mr b n 'rm;;


": ',"', : ': ': "":',:,:::'~,:"::,",~':"',' "~:::'~'1'7:"7":w::,~:;~:6>'::;;";'


Page 1


( U--;:f)

English Translation of

..... l-fUTO a1J



Page 2


Department of Development ofPunjabi Language Punjabi University, Patiala (Established under Punjab Act No. 35 of 1961)

(u-iT )

English Translation of

(fJ if f.I ij ~ d3 (I) I 0( d }fiJTO <hr

ISBN: 81-302-0163-1

Year: 2008 Copies: 1100 Price: Rs. 900.00

Laser Setting:
Advanced Centre for Technical Development of Punjabi Language, Literature and Culture Punjabi University, Patiala.
Published by Dr. S. S. Khehra, Registrar, Punjabi University, Patiala and printed by Mis Anand Sons, Delhi.

Page 3


Jaspal Singh Vice-Chancel/or
Punjabi University, Patiala-

Project Co-ordinator
Dhanwant Kaur
Professor and Head Department of Development of Punjabi Language, Punjabi University, Patiala

Editorial Board
Tejwant Singh Gill formerly Professor of English,
Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

Gurkirpal Singh Sekhon
formerly Professor of English, Punjabi University, Patiala

Page 4


Advisory Board
Bhai Ashok Singh Bagrian Major A. P. Singh S. P. S. Virdi Param Bakhshish Singh Indu Banga Jodh Singh Jaswinder Singh B.S.Sandhu

Kuljeet Kapoor Mohinder Singh Bajaj Gurdeep Kaur Cheema Madan Lal Hasiza
(<T 3"' <J!lf) (<J'TiTO'OT}fJ 3"'~, aoacl 3"' ~, ~ 3"' aw, ~ 3"' ~~, if<mig 3"' ;:rrH-)

OnkarSingh Ravinder Singh Karminder Singh Amarjit Singh Dhawan Suman Preet Jasminder Singh Dhillon Balkar Singh Prabhjot Kaur Sureet

(<iCcJT 3"' rill", QUC awe 3"' Q'(J"QC, l:I;:$dl Q<;i! fI 3"' ~ , ~ 3"' ~, dl f83dl i;iJd 3"' qr<J, WU8" 3"' \'itolT, ~ 3"' ;:for, ifTl;f 3"' fI'l""Ol) (rlw 3"' ~, CilH<J 3"' IDfT7IT, f'cm" 3"' ~~) (QIlfOT 3"' f'cicftc) (~ 3"' a-ciiww) (mit 3"'l:I;:$dIQ ' cll, ~ 3"'~, <TiI3"' <)'fldfl<;i!'fl) (!flf 3"' <Jfuol)

(<iTo 3"' <J[d<!") (;:ra- 3"' wtJOT)

Copy Editor
Gurkirpal Singh Sekhon

Inderjit Kaur Satnam Singh

Digitization by
Gurpreet Singh Lehal

Rajinder Singh Bhalwinder Singh Dhanaula

Title Designer
Harjit Singh

Page 5


Punjabi University, Patiala was established for the promotion and dissemination ofPtinjabi Language, literature and culture. This pious and cultural commitment has numerous levels and dimensions for the realisation ofwhich many projects and schemes are being undertaken. The presentation and projection ofthe rich intellectual and cultural heritage ofthe Punjab is an integral part ofour academic policies and research programmes. The English translation of Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha's Gurushabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh which is cited as the most authoritative reference work ofscholarship, is an important task ofsuch nature. Gurushabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh is a magnitudinous work, subtitled by the author as Encyclopcedia of The Sikh Literature. Originally written in the Punjabi language, syntactically and grammatically ofthe late 19th century, this magnum opus is a comprehensive archive ofscholarship. In particular, the contents ofthis magnum opus relate to Gurbani and in general to Sanskrit prosody, Indian mythology, diverse scriptures ofvarious religions, Islamic theology, traditional system ofmedicine and several other branches ofknowledge and belief It richlydeserves universal reception from scholars ofdifferent cultures: and languages spread over the whole world. The English translation of Mahan Kosh is essential to make this vast reservoir of knowledge available to the maximum number ofpeople. I am sure this volume, along with the preceding one as also the succeeding ones, will go a long way in realizing this aim which the author might have set before his mind's eye offulfilling the need both ofthe erudite scholars and general readers. Its first volume was published about two years back. In continuation the second one is appearing just within two years ofthe first one. I am fully convinced that its publication will elicit reception from people all over the world and will facilitate foreign scholars interested in Punjab's History, Philosophy, Culture and Language.

Punjabi University, Patiala

Jaspal Singh

Page 6


The second volume ofBhai Kahan Singh Nabha's Gurushabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh in English is before you. The·first one took two years for translation and publication and was very well received by scholars as well as general readers. It is hard to think of a more authentic and comprehensive source ofknowledge and general information about Sikhism. Therefore we embarked on this project with the feeling that this magnum opus ofthe greatest Sikh savant should be translated into English. We have been lencouraged by the reception of the first volume to expedite the publication ofthe second volume as early as possible. Mahan Kosh, as this work ofvast magnitude arid proportion is believed to be, contains explication ofseminal words, terms and expressions drawn from the Gurbani in the first instance. BhaiSahib has rare intellectual capacity in different areas such as philosophical, historical and lexicographical. He has scholarly command on ancient Indian scriptures, literary epics, myths, chronicles and Islamic lore with equal authority. Lest his explication should remain only in the realm ofabstract explanation, he supplemented it with opulent illustrations from all the relevant and valuable textual sources. Along with this, he complemented them with his judicious comments, thereby extending the scope ofhis explication further. While preparing this second volume in English, the guidelines laid down earlier by the Advisory Board,'have been strictly adhered to. They are: 1. To preserve the authenticity and spirit ofMahan Kosh, the original text will be kept unaltered and unedited. No editorial activity, regarding addition, deletion, correction or updating, will be taken up. 2. The different categories into which the original text is classified i.e. the seminal word, its grammatical form, etymology, variant meanings, usage ill quotation etc. will be accurately identified. 3. The English version ofMahan Kosh will embrace the original Gunnukhi alphabetical order ofthe words. The Roman transliteration will be done in accordance with its spellings and not pronunciation. 4. The etymological word will be kept in the original script (i.e:. Persian, Devanagari, Roman). 5. Only original quotations will be transliterated. 6. Footnotes will be given as in the original text. 7. Equivalent computer fonts will be prepared from Gurmukhi fonts used in Mahan Kosh. The Editorial Board for this volume comprises Dr. Tejwant Singh Gill and Dr. Gurkirpal Singh Sekhon. The former, a renowned trans1ator and scholar ofEnglish into Punjabi and vice versa, is a retired professor ofEnglish. The latter, formerly a professor ofEnglish language and general linguistics, is a British-trained linguist. J1?e way they worked in unison and with mutual

Page 7



Encyclopredia of The Sikh Literature

fruitful dialogue for supervising and perfecting the translation and the transliteration, sets a precedent for projects to be taken up jointly in the future. To complete this task in a span ofless than two years would have not been possible withoutthe enthusiasm and endeavour put in by the learned team oftranslators. The list of contributors to this volume is given on page iv, and as co-ordinator ofthe project, lowe them all my sincere thanks. It is matter ofhonour for me to thank Dr. Jaspal Singh, our worthy Vice-Chancellor, who as an ardent advocate and genuine lover ofPunjabi Language, Literature and Culture, has not only appreciated this endeavour, but has wholeheartily given all guidance, help and incentives. He is not like most other sectarian and self-seeking scholars or writers, who by lame excuses or unfounded reasons, sidetrack the projects and works already set in motion by his predecessors. I am grateful to him for his generosity. I acknowledge and appreciate the unstinting assistance that Mrs. Inderjit Kaur and Mr. Satnam Singh have rendered in the onerous work of editing and proofreading. Their expertise has gone a long way in imparting the required standard to this volume as well. Thanks for this volume are due to many others also, particularly to S. Rajinder Singh and S. Bhalwinder Singh Dhanaula, for putting the scripts together and for helping in every way to give the volume a final shape. The Publication Bureau ofPunjabi University, Patiala, has rendered all types oftimely help. I have full appreciation for S. Harjit Singh for his artistic and tcchnical skills. Without this, the volume could not have acquired the finesse in printing. The administrative staffofmy Department deserves my profuse appreciation, especially Mrs. Harsharan Kaur, for clerical help, given tirelessly and cheerfully. I also express my thanks to all the well-wishers of the Project, academic as also administrative, my senior faculty-members and colleagues who have bcen generous with advice and guidance. The credit for this volume goes to them too. This project is halfway through, but inspired by earlier as also anticipated public response, we hope to bring the project to completion as soon as possible.

Department of Development of Punjabi Language, Punjabi University, Patiala. August 06, 2008

Dhanwant Kaur
Professor & Head

Page 8


In continuation ofthe first volume, the second volume ofMahan Kosh seeks to translate each word, phrase and sentence ofBhai Sahib, figuring at whichever place in the entry, into English. Quotations, given by Bhai Sahib from variegated sources and documents are translitemted in specially evolved symbols. For transliterating them, a methodology was devised, and to avoid any vagary, every effort is made to stick to rules so devised. After several deliberations, the choice ofsymbols for transliteration was decided for reasons ofconvenience and clarity ofusage. The detail ofthis methodology goes as under:

(t -, u


~, ;

ti, ::






~, ~

>if, :=

fe, fI

El, -1
i 'R' s

-E ,



N'tft l:f





err g




























l:f x



Page 9



Encyclopredia of The Sikh Literature

1. 2. 3. 4. Transliteration ofquoted material, long passages or short lines, is within double quotes. In Gurmukhi orthography, there are 10 vowels: 3 short, and 7 long. >;f/- [d], fulf- [I], and ~/: [uJ. The short vowels are: The long vowels are: W/_T [a], ~/-1 [i], ~/; [u], EP· [e], J?f/ [f], fj/~ [oj, and »r/:: bJ. Gurmukhi symbols before the 'slashes' in 2) and 3) are used syllable-initially or as second part ofa diphthong, and those after the slashes, called "ffiW [ldgaJ, are hooked to the Gurmukhi consonant symbols. Final consonant in a syllable is always d-jree, that is J:fCB" [mukta). In ~ [kdrJ and CXQ3T, '-q' is ~ [dkaratJ and 'Q" is JjCBT [muktaJ. ~ [dkariltJ means that the consonant symbol includes d, and Jj<BT [muktaJ means that the consonant in question is d-Iess. To put in other words, d is neither marked nor pronounced after the last consonant of a syllable. Short vowels, I and u, are not normally pronounced ifhooked to the final consonant ofa word. All long vowels, on the contrary, are pronounced in all positions. Since the three short vowels are not pronounced after the last consonant of a word (even though I and u are marked in Gurmukhi as also in transliteration), they do not constitute the nucleus ofthe last syllable. The nucleus of the last consonant of a word to which a long vowel is hooked is the long vowel itself. In all other cases - that is, where a short (unpronounced) vowel is hooked to the last consonant - the d preceding the final consonant constitutes the nucleus. In view ofsomewhat Sanskritized and Persianized vocabulary of Punjabi, a number of words may have conjunct consonants like ~ [krIpaJ, ~ [sV€jivni], l:f1f[khadyaJ, ~ [rdkhya] etc. formed by adding halfletters to the preceding consonant. Similarly, there are quite a few cases of consonant clusters like (JijF.f [hdn;;], (JR3'" [hdSt], ~ [bdhI~t], fuJ:s [bIst], CWf [kdrm], dfill{ [gdrm], Rd'"a" [sdrb], FRl't [sdrd] occurring finally in a written word, though it cannot be denied that most Punjabis decIusterize these consonants by interposing a d in between them exactly as Gurmukhi orthography demands. But a few hypersensitive and sophisticated speakers prefer ;rless pronunciations in such cases. We follow the practice ofdeclusterization ofthe consonants by inserting a d between them. We also find occasional use ofvIsdrdg [g] and udat U symbols in Gurbani as in



6. 7. 8.
9. 10. 11. 12.




Page 10


Editors' Note
~g [dnrataI).ah], ~ [banhI].


16. In the case oftwo abutting consonants, the first consonant is the arresting (closing) consonant ofthe first syllable, and the second consonant is the releasing (initiating) consonant of the next syllable. In such a situation no a intervenes between the two consonants. Remember: there is no a marked in between two consonants in

transliteration when the former closes a syllable and the latter starts the next. 17. Taking this view, it is possible to posit a syllable structure for Punjabi : (C) (C) V (C), which gives us the following syllables: 1. V [>?iT]; 2. VC [~1]; 3. CV [;:rr]; 4. CVC [ao]; 5. CCV [JIl]; 6. CCVC [fq3"].
18. The commonest syllables are the first four: V; VC; CV and CVC. The last two occur with varying degree of frequency depending on a number of factors. 19. In our transliteration, nasalization is marked only when the original text demands it. In no case, do we supply nasalization on our own. A tilde ;-/ is used for nasalization in Punjabi. It appears over the vowel carrying nasalization: cfu /kat/ ... l?fg /ab/ 20. All quoted material including long passages/stanzas in the Mahan Kosh is transliterated. 21. Head word(s) of every entry is/are transliterated immediately after it/them within square brackets. Cross-references in the Mahan Kosh are not transliterated, only the Gurmukhi form is given as it is. Transliteration follows only the headwords. Words

written in Devanagari, Arabic/Persian scripts are retained as such to the extent possible, butwordsfrom Sanskrit/Hindi, and Persian/Arabic written in Bhai Kahan Singh S modified Gurmukhi script are transliterated within the framework of the rules devised for transliteration of Punjabi words as given above, irrespective of current practices adoptedfor their transliteration in respective languages.
22. When two Gurmukhi vowel symbols are hooked to the same consonant, the one hooked over the consonant precedes the one hooked below the consonant in transliteration:

lflB -g~ "fg l:fTfu1 I
l.ffu>w ~ H~
~ ~w

bhukhe pritI hOUVE anu khaI.

