them became monkey-faced and neither could get the princess. They cursed-Ambrik that he would remain enveloped in darkness. Vishnu in order to protect his devotee Ambrik shot his Sudarshan Chakar which produced light like that of the sun and dispelled darkness. It then chased the two sages, Narad and Parvat, who sought forgiveness from Ambrik, which was granted. It was only then that they found peace. "abrik kau dio abhE pad."-maru namdev. "janyo bhagat bhup abris."-GPs.
2See Bhai Gurdas Var 10, pauri 4.

Page 321

288 [abva] adj of the colour of a mango; of the colour of mango juice. "abva rag badhe." -krrsan. ~ [abarna] v to reach; to arrive at. "brn beri parr na abrE."-vac;l ill 1.2 to be equal to; to achieve similarity. "rkatu tol na abra." -suhi ill 1 kucaji. "amli amal na abrE."-vac;l ill 1. 'For an addict nothing equals the drug he is addicted to.' ~ [aba] Skt ~ n mother. "abu lIye aba ag dhoe."-NP 2 Durga. 3 elder daughter of Kashi's king Indardyuman whom Bhishampitamah snatched away for his brother Vichitarviray. But she wanted to marry Shalv. Learning about this, Bhisham sent her to Shalv, but he did not accept her. Disappointed, she worshipped Shiv, and during her next birth she as Shikhandi became the means to kill Bhisham in the battle of Mahabharat. ~ [abakri], ~ [abakhri] n a shrivelled piece of a raw mango. 2 a small raw mango. "abakpa je khae."-BG ~ [abar] P .Jyl a heap, stack, rick. 2 a pit, pond. ~ [abari] P <.5.1(;1 n a canopied howdah. A
(j'N See~.


[abala] Skt »fTl:fT('){if (house of mangoes). n a city in between Ludhiana and Kamal where there used to be many mango gardens in the past. Now it is the headquarters of a district as well as a commissionary and cantonment. A railway line to Kalka and Simla branches off from here. It has the following gurdwaras: (1) Guru Gobind Singh's gurdwara on the bank ofLabbhu's tank northwest of the town. It has a small nice building with residential quarters close by. A piece of land has been donated to it by Sardar Gurbakhsh Singh. Free

kitchen is provided by local Sikhs; accommodation for the stay often visitors is also arranged. The priest is an Akali Sikh. The railway station is about half a mile northeast of the town. (2) The gurdwara of Guru Gobind Singh is in the house ofa priest, Bhai Sundar Singh, in Dhumi Gujjar Bazar. Guru Granth is placed for recitation regularly on manji sahib (a cot) in the roofed part of the house. The Guru arrived here during a visit from Lakhnaur for sight-seeing and stayed here for three days. The place is half a mile east of Ambala city railway station. (3) A sacred spot in the name of Guru Gobind Singh and called Manji Sahib is there in the fields south ofthe main courts, southeast of the city. The Guru came here while on a visit from Lakhnaur. The building of Manji Sahib is crumbling in the absence of a caretaker. The place is half a mile southwest of Ambala city railway station. (4) Out of Sapatu Gate opposite the charitable home for stray cows is the Gurdwara of Guru Har Krishan who stayed here while on his way to Delhi. It has a small building with a Singh acting as the priest, and possesses ten bighas of land. It is connected with Ambala city railway station by about one mile of metalled road in the east of the city. (5) Guru Teg Bahadur's gurdwara is near Tabakkal Shah's mosque in Kainth Majari. The Sikh carrying the head of the Guru from Delhi had stayed here a while. Now an impressive gurdwara has come up about one mile east of the city railway station. ~ [abalrka] Skt 3l+<Sl1k1ifll n mother. "kr abalrka chE."-datt. 2 daughter of Raja Indar dayuman of Kashi, younger sister of Amba

Page 322


nfgH [abujl Skt 31~ n a lotus, which is born from water. See nh:icx. 2 a stork. 3 the moon. 4 camphor. 5 a c:onchshell. 6 a tree.-sanama. >i~;:ro't [abujni] Skt n the earth (born from water. )-sanama. ~;:r ~ [abuj bhu], ~ [abujasan] Skt n Brahma, who was born from a lotus and has his seat on it. ~ [abud] Skt 3T~ n a cloud, which yields water. 2 adjwho provides water. ~ [abudaj] n water bearing cloud; cloud from which comes water.-scmama. })j'~€H'Qa [abudjadhar] n a holder of water, a tank, reservoir. 2 the sea, ocean.-sanama. ~ yo [abud dhun] adj one who roars like a cloud. 2 n Meghnad, son of Ravan, who thundered like a c1oud.-sanama. -c{}c;Ii 2. >i~ [abudni] n earth the giver of water. liftrw [abIya] n a raw mango. 2 See }mft»rr. -sanama. :Z a line of clouds. 3 a stream, river. ~ [abudh], nfgfq [abudhI], ~ [abun3 adj of the colour of a mango. »hit [abi] n a small and raw mango. 2 Skt ~ ath], ~ [abumdhI], ~ [abupatI] n a sea; ocean as treasure of water; holder of n mother. 3 a noble woman. water; master ofwater. 2 Varun, is also named ~ labial A h-f' n plural of fiSt. "jIte ;,lia abia hOI bite."-VN. 2 twenty first chapter of Ambunath and Ambupati. the Qtiran wherein the caliphs are described. ~ [aburuh] Skt n a lotus, born from water. ~ [abuva] ad} of a mango. 2 mango-like. 3See~. »hit ~ [abi chav], nhft ~ [abi chavri] n 3 of yellow colour, colour of mango juice. perennial happiness; shade of mango trees See~. remains constant because they do not ~ [abuhl See ~. defoliate. "jIni sakhi sahu raVIa se abi n?ira" faberlaId capital ofRajputs ofKachhavaha clan in Rajputana. It has the temple of chavrieh jio."-suhi m 1 kucji. ~ [abir] See »iHta". 2 See ~r. "gulab abir Ambkeshvar Mahadev, due to which it came gulal uqai."-krrscm 3 P d' filling with dry to be called Amber. Some people surmise that this name came from King Ambrish. So the or wet earth. ~ [abu] Skt~ n water. "osu agE pIchE qhoi city was called Ambrishnagar. 1 It is seven nahi jIsu adan nfda muhI abu paJ:a."-var miles northeast ofJaipur railway station. Here gau 1 ill 4. 'His heart is full of malice and the Jaygarh fort, situated on a 500 feet high mouth overflows with water.' meaning that hill, is worth seeing. Beautiful mansions of the mouth waters because of greed. 2 a child. Raja Man Singh and Raja Jay Singh Mirza I See »hl<fu:r. ~ [abuk] Skt n a red castor. 2 See >?faa".
whom Bhisham Pitamah had forcibly brought for his brother Vichitarviray. After the death ofVichitarviray, Vyas had sexual contact with her to procreate Pandav whose progeny were the Pandavs. ~ [abI] on the mango tree. "koII hova abI basa."-gau m 1. ~ [abIka] Skt ~ n the middle dauglhter of Indardyuman, king of Kashi, was the real sister of Amba and Ambalika. Bhisham had snatched, brought her to be married to his brother Vichitarviray. On her becoming a widow, the sage Vyas entered into IlIYOg (cohabilation without marrige) and produced Dhritrashtar who became the father of Duryodhan and other Kauravs. 2: mother. 3 Durga. "nama hfgula pfgulla abIkaya."