SaraI).I paIa nanak souhela.
FlUFf ~

sahas muratI nana ek touhi. 23. A voiced asp.irated consonant (~ bhara) is distinguished from a voiced consonant

Page 11



Encyclopredia of The Sikh Literature

followed by 'h' sotuld thus: O(a~ kab-hu. By retaining voiced aspirated consonants in our transliteration, we have only tried conservatively to trudge a relatively safe track.

SOME OTHER RULES Translation: We have provided within single quotes translation only for references which Bhai Sahib Kahan Singh has translated, and to the extent he has done it. Punctuation: Following Bhai Kahan Singh's punctuation may seem difficult to follow, but consistency, uniformity and editorial convenience suggested that we deviate from it to the minimum extent possible. Proper Nouns: All proper nouns in the body ofthe rtmning text have their usual roman spellings without an 'a', that is a schwa [a] after last consonant as per Punjabi practice, ie, Shiv, Ram, Krishan, Dev, Nanak. Footnotes: Footnotes are retained at the end ofthe relevant pages and not absorbed in the body ofthe text. This is to ensure that we stay as close to Bhai Sahib as possible. Addendum: It is considered best to incorporate the addenda in the last Volume. Special Symbols: Like I 5... for metre are retained.

Page 12


Abbreviations used in Mahan Kosh


Abbreviations used in the English Version
Preposition. prep




~~. ~





l'>IR fR'ur.

})fCl'e;(1m:&s, -e'AmIlf. ~ })fH tft qar, ~lf. l'>IR fR'ur tft qar, ~lf. ~. F.I'S't!' tft ?i01M'. Onomatopoeia.
~ ~ tft~, ~a-.
l'>fTAT 0'lJr.

Clspho Clkal
Clj CljE

Clrhat asa AD E s



t.ift. >'i.



l?fa!;:!t ~.
~. ~ FlO ("H""M").







tft qar, ~Ilf. ~. ~. Pronoun.

m:f~ ~






fifr/t ~.


1Jtit 0'lJr.
'lJmir ~ tft qar, R'ao 0'lJr.

sClvEye 33 sar S suhi




~ "H""M".

sor Skt n samClt

Page 13



Encyclop<edia of The Sikh Literature


fa. tit.
~. ~.








QJfu ~. QJfu 90.

~. ~.

tim 9. tim -:). tim a.

sri hakayat ~C:T ~ ~ ~ R 99 ~ ~.<JO. hajare 10 ~ F.l"at!", ~C:T. hanu UQWO Ci"'Ca", ~ fc!3". H -Ftret ~. He tinJ(Hebrew) ~~. kassap m:r;n..r ~, ~. kacch ~~,~. kalki ~~,~. kalI ~"ijT(Jf. 52 Poets ~ afu, 1ft ~ tIT ~ ~. aF.I'l-fRit ~. K kan ~"ijT(Jf. keda ~ "ijT(Jf. v fcfw ~ F.l"at!". Verb. krIsan fcpro ~ tit mP", ~. adv fcfw ~. Adverb. xa wm't 'eT 'Jf&3' oft3'r F.l"at!". xam ~ tit HfuHr, ~. gau ~ "ijT(Jf. Gj ~~. GPS ~ lJOlif (lJm:f ~). gurupad ~qH~. GV6 QJ S! f~WH iiiWf 1..fl3'Wdt 'eT. GV 10 QJ S! f~WH BOO 1..fl3'Wdt 'eT. guj WffiIT QIOT. b "ijT(Jf. g5c;l gyan ~,~. cau ~. carItr ~trCfJr'O, ~C:T. c:Jpai ito3t~,~. c:Jbis ~ ~ tit ~ »B ~ tit mP", ~. cJc;li 1 thiltlfd2i ~, ~. cJc;li 2 tl§ltlfd2i icr, ~. cJc;li 3 tim tit~, -em-rajcr. cJdr ~ ~ tit mP", ~.

lfl "ijT(Jf.


trn tit~.


Page 14


tl'l1WH. RW.


FfRTfo. R01fmir.

i1?iHFfT1:it ~ H?l1 fi:fur FIT tIT. i1?iHFfT1:it ~ ~ ~. HOT "QTH tIT aw, ~. ~ lit1JITfu" tIT aw, ~. ~ R01fmir tIT aw, ~.

jdg jdjatr jdnmejdY jdfdr jd15dhdT jfdgi jEja jEt


fJean('jlw, ~ ~

ftfeoit. Htrr. H3".

'cfe" W1? FIT.




~~ ~

ft:fur FIT, fuFt i)Ht tft <:JB7iT, ft:rJ:r fue'

j5gnama toc;fi


>'>!3' ~ tIT y~ ~fow ~~. ~ ~r.

zit. ftar.

Zit <:JTdT. ftfOR? -grw.

am "

reo ~ ~ ~ tIT ~

tdnama tr15g


~ (')I}fT.


ftmor <:JTdT.



gtRft <:JTdT.


<rn't ~ tIT -grw.

Th Den
ddtt drlip



tIT aw, ~'Ef. ~ ferfur tIT aw, ~'Ef.

~'lif ~

~. ~.


(~ <fuw~




dev dhdna dhdnJtdr

e~alQ '<:fl <:JTdT.


'QT, ~, }-fFI'eQ.


Verbal root.
~ (il}-/T.

ndsihdt ndt ndrsfgh ndrnaraYdI) ndrav



nc <:JTdT. o<:Jfi:fur ~ tft aw, ~. (')i'j' ~ ~ tft mfT, ~.

?i'1.I .


pdrdS prichdt

l.l<:flS3d ' rl.

'l.f<:l"ff'<:l »f~, ~cr. ~ l.RflftB tft aw, em-rajtr.

Page 15



Encyclopredia of The Sikh Literature



tr1f('iTEl"~, ~.
1di33dI'Ml ~.



~ 'F.I"at!".

il"3. VlI. lI3JJ·

~, CITJITOl 1f3JlliT. Suffix.


fJfur fcF.

Pg Pu Po PP sui

lIT. lITtflI.

~~. lftllo~, ~"ij30

fJfur fcF.


ft:rn" -er crer,


:GTi3Fit ~.
~'tr. French.

F bCJs5t


ml. Wcrra".

'a"Ffo (<ffl3')
Wcrra" -er


bavCJn bIha bIla Be ben bEra bano brCJhCJrn bhCJgtavli

fuur. ftrnr.


B.C. ~ "RO ~ lJfc:rW.




-er crer,





m Jft ~ art:!" wfJa- -er m. -er crer, ~. m Q@"e"'J1 ;:IT -er ~ ~ -er ~
~~ ~

H?ft fJfur ;:IT fcF.

~. ~.

~~;:IT~N. ~ Q@"e"'J1 ;:IT ~




~ (~) l-mW,
l-fc} ~






-er -atRfc. }fs ~ -er crer, ~.


l-lQ ~ or,:r BT 1pfar, ~.

rnCJgo rnCJcch rnCJnu rnCJnuraj

rnCJla rna s5g


FT. wardt.



tft ~.




Page 16









~ fQRZd "d"H.
.... tiL

HfJcft ~ Bt CfflT, ~. O'W ~ Bt crer, ~.
~ F.l"a'e".



dfu3orw. O'W ~ Bt crer, -em-rojtr.


'd"H ~

Bt crer,



9'I ~ ~




~. ~. '(;T. ~.

• ("5'O(T ~"'·Bt on)() 1'(;3. F.



Bt qep', -em-rojtr.



Bt ~r, -em-rojtr. fm:r QTOT Bt ftfu" ~ ~ ~ mft ~ nfor otiT. fm:r QTOT ~ ftfu" ~ ~ ~ uo ~ mft nfor. "-:I -:';1 m uo, »tFt tit »to fuf nrfu fuoT Fhftit.
witmft~? ~.



madhata Mv maru mali Ml mohni yudhIstar G cpd, ety rahIt raghu ram ramav rudr L prov vac;l varah sen vaman var2 var3 var 7 adj VIsan VN part Vj vr:fd





~ Bt~,






~ (~ ~~~ Bt -a-ID). ~B" ~


Bt "R3'ffi!T.

Page 17


For writing in the standard language of a country, there is no need to form new letters. Whichever letters the scholars ofthe language have formed, those perform the whole task. While writing in a foreign language, the task gets tough. No wonder there is an urgent need to form new letters. For writing in Punjabi, the Gurmukhi letters are so flawless that no new formations are required.





"1Sf ~






~ ~





- "illfl
-~:1:f OH: 2


rr-'fioImr ;:r-'i:I"ftN
;;r-~ ;;r-~









}JT. 4

IThis 2This )This 4This

'r' is marked over a character. is'called vIsarga. marks a a-less consonant. sign stands for a vowel sound in between [I] and [e].

Page 18


After going through Pandit Tara Singh's Guru Granth Kosh in Sammat 1955 (1898 AD) and Bhai Hazara Singh's Sri Guru Granth Kosh in 1957 (1900 AD),I got the idea to especially prepare a useful good lexicon by including words which have appeared in Guru Granth Sahib and arranging them in the order of characters and vowel symbols. I For making this idea a success, I commenced a spedal study of Sri Guru Granth Sahib which took me five years to complete. As ][ started arranging the words in order and saw the Encyclopredia Britannica, I thought that there should be a similar reference book for Sikh literature which might properly distinguish all words contained in Sikh religious literature. During Sammat 1963 (1906 AD), I studied Dasam Granth, and after that works ofBhai Gurdas, Bhai Nand Lal, Sarab Loh Prakash, Guru Sobha, Anecdotes by Bhai Mani Singh, Gurupad Prem Prakash, Hukamnamas, commentaries on Gurubani and several historical treatises. Having read them, I noted down words and after pondering over all aspects of etymology and semantics 2 and after discussing them j5:"orn time to time with learned men, I succeeded in discovering their actual and suggestive meanings. Due to several reasons, following the death of Maharaja Hira Singh of Nabha on May 10, 1912, I gave up service ofthe State; I wentto Kashmir to spend the summer, and there on 20th May after ardas started writing Gurushabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh. It was completed on February 6,1926. The completion ofthe book was followed by concern about its publication. Maharaja Brijendra Singh ofFaridkot who had promised its printing and publication, had expired, and Maharaja Ripudaman Singh ofNabha, who for one and a half year had been giving ample funds for my staffand had sanctioned large amount ofmoney for the printing ofthe book, abdicated and went away from Nabha. The Administrator ofthe state declared treasury as empty and declined to get the book published. At last in consultation with some friends, it was decided that five hundred customers should be found each ofwhom would pay halfthe price ofthe book in advance thus enabling it to be sent for publication. For this purpose one thousand specimen booklets were got printed and distributed as also advertisements were issued to newspapers. Only for two
tIn Pandit Tara Singh's Kosh, thus is the order in which words begin and end: $ , ~, ~, rrer, "R"UtIFlH'fu, l'lOO, ID!'O, "1'108"••• etc. In Bhai Hazara Singh's Kosh, words observe Ithis order as B&, ~, ~,


~, ~, ~, ~,


~, ~... etc.


pun yogydta sanIdhan pdhIcan. tatpdrdY CJtho mIlE, hOVE

Gulab Singh Ji.

In this connection, See Ftfu 4.

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Encyclopa:dia of The Sikh Literature

hundred copies did the customers come forward over nine months. I Having been disappointed by the public, I appealed to the Sikh Maharajas, requested them to buy three hundred copies and favour me by assisting in the profitable venture. Maharaja Bhupendra Singh ofPatiala called me to Chail on October 1, 1927 and issued an order that he would meet all expenditure on the Mahan Kosh, and that it would be published by the State ofPatiala and that all advance payment received from the prospective buyers be . returned forthwith. This was done and the printing ofthe book commenced at Sudarshan Press Amritsar on October 26, 1927 and ended on April 13, 1930. 2 The contents ofthis Mahan Kosh (Encyclopcedia ofThe Sikh Literature) the readers will know themselves byreading it, but to mention them briefly inthe introduction seems appropriate indeed: 1. Included are words from all wel1-knovm books ofprose and verse which relate to Sikhism. 2. Not only the alphabetical order ofwords, but that ofthe vowel symbols has also been maintained, like - ~ [au], n®1o [ausar], ~ [auhath], ~ [auhar], ~ [aukh], ~ [aukhad], ~ [auguJ::t], ~ [aughat], ~ [auear], ~ [auehak] ... ~ [aIan], ~ [aie] , 'nfH [as], l?fFlU [asah],})fRO [asat], »fR3T [asta], nmfu [asathI], ~, [asthIr] l/fR7) [asan], l;fRtf [asap], ~ [asbab], ~ [asmarath], l}fFJ)-fl?} [asman], ~ [at;>raphi], >ifW [asa], lifRlW [asaeJ-a],})fHTLf [asadh], ~ [asar], l')ffi1 [asI], >ml=ra" [asIt], »rffiR" [asis], })fFfu.r [asim], ~ [asH], 1)flJ [asu], »!J3"fu [at;>ueI], })flJij" [asur], ~ [asua], ~ [asut], ~ [asekh], [asE], nrFtcx [asok], >ifRtr [asoe], ~ [as5kh], »rJfaE [as5gat], ~ [as5bhav], >mft [assi], ~ [assu],3 ~ [at;>ru] etc. 3. Meanings ofwords have been clarified by mentioning their roots and derivation. In this regard, readers are required to keep in mind that in Sanskrit 1708 roots have resulted in lacs ofwords. On further investigation, it Seems valid to hold that betwixt the roots and the words formed therefrom, supreme is the conceived meaning. From vr ~ is derived l')ffi1 [asI]. The root means 'to cut'. On this basis, l')ffi1 can without any problem be usedfor~ [kuhara], ~ [ehavhi] or~ [toka], but by extension this word has been used by scholars for a sword too. 4. Ifaword has several meanings, its components are given and withexamples their meanings .are classified. See J11"a", ufo, CX'H, E, ~, (')TQ, f?>&T, l.ftd", ~, ~, QTH.•. etc. 5. If a noun relates to a Puran, Simriti or Shastar, its full detail is provided. See ~, ~, e(,HJf.h~, iffi1, t=I"i"iCif, YQ1j, ~, }-flj, Hg, lIl'dIJi'i.!McxJi ... etc.


IOrder for seventy copies was placed by Sardar Bahadur Sardar Dharam Singh, a government contractor.

spent 28 years in identifying words, explicating them and checking their proofs.

3Conjunct characters come after matras, that is why words like l?fFft and nfl;r follow fZlft [tIppi] (nasalization) as a conjunct character will come after a character with an l?ffi:r<x [ddhIk] if they were written using Sanskrit pattern: 3ffift", ~ ' conjunct characters not being there [hal] sign has occasionally been used as i ~1.[ffiif.

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Briefreferential detail is given to lexplain words relating to history. See liIa8O, ~ ~, ~, ~cBarfu, ~~, (')l?)a" ~ RFdq]~, <fe", ~... etc. 7. Full location of gurdwaras, alongwith historical account, is given. See })jmfa:r.:t1TI;Mr.J:i'i::::rdl=d, ~,~, ~~,~, ~w,~, JjCX3Hd", ~... etc. 8. Full specification is provided ofwords relating to geography. See ~, qtCJT, ~, fm, ~, ~, ~... etc. 9. Full effort has been made to explain botanical names deriving from Latin. See~, })jo(lA8M, 3CJRf, ~,~, m:~ ... etc. 10. . Elucidation is given ofwords concerning science. See ~f~, ft!t:rffi, ~... etc. 11. Correct forms are given ofhistorical names which with the passage oftime and colloquial pronunciation have so changed that it is difficult to specifY their original or real formations, as in case of~ [adrahman], })j~38M' [abutbela], ih=r ~ [khoj janavar], ~ Hl:f [tatihri ~ekh], F.tcr lJiJll-f [~ekh braham], ~ [qhabai], ~ »fl::f3O [loI).i akhtar] ... etc. 12. Religious terms relating to Islam, Christianity, Parsees, have been distinguished and explained in full. See fuA'wl-r ~ ~, retf5, ffi~, "Ji:r, goro, ~, i1cffTO, (')}-fTH, lPOFft, Gfdf.l3', J~, lfW... etc. 13. At several places, maps, sketches and images have been provided to facilitate their understanding. See >,;lfstlMi'idld, .~, F.rRg, WH, ~t Uiift, tRur, fe'm, ~, ~,~ ... etc. 14. Thorough research has been undertaken in the case ofmusical terms. See ¥fu",1fT, ore, faM'~M, ~, lj06>w, dTdT... etc. 15. Words appearing as riddles have been elaborately explained. Se~ ~;:rr BO (')Ttf Rq, ~ tTd" tTd", ~ tftfTi'i('), ~LB ~... etc. 16. Detail is given about words relating to medicines and diseases. See FfG, ~, ~, ti~ifei'i, 31lf, t"! ' dtf](')l, ~, fifuaft... etc. 17. Pronunciation ofwords taken from Sanskrit,Arabic, Persian, etc. has been clarified by putting them in the source language. It is also essential to tell the readers that words of different languages which after absorption by the Punjabi language have totally changed their form and meaning, should in their present form and meaning be taken as correct. It is not proper to call them incorrect and relegate them to their former shape. 1 6.



'With the passage oftime, spellings of words change in all the languages. However, current orthography doesnot regard obsolet ~ spellings wrong as in Ramayan: ~~ for~, ~ for ~.; ~ for
~; ~ for ~d; ~ for~; 1fCmft for ~. Similarly, in old English words: aboute

(about); bricke (brick); Cab III (Kabul); gode (good); hande (hand); heuen (heaven); hight (height); hys (his); lande (land); Londinium (London); Noapolis (Naples); nyght (night); pn::ue (prove); speche (speech); tonne (ton); trouthe (truth) etc. are not incorrect.

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Encyclopredia of The Sikh Literature

Scholars have divided words into eight categories, viz, ~ [tatsam], l?RJQ"~ [aradh tatsam], ~ [tadbhav], ~ [mr$rIt], ~ [anukaraIJ.], ~ [pratrdhvanr], ~ [saketak], and ~ [sak$rpt]. (a) 3'2fAH (unaltered) are those words which after absorption into Punjabi/other languages retain their original form and meaning. For example ~ [uttam], ~ [udar], ~ [upkar], ~ [upma], ~ [anat], ~ [apman], l?8 [at], ~ [an], ~ [rccha], lJCf [sukh], lJ(Jfq [sugadh], [seva], ~ [hath], -m? [hal],"JA" [has], aw [katha], ot5 [kill, [kot] , qre [gUIJ.]' ftf3r [efta], ~ [dkal], trcll3" [jagat], ;:rrtf [jap], ;:[TO [jar], 3H [tej], 3c;) [tol], tTFf [das], tTO [dan], fun [drn], t:IO [dhan], lJlI [dhup], m-r [nam], ?fu:r [nk], tR? [pal], ~ [pul], ~ [prasad], ~ [praIJ.], ~ [phal], m? [bal], ~ [badhan], ~ [bhajan], W"a" [bhar], ~ [bhog], ~ [mall], ~ [mrtr],"Hu [moh] , Jforl;) [magal], ~ [matr], ~ [ras], ~ [raIJ.]' Otf [rath], QTHT [raja], ~ [rup], -m.r [rom], rTIx [10k], ~ [lobh], ~ [vastu] etc. are from Sanskrit; ~ [ummat], })f}-fl(')3' [amanat], })f}-fta" [amir], ~ [::>rat], ~ [sanad], 'R"a'a" [sabab], ~ [sardar], m?'J-f [salam], ~ [haveli], ft:TH3" [hfmat], ~ [h::>l], ~ [kabab], ~ [kamal], cmt [kami], fcBra [krtab], gaFft [kursi], Qfi'iTU [gunah], tJHO [caman], ~ [jahan], tffiW [jalsa], tr?l [jan], ft::ra'Rr [jrgar] , ;:far [jag], 3ta' [tir]' ~ [dastar], ~ [dargah], tm:P" [darja], ~ [darad], ful? [drl], & [din], ~ [divan], ~ [deg], [d::>lat], cr;fuo [nahrr], ~ [narad], mJ}f [naram], ~ [navab], i)c{ [nok], [n::>bat], ~ [bad], ~ [madrasa], J..Rlt [marad], }fl1o) [mal], ~ [murdar], ~ [murabbi], ~ [murid], Hm:Jr [morca], Ht:r [m::>j], H'3" [m::>t] ... etc. are from Persian/Arabic; and})fl.f5 [apil], ~ [sakul], Frnr [soqa], CWJ1 [kalas], ~ [kalar]' wfffi:r [kalrj]' W=r [kes], ~c [kot], "&'ac [karat], ~ [kap5qar], <ITH [gem], ~ [gol], ~ [tail, ~ [tmIs], ~~ [trEmve], ~ [qaktar], fna" [nIb], ~ [paliqar], iffi [polo], q~ [prophEsar], ~ [but], fdHcd [bErrstar] , sdfial [borqfg], )-fTF{CQ [mastar], [mEc], Ned" [motar] ... etc. are from English. (b) .~ 3'2fAH(half-altered) are those which have somewhat changed in writing and pronunciation, but not much in their shape, for example tfBr [ucca], ~ [ujjal], ~ [uddam], l?fcXTFT [akas], })f(l\1-r [agam], })ff<fu" [anrtt], fuai3" [Ikiit], ~ [samrathh], lJiji1 [suraj], JlRor [sajog], ~ [kalol), <XTdtf [karaj], [kos], fdT>wo [grah], ~ [chrtr], &0 [chIn], ffif [jam], H[jE], Rcrr [jog],;:rq,- [jodha], tfu>w [dar a], ~ [duar], mfuw [nfdra], & [nEIJ.] , yo [pun], lJijCf [purakh], ~ [pranmukhr], ~ [bahar], ftfttn [bIjOg], ~ [brahmaIJ.], ~ [bhagat], ~ [bhE], ~ [marjada], HTfunfr [mara], ~ [rat], ~ [laeehmi], ~ [vaIJ.aj], ?dl:fT [varkha], Wfu>,fr [vrddra] ... etc. are from Sanskrit;








Page 22










~ ~











~ ~

and 'FKftt [sahid] , ~ [sakkar], 'Ffi1T [saja], 'Rd"83" [sarbat], FI"'D'a" [sahab], wit [sadi], Fr3"ro [sEtan], o;:ro [hajar], B"mf [hajar], aFJTEt [kasai], ~ [kabja], cxa;:r [karaj], a-ror;:r [kagaj], l:fFI}f [khasam],. q(W [gussa] ,. ;j'ijl::fT [carkha], ~ [jarurat], ~ [jor], 3W [tama], 3RT [tosa], (')(JlTijT [nagara], "8"R [baj], If<'S¥ [manjur], ~ [IIhaj] ... etc. are from Arabic-Persian; and »fFfCIH [astam], »fGA"d" [aphsar], Hfc:fu" [sakIQ], ext.8"O [kaptan], ~ [karabin], ~ [kunm], ~ [jarnEl] , ~ [tIkkas], ZH [tErn], ~ [QIgri], ~ [daresi], ~ [patlun], tj"ije [paret], ~ [pr:sbl], ~ [bEra], ~ [botal], f}'fz [mIt], l&" [mil], mlHC [rajmat], oilG [rapot], QG?? [raphal] etc. are from English. ~ (evolved) are those words which, come from Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian a~ English, and have altogether changed their fonner shape. The following will mak,,( ~ amply clear : Punjabi Example "SIr pahI usnik-hr nik banai."-NP. ~R?flcx 13dI8<!i "brkhu kaqhE mukh uglare."-m 4 val' gau 1. "aut jal).eda jaI."-m 1 val' ram 1. ~o "naval).u purabu abhicu."--,--tukha chJt m 4. ~ A13 a f() "saukanI ghar ki k;')t tIagi. "-asa m 5. AfaF()afa "satr nrratI bUjhE je kOI."-sukhmani. ~ "jIU k;')can kothari carro, kabro hot phrro."-sar m 5. ~ "asmanI krara chIkronu."-var ram 3. ~ "kharbaru khira."-BG. = "khrma vIhul).e khapIge khuhal).I lakh as;')kh."-oJkar. ~ "na galligakhiE."-BG. ~ qrwEt "gusai ! partapu tuharo Qitha."-s:ar am 5. "kamal alIpat hE SE ~latha VICI gulalu."-m 4 varsri. ~ 1.J.fH<¥ "'ghasr c;')danu jasu ghasIa."-kalI m 4. ft'dd(')~l "jaharnavi tape bhagirathI al).i."--mala m 4. (ff't.f<!T "jo gur gope apl).a, su bhala nahi."-m 4 val' gau 1. ~ "chanIchar varr saul). sasat bicaru."-bIla m 3 val' 7. ~ "kuram sake naii javai."-asa m 4. H-a"jIu kusti tanI jok."-sar surdas. "rhu jiu machli, jhivaru trrsna kalu."-m 1 val' ram 1. ~ -tlfo "chike par teri bahutu qithI."-basJt kabir. 33"ftf~ "mokh tatbId mahI jan nIrdhar hE."-NP. "tapar jhar vIchaI."-BG. '3"lS "kajal har tamol ras."-var maru 2 m 5. 3HM"

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Encyclop<edia of The Sikh Literature





1JftWft:rtt ~~fir

l.SFI"fu" wffi

"kIt-hi kamI na dhaulhar jItu han bIsrae."-suhi m 5. "put pota parota natta."-BG. "nanak paI;}pE karhu knpa."-brla chat m 5. "sagal parachat lathe."-sor m 5. "parOSal).I puchIle nama."-sor namdev. "~asi Jr mJsa jag VIVIdh vIkhyata hE."-BGK. "kInhi laug supari."-keda kElbir.