Page 323


may be seen at Amber. In 1728 AD Maharaja Jay Singh Savai founded a new city Jaypur and made it his capital. Now the state itself is named Jaypur (Jaipur). Amber is now named Amber and Amer also. "mertes aberpatI amIt s£n 1£ sath."-carrtr 52. ~ 'i'i"'EI' [aber nath], ~ trf3" [aber patI], ~ [aberadhii?] King ofAmber, Maharaja of present Jaipur, See~. "fflu [aboh] P ~i' n a group, crowd, assemblage, multitude. 2 a heap, hoard, pile, dump. ~ [abrIt] See~. "kahI mathura abrIt bayal,l."-saveye m 5 ke. 2 Skl3l¥ adjwithout obstruction, unhindered. 3 without hitch, unbroken. "abrrt dharme."-japu. ~ ;m [abrIt jal] See ~ ffi? ~ [abh] Skl31"Pl1 vr to make a sound. 2 SkI ~ n water. "kac gagria abh majhria."-asa m 5. "kiJbh jal£ mahI <;larIo abh£ abh mIlo." -sar m 5. 3 god. 4 forefather. ~ [abhri] n a stream, river. 2 rivers like Ganga, Yamuna, etc.-sanama. "f~ [abhula] n water. See "f~. "nam tero abhula nam tero cadno."-dhana ravidas. »i\rn' [abhoj] SkI ~ n born from water, a lotus. ~ [abhod] SkI ~ n giver of water, a cloud. "f~t:Jij" [abhodhar], "f~fu [abodhI] SkI n a holder of water, cloud. 2 a sea, ocean. ~ [abhoruh] SkI n born (2U) from water (~), a lotus. 2 a crane. 3 adj water born. "flf [am] A (I n mother. "am abe thavhu mIthra."-sri m 5 pepaI. See »far. "f~ [amrik] See "fmftcf. "amrik prahlad saral,l gobfd."-saveye m 3 ke. ~ [amarna] v to reach, arrive. "rah dasai na jula akha amrias."-vaq m 1. »ii-r:ft [amri] See ~. 2 n mother.

l?fHr lama] SkI 31l'<SIT A (I mother.
~ ramal] A JLfl n plural of~. action,

conduct. [amaH] »hft-~ best friend (feminine) "mer£ atarr bhukh na utr£, amali."~vac;l m 5. 2 because of actions, that is, because of worldly occupations. "amaH hau khari sucaji t£ sahI ek na bhava."-vaq m 1. I am fairly efficient in worldly affairs but 0 God! none of these, is to your liking. ~ [amavas], ~ [amavasI] new moon night. See ~ . "amavaSI mahI as nIvarau."-gau thIti kabir. ~ [amaval,l] adjbeyond capacity, infinite, countless. "map kucaji amaval,l <;losre."-suhi m 1 kucaji. ~ [amuha] See~. "mata bh£sa amuha aI."-gau kabir. 'Intoxicated bull (that is mind) gets uncontrolled.' ~ [amrat] See ~. l'>i1:r3t [amrati] See »ffi:r3t. "ffi:l:3" [amrrt] See l>ff!j3". 2 n butter. "tab mathi£, In bIdhI amrrt pavhu."-suhi m 1. 3 milk. "SOIn katori amrrt bhari."-bher namdev. 4 adjwithout death, immortal. "harI amrIt sajal,l mera."-suhi chat m 5. 5 sweet. "gurumukh amrIt bal,li bolhI."-sri a m 3. ~mre [amrIt sabad] n Guru's composition or discourse. 2 Guru's sermon or advice. "amrrt sabad piVE jan kor."-asa m 5. ~ [amrItsar], ~ [amrItsaru] See ~. 2 a holy congregation; a community of holy men. "amrrtsaru sIphti da gharu." 3 a sacred tank of liberation. "satIguru hE amrItsar saca."-majh a m 3. 4 selfknowledge. 5 embodiment of self. "kaIa adarI amrItsar saca."-maru solhe m 3. »ffi;ro' ~ [amrrt katha] n it nectar of spiritual discourse. 2 a discourse leading to salvation. 3 a talk about God. "amrrt katha sat sap

Page 324



n a spiritual gllance, compassionate attention. "amnt dnsatI pekhE hUI sat."-sukhmani. ~ [amntdhar], ~ [amntdhara] a flow or current of nectar. 2 a shower of Guru's words and His name. "jhImI jlumI barsE amntdhara."-majh m 5. 3 according to Vag, essence of belief dripping from the brain. "amnt dhar gagan das duan."-gau
m 1.

l'l16;!3'~ [amnt dnsatI]

~tl"ID [amntdhari] a discourse about God

flowing like a current ofnectar. "hamari pnri amnt dhari."-asa m 5. 2 one who has taken nectar of the double edged sword. ~ Gl') [amnt phall the fruit of liberation; spiritual knowledge. "bIn guru mahII na japai

na amnt phal pahI."-sri m 3. See 1'>ffl:r3" GPS. mro [amnt bae<m] n sweet utterances. "amnt bacan satIguru ki baI).i."-guj m 4. 2 Guru's utterance. ~ W [amnt vela] See l'>ffi:ra" W. "amnt vela sacu nau vaQIai vicaru."-japu. ~ [amnti] n a glutinous food made of flour, milk and sugar. 2 a sweetmeat like a jalebi, circular in shape. "amritia khurme su bare bar ghevar set sIta bahu pae."-NP ~ [amntu] See »rfi;r3". "amntu han ka nau."-suhi m 1. • [amrik] See 1?hRflor. "jyo amrik bhagat QhIg ayo."-NP ~ [amret] See }~. 2 like nectar. 3 SkI ~ adj deathless, immortal. "pan sadhu sag han han amret."-bIla m 5.