Arabic-Persian Punjabi



clafi'lH \! 't'ltlRd'


BWH-?W 3':d'ff'l1Rf


3'"a'fN 31ftaT












sf.ttl6( ' dl

Example "kausE sapat payala."-bher namdev. "galhukavaI kholI pahInai."-BG. "kunsa kini tin prabina."-GPS. "khusre kIa gharvasu?"-m 1 var majh. "jin khurgir sabhu pavIt hahI."-m 4 var sor. "CUl).I vakhI kac;lhe jajmaIIa."-var asa. "marhate dakhl).i kI ye tagir." -PPP. "sdtIguru pura karE tabibi."-BG. "tIsu maIa S;}gI na talka."-maru solhe m 5. "mE gur mIlI uc dumalra."-sri m 5 pEpar. "gur kE sabadI najikI pachal).hu."-maru solhe m 3. "us di namosi hOl).lagi."-JSBB. "us di nit badli vekhke."-JSBB. "nugadi modak adIk brfd."-GPS. "kIukan paIa hOI bajgari."-BG. "bio pUChI na maslatI dharE."-g5Q m 5.
"kIa masitI SIr nae?"-prabha kabir. "brfd majur lage tab aI."-GPS. "pathyo matbar take pas."-GPs. "anIk musaddi karte kar."-GPS. "na jalu leph tulaia."-vaQ alahaI)i m 1.


w:ftf3" Htfo



Similar is the rule applicable to tadbhav words from English, Portuguese and French languages - ~-Adjutant; ~-orderly; ~-Hospital; ~-Command;~­ Colonel; ~R-Cartouche; ~tT7)-Commandant; dl~'JlM Grenadier; furzR"-Gaiters; ~-Bull's eye; ~-Dozen; ~-Battalion or Platoon; tR"dl"-Padre; ~-Flannel; acn-Bouton; 'HH-Madam; ~-Reporter; ~-Recruit; ~-Lieutenant; we-Lord; ~-Lantern... etc.

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~ (mixed) words are those which have come into being through a combination



(g) (h) 18. 19. 20. 21.

oftwo or more languages, for example ~ 390 [dl).iale tir], RTfua" fRur [sahIb sigh], B~ <111 [suddr$dn prEs], B~o [sultanpur], dC(1Cl(3~I'Fe [hdkikdtraI], ufo oft tsT [hdrI ki p::>ri], SidlMlae-a- [huglibaddr]' ~ [kubol], cl'MHiCl(ifMti [khalsakaIIj], Q]"Q'8l:fF.f fflur [gurbdkhd$ sigh], ~ [guruq.om], ti'dti(,)dld [jardjndgdr], lj1:IfMHdl~ [muxlISgdrh], dMdli! [relgdq.q.i], ~ [layalpur] ... etc. ~ (imitation) words are fOlmed by imitating some sound, for example Hi" Hi" [sa sa], BB [su su], ~ ~ [tdl). tdl).], ~ Z [tE tE], Ql"d" Ql"d" [thah thah], ~ ~ [thE thE]~ ~ ~ [q.og q.ug], ~ ~ [q.3 q.5], t:SH [dhdr:~m] ... etc. ~ (resonance) words are formed by juxtaposing words of similar sound such as cfc ~ [kdtt vdq.q.h], ~ ~ [khal).a dal).a], lfIit ~ [pal).i q.hal).i], ~ ~ [puri uri], }-jT\j" ~ [mar q.har] ... etc. l ~ (allusive) words are those which by referring to certain traits or qualities carry special meaning such as uUu (owl) for a stupid person, or anad for marriage. ~ (abbreviated) words are formed by shortening others such $aba from $adba$, sudi from $ukdl dIl)., bddi from bdhul d:[l).. Literary terms are provided detailed definition and explication, See~, ~, ~, FrO, fg:Lrro, ~, iifuor, i\l.iCl(", ~, ~, ~(;lT3", QFf, ~.•. etc. Errors committed by historians have been rectified with full evidences, See 'ti"Gl'fRur,



Words relating to rituals are explained in full. See l?fi:ft, ~ 13~'13<!', tJQWtrtr6" 3iT ~, lfIit ~... etc. Difficult words, phrases or lines are indicated by the first word ofthe line followed by the remaining a couplet or quatrain. See ~. H-t:M" arft., >tfmf ~., ~ ~ -efEr Jft", 3b1 ~ l'>@ Uft:r ffig., ~~., tffi:rw ~.~ mft. etc. Certain lexicographers and scholars not understanding the grammatical rules of Prakrit and Punjabi grammar applicable to derivations froni Sanskrit have given wrong meanings contrary to context. These words have been corrected so as to be in accordance with Gurbani. See Bn 9, ~ 2, lfOl'cf 3, ~ 2, lRFf... etc. Some additional words have been given against lexicographical traditions so that semi-literate scholars do not misinterpret Gurbani wilfully by going against the scriptural texts. For instance trtIfu [caUrI] after t:~ [caur], fa'fQ [rinhI] after fd<:f [rinh] have been separately put. Similarly See QJfa", Hfu, Hfn, Humr... etc. 2

'Ruralites, use onomatopoeic words as aa't ~, 1.S't 1J<iT, "trsT ~... etc. 21, myself, have heard certain scholarly persons pronounce R ~ as
~ CRJT<r 0


CJfJ <fCreT f'<rf'q CfTfEl?fT as

CfTfEl?fT. Through mispronuciation they play havoc with meanings.

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Encyclopredia of The Sikh Literature

New letters have been devised to transliterate in Punjabi the words of Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian so as to enable their correct pronunciation. I Historians of languages know that a word after entering another language becomes a part ofthat language. To relegate such Punjabi words back to their original form would be a hostile act against the mother tongue. See illustrations under heading seventeen of word-distinctions and altered words. 25. At the end ofthe illustrations, information is provided about poets and their writings. 2 A list ofsymbols used has been given in the beginning ofthe book under the head 'ABBREVIATIONS' To give detail of obstacles and disappointments faced during the preparation and publication of this book would lessen the enthusiasm of the writers. However it is also necessary to mention in passing that our community has very little regard for work ofthis kind. Not many know how such works are written and what benefit can to be drawn from them. I am highly indebted and grateful to those votaries of knowledge who provided me help in this venture, especially reverend Bhai Bishan Singh Ji, Mahant Gurdwara Baba Ajapal Singh, Nabha, who took great pain in writing in order the words noted by me from numerous volumes, Pandit Krishandas Shastri Udasin, professor Teja Singh, M.A., Khalsa . College and Bhai Dharmant Singh who gave valuable suggestions during the revision. Raja Sir Daljit Singh ofKapurthala and Sardar Mukand Singh Engineer Simla spared time to write on 'rags', Bhai Mohan Singh Vaid ofTam Taran and Bhai Dharam Singh Ji Vaid ofBudiala, helped in \\Titing about diseases. Sardar Nand Singh Ramgarhia of Simla contributed a lot in the preparation ofmaps of gurdwaras, Maulana Maulavi Hakim Mirza Muhammad Nazir Sahib Asshe, Munshi Fazil took the trouble of replying to historyrelated queries, Late Dhani Ram 'Chartik', Printer Sudarshan Press Amritsar, not behaving like a businessman but as a votary ofknowledge, published it, excellently with enthusiasm and devotion. Last of all, I am grateful to the court ofPatiala entitled to blessing from Satguru and honour from Sikh Panth through the benevolence of which this book has reached the readers. 3 I am highly indebted to those scholars whose histories, glossaries, dictionaries etc. have been helpful in this endeavour ofmine. 4
'See under 'New Letters'. 2Such quotations as carry no names of authors at the end are mine. 3Due to the publication of 1000 copies instead of 500 as envisaged earlier, the increase of pages from 3000 to 3338 and the retention of scholars for supervision, the price has been increased to Rs. 11 0/from the initial one ofRs. 70/-. It does not include any payment to the author for devoting so much time to the project. 4The names of books are not listed to avoid increase in size.


Page 26




Subject to forgetfulness and little knowledge, I shall heartily thank by speech and writing those who would take the trouble ofpointing out any errors to be found here.
Nabha 1 Baisakh, Sammat Guru Nanak 461, Bikrami 1987 13 April 1930

Servant ofthe lovers of knowledge
Kahan Singh

Page 27


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Map of Hindustan Maharaja Hira Singh Ii, ruler ofNabha Kapurthala Gurdwara Palace ofthe Kapurthala ruler The valiant crusader, Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia Maharaja Jagatjit Singh Ji, ruler ofKapurthala Gurdwara Thamm Sahib, Kartarpur Map ofKartarpur - Dehra Baba Nanak Map of Kartarpur - Jalandhar Raja Ravishwar Singh, ruler ofKalsia Holy Shrine in Mecca Shrine ofBaba Gurditta Ji, Kiratpur MapofKiratpur Gurdwara Khadur Sahib Pictures ofGurmukhi (New and Old) Gurdwara Bauli Sahib, Goindwal Map ofGoindwal and Khadur Sahib Gurdwara TilakAsthan, Chamkaur Sahib Gurdwara Katalgarh, Chamkaur Sahib Map ofChamkaur Sahib Maharaja Ranbir Singh Sahib Bahadur, ruler of Jind Raja Raghubir Singh Sahib Page No. 691 699 745 746 747 748 765 766 767 783 813
843 844 925

1057-60 1083

1155 1156 1157 1325 1326

Page 28


u [haha] fifth character of Punjabi script. Its place of articulation is larynx. 2 In Punjabi u
is used for vIsarag, as ('))-liJ is used for Olf:. 3 [; of Persian becomes [a] in Punjabi and [0] in Sindhi and Dingal; as for example ~ and ~ for~, ~and ~ for~, ~and~ for~,~and~ forBlfJ, ~ and ~ for ~. 4 Skt part a vocative. S remorse. 6 disrespect. 7 n water. 8 Shiv. 9 sky. 10 heaven. uiI [haul pron ego, 1. "tIsu guru kau hall vana."-var v<JQ m 4. 2 n ego, egoism; idea of self. "kotI karam kan: hau dhan:." -sukhm<Jni. "dukh ka tE hau mara." -bhEr <J m 1. "hau tap bInse sada sarse."-suhi chat m 5. 3 This word has been used in place of<J' or "iT. "tum jau kahat hau nad ko nadan."-g<Ju k<Jbir. 'What you say.' -mI [Mu] pron ego, 1. "tI~u guru kau Mu sada namaskari. "-var v<JQ m 4. 2 n ego, egoism, pride. $ [haus], <ffiH [haus] A v:n n ardent desire, yearning. "bhIchukan haus na dhan ki rahi."

bhine."-ram <J m 1. 2 pride of the self; introspecting over self-importance. ~ orroefo [haumE gavam] Skt fufJf ~, Ritvij; a priest who recites Vedic mantar during an oblation.! "haumE gavanI gavahI git." -bhEr <J k<Jbir. uijH }f}-/3T [haumE mamta] n egoism, selfhood, self-assertion. "haumE mamta sabadI jalae." -maru solhe ill 3. ~ [haura], ~ [hauro] adjlight, weightless, useless. "bhaIO lobh sagI haura."-g<Ju m 9. "hau hauro tu thakur gauro."-asa m 5. ~ [haul] A J:n n fear, fright, dread, terror. "nIt haule haulI marahi."-var g<Ju 1 m 4. See
~. ~ fhaula] adjlight. 2 worthless, cheap. "hor

[haukulvan] n sound of uneasiness, cry of pain. "pausi haukulvan."-JSBB and m<Jgo. ~ [hauda] See ~t!T. trij'H [haume], [haumE] n Yif<i -HH. ego, egoism, pride, self-esteem. "tInI atan haumE kaq.a he. "-sohila. 2 See ~ 0Rrl?i. ~ ~ [haumE garabu] pride and disobedience. See~. "haumE garabu jaI man



hauli mati haule bol."-var sar m 1. uiffi;r [hauII] in fear, See mp, ~ [haua] n an object of terror; imaginary dread. Women often use this word to frighten their children. 2 dreadful, terrible. [haIl Skt <Jfu, n destruction, devastation, See ~. 2 Skt (J(if horse. 3 part alas!; an expression of pain. ~ [haIO] adjwhisked, struck. "phIrI phIn kal h~lIO."-g<Ju kabir. 'Death has struck.' c:rful')(T [haIa] adj struck. 2 A l? n shyness, shame. "tnsan na bujhE bahutu haIa."-ram m 5. 'It is a matter of great shame.' mft [hail (he) kills, (he) slaughters. "sada sada kal hai."-kan m 5. 2 is. "mIratu nIkatI


IThose scholars who interpret don't understand the context.




i.e. pride,

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nIkatI sada hai."--kan m 5. 3 adj one who owns a horse. 4 n horse rider, cavalry. "rathi gaji hai patjl apar SEn bhajj hE."-paras. mft ~ [hai tail derogatory word used for showing disrespect. "tab sEdo hai tai karan lagga."-JSBM. ~ [haimadrI] SkI ftn..rrf;; n mountain of ice; Himalaya. "kI haimadrIja hE."--datt. 'Is Parvati the daughter of Himalaya?' ~ [haimadrIja] See ~. ~1 [haimadri] people living 111 the Himalayan range. See ~. ~ [hae] adj were struck, got killed. "raD rna jab man mahip hae."-dIlip. 2 See »RI. ~ [haoora] 'iJGf-~, king of horses, uccEh:;;rava, an exalted person. w:r [has] SkI ~ vr laugh, ridicule. 2 SkI trn" n joy, delight "IE laha manI has jiu."-gaum 4. 'U'R<!" [hasaD] n fenced space in which Parsees keep dead bodies for birds like kites and hawks to eat them; dakhma. Tower of silence. See UF!"f<f. 2 SkI laughter, amusement. 3 SkI ~ attenuating activity, attenuation. ~ [hasDa] See UFl"C: 2. bursting of the pouch of a gun or a cannon. 2 See f1..Inrw 2. ~ [hasaDI] in laughter. See UFl"C: 1. "Ik bhi phIrI hasaDI palu."-var sor m 3. ~ [hasaI:lU] See UFl"C:. 2 "tanu manu dijE sajDa £sa hasaDu saru."-sava m 1. URa'" [hasat] adj laughing. "hasat khelat tere dehure aIa."-bh<:r namdev. 2 See ufJ::r3". 3 SkI <TlJ n hand. "hasat caran sot tahIl kamaiE." -gau tlutI m 5. 4 half a yard; a measure of length from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger; cubit. 5 SkI <JJft (~), one who has a trunk; elephant. "putr kalatr na s5gI sobha hast ghorI vIkari."-bIha chgjt m 5. 6 See <TlJ. cll13QtI [hasat-uc] n a bag of the shape of a cow's mouth. While telling beads, they are kept
l'lfu. 11f3'. infantry. foot soldiers.

within it. Hindu scriptures do not allow beads to touch the ground; one should keep them close to his chest and so hasat-uc figures as a noun. "hastuc prem dharIDi."-sahas m 5. ~"SO [hdSdt alabdn] SkI ~"SO. n hand's support. "hdsdt-dlabdn dehu prdbhu."-gau m

[hdSdtgdt] in hand, something in hand.

clI1311]clC! [hdsdtgrdhdn] holding one's hand. See
~. ~

[hasat-tdl] palm of the hand; palm.

UFf3OTY'ij" [hdstdnapur] See ~'ij".

tJ"Fl"3'fn [hdStdnI], UR3?i9' [hdstdni] n female
ele'phant; one who has a trunk. 2 troop of elephants.-sanama. 3 See • . tn=r:rl:£;: [hasatprdd] one who gives hand i.e. one who saves by giving a helping hand; a helper. UFf3Tlfa" [hastakhdr] tI1f5N, signature. (J'I1'3T}fli5' [hdstamdl], ~ [hdstamdldk] hdStamldk, the fruit ofthe emblic myrobalan in the hand. This phrase is used for knowledge free of scepticism, just as there is no doubt about emblic myrobalan in the hand, so is the person who really knows or realises the Divine. "ldkhI hdstamal atma."-GPs. ~"SO [hastalabdn] support of the hand. See

w:rfd" [hdSdtI] elephant, See <JJft. "hdSdtI ghore
jore mdnbhani."-asa m 5.

clI1faft3;:Nn [hdsdtICIrai] See


[hdstrnapur] See ~'ij".

mat [hdSti] adj smiling. 2 n elephant. "hdSti ghore pakhre."--sri amI. See <JTEit. 3 adj (an
elephant) with lifted trunk. "gdj hdSti ke pran udharidle."--mali namdev. 'saved the life of an elephant calling for help.' 4 See <JJft. clI1d'l>.! A [hdsti-es] n Indar, who is the master of Airavat, the elephant.--sanama. 2 Airavat, chief of all elephants.

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[hdsti-espIta] n Indar, the master of Airavat; Kashyap, his father.-scmaITIi'l. mE' [hdStO] adj laughing. "hdStO jaI su rovdt aVI'."-sar kabir. m:I'e' [hdsdd] A .J,? jealousy, n envy, jealousy, spite. UfIO [hdsdn] Skt n laughing, indulging in laughter. 2 A ~ adjbeautiful, charming. 3 n elder son of Caliph Ali and Fatima, daughter of prophet Mohammad. He was born on (1 sl March 625 AD) 3 Hijri and died in 49 Hijri. In 41 Hijri, Hasan became the fifth Caliph after the death of his father. After six months, he resigned from Caliphate. On 17 th March, 669 AD, his wife Jaadah killed him by administering poison as instigated by emperor Yazid. Hasan had twenty children of whom fifteen were sons and five daughters. The children of Hasan and Husain were known as Sayyad and Mir, revered among Muslims for being from the prophet's lineage. See qoT (cr). UFI7i ~ [hdsdn dbdal] A town of district Campbellpore. There is a police station and also a railway station. Now this place is famous as Panja Sahib. Baba Hasan Abdal, who lived here, refused to give water from his pond to Bhai Mardana, who was feeling very thirsty. With his power, Guru Nanak Dev drew the water of that pond towards himself. That enraged Vali Kandhari and he 'hurled a rock on Guru Nanak. The Guru stopped that rock, leaving on it an imprint of his hand. As the imprint of Guru's hand is marked on that rock so the place has come to be known as Panja Sahib. Baba Hasan Abdal Sayyad belonged to Sabazvar (Khurasan region) and came to India with Mirza Shahrukh. He died in Kandhar. See l.fW J'I'I"fmr. 'd'R7i )::IT [hdsdn XEi] a detective deputed by Lalabeg, the commander. He had come to


collect secre~ information about the army of Guru Hargobind, who was then in Gurusar Mehraj in district Ferozepur. After meeting him he became a disciple of the Guru. Due to a blessing from the Guru, emperor Shahjahan gave him a high post. mroy'6' [hdsdnpur] It is situated in Rajpura subdivision of Patiala state. This place has a joint gurdwara named after Guru Teg Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh. The ninth Guru stayed here for three days. Guru Gobind Singh came from Lakhnaur and stayed here for some time. The chief of this place was a great adnftrer of Guru Gobind Singh. He served the Guru with devotion. His descendants claim to possess the Guru's Edict. There is a gurdwara and its residential quarters were built by the people of village Kabulpur in Sammat 1975. The priest is a Sikh. From Shambhu railway station to the southwest, there is unmetalled road about three miles long. As villlage Kabulpur is situated nearby so this place is jointly known as Hasanpur-Kabulpur. ~ [hdSdbj A ~ adj according to; in accordance with. 2 n counting, inclusion. 3 ~ fuel, firewood, wood suitable as fuel. CJIDf3" [hd~mat] A .:;.-.p n majesty, wealth, property, prosperity. 2 glory, grandeur. 3 huge force. CJFIJjl:I' [hdsmukhj adj jovial, cheerful. tJffif [hdsdr] A ~ n trust, dependence. 2 help. 3 A ? to collect. 4 rising on the day of reckoning. 5 misconduct. UFRf3' [hdsrdt] A .::.-/ desire, longing, unfulfilled cravling, unrealised thought. 2 pain ofunfulfilled longing. tJ'Ffl'5l [hdSlij n small river (canal). See 'Y:EJ-r t!"R. 2 small necklace; ornament worn around the neck. 3 See jl::rffi.

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[hasu] See Ul1 »r3"


Ulp5" [hasul] A jA> receive, attain. uR-a" [haseb] A ~ n count, estimate, number;


this is transform of hISab. "haseb thake kar hath na ae."-dkal. W:r [hass] n laughter, laughing. 2 collarbone. 3 A necklace worn by women around the neck that touches the collarbone. 4 Skt()'"F(' short for mf,joy. U1J [hast] Skt n hand. "hast kamal mathe pan dharia."-SClVE'ye m 4 ke. 2 cubit. 3 elephant's trunk. 4 thirteenth planet. 5 P ..::.-; existing. 6 P .::.?r eight. ~ [hastuc] See <:JR3" ~. ~ [hast-an] sword, enemy ofthe elephant's trunk.--sdnama. See cm3". ~ [hastgrahaD] n act of grasping a hand; holding of hand. 2 marriage, in which a husband holds the hand of his wife at the time of the wedding. m;ro [hastan] P JY' existence. ~ [hastmalak] fruit of emblic myrobalan placed in the hand, i.e. lucid knowledge. 2 A sage, author ofHastamalak, a famous treatise on Vedant. ~'ij" [hastInapur] a city established in his father's name by Ajmidh who was son of Hastin and grandson of Sahotar. It was the capital of Kauravs. Situated on the bank of Ganga in district Meerut, it is around fifty-seven miles from Delhi. The ancient town was washed away by river Ganga. The present city is a new establishment. I ~ [hastInil n female elephant with a trunk. 2 erotic type of a woman "thul aguli cara!)
IGeographical Dictionary mentions this city as situated 22 miles to the north-east of Meerut; it further adds that Nichak.shu, grandson of Janmeja, set up his capital in Kaushambi when Hastinapur was inundated by river water.

mukh, adhar bhnkutI btu bo1. madansadan rad kadhra, mad cal CIt 101. sved madanjal dvnad mad gadhIt bhure ke:;;. atI tichan bahu lorn tan bhanI hastInI Ih ves."-rClsrk prrya. c:n;tt [hasti] See ~. 2 P lr' n being, existence. UtI" [hah] part a word, indicating grief, insult or wonder. ~ [hahkar] n loud lamentation, cry of mourning; sound ofdistressing commotion. tm'or [hahakk] short for~. "hahakk bh£rva sruta."-ram. 'heard a terrible lamentation.' 'UUi')T3" [hahnat] neighs, neigh. "hahnat haycf." -nClrsfgh U'(J'ij" [hahar] Pkt n shiver, tremble. "h;)le hahar kaha cal gayo."--GPs. "bnkh£ bun lag£ j£se hahrat pat."-BGK. 2 horse's neighing. "hahrat haya."-nClrsfgh m:Ja'TC [hahrat] n neighing sound, sound of neighing. "tej calf:' hahrat kIe."-krISdn. ~ [hahrat] See (J(J'ij". umJI?iT [hahrana] v tremble. 2 be scared. 3 be surprised. 4 neigh. "U"mJ'T'ij"T [hahrara] adj frightening; terrible; seeing whom one utters words of terror. "sr;)n pravah bahIt hahrara."-CdrItr405. utJT [haha] part hal alas! "haha hamre gnh syam na ayo."-krISCln. 2 incessant killing. "kaT IE hathIyar haha kahI c;lhuke."-CdrItr 2. utJT ~ [haha huh] n loud laughter, laughter with a loud noise. "haha huh hasa."-VN. 2 See <JT<JT ~. ufu [hahI] v is. "hahI bhi hovanhar."-bavdn. 2 are. "nanak ae se parva!) hahI."-sri m 3. 'ij'fua- [hah n] See (J(J'ij". tJg [hahu] (you) are, (you) exist. "ab tum hahu, ham nahi."-gClu kdbir. 'Now you exist, not we.' tm [hak] A J adj truth. "hak hukdm sacu khudaIa."-maru solhe m 5. 2 truthful. 3 n right to possess; an object which one desires

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to own. "haku paraIa nanka! us suar us gaI." ~var majh m i. 4 justice, fairness. "va(lhi ld::e haku gavae."-var ram i m i. 5 the Creator, the exalted One. "hak sacu khalaku khalak mIane."-tI1Jg kdbir. 6 This word has also been used for roaring; lion's roar, thunder. "dal dEtan mCldh pClra hakkE." -jdlJ dh dr. 7 See cj'q. ~ [hakl)a] v goad, inspire, push. ~ [haknIaI] true justice. 2 divine justice. ~ [hakpClrast] P ..::./-t Cf adj the Creator's devotee, Allah's believer. 2 practitioner oftruth. ~ [hClkla] Skt "fr3C? adj stammerer; one whose speech is not clear; one whose vocal cords are damaged. (Jol'iPa' [hakvara] adj driver, prompter. 2 owner of one's own right. tJQT [haka] P Lib vocative for god, hailing the Creator, who is truth incarnate. "haka karim bbir tU."-tI1Jg mi. 2 part in the name of the Creator. 3 investigation, thorough confirmation. tJQT uoit [haka hClki] n shoving and jostling, pull and push. 2 advthrough harassment. "hClkahClki maca ghClmsana."-carItr 405. ~ [hClkani] A j~ adj related to one's right, divine power. "IkE hClkani I~Clk hE."-mago. ~ [hakayClt] A ..:%~ n story, tale. ~ [hClkayta], ~ [hClkayat] A ..:_~~ plural of hClkaYClt; tales. 2 Eleven tales in Persian attached to Zafarnama at the end of Dasam Granth by some scribe having no relation with the Book. 'U'iifl'd" [hClkar] n appeal call, cry, See -q vr. 2 tr character. 3 pronunciation of'J character. ~ [hClkarClt] adv call, summoning. 2 A ~.JIP n regarding the other as inferior; hatred, dislike. tfCilTd"i')T [hClkarna] v call, summon, call aloud, See -q vr. ~ [hClkarra], ~ [hClkara] caller. See