Page 325

[ip] third letter, a vowel ofPunjabi script, used innocence. "re man! Esi karhI Ianath."-maru to form matras fu [I], -et [i], "" [E]. 2 See fu. m 5. "meri bahut Ianap jarat."-dev m 5. fu [I] Skt~ vr to rise, appear, run, go, become "Ianap te sabh bhai sIanap."-brla m 5. more, accept. 2 n Kamdev; Cupid. 3 favour, 2 childhood, childishness. compassion. 4 part expressing surprise. 5 In ~ [Ianra], funrrcr;;ft [Ianri] adj innocent, Punjabi fu [I] is also used in place of"" k] as ignorant. (ra and pas suffixes mean possessors). ~[ja!).aI] for~ [ja!).E], ~ [ma!).aI] for 2 young. 3 who does not know how to please his ~ [rna!).£] etc. "prem rasu ape ja!).aI." master. "Ianrie! manra kaI karehI?"-trlJ m 1. -savEyem 4 ke. 'He himself knows.' fuwor [Iana] See ~. 'fu1t [IO], ~ [IG] Skt"q:ct adv like this, in ~ [Ialikala] a village in tehsil and this manner. "nanak kahE sIa!).Ie! IU kat district Ludhiana, about one mile north-east mIlava hOI."-var suhi m 2.2 more like this, of railway station Baddoval. thus some other. It has a gurdwara named after Guru 'fu1t tit [IO hi], fu€ tit [IO hi] adv like this, in Hargobind who had blessed the village with this way, by this method. 2 in vain, fruitless. his visit. It is in an old building looked after "tarnapo IU hi gaIo."-s m 9. by an Udasi sadhu. The gurdwara possesses 80 bighas of land donated by the villagers. ~ [Iatbar] A .J~f 11 idea ofunderstanding. 2 certainty, surety. 3 acceptance of advice. fu»filT [Iag] adj having beautiful limbs (or fu>w [Ia] SktYiffi pran this. "pun Ia ausar carE body) like those (that) of fE (Cupid); na hatha."-bawm 2 this. See fi:F:r. "Ia sukh possessing a beautiful body. "Iagsat."-gyan. fuR [IS] pran this, it. It is an inflexional form te bhIkhIa bhali."-s kabir. 3 part or. ~ [Iahu] this very, only this. "Iahu jugatI of fEU. "tab IS kau sukh nahi koI." bIhane kai janam."-sukhmani. -sukhmani. 2 SkI -{m n a king. "tIya Isa, ~ [Ia!).] adjignorant, innocent. 211 a child. gahyo kIsa."-ramav. 'King Ravan's wife, ~ [Ia!).ap] n ignorance, innocence. Mandodari was caught by oflH (monkeys).' 2 childhood. 'fuJ:rJror [Is-hak] See F~8dj<J1H. ~ [Ial).a] adj ignorant, devoid of know- fuRq [Isak] A ~ n fondness, love. "Isak ledge. "hOI Ial).a kare kamu al).I na sakE muhabatI nanka, lekha karte pasI."-var rasI."-var asa m 2. 2 n a child. 3 teetotaller. maru 1 m 1. "pita phull Ial).i ghuman surme."-cJc;li 3. ~ [Iskat] A 1,(;...1 n act of H~$ (felling), 'The brave ones swayed as did the teetotaller aborting, toppling. 2 abortion. after drinking distilled opium.' See WCli 3. fuRc [Isat] Skt f~ a religious task.! re>woer [Ianath], ~ [Iamp] n ignorance, 'See atrI SIffirItI ~ 44.

Page 326


2 worshipable God. 3 a friend. 4 adj desired, wanted. 5 worshipped. 6 beloved. "Isat mit aru bhai."-jEt m 5. ~ [Isatka] See fEz. fuRc ~ [Isat dey] Skt ~ ~ 11 wOl1thy of worship according to one's religion. For the Sikhs it is God, the Creator. 2 tutelary god of a clan. fuRc Hl3' [Isa~ mit] adj desired friend, dear friend. See fu"Rc 6. ~fu [IstapattI] Skt ~crqITr n'~ (desired)>>fl1.ff3"(gain); finding a desired point in the opponent's speech or action, desired success. "t:) bhi IStapatI ham jova."--GPs. 2 profit, gain. ful:rc!H [I starn] See »fFlCTH. fuRit [ISti] adj having a deity, or patron saint. 2 one who realises or actuates a charm. "kahyo kI Isti hi baQa taman karat banaI." -NP 3 Skt ~ 11 an oblation; a religious sacrifice. 4 desire, wish. Fead(Jld [If;itahar] A 11 publicity, public notice; an announcement. reRdasiM [Istakball A J~! 11 a welcome; a reception; going forward to receive as a mark of respect or honour. ~ [Isatdua] A lo;yl 11 an expression of desire. 2 a prayer, supplication, request. fuR3Ha'ra" [Isatmrar] A .If/'! 11 fiml11ess, resoluteness. 2 continuity. 3 without change. fuR" 3W [IS tara] adv like this, in this manner. feRdie(') [I stadan] P t,:J) t:-! v to stand. 2 to halt. feRdie' [Istada] P nt:-! adj standing. ~ [IstamaI]A Jp! being or putting in use; use. feRfd~qliql [IstIhakak] A J~! an entitkment. feRfddl'R' [IstIgasa] A .: l4-! a request: petition to the ruler for obtaining justice; an appeal. feRfaRi [Istfja] A lfr'! 11 cleansing of a drain. 2 cleansing the excretory organs with earth


or water after easing or pissing. According to the Islamic texts one does not remain fit to perform a namaz if the body or cloth is soiled by urine. Therefore the wetness left after urination should be sucked clean with a piece of stone or hard earth. ~ [IstImarar] See ~. feafdGl'l!! [If;itIyak]A JPI 11 fondness. 2 wish, desire. 3 love. feRfdM'(J [IstIIah] A L,-LU-l consultation. 2 a technical term, or phrase, having a special meaning, such as 'deg teg' (literally kettle and sword) meaning feeding and destruction of enemies to continue, as the goal of the Khalsa. See l::f"(\)R" -e- ~. ~ [Istnj] n menses, menstrual discharge -sanama. 2 metaphorically, red sea. ~ [Istri] 11 a smoothing iron press, used by tailors and washermen. 2 SktF{t a woman. 3 wife. "Istri ta]i kan kam vIap;a."-maru d m 1. See 'i'JT'6t. ~T [Istri jatI] four types of women according to Kamshastar. See Fffi:Io't, tJPi301, ~ and ~'>'t and lJ21'I" nrf'3". feR~ftld [IstrijIt] adjconquered by a woman, i.e. uxorious. ~ [istri dhan] 11 dowrY,ornaments and cash which a bride gets from her father or the groom at t11e time of marriage. Katyayan and Manu have referred to six types: (l) money in cash and kind given at the time of marriage. (2) goods given at the time of departure after her second visit to her in-laws. (3) pelf given by the husband Ito please his wife. (4) money and objects given by her brothers. (5) material things given by her mother and (6) gifts given on different occasions by her father. See manu SImntI Ch 9, .~ 194. ~ 'ijTMT [Istri raja] 11 Mohini Avtar.-ddsam grath.