"aIa hClkara cCllal) vara."-sadu. P ~.J~ messenger, postman. "ij"fq [hClkI] in truth. "IClgE hClkI ja I. "-var ram i mi. "ij"fq fi'i1'flfu [hClkI nIaI] through true justice, in all fairness. "gurumukh SIU mClnmukh ClrE (lubE hClkI nIaI."-m 2 var majh. ~ [hClkibt] A ~ n reality, truth. 2 story, tale "kClri hE hClkibt malum khud devi seti."-cJc;li i. 3 state of knowledge. See lJ-g'T. ~Q1fu [hakibtraI] Haqiqat Rai was born in 1781 in the house ofBagh Mall Puri, a Khatri of Sialkot. His mother was Gauran who was from a Sikh family. He was married to Durga Devi, daughter of Khatri Kishan Chand Uppal, a sahajdhari Sikh. He was a resident of Batala. In the company of Bhai Budh Singh, he became a devotee of the Sikh doctrine. His father sent him to school in the town to learn the then state language. One day during a religious exchange between Haqiqat Rai and his Muslim classmates, the latter made some derogatory remarks against the Hindu goddess. Haqiqat Rai countered by asking how they would feel if such remarks were uttered about Bibi Fatima, daughter of Mohammad? The maulvi and his classmates could not bear this just remark and got a report lodged against him by the ruler Amir Beg of Sialkot to the state of Lahore. The Muslim rulers told him to convert to Islam but Haqiqat Rai declined to do so. At this young Haqiqat Rai was killed by the order of Subedar Khan Bahadur (Zakriakhan) on 5th day ofthe eleventh month ofBikrami calendar in 1841 (Sammat 1798). The memorial of Haqiqat Rai is situated to the east of Lahore at a distance of two miles,where a big fair of Basant Panchmi is held every year. uoi'lcE ~ ljWH ~ (')Tg "ij'l"fl ott [hClkibt rah

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mukam SIV nabh raje ki] a written document by a Sikh of a journey to Sinhladeep (Sangladeep) made a part of the scripture of Shai Sanno. Many ignorant persons have made it a part of daily prayer like "sIahi di bIdhI." Shai Santokh Singh has written that Shai Pairha sent by Guru Arjan Dev, went to Sangladeep to bring the text of Pransangli. After coming back, he narrated the story of his journey to the Guru. Shai Sanno included it in his bir (manuscript): "pEra kharo agr kar jar.. rah hakikat sagal sunai.. so bano SIkh lIkhi garath, janat tako saglo path."-GPS. tl'Cfto [hakin] A ~ adj caught, stopped; its root is ~ "rag tamase mal)I hakina. "-maru solhe m 5. 'Enjoy life's pleasures by controlling your senses. ' ~ [hakina] See ~. 'il"i5fu.f [hakim] A adj learned, scholarly, intelligent, clever, philosopher. 2 n physician. UcilHy~ [hakimpur] See (WiCl(Rd 6. ~ [hakiyat] A ~ n ownership, possessIOn. uoita- [hakir] A 27 adjinsulted. 2 mean, inferior, indigent. tR3 [haku] See <Tel. "maral)u mUl)sa SUrIa haku hE."-va<;i m 1 alahal)i. ~ [hakuk] A J}? plural ofifcx ~ [hakahak] incessant calling, cacophony of calls. ~cx [hakk] See tm. 2 n stammer, indistinct articulation. See <:J"6R?T. "US nu bolde hoe hakk pE'di hE."-prov. 3 Skt word commonly used by a keeper to call the elephant. 4 See ~. 5 call, cry. "hakkdeva kara."-ramav. ~ [hakkal)a] v goad, drive. 2 push, move lightly.

~ [hakktala] A 1l....J }J the Divine, the true


One. "bada ki khu~amad se amad na jyada hot pana to vahi hE jo dIlana hakktala ne." -bava ramdas. 'ti'a'r [hakka] See <:J'Cr". 2 See ft:rtroIT. ~w iw [hakka bakka] adj wonderstruck; surprised. "gne hakk bakka."-VN 2 stunned due to surprise. UOT [hag] SktffCi..,vr excrete faeces, ease oneself. tJaJ1HT [hagama] P -'~ n time, period. 2 assembly of diverse men. See 'ti'orw. 3 in Punjabi this word is also used for a gathering at the feast of a dead person. ~ [hackola] n swing. 2 push. 3 jerk. ~ [hachnai] n tidiness, purity, cleanliness. 2 adj pure, clean. "malin budhI hachnai." -asa m 5. tJST [hacha], ~ [hachha] SkI ~ adj clean, pure. "bhaqa atI malil)u dhota hacha na hOISi."-suhi m 1. "nanak nau khudaI ka dIlI hachE mukhI lehu."-var majhm 1. "tanI dhotE manu hacha na hOI."-va<;i m 3. 2 healthy, sound, hale and hearty. 3 In Chambese dialect this word is used for clean and white. tJtI' [hajj See 'Uft1 »8 ~tr. 2 A b> delight, happiness. 3 portion, part. 4 taste, relish. ~ [hajdah] P ~).r eighteen. m:J}f, [hajam] A break, crush. 2 digest, be digested. 'iJ"ffif3' [hajrat] A ..:;.,j'V n closeness, intimacy, presence. 2 This word is used as a mark of reverence for elderly people. "hajarat jo pharmaIa phatava majh kItab."-JSBB. ~ [hajrat], <Jf1d'Gl3 [hajrayat] See ~. ~ [hajro] main town ofa subdivison ofdistrict Attak. See <JT}f 8. ~ [hajav] See <ftj-. (JHl}fd' [hajamat] A ..:/~ draw blood with a hollow horn or cone after a slight cutting in the skin. 2 i.e. tonsure. The skin is cleared



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murida da kahI.l).a." after shaving the hair while fixing cone to purifY the blood, so this word is used for shaving. tl'fR [hajI] for Haj, to Haj. "koinaVEtirathI koi ~ [hajar] P .J~ n ten hundred, one thousand, hajI jaI."-ram ill 5. See (]';:r. 1000. m:mr [hajir], <:rtfIo+ [hajira] See ~. Uf.1TiJ ;:r'J13'f [hazar dasata] P \;Jv-b .J~­ 'ijij'H [hajurn] See ~. UV-J .;Ii, n one thousand stories. 2 a bird that utJ"6' [hajur] A .J? adj visible, present. ";'}tarjami makes thousands of sounds. This is the special sada hajur." -toQi ill 5. 2 part an honorific name of a certain kind of sparrow-hawk. It is term; Siir. of brown colour and produces many sounds. utJO' 'R'Tfua" [hajur sahIb] See »1 FatlM<')dld. In size it is bigger than an agan and smaller utJO' ~ [hajur hajar] See <:J'Tt1d' <1tJO. than a gutar. Poets have used this name for ~ [hajuri] P r.).J? n presence, attendance. agan, c;'}dol, Indian lark, and bulbul. "titar ci:Jkor 2 adjwho is in attendance, i.e., "hajuri sewak, caru dastahajar laI, pfjre majhar paI dhare; hajuri sagatI." patI p5.tI ke."-GPS. See »rcJI('), ~»8~. ~ [hajuria] adj a person who has visited 'ij'Rl'QT [hajara] adj of one thousand numbers. Hazoor Sahib. 1 2 one who resides in Hazoor 2 elder. 3 precious. 4 n marigold flower of Sahib. 3 present, akin. thousand petals. 5 a fountain of many currents. ~ [hajuriE] in attendance, visible, present, 6 a district of north-western frontier (NWFP) closeby. "parbraham gurdev sada hajuriE." region; in Mahabharat and Markandaye Puran -var jEt. the name of this region is Abhisar. 7 a village tril [hajo] A £< n defamation, calumny. "hajo in Afghanistan. 8 a village of diistrict and apki jagat aiavE."-GPs. subdivision Jallandhar, visited by Guru m:r [hajj] A 0 a pilgrimage to Kaaba, which as a dictum in Islam is essential for Muslims to Hargobind. 'ij'Rl'QT fi:fur [hajara sfgh] a merchant of Sirhind undertake. It comes in zulhIjah, the twelfth month of who became a Sikh after Guru Gobind Singh performed the initiation ceremony of the Hijri calendar. The manner of performing Hajj Khalsa. Then he turned a great warrior and is as under: When Mecca is the final halt, the pilgrim showed great valour in the battle ofAnandpur Sahib. should tie Ehram after taking bath, i.e. he should ~ mrt!' [hajare sabad] seven hymns of Guru shed old clothes, keep only two sheets, one for the lower part of the body and the other Granth Sahib and ten hymns ofDasam Granth; Devout Sikhs name them 'hajare'. This name for the upper part, and should remove his shoes but there is no ban on wearing wooden was not given by the Guru nor was it popular sandals. He must reach Mecca while singing then for hajar means the main or the chosen talbiya. The meaning of this song is '1 stand one. 2 Some devout people think that word here at your service; you have no rival; hajare derives from hIjar (separation), a hymn certainly your praise is prayer in the real sense; in Majh Rag ofGuru Arjan Dev. It was written to express sense of separation from his father; on the earth only your rule prevails. ' the state of a separated person is there in I Hajis command the same respect among Mulsims as do Dasam Granth's hymn, "mItr pIare m1 hal hajuris among the Sikhs.

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He should take bath after reaching the sacred place Kaaba, and kiss S;:lg ;:Jsv;:Jd. He should perform seven rounds of Kaaba, three fast and four at slow speed. He must kiss the black stone during each circumambulation, then he should go to the place ofIbrahim and offer prayer. From this place, he should move to the Hill s;:Jfa m;:Jruh (H/ ~) and pray, with face turned towards Kaaba. Then he should pray at the hill of Marva. Thereafter, he should listen to the xutba (~) in Kaaba. Thereafter, he should stay for a night in mma (~) and move to the hill ;:Jf;:Jfat (..:-~/) to pray there and listen to xutba. From here, he should go to muzd;:JIIfa (,Jut) and perform evening n;:Jmaz there. The entire process should be completed by the ninth day of the month and on the tenth day, which is the day of mh;:Jf sacrifice, he should again perform H;:Jmaz at muz;:Jd;:JIIfa. On reaching the pillar of the Devil, he must throw seven stones, thereafter on reaching mIna he should offer sacrifice ofa male goat, fat-tailed ram, cow or camel. Laying them down with faces towards Kaaba, he should stand by the right side ofthe animal and while uttering ;:Jllahu ;:Jkb;:Jf move the knife on the neck. After this, the Haji should remove eh;:Jfam and put on clothes of his own liking. He should get tonsured, have his nails cut and stay there for three days. Before leaving Mecca, he must make a round of Kaaba and throw seven stones at the Devil's pillar and then he should drink water from the z;:Jmz;:Jm ((;-;) well. Many Muslims go to Madina as pilgrims to Mohammad's grave after their journey to Mecca. They do not consider Hajj to be complete without this but people belonging to v;:Jhabi sect hold that honouring the grave is

against religion, so they do not go to Madina. The person who performs Hajj according to the method mentioned above is called Haji "kIa h;:Jj kabE jae."-prdbha kdbir. See >-fqT. [h;:Jjjaml A (~ barber, a person who draws blood with a cone, See ZJRT}{3". 2 a barber who tonsures. UG [h;:Jtl imperative form of h;:Jtna; turn, come back. 2 Skt"§C, shine, glitter. 3 Skt ~ n shop, store. 4 market "d;:JscarI h;:Jtu tudhu sajIa." -var sri m 4. Here it means 'the fourteen worlds.' 5 short for h;:Jf;:Jt, See ~. tIGGf [h;:J~;:Jkl n obstruction, prohibition. ~ [h;:Jtk;:Jl).ul ~ [h;:Jt;:Jknal v check, prevent. "jIh d;:Jf aV;:Jt jatI;:Jhu h;:J~kE nahi koI."-s kdbir. ~ [h;:Jtkafl n prohibition, obstruction. 2 pushing back or aside, warning. tJGC!T [h;:J~l).al, ~ [h;:Jt;:Jl).ul v stop. 2 come back, return. 3 deny, withdraw one's word. 4 go away. "kIU edu bol;:Jhu h;:J~iE."-var ram 3. UCO'Q [h;:J~tafl, ~ [h;:JttarIl, ~ [h;:Jttall Skt ~ strike, n locking the shop, closing the shop. "j;:Jm;:JhI kio h;:JttarI."-sor m 5. 'Yam closed his office.' 2 sitting idle after leaving the work in protest; strike. ~ [h;:J~nala], ~ [h;:Jtnalil Skt 6i!S101Iffti.fl1 a row of shops; a line of shops; market. "dUI dive c;:Judah h;:Jtnale."-var suhi m 1. 'The sun and the moon are two lamps and the fourteen worlds are the market. "gh;:Jf m;:ld;:Jf h;:J~nale sohe jIs VICI nam nIvasi."-suhi chJt m 5. i.e. innerself and the senses. ~ [h;:Jt;:Jmall Skt »RJUl'c }-ffW n in the well, the gear string with which metallic pots are kept tied to draw water. "k;:Jf h;:JrI h;:J~mal tf<;l p;:Jfov;:Jhu."-bdSJt m 1. ~ [h;:J~val).i], <Jc~le98 [h;:Jtval).iol, ~ [h;:Jtval).ia] Skt~ adjshopkeeper. "ha~aDi dh;:Jn mal hatkit."-bdsJt m 5. "bIkhu S;:lCE


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hatvaDia."-geJU m 4. ~ [hatri] n shop, store. "tanu hatri rhu man vaDjara."-sIdhgosatI. 2 toy made of clay resembling a shop, on which the Hindus light lamps on the Diwali day. 3 i.e. body, physique "hatrr choc;lr calra vaDjara."-prov. 'The soul departed after leaving the body.' 'ijfu U1G [hatI hat] at every shop. "gur bacanI brkano hatI hat."-mali m 4. 'in each community of devout Sikhs.' m:ft [hati] See ~. 2 See m. tI? [hatu] See oc 3. ~ [hatua], ~ [hatova], ~ [hatJa] adj (a person) who runs a shop; shopkeeper. See lJ3'~~. "JG [hatt], m [hatti] See oc 3. ~ wfu'a" [hatti sahIb] See ~Q. m5' [hath] Skt ~ vr jump, kill, prove fake, oppress, repress, hold tight. 2 n insistence, stubbornness. "hath karr man: na lekhE pavE." -gav a m 1. 3 S persistence, body, physique. "hath majhahu maprri."-sri chat m 5. m5' ~ [hath karam], <:JO t:RJH [hath dharam] See tJ'5" 'tX"mf »r3" <:JO mn-IT. m5' trelft [hath dharmi] n stubbornness, insistence. 2 adjstubborn, obstinate, tenacious, dogged. m5'~ [hath nrgrah], tJOfuo.rfu [hath nrgrahr] n act ofcontrolling senses with strong will. "hath nIgrahI atI rahat."-kan m 5. tJO ~ [hath yog] n a type of yog involving austerities. See »J'RCiaT. 2 It is written in hath yog pradiprka that (J is the sun, 0 is the moon, and the combination of these two is hath yog. i.e. combining Ira and pigla with sukhmana. ~ [hathli] adj stubborn, headstrong. "muhkam phJj hathli re."-asa m 5. ~ [hathvar], ~ [hathvara] adjobstinate, stubborn. (JOT [hatha] adj obstinate. "cale bir dhir~

'ijfo [hathI] by insisting, from insistence. "hathr

pCltijE na bahu bhekhE."-dhana a mI.

ufotr [hathIo] See -uo;r. 'Ui5l [hathi], <:J"C5'tnrr [hClthia] adj stubborn,
obstinate. There are two types of obstinate persons. One type is ofthe superstitious, who, due to ignorance do not give up wrong beliefs even after knowing the reality. They are stubborn, deserving to be condemned. "jar ko VIcar kaha gaDrka ko laj kaha gad-ha ko man kClha adhre ko arsi, nrgun ko gun kClha dan kClha darrdi ko seva kClha sum ki rr~c;l chah c;larsi, mCldyClp ki $ucr kClha sac kClha l~pti ko nic ko bacCln kClha syar ki pukar si, "toc;lClr" su kaVI ese hClthi ko nCl bhavE sikh bhave kClho sudhi bat bhave kaho parsi." The other type are a superior type. Such persons, who due to greed or fear, do not forsake true thought and do not show spiritual weakness. The Sikhs recollect such a person's name in their daily prayer. This is the example of pious insistence. "sis dia pClr srrClr nCl dina, r~c saman deh kClr cina."-VN. ~ fi:fur [hClthi sigh] son of Ajit Singh who was brought up by Mata Sundri. His headquarters were in the Sindhi area of Burhanpur, district Nimar where he used to recite hymns by re:moving the appellation of Nanak and adding !his own name. Mata Sundri disengaged herself from him due to this lapse. He went to central India (C.P.) after leaving Punjab and died there. His c;lera is situated is Burhanpur. ~ ~ [hathi dEt] Ravan, the obstinate demon, who refused to return Sita even after the advice of all relatives and friends. "tumi ram hVEkE hClthi dEt ghayo."-carItr I. ~T [hathila] adj obstinate.

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Sugreev and a great devotee of Ram. It is written in section 4 and chapter 66 ofValmik's Ramayan that the nymph Punjiksthala, wife of Kesari also known as Anjana, was See~. extremely beautiful. On seeing her, the god of U15' CRJ}f [hathe bram] deeds performed wind was overcome by erotic desire. He obstinately for their own sake, without strong cohabited with her, who then gave birth to a will and concentration. "hathe karam karr udar brave son. On the day of birth, taking it as bharE." -ram kabir. 2 deeds such as theft and fruit, he jumped to swallow the sun. In order murder causing pain and harm to others etc. to protect the sun, Indar threw him on the See <:ro vr. ground by hitting with the thunderbolt. The jaw ~ [hathyo] performed with persistence. of the young boy became crooked as a result this. This is how Hanuman got his name. 2 jumped, skipped. See <:ro"QT. "hathyo mahri c~dy~ g~g ram~."-VN. In many books, Hanuman has been mr [haQ], ~ [haQQ] Skt Qg n bone. "jiu pf<;l described as a monkey. So, many people c~mu tera ha<;le."-var gau 1 m 4.2 See~. believe that he was a forest dweller who ~ ~ [haQQ bh~n.Q.i] See ~ ~. became a scholar by acquiring knowledge from mr [haQh] See u;r. the sages residing in the jungles. In Valmik ~(!T [ha<;lhau.Q.a] v wear out. "sajr kara part 4, chapter 3, it is written that after hearing patu hac;lhae. "-maru m 1. "pat pat~bar pahrrr Hanuman's speech, Ram said that none could haQhavau."-gau a m 1. 2 Ml adopt, keep. speak this kind of pure Sanskrit without having "gusa manr na haQha 1."-s kabir. 3 turn, read sublime texts. "ha.Q.vataru aradhra." rotate. "b~nr bakri sihu haQhara."-sor m 4. -s;:wa m 1. "ha.Q.v~tu jagr dharr I~kur."-bas'§t ~ [haQhara], ~ [haQhaya] a kabir. See -crQWO"i'i'"COf. town in Patiala state about three kohs to the uo [hat] Skt adjkilled. 2 destroyed. 3 tied. See west of Barnala where the ninth Guru stayed, OOvr. and cured a patient suffering from fever by U3'Cif [hatakJ Skt adj like the dead, like a corpse. bathing him in the pond, now known as Guru 2 A ....6. n tearing a curtain. 3 i.e. insult, Sar. Maharaja Karam Singh ofPatiala got built disgrace. a beautiful gurdwara there. The state has ~ [hat-tragi] killed, destroyed. "hatdonated 250 ghumaons of land. This place is tragi haumE."-maru solhe m 5. one mile to the south-west ofHadhiaya railway tJ3('j" [hatan] Skt (J(')7i" n killing, act of killing, murder. station. u;rlt [haQhayo] got carried away by a current, ufd" [hatr] Skt n murder, killing, act of killing. was washed away. 2 overflowed, jumped uf3>w [hatra] Sktuo.nr n murder, assassination, "mana nrdhr nir hac;lhyo."-krIsan. killing. "as~kh gal vaQhr hatra kamah1." tr.!" [ha.Q.] See 00. -japu. See uo.nr. ~ [ha.Q.v~taru], ~ [ha.Q.v~tu] Skt~~ ~ [hatrara] Skt d3JlIO(ilj adj killer, murderer, assassin. "sat ka nidak m;:Jha and ~11R, adj person with an extended jaw. 2 n a brave warrior who was minister of hatrara." -sukhmani.
tJQ [hathu] See <:ro. "hathu nrgrahu karr." -ram am 1. 2 See <:ro 3. ~ [hathe] adj stubborn. "hathe kast vari." -kalki. 'the obstinate residents of Kashtwar.'

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[hatu] See U3". 2 Skt [i,~ n hunter 3 sharpedged weapon. u3" [hate] killed. See U3". "sat ke hate bu rakh£ na kOI."-o5ukllmcmi. ~ [hatta] A 2.- adv to such an extent. ~ [hatya], m [hatya] See ~. "ghar dukhya anI k hatya." -o5ahao5 m 5. 'ijlf [hClth] Skt tllJ, n hand. "hClth deI apI rakhu. "-ram var 2 m 5. 2 Skt attack, assault, blow. ~~ [hClth bQQhDa] v donate, extend hand to give. "hCln elatE dataru hath kaQllIa mihu vutha sEsare."-var kan m 4. ~ [hathkari] n handcuff, manaclle. ~ l:fW ~ [hath khala karna], {JCf ~ CXQ?jT [hClth khClra kClrna], ~ tf~ [hath ckbDa] v strike, assault. 2 raise one's hand to show consent. This is a figure of speech named suki?am, which is to give consent through indication without uttering a word. ~ traor [hath cClrna], ~ ~ [hClth carhna] v get hold of something. "hath carIO han thoka."-gaum 5.2 dance to someone's·tunes. ~ [hClthchut], ~ [hathchor] n free assault with the hand; unobstructed attack. "tIn par hVE sabh ki hathchor."-GPs. ~ ~ [hath taQQDa] v extend hand, put forth hand for begging. See ~. ~W [hClth deDa] v offer hand for help; help; cooperate. ~ [hathnalJ n a gun that is fired by raising a hiil1d without any other support. "jClbClrjag hathnal. "-o5anama. ~ [hathni] See ~. ~ il~ [hath pEDal v get something in hand. 2 get support as does a drowning man. "at kalI tIthE dhuhE jIth£ hath na paI."-o5ava m3. 'ijlf ~ [hath phalgha] See GC?UfT. "ij'S" ~ [hClth pharna] v hold hand.


[hClth phul] n a type of firework that resembles a pomegranate. Sparkles emerges from it and the fire worker holds it in his hane!. 'ijlf'S'1f [hath bakkh] adj catching the side with both arms; tight embrace. "mIle hClth bakkha maha tej tatte."-VN. "ij'S"~ [hClth IClgDa] v achieve, receive a thing. 2 be someone's pawn. 3 gun powder to be ignited with hand. tJ'Effi~ [hathleva] See <:HJ ~. <:J"ERlit [hathvai] n a pouch with thick hair, put on as glove for massaging the horse. "malai? karahI pahIr hathvai."-GPS. ~ [hathvasa], ~t [hathvas0] n handle. 2 hilt, grip. 3 strap to hold a shield. ~ [hClthvan] scarecrow put up by farmers in the fields to ward off animals. "luDe khetI hathvan karE. "·-ao5a kabir. <:JaTRT [hathasa] n support of the hand. "han rakhda de apI hathasa."-gaum 4. 2 handle, gnp. UEI"<:J'T [hathaha] in the hand. "vaSI ape jugatI hathaha."-o5or m 4. <:JElT ~1:f [hCltha vakkh], <:JEIT ~tr [hatha vCltth] See {JCf 'a'cr. "dhaka dhakk bira hatha vCltth hoe."-GPs. 'grappled with each other.' ufu [hathI] in the hand. "raja nIau kare hath I hOI."-asa m 1. "jIsu aIa hathI nIdhanu." -var ram 2 m 5. ~ [hathIauDa] v swing (used for an) elephant. ~ [hathIar] Skt ~, adj killer. 2 n deadly weapon. 3 instrument, tool. ~ ~~ [hathIar dhoDa], ~ l..fl:fTQ7iT [hathIar pakharna] v putan end to warfare; be content after removing enemy's blood from the weapons. i.e. killing the enemy. "jit sabhE jag satahu sfdh hathIar pakhare."


~ [hathmi] See Dfi;joT. 2 troop of elephants.