Page 327


4 Prophet Muhammad named his faith Islam, fuJ:ro1o [Isnan] Skt FrR n cleansing the body. followers of which are called Muslim or 2 bathing. A bath has been accepted by Musalman. The five principles ofIslam are: scholars as the basis of good health and (a) believing in one God. deliverance from disease, and subtly (b) praying five times a day. considered, bathing also enhances spiritual (c) giving 'zakat' (one fourteenth part of cleanliness and mental peace. The praise of earnings in charity). bath in Sikhism is universally acclaimed, but (d) observing fasts during the month of Ramzan; the Gurus have not considered cleansing the and body without cleanliness of the mind as (e) going on pilgrimage to kaaba in Mecca. Besides these rules, one who has faith in helpful for spiritual well being. "kan Isnan sIman prabhu apna tan man bhae aroga." prophet Muhammad, God's messengers, the -sor m 5. For a better understanding. See (')TIf angels, the revealed book Quran, the last day -ero fuJ::J?>ro. of judgment and in Allah is a Muslim or In the modern times, many incurable "mom In" ~y' (a believer). diseases are treated with special baths like fumrH J:If [Islam xa] son of Shaffi Khan, one sun bath, steam bath, mud bath, or bath with of the maulavis (Muslim priests) of Kabul, medicated water. was subedar of Lahore during the reign of FeROi(')l [ISnani] SktFllf.1~adjwho has a bath. Bahadur Shah. When the Sikhs ofMajha rose 2 who remains clean by habit. under Banda Bahadur, Islam Khan at first fi!1:IorQ [Isnanu] See fuFroro. "Isnanu karhI remained quiet in Lahore, but when Muslim dInu rati."-majh d m 3. religious teachers raised the Haidri banner, fuJ:rlP3' [ISpat] See ~. he too willy-nilly sent troops to fight against fi!HH [Isam] A (! n a name. 2 a name of God, the Sikhs but got defeated in the month of See 3FI'8t. Savan of Sammat 1767. He died in Lahore ~ [ISmail] See FeS~l'i:JlH. in 1768. Some writers have mentioned him ~ [I~rat] A.::.-/' leading a luxurious life. as Aslam Khan or Muslim Khan. fumrH -e- ~ [Islam de fIrke] According 2 the act of living together. to Hadis Tirmazi, prophet Muhammad had reHdlell'S [Israil] A adj chosen (fuFror) of (~) God. In Hebrew this word also means opined that while the Jews had seventy two a true friend of God. 2 n This is another name clans, his followers would have seventy three, and all but one would go to hell. Asked to of Jacob, the first initiator of Israel i dynasty. clarify, he said. "Those who follow me and See Fesd1cllH and ~. reHdlH~ [Israstra] See "';elfnHr.:rd'rt:lH=~. my companions will go to heaven." Sunni Muslims claim that they are the ones thus reHd'.iil'S [Israfil] See :GfuF.r3r. blessed by the Prophet. ~ [ISrar] n insistence. See ~. Besides the Sunn is, Islam has seventy two FfHl'S'u [ISlah] A [,11<'1 n emendation, sects divided into the following eight groups: correction. (a) Muatzilah (b) Shia (c) Khavarij (d) fum?tH [Islam] A (LVI n renunciation. 2 bowing the head. 3 accepting the will of God. Murjiyah (e) Najjariyah (f) Jabriyah

fuJ::rfERr [IsthIr] Skt f'J:'Era" adj firm, steady.


Page 328


(g) Qadariyah and (h) Mushabbih. (a) Per detail Muatzilah .J sect was founded by Vasil Bin Atta during the second century Hijri. He was born in MadLla in 80 Hijri and died in 131. Muatzilah means one who stands aside. So Vasil parted from Imam ofBasri and set up this separate sect, but this sect was further divided into these sub-sects: (2) Vasiliyah ~IJ holds that man iis free to act: God only exists but has no qualities. (3) Amriyah -:/ was founded by Amar Bin Abid. (4) Huzailiyah~; was founded by Abu Huzail. It believes that God has flixt:d the moment of death separately for each individual. (5) Nazzamiyah <Uz,- was floated by Ibrahim Bin Sayyar Nazam. (6) Asvariyah -:.JIYI was led by Abu Ali Vmar Bin Abdullah Qayad Asvari. (7) Iskafiyah ..1 ~I was founded by Abu Jafar Muhammad Iban Abdullah Iskafi. According to it, God is not strict with wise men. (8) Jafaryah -:JY. headed by Jafar Bin Mubbashir thinks that drinking is not punishable, but a thief loses his religion. (9) Bishriyah -:;. was founded by Bishar Bin Muatmir. (10) Mizvariyah -:.J1J~ was founded by Abu Musa Mizvar. (11) Hishamiyah,.,..t>. founded by Hisham Bin Amar does not believe in the miracles by the prophets. (12) Habittiyah ,;b; l.> was founded by Ahmad Bin Habit. This sect like the Christians, believes that Christ was the son of God. (13) Hadsiyah "';-",was founded by Fazal Hadsi. Its followers believe in transmigration. (14) Salihiyah jl,.., consists of the


followers of Sahib Bin Vmar. They believe that man is the doer of good and bad deeds; God has nothing to do with it. (15) Mamriyah -:/, started by Muamar' BinAbad Salmi., believes that God's qualities should be inhere in man. (16) Samamiyah <0 has followers of Shamam Bin Ashras Namiri, who believe that atheists will not receive any punishment on the Dooms Day. (17) Xayyatiiyah .-d'!f, founded by Abul Hussain Bin Abi Vmar Khayat believes that man is free in hlis actions. (18) Jahiziyah ~ is a sect founded by Abu Vmran Jahiz who died in 255 Hijri. (19) Kabiyah,..pJ of Abul Qasim Kaabi believe that God has no volition, yet many acts undesired by Him do take place. (20) Jabaiyah -:ft? was founded by Abu Ali Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahab Jabai, who died in 303 Hijri. (21) Buhashmiyah ~ comprises the followers ofAbu Hasim Abdul Salam, son of Abu Ali Jabai. (b) Shias..;>Ai' believe Imam Ali to be the true successor of Prophet Muhammad. Other Imams were all self-proclaimed leaders. The chief proponent of this sect was Abdulah Bin Sabba who believed that prophet Ali did not die and would again return to this world. Shias are further divided into several sub-sects: (2) Kamliyahs ~ ( are the followers ofAbu KamiI, who regard three companions of Muhammad as atheists. They believe in transmigration and in the existence of God's soul in the prophets. (3) Mugiriyah -: ~ is the sect ofMugiriah Bin Said Izli. Like the Hindus, they hold that a God like Vishnu possesses a particular form. (4) Bananiyah ~l:; followers of Banan Bin

Page 329

Samaan do not accept any difference between God and Ali. (5) Janahiyah.-;;l>. followers of Abdulah Bin Muaviah (who believed himselfto possess God's soul) do not believe in the Doomsday (6) Mansuriah :.J ~ were floated by Abu Mansoor Izal i. (7) Xattabiyah ~lk; believe in Abdul Khatab who held that a lineage of divine messengers comprised the progeny of Ali. (8) Kaisaniyah, a slave of prophet Ali, founded his own sect Kaisaniyah ~L!in 64 Hijri. (9) Muxtariyah :.Jri is a sect introduced by Mukhtar Bin Abu Abdulah who fought a fierce battle in 66 Hijri to avenge the death ofImam Hussain and put an end to his killers. He initiated the custom of taking out processions of tajias (models of Hussains tomb) during the month of Muhharam. (10) Kuraibiyah are followers ofAbu Kuraib Zarir. (11) Is-hakiyah ;j~! is a sect that follows the tenets of Is-haq Bin Umar. (12) Harbiyah ~.7 is the sect started by Abdulah Bin Harab. (13) Ismailiyah dtlr-! are followers of Imam Jafar Sadiq. (14) Kiramatah Jz,.lj sect was set up by Hamdan Kirmat in 264 Hijri. (15) Musuviyah :Y': is the sect founded by Imam Musa Kazim. (16) Mahadviyah :'-¥ sect was founded by Ubaidulah who proclaimed himself the Imam Mahadi. (17) Zaidiyah :~; comprised those who claimed Zaid, grandson of Imam Hussain, as their prophet. In Hijri 121 Zaid fought against Hasham and became a martyr. (18) Isna-ashariyah :/~!, also called Imamiyah, believe in the last Imam Muhammad Mahadi. Born in 255 Hijri he, per their belief is still living in cognito and will reappear on the day of Judgement. (19) Hasaniyah ~ sect was established in 195 Hijri. (20) Nuamaniyah ~vi comprises followers of Muhammad Bin Ali Bin Nuaman. Sunis call them Shataniyah. It was established in 113 Hijri. (21) Badaiyah ~1-1' ('bad' means new discovery.) This sect is fond of new discoveries. Its believers hold that even God may, on discovering new truth, repent over the past be I iefs. (22) Hakmiyah.-.f' sect has followers of Hasham Bin Hakam Kindi, who visualise God as possessing a silvery bright body. (23) Mukaniyah ~ sect was started by Iban Muqanna in 278 Hijri. The followers of this sect accept their leader as God incarnate. (24) Nasiriyah:;:!J followers of Muhammad Bin Nasir Fahri, believe that God had entered the body of Hazrat Ali. (c) Khavarij /:;J,j sect is also known as Kharjiyah, Navasiv and Nasibiyah. While prophet Ali was fighting a battle againstAmir Mauviyah, some people who separated from him started this sect. It further split into several branches: (2) Muhakkimah.Ji was founded by Abdulah Bin Wahab. It does not believe that an Imam (religious head) must be from the Quraish dynasty. Its members believe that sins not only proclaim a sinner as a fallen man but also turn him into an atheist. (3) Baihsiyah~· is the sect of the followers of Baihas Bin Haisam. (4) Azarkah J.JI)I followers of Rabbi Rashid Nafir Bin Azaraq. They consider


Page 330


Hazrat Ali a non-believer (un islamic). (5) Najdat -=-1.1{ are followers of Najda Bin Aamir. sect was founded by (6) Asfariyah Ziad Bin Asfar. (7) Abaziyah ~~l was started by Abdulah Bin Abaz. (d) Murjiyah -?- / is the sect of Hasan Bin Balal Muzani who believed that he who has faith in God and His prophet shall not be questioned by God for anything. Its sub-sects are: (2) Yunsiyah .d i are followers ofYunas Bin Umar Namiri. (3)Ubaidiyah:~ arefollowersofUbaid Mukazib who visualize God in human form. (4) Gassaniyah -;it;..<' disciples of Gassan Bin Iman Kufi, who do not accept ChrJist to be a prophet. are followers of (5) Saumaniyah -;i~; Sauban. (6) Saumniyah ~j are followers of Abu Muaz Saumani. (7) Muraisiyah -:r'-/ are disciples ofBishar Bin Giasa Muraisi. (8) Gilaniyah -;iii discriples follow Marvan Bin Gilan. (9) Shabibyah ~ is a sect of Muhammad Bin Shabib. (10) Shimriyah : / sect was founded by Abu Shimar. (e) Najjariyah:.11f sect was founded by Husain Bin Muhammad Bin Abdulah Najjar. The rules of this sect about the Caliphate are similar to those of the Sunnis. Its branches are:(2) Bargusiyah ,.; j ~ are followers of Muhammad Bin Isa Bargus. (3) Zafaraniyah -;iljf'J sect believes that God's utterance is different from God's


person. (4) Mustadrikah f.1~ sect also takes God's words as something created and not immanent like the Veds of the Hindus. (f) Jabriyah : p sect believes that man is helpless in doing good or bad deeds. These deeds are done only by divine inspiration. Its forms are: (2) Jahmiyah ~ are followers of Jaham Bin Safvan. (3) Bakriyah ~~ j.'sect of Bakar Bin Ukhat who treat onions and garlic as forbidden. (4) Zirariyah ~~ .11? followers of Zarar Bin Umar believe that God will be seen in person on the day of Judgement but not with these eyes; eyes to see God would be different. (g) Kadriyah :.1; is a sect started by Muabid Bin KhalaJahni. Its followers believe that man himself does good and bad deeds. God does not interfere in them. Muabid preached his views mostly at Basra and in 80 Hijri the governor of Basra crucified him on the cross. (h) Mushabbih .." sect believes that like man God sees, speaks and hears. It is because of this likeness that the sect got this name meaning 'resemblance.' ~ [Islok] Skt 1iC'fTCfi n verse, metre. 2 sentence, foot, line. "arath bIn Islok." -pnthu. 3 adv in this world, here. fuwa3- [I~arat], fi:~ [I~ara] A ':;"'.1~! ~.1~! n a signal, an indication. 2 a maxim. fm:r [ISU] See .~. "ISU dharti mahI teri sIkdari."-asa m 5. fi;Jl [ISO] adj like this, resembling this. "ISO prabhu, t£ kIh kaj kaho bIsrayo?"~savEye33. fuJ:i' [IS;:')] See AA. 2 See fEJ:r. fu'J1 [I~t] See funG". ~T('j" [Isnan], ~ [Isnanu] See~. "Isnanu karhI parbhatI sudh manI."


Page 331


-saveye m 4 ke. ~ [Isvaraj] See~. fuu [Ih]pran this. "Ih ausar te cukIa."-bIla m 5. 2 adv here, at this place, in this world. "parval) gal)i sei Ih ae."-suhi m 5. "jau kahhu mukh-hu sevak, Ih besie."-sar m 5. 'Sit here.' 3 indicating the proximity ofan object. 4 n the world. ~ [Ihsan] A (;}L.:>I n a favour; an obligation, a good turn. ~ [IhtIaj] A (;,~! n need, necessity. This word is derived from (J'R3" "fuuftrnrH [IhtImam] A (lJ.;'!! n an effort, arrangement, effort, management. ~ [IhtImal] A Ji?! n a thought, concern, idea. re\lfdGf'i;S [IhtIyat] A .b~! n care, precaution. 2 encirclement. fuu fufu [rh brdhr] advthus, in this way, in this manner. "rh brdhr nanak harr nel) alor."-toc;li m 5. 2 See fufu: fuut" [rha]'adv here, at this place. 2 pran this (thing) only this. "rha kamani ritr."-dhana m5. 3 SeeW. ~ [rhamutr] Skt n futr-~,this and the coming one; this and the future world; here and the hereafter. 2 adv here and there. futit [rhi] the suffix [i] indicates determination and only this; only thisfthing). "rhihamare saphal kaj."-mali m 5. "rhi tera ausar rh teri bar."-bher kabir. fe1r [rhu] See ~. "rhu rag kade na utr£." -bIla m 3. fucr [rk] Skt Eor adj one. See P ...{. 2 alone. 3 unique, matchless. 4 n God. "rk dekhra rk manra."-var gau 1 m 4. 5 pran anyone, any. ~ [rkau] ~ suffixed to fucr. meaning only one, or one alone. fucr })ftT [rk adh], fucr »rg [rk adhu]f fEq l')fTl:l [rk adh]pran some one, anyone, a rare one.