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rules ofArabic phonology its pronunciation as UEit [hdthi] n arm, that bears the hand. "hathi hadrat is also correct. dIti prdbhu devanhan:."-majh m 5. 2 leather ~ [hadrathI] from Hazrat. "tE ta hadrathI paIo man."-sdveye m 2 ke. 'Thou (Guru bag for keeping water. "hathi kaQQh na dItto paI).i."-BG. 3 pouch made of hair or cloth Nanak) hast bestowed honour.' which is put on the hand like glove for ~ [hadayat] A -=<'1 advising; directing. massaging. 4 handcuff, manacles. "hathi 2 advice, guidance. paudi kahe roVE?"-maru m 1. 'When the gods 'U't!l [hadi] A JJ~ adj guide, mentor. 2 i.e. teacher, mentor. "uc hadi VEI).U vIrkIonu." of death manacle you then why do you cry?' 5 S and Po help, support. 6 handle; e.g. "cakki -var ram 3. 'The exalted mentor (Guru di hathi". Nanak) gave a sermon.' ~ [hathiaru] See ~. 2 hammer, ~ '8"t!" [hadia bad] a town of tehsil sledgehammer. "ahIraI).I matI vedu hathiaru." Phagwara of Kapurthala state. There is a gurdwara of Guru Hargobind almost one -jdPU. furlong to the eastern side. The Guru visited till [hathu] See mf. this place while going to Kiratpur. Some people ~ [hatheli] Skt 'illf-'3'c;) n palm of a hand. ~ [hathohathI], ~ [hathohathi] adv believe that Guru Har Rai also paid a visit to from one hand to another. "hatho hathI nacaiE this place. vaI).jana mItra."-sri m 1 pdhrre. 2 n act of The gurdwara is very simple in construction. Residential quarters are also near getting reward with the hand with which work is done. 3 fight with hands; hand-to-hand fight, by. Seven ghumaons of land has been donated scuffle, fisticuffs. by the state; the priest is an Udasi Sikh. It is ~ [hath;:>ra], ~ [hath;:>ra] n hammer made situated one mile away from the Phagwara railway station in to the western side. On of iron with a handle for shaping the metal. Baisakhi day, a festival is held here. 'iJ'ET [hatth] See 'illf. "karE bhav hattha." -VN. 2 short for <:JTEiT. "harr;'lt hatth. "-kdlki. 3 trunk 'U'clH [hadis] A ~-117 n saying; anecdote. 2 a saying relating to prophet Mohammad. A of an elephant "hathi hatth pramatth." book in which Mohammad's teaching or -GPs. 'iJ'ET i"a- '8'e'O W [hatth utte bacan deI).a] v conduct is described. "napak pak kan hadurI hadisa."-maru solhe m 5. 'purifying the vow by putting a hand on some one's hand or by drawing a line on his hand. "bacan dehu impure mind.' 'tI'tft'R' ~ [hadis kaQQhI).i] v rub one's nose, more j;:> hatha."-CdrItr 301. 'iJ'ET '81:r [hatth bakkh], ()1:r '81:r [hatth batth] See i.e., pledge not to repeat an error. "take agE khare kaQhahI hadis. "-rdtdnmala b5no. mf ~cr. hand-to-hand fight, duel, fisticuffs, scuffle. ~ [hadur] A J? it is also pronounced as hadur in Arabic. "saCE sabadI hadur."-var ~ [hatthra] n edge of an arm without a hand; bIla m 3. amputated arm. "jyo kar tGQe hatthra."-BG. ~ [hadun] adv in the presence of; face to Ut!' [had] See <:l'e". face. "C;'lgIaia bunaia vaCE dharamu hadur." ueG [hadaph] A ..J~' n target, goal. tre'a'3' [hadrat], ~ [hadrath] See m:RJ3'. Per -jdPU. 2 in front of the people, in the open

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ground. "mahIla ;'idarI hodia, hUI:lI bahal)I na mIlanI hadurI."-asa a ill 1. ~ [hadd] A ~ n bank, boundary, duration. 2 quickness, fierceness. tJO [han] plural of hE. In Gurbani its form "ti'fois used. See"ti'fo. 2 SktfPf, vr kill, go, deny, check, collect. ~ [hancha] See 1?f3" <:l'6r". "mIII s;'igatI kar prabhu hanche."-basJt ill 4. tTi'i7i" [hanan] Skt n killing, murder. See tJO vr. dMold [hanan-nat] Skt fPf~, for killing, for murdering. "hanan-nat IE tahI sIdhare." -carItr 368. 2 See ~. ~ [hamphi] See 'ffo1. 'Ui'iH'd' [hanm;'it], <J<'il-f"3Q [hanm;'itar], ~d' [hanv;'it] See~. mfur [hcmif] A ~ adj firm in faith. U"Q [hanu] Skt n chin. 2 lower jaw. 3 short for UQWO. 4 one whose chin is long. 5 adj one with a longjaw. do 0'<::0( [h;munatak] See tlQWO O'GCf. 'iJ'Q1-I1O [h;muman] See~. 2 adj one with a longjaw. U"Qwo ~ [hanuman natak] Skt ~'j,J1~;:1I2:'fi a poetic writing in Sanskrit which enacts the history of Ram Chandar. It is worthy of being played in an open theatre. This poetic drama is Hanuman's work. Many poets have written that Hanuman threw his work into the ocean on the insistence of Valmiki, so that the importance of Valmiki's Ramayan did not diminish. During the reign of raja Bhoj, while searching for pearls, a navigator found a stoneinscription. The king got this stone inscription pulled out and where the context was wanting, references were provided by Damodar Misr and the book was completed. Hindi translation was done by a renowned poet Hridyram of Bhalla dynasty during the time of emperor Jahangir i.e:


"s;'imat bIkram nnpatI sahas khat $at asih l var, cEtr didni duj chatr jah;'igir subhat par, $ubh lacchan dacchan sude$ kaVI ram vIcacchan, kn~ndas tanu kul prakas ya~ dipak racchan, raghupatI crItr tIn yathamatI pragat karyo $ubh lagan gal), de bhaktI dan nIrbhay karo, jay raghupatI raghuv;'i$ mal)I." In this book are included some kabbIts composed by the poet Kashi Ram. 2 UQH'd' [hanum;'it] See 'dQ [hanu] See tlQ. These words hanu and hanu are of Sanskrit. 2 a Raj put warrior, "hath lage an hasi hanu ke. "-carTtr 2. 'dQt!' [hanud] See ~. 'dQWO [hanuman] See~. "hanuman sarI garur samana."-dhana kabir. See Hfu. ~ [hanoz] P ;y. adv just now, now. 2 till today, till now. -mm [haphas] This word is used for c::rm:r. "haphas valayat ke tan kare."-GPs. ~ [haphl)a] v breathe heavily; be out of breath due to strenuous exertion. U"G3' [haphat] ~ seven. mrd' ~l'fuf [hafat aklim], mrd' ~ [hafat Iklim], mrd' ~ [hafat kI~var] P ~­ n~J ~ seven Iklim or kI~var parts; hafat Iklim means the whole world. Greek scholars have divided the earth into seven segments by drawing seven lines to the north of the equator, these parts being equal in size. It is to be noted that these scholars did not take account ofAmerica and Australia at that time, as these continents came to be known later. U"G3' l::fO [haphat khan], mrd' Jf'O [hafat xvan] P



1}680 Bikrami. 2Many poets hold that Bahadur Shah presented the manuscript written by Hridyram to Guru Gobind Singh and as transcribed by poet Kashiram the Guru got Parshuram's dialogues incorporated.

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658 U1} .,::)1 Asfandyar and Rustam crossed seven stages after each victory. Upon crossing each stage, they thanked God and fed the people by spreading dClstClrxvan (table cloth); to which this word owes its origin. m:o 'tJ1'P" [hClphClt juba] P dP.,::)1 In Islamic books a person knowing seven languages of Arabia is called by this name. Just as the Punjabi dialects of Doaba, Majha and Malwa, are somewhat different, in the same way due to regional differences there are seven types inArabic. These seven types are: J:!j [kun:$]' L.. [tE], d)ly. [hvaZIn], ~ [YClmCln], d [sClkif], [hClzel], ( [tClmim). WST [hClfta] P .=it Skt week. ~ [hClftad] P J~ seventy. ~ [hClb] A ~ n seed, grain. 2 tablet, pill. um:r [hClbClS] A vf n control. 2 imprisonment, confinement. 3 A j:' Abyssinia in Africa. "hClbClS vCllayat gCle dClyala."-NP ~ [hClbClsdClm] See tl-f 9. [hClb$i] adj a resident of Habash. "hClbsi hCllbi dhClyavi:." -akal. uar [hClba] A ,,~ n dust, dirt, pollen. 2 See ~. ~ [hClbab] A ":"'"V n bubble of water. 2 dew. 3 stand for placing a water pitcher; woodenstand for a water pitcher. mmr [hClbib] A ~ adjdear, beloved. 2 friend, companion. See ~~. U[a" [hClbub] A ,,:","Y." plural ofhClb; seeds. 2 tax levied on the farmer at the time of harvest by a king or owner ofthe land for various rights. "hClbub lClgavi:, kar brgar Clnek bhat ki."
~ [hClbhahu] of all, from all. "bed kClteb




[hClbh] S adj all, everyone. "soh5dfo hClbh tha 1."-sri chJt m 5. ~ [habhkIhu], ~ [habhkIchu], ~ [hClbhkIjhu] everything, all objects. ~ [habhkoJ, ~fi; [hdbhkor] everyone, everybody.

sasar hClbha hu bahra."-asa In 5. 'Ufg [hClbhr] advall, all of, every. See '\:N. "hClbhr rag maI,ldhr jrsu sag1."-var je~. ~ [hClbhia] of all, of everyone. "V3SClhr hClbhia nal1."--vaQ In 1. ~ [hClbhu] all. See '\:N. "dukh dClrCld rag mar mEq.a hdbhu nClse."-asa In 5. 'U'¥ [hdbhe] adv all, entire. "hClbhe tol suhavI,le SClhu bEtha a~ClI,l mCllu."-var maru 2 In 5. ~ [hdbho] all. "h3bho krchu suh5da."-jetch3t In 5. tJ}f [hClm]pron we. "hClm mde tum ujCll kClrte." -sar In 5. 2 n egoism, vanity. "hClm kalClkh dhovE."-saveye In 2 ke. 3 pron I. "ClVClrI pac hdm ek jdna."-gauIn 1.4 P '"'" adjall, entire. "hClm jer jrmi dunia pira mClsarka rara."-var majll In 1. 'All the pirs, mullahs and kings of the world got buried under the earth.' 5 P sui also, with, like, etc. e.g. "hdmsdr, hdm ddrdd, hdm mdktClb, hCln1$ira, hClmnam, hClmrah, etc. ~ [hClmsClhri], ~ [hClmsClhrri] P adj living in the same city, a fellow citizen. "jo hClmSClhri so mitu hClmara."-gau rcwidas. 'He who lives in our town (Begampur) is our mate.' 'iJ'H'J'Rf [hdmsClr] P /'" adj comparable, coequal. "hClmrag hamsClr lClfClt bhe."-salah. 'tI'HRfa" [hdmSdrI] like us or resembling us. "hClm SClrI dinu, d r alu nCl tum SdrI."-dhana ravIdas. tJ)-/'ffift [hClmsari] P J/", n equality, parity. ~ [hClmsara], w-fFlTlJlT [hClmsaya] P =-(,.A adj living under the same shade (i.e. under the same roof). 2 i.e. neighbour. ~ [hClmsos] See ~. tJHU [hClmClh], <:JHf'<J [hClmahr] P.-'i adj all, everyone. "prdtrpalE nanak hClmdhr." -bavan. 'nourishes all of us.' 2 us. CJHOilo [hamkin] P ~r fellow-traveller.



Page 42




money), purse. [hamra] pron our. "hdmra manu bErag su guru hdmkini."-g;w m 3. bukatu bhdIO. "-asa m 4. 2 fJ""'; to all or of all. ~ [hdmdkk] A ....6: adj bewildered. "dhdmdkke "hdmra bInau sundU prdbhu thakur."-gau m hdmdkke." -kalki. 4. '0 Lord! You hear the supplication of all.' ~ [hdmpna] P ulfr adv all, whole. tJHfa"o 3" [h3mrIn tel sen from amongst us or 2 everyone. ours. "dOI s3tru h3mrIn te ek saghariE." m-raft [hdmgi] P adv all, total, entire. -carrtr 153. ~ [hdmcIni] P adv like this, such as .. Ulffi" [hamal] A \Y n carrying of burden or load. "hdmCIni patsah sayle bdrna."-trlag namdev. 2 gestation, pregnancy. 3 The word has also been used for hdmldh (ie. invasion) in GV 1O. ~ [hdmdcu] P /.j adj like, just as. ~ [hdmldh], UJ-fW [hdmla] A y n attack, ~ [hdmdcuna] P utf adjlike that, resembling that. invasion, swoop. UW [hdma] See <J1-fU. "deI t hdma kdU sdgdl m-ffi [hdmce] our. 2 like us, just as we are. See sIdhat."-bher a m 5. 'The carefree Creator ~. is a perfect principle for all.' 2 to us, for us. tJ1-ItfSi" [hdmj3ba] P (;.I~7' adj talkingalike; engaged in mutual talk. 2 speaking the same m-ri" [hdma] P via the same, that. 2 See <J1-fU. ~ [hdmaIt] See (J)-fT(if3". language. UHW [hdmja] A D.J' Mohammad's uncle who tJH1'fu3t '("i'l'HT [hdmaIti nala] See ~ (')'TW. embraced Islam, displayed great valour and Ul-f1O(3" [h3mabt] A .,::)Il? n folly, stupidity. was awarded the title of lion by Mohammad. U}{l;3T [h3maca] n bag, pouch or cloth bag. "t3b h3maca bh;')g ka kholIa."-JSBB. This word 2 lion. 3 A Sikh of the Jajja subcaste who, acting upon the teachings of Guru Arjan Dev, derives from the Persian h3mya. attained spiritual self-realization. '''hdmja jdjja "ij)-f'I'QW [hamatuma] we and you; everybody. "dibanu eko k313m eka h3ma tuma melu."-var jal)iE. "-BG. 4 in grammar, the letter dldf which carries zer, zdb3r or pe:;; vowel markers. asa. CJH~ [hdm tum] we and you, i.e, all the people" m-rw [hdmana] P tla without doubt, certainly. "un kE S;')gI hdm tum S;')gI mel." -asa m 5. 21- mplf [h3mam] A (l? n closet for hot water bath; bagnio. "hdjrdt kin S3nan h3mam." ness and thou-ness. "kahu nanak