"kabir esa ek adh."-s. See ~ »fq. fucr ~ [rk rko], fucr Eqr [rk eka] adj free from duality, unique. "nahr bujh-hr rk eka."-bher m 1. fuwr [rkas] only one; one only. "rkas ka manr asra."-sri m 5. fucmo [rksath] adj sixty-one. rectRael [rksabdi] n an anchorite who gives only one call for alms and passes on to the next door without calling again: "hari narayal)", "$rv $rv", "alakh" etc. "rk sabdi bahu rupr avdhuta."-sri a m 5. 2 a monotheist. 3 See fucr 1J1:fc'i9". fucr mr [rk sar] adj equal, constant, uniform. "rk sar dukh para."-suhi kabir. fucr wur [rk saha] adj who talks continuously without a pause. 2 not recovering breath whi Ie talking. 3 continuously, incessantly. "rksaha tudhu dhrarda."-sri m 5 pepaI. fum:Rr [rksar] adj uniform. See fucmo. "satru mrtr dou rksar."-akal. fu'ctJ:fta" [ r ksir] See >'lfCVfur. fuct'JJ [rkasu] one only, a single one. "rkasu harr ke nam brn."-majh barahmaha. ~ [rksukhni] adj (trader) who remains .firm on price once quoted. "rk sukhni bha trn ko nam."-GPs. fectJ3d [rk-hattar] adj seventy-one. ~ [rk-haraJ, ~ [rk-hari] adj singIelayered; without a fringe or tassel. fect&:3d H [rkchatraj] n a universal kingdom; ' an unrivalled ruler. "rkchatraj kamafda." -BG See~. fucr iiJrr [rk taga] adj having Jnly one leg; lame; one-legged. 2 an ascetic who meditates while standing on one leg. 3 See Eor tPt. fuortsr [rkatha] adjcrowded at one place. "sabh Ikathe AUJ: ara."-sri m 5 pepar. fi!cto [rkaHh]. 11 a gathering, a festival, a fair. [rkat] SkI ~ adv at one place. "mara

Page 332

Ikda kaha."-pards. ~ [Ikdat] adj a unique gift. "tu sabhna ~. karhI Ikdat. "·-dhdna m 4. 2 equal gift to ~ [Ikatar] See fucB and ~. 2 See ~~. l e1 [Iktai] n unity, oneness, ~ [Ikta], fe6<3 all. harmony, concord. "jiv brahm Ikta ~ fufur [Ikdu :[kI] sen one from the other. "Ikdu IkI caradia."-suhi m 1 kUCdji. nIrdhan:."-GPs. r~oc3ial [Iktara] n a stringed musical ~ [Ikan], fuorfo [Ibm] pron anyone. 2 some one, hardly anyone. "ikanI kInE caliE instrument used by wandering mendicantdarvesavi ritI."-S [drid. cum-folk singers. It is improvised by fitting a ~ [Ikfa] A '(p,rj n allurement, inveiglement. gut-card to the hollow shell of a gourd. 2 turning from olthers to oneself. "jan nanak reocd l M1 [Iktali] adj forty-one. ~ [IktIar], ~ [Iktiar] A .Jl;;' n han prabhu Ikpha."-prdbha m 4.3 became .> . an authority. 2 control, command, power. one. 3 acceptance, adoption. "bade, badgi Iktiar." ~ [Ikbal] A .. )q j n a confession. 2 com ing face to face. 3 fate, fortune. 4 good luck. "jaI -gdukdbir. fuo8b:r [Iktis], .~ [Iktih] adj thirty-·one. jag k~ ran nal guru de Ikbal tumara." fuqg [Ikatu] See fucB. 2 adj only. "Ikatu nam -jagnama. nIvasi."-maru solhe m 3. 3 Skt ~ n unity, fuoc' ~ [Ik bhaI] n one idea or purpose, oneness. without any doubt. 2 adv single mindedly. ~ [Iktuka], feocijoflhiT [Iktukia] a two"Ik bhaI Ik manI nam vasIa."-bIla chat line rhymed hymn sung as a single linle. In m 1. Guru Granth Sahib a number of hymns are fuomo [Ikman] adj single-minded, attentive, titled 'Ik tuke', See hymns under Basant rapt. musical measure like: "jIu pasri sUI'aj kIraT) fuoc'Hfo [Ikmam] n God who has a single vow of truth, "jIn IkmanI tutha se satIgur seva jotI." fi:oc3' [IktE] of the one (peerless, Creator). lae."-gdu m 3. 2 adv single mindedly, "IkI sada IktE ragI rah-hI."-var v;:xj m 3. absorbedly. "IkmanI purakhu dhIaI 2~: part on one side. 3 one side of an bardata."-sdvEye m 1 ke. argument, one party in a contest. 4 first, at f8oc'a" [fkar] adv thus, in this way. 2 n in first. Krishnavatar, fbI' has been written in place fuct3t [Ikatti], fucGtiT [Ikattih] adjthirty-one. offdIra which means Lachhami (goddess of ~ [Ikatr] advat or in one place. 2 together. wealth). "fkar aI gafharI pahi."-krrsdn. "hOI Ikat mIlhu mere bhai."-basat m 5. ~ [Ikrar] A .II}! n acceptance. 2 sanction. fuora+ [Iktha], fuocit [IkthE] advall one place. 3 a vow, solemn declaration. "IkthE gupatu pargatu hE ape."-maru solhe ~oft [Ikragi] constant in one state, engrossed in the thought of God. "saCI rate m3. bhagat Ikragi."-suhichat m 3. 2 who has the 'fuq BHt [Ik dami] adj short lived, who is not same one colour. sure of another or the next breath. "ham admi ~ [Ikal], ~ [Ikla]adjalone, single, sole, ha Ikdami."-dhdna m 1. feoc't!T [Ikda] once. See ~~. "::>akar kahf solitary. "thake kaval Ibl."-s [drid. Here karhI Ikat."-sri m 5. 'collects wealth.' :l See

Page 333





lotus stands for the soul. fucr't3t [rkati], fuai3t [rkati] Skt~, adj a fecrM'sY[rkIai] n solitariness, loneliness. 2 a devotee who keeps his devotion hdden in his sheet or wrap of a single width. "caru patabar heart and does notreveal it at all. "soi bhagat ki rkIai."-NP 3 See~. Ikati jiu."-majh m 5. 2 living in seclusion. fecrM'cl i [rkiaha] See fei2<Micl ' . "so rkati jrsu rrda thar."-basat m 5. 3 all ~ [rkIim] A, G, P j n a foreign country; alone, isolated. "apI Ikati hOI rahE, ape vaq . a country. See E Clime. parvaru."-var bIha m 4. ~crMfe<! [rkIor!).] Dg n one-eyed; a crow. See ~ [rkadas] See ~. arar 2. feweRl [Ikadasi] See ~. ~ [rkIota], ~3T [rkbta] adj the only ~ l.fT'i!' [rkad pay] See Fa' tR. son, single male child. 2 alone, without a ~ [Ikanve] adj ninety-one. companion. 3 unequalled. without an equal. fuwtr [rkap] sen rk-ap. fucr" ~ [rk Varal)], ~ ~ [rk varan] adj fucrrt;ra- [Ikayat] n oneness, unity, concord, who has no other caste; from a single caste. relationship. 2 uniqueness. "srrsatr sabh rk varan hoi dharam ki gatr fufor [Ikr] anyone, many. "rkr avhr rkr jahr rahi."-dhema m I. Here the term means uthr."-sri m 1. Islamic i.e. the people of Hindustan have fucilFr [rkis] adj twenty-one. "gaj rkis puria ek tanai."-geJU kdbir. 21 yards of a warp of turned Muslims. 2 of a single unmixed colour. f~cr'i!icil [rkvaki] adj who speaks less but yarn are five material elements, five senses remains firm on what he says; truthful. 2 who (speech, touch, sight, taste and smell, five agreeing with others speaks with one voice. external and five internal organs and the soul. 2 Scholars have taken all matter as forming "rkvaki korma vrcari."-BG twenty parts besides the twenty first element, ~ [rkvaja] adj fifty-one. fucfrJ:ft [rkasi] adj eighty-one. the soul. "etu raIn patr pavria CariE hor fua'ruo [rkahath] adj sixty-one. rkis."-jdpU. 'This route has steps of a ladder, fuarctt [rkaki] adj only one. "ham magi climbing which a person becomes one with bhagatr rkaki."-dhana m 4. 2 Skt~ adj the god.' 3 fEC\-m. one master, God. sole, alone, exclusive, without a helper. "jekar 4 See ft:ofl""<J 2. vahrr rkaki par."-GPs. fucfur [rkih] See fuofu:r. 2 twenty first. "bis bIsve fuqior [rkag] Skt ~ adj having only one trE gu!). hE, te rkih turia pad hr."-bhagtavli. limb. 2 n the numeral I. "ekakar rkag lrkh, fecfu:r ~ [rkih kull twenty one generations. ura Jakar Irkhaya."-BG It is written in books like Bhagatmala that a fecrilljd i [Ikagrata] See ~. devotee of God besides achieving his own fu'cr'r3' [rkat], fi:crio [rkH] Skt l!,'fiRf n a theory, salvation redeems 21 generations:- that is, ten tenet, doctrine. "yahI VIkhE budh kahe generations that precede him, and ten Ikat."-Bhai Gulab Singh. 2 empty space, generations that follow him. "prahiad jan ke vacant place, without a living being. 3 adj rkih kul udhare."-bhEr m 3. Some extreme, very much. 4 separate, alone. knowledgeable persons hold that seven "prabhu apna rkat."-kan m 5. 5 ascertained, generations each of his paternal and maternal father and seven of his father-in-law are assured.


Page 334


salvaged i.e. those who keep the company of the elightened person, attain salvation. ~ [Iku] See ~. "Iku khInu tISU bIn jivI).a."-majh baral1maha. fuc! })fg' [Iku adhu] See"fu'a »fQ'. "Iku adu naI rasiara."-gau m 5. feg8'iji [Iku1aha] a village in police station Khanna, tehsil Samrala of district Ludhiana. Close to it on the western side is Guru Hargobind's gurdwara. The Guru had stayed here on his way from Dhamot to Saunti. Bhai Raila Singh, a resident of Iku1aha, who was in service in Sammat 1964-65 in Africa was inspired by the Guru's teaching, came to Ikulaha and started the construction ofa gurdwara which was completed after him by Mai Matab Kaur and the co-vi Ilagers. Guru Granth Sahib is placed in the gurdwara which has 50 bighas of land. An annual fair is held here on 20 th of Baisakh, the day the Guru is believed to have come here. It is three miles to the west of railway station Khanna, and is joined by an unpaved road. ~ [Ike] part or. See W. ~ [Ikera] adv once. ~W [Ike1a] alone, single, all by oneself. "Ikela hi aIa Ike1a ca1aya."-nasihat. W [Ike] part or. "IkE ta lor mukaddmi IkE ta alla lor."-JSBB. 'Some desire worldly chiefdom and others God's grace.' fuclo [IkEth] adj a gathering; an assembly. Woo [IkEthan] v to gather, assemble, collect. 2 n an obstruction; check on the organs of perception. "man fdri ke sahIt IkEthyO." -GPs. 3 contracting, shrinking. rea-OT [IkEtha] adj gathered. "kahCi sImat bhayo sakar IkEtha."-caupai. 2 at one place. ~ [Iko] only one; one only. "Iko srrjaI).haru."-var guj m 5. ~ [Ikoqa], ftfcrnt [Ikoqi] adjbent on one's

knees. 2 tilting, inclined. 3 upside down, inverted. "kah-hI ta dharaI).I Ikoqi kar;m." -bh£r namdev. ~ [Ikotar] See ~. ~ H [Ikotar s;)] adj one hundred and one, 101. 'fuofait [Ik;'igi] adj having one limb only. 2 taking only one side in a dispute or discussion; partisan. 3 alone, without a helper, single-handed. "sahE jiv yahI dukh Ikagi." -NP. See~. fucit:m [Ikajas] adj uniform, consistent. "kI agajas, kI Ikajas."-gyan. 2 "fu'a (unique) is whose l'lh=m (power). fi::cf3' [I kat] See f'EorT3'. fucf31 [Ikati] See f'E'ai3T. "apI Ikati apI pasara."-majh m 5. ~ [Ikatr] See'fucxio. "SUbEth Ikatr."-kalki. fE'oft [Ikki], -reatr [Ikkih] See fuoftH. fE'oft C31? [Ikki ku1] See fec;ftu' ~. [Ikkur] adv in this way, by this method, thus. [Ikko] See j~. ~ [Ik$u] See fu1:f. ~ [Ik$vaku] Skt ~~ n something that causes the desire to suck sugarcane; bitter gourd. 2 a king of the Suray dynasty and son of Vaivsvatmanu and the first ruler of Ayodhya. According to Vishnu Puran, he had come out of Manu's sneeze. I He had one hundred sons but only two of them Vikushki and Nimi became greatly famous. From Vikushki came kings of Ayodhya like Raghu etc. and from Nimi began the Janak dynasty of Mithila. Bhai Santokh Singh has written in Guru Pratap Suray, that Afuritsar is the place of Ikshaku's altar for the performance of sacrifice. ful:f [Ikh] See re-l:f.



IS ee chapter 4, section 2 of Vishnu Puran.

Page 335


fedlfMR3 1()

ful:PWR" [Ikh-as] See


n a summary, an abridged or annotated version, precis. ~ [IXtalaf] A ...Jli>! n difference, disagreement, separation. 2 antagonism, different view. ~ [IkhtIar], ~ [Ikhtyar) See

~ [Ixatsar] A .IL,;::!

[Ikhbar] See »fJ:f8lO. (;'fJ! discharge, dismissal, expulsion. ~ [IXlas], ~ [Ikhlasu] t.f lP! n purity, clarity. 2 sanctity. "rIdE Ikhlasu nIrakhle mira."-bher kdbir. 3 friendship. ~ [Ikhlak] See ~. ~ [Ikhvak), ~ [Ikhvaku] See ~. "nrIp Ikhvak bali Ik kal."-GPs. ~ [Ikhika] Skt~ n an arrow. 2 a reed, a piece of straw. 3 elephant grass, especially the reed-like portion just below the ear at the top. 'Wj [:i:khu] Skt"fu15 n an arrow. 2 a reed of elephant grass. ~ [Ikhuas] SktfuJrHn a bow from which an arrow (I~U) is shot. ~ [Ikhuasaj] n born from a bow, (fulrR) an arrow; an arrow shot with a bow.-scmama. ~ [Ikhuasajni] n an army equipped with arrows (I~vasaj)-scmama. 'Wjl'>fTR09" [Ikhuasni] n an army of archers. -s;:mama. fuytr [Ikhudh] Skt~!:\ vr wielding of arrows (and bows). fu1ffu [IkhudhI], W!tiT [Ikhudhi] Skt fu15fu n a holder of arrows; a quiver. "Ikhodhi katI 56 kas parath ayo."-krIS;;}n. ffi1:r [Ikkh] Skt~ n E Sugarcane. L Saccharum officinarum. ~ [Ikhvadhi] See fuJ:rfu. "dae Ikhvadhi dVE."-par;;}s. 'gave two quivers of arrows! ,


ful:Rrrtr [IXraj] A

[Ikhvaku] See ~Ti!. "kul Ikhvaku vIkhe jo raja."-GPs. fi!lIT [fg] Skt~ vr to go, tremble, shiver. 2 n a mark, sign. 3 a movement; an effort. 4 a signal, a hint, a gesture. reos [fgat] See fiffirr3". fidlfl'Sf.t [fgII~] E English adj connected with England. 2 n the English language, the language of England. 3 in Punjabi, pension is also termed as English. fedlfl'SHdlo [fglIstan], ~~ [fgltc;l] P \:J~j E England. n a country of the English people. a country in north-west of Europe bounded by Scotland in the north, North Sea in the east, Irish Sea in the west. It is a triangular country with an area 50,874 square miles, maximum length 420 miles and breadth 360 miles. Its area including Scotland, Wales and Ireland is 121,027 square miles. According to the census of 1911, its population is 47,263,530. Its people are known as English, their religion is Protestant Christianity; some Roman Catholics are also there, their number being around 22 lacs. England is divided into fifty counties; railway line zigzags slightly over 16,000 miles. Hardly any village is without a post office, hospital, school, library or church; primary education is free and compulsory; therefore there is no illiteracy in England. England's capital is London with a population of 70 lacs. It is the largest city in the world. The detailed narration of how England conquered India is to be found under


itAc ~ chaft.
England rules over a huge empire of the world over which the sun never sets because it is spread over vast areas in all corners of the world. Several countries in Europe, America, Australia, Africa and Asia are

Page 336


included in it. It occupies one fourth of the entire earth surface where one fifth of the human race lives. The total area of the British Empire is 13,909, 782 square miles and its population is 460,094,000. In area it is ovelr 273 times that of England. Of its population only about fifty million belong to the white race. The government of England is democratic with a king as its head. Its present mlcer is Emperor George V. England, Wales and Scotland are collectively called Britain and its people are known as the British. fiffiJr3' [fglt] SkI ~ adj moving. 2 marked, with marks. 3 n a signal, sign or indication through gesture, such as a wink. 4 bodily action, motion, effort, movement. "fgIl: bol vIlokm keri."-GPS. reQJtft [fgudi] SkI .~ n godni, wild staff tree, L Gordia augustifolia, its glutinous fruit is edible and it heals swelling of the throat and blisters in the mouth. "fgudi khare VI sal." ~;:r [fgrej] Pgfi!'amt.r F Anglais. inhabitants of England. ~tft [fgreji] the language of the people of England. fiftr [fc] E inch, one twelfth of a foot and one thirty sixth part of a yard. [Ich] See 'fusr. "man Ich pai prabhu dhlai."-asa eMit m 5. ~ [Ich-ara] adjnar suffixed to fflsr, adj desired, wanted. 'fu'sfi:r [IchasI] will desire, desires, you desire. "IchaSI jamadI prabhya."-guj jedev. See


'fu&ro [Ichat],

reiiS [fchat] SkI ~ adj desired, wanted, required. "man fchat hi phal pavat hE."-s;weye m 4 ke. W [Icha] SkI ~ desire, yearning, want.


2 longing, craving for what is not. fesiiNi'I [Ichacaril] ~v0tilIR1, adj one going around according to his own desire. ~'a'a' [Ichapurak], ~ [Ichapuraku] adj who fulfills desires. "Ichapuraku sarab sukhdata."-dhana m 4.2 n God. "Ichapuraku rakhE nldan."-asa ill 5. resr [Iccha] See fu5r. ref&s' [Icchlt] See ~. ft!§ [Icchu] SkI €iv~ adj desirous. 2 n See~. 3 Dg jaggery, brown lump sugar, gur. ~ [Icchuk] See rei [ICCha] See fE'sr. 2 SkI ~~ adj worth seeing, handsome. "uthi ChICh Iccha."-VN. 'rose charming splashes.' fu;:r [Ij] See fuH:;r. ftf;:r [fj] See ~. 'fui::rc:Jra' [Ijhar] A .J~' n disclosure, expression. fut:rorA' [Ijnas] See J?ftI?iTR. rei«JT [Ijra], f~ffiTT1jJ' [Ijray] A un n implementation; fulfilment; putting into action, as of a court order. ~ [Ijlas] A ~.lJJ:>1 n a place for sitting. 2 seat of an officer, court. ~ [Ijazat] A .::-)I:>! n permission, order. 2 sanction, approval. ~ [Ijaphat] A ":";W>I a symbol or letter added to show a relation: affix, apostrophe. In Sikh scripture vowel symbol for [r] i.e. [f] is used for this purpose as in "yak araj guphtam pesI to."-tIlag m 1. In this book the sign for this is "\". 'fut:JrGr [Ijapha] A .J!;. 1 n an accretion, addition. fuwa3" [I jabat] A ...::.--:I:>! acceptance. 2 easy and liberal excretion of stools. ~[Izar]A .IU! n loose trousers usuallywom by women, a pyjama or salwar. f8f.hlae [Izarbad] P .k..JU! n a cord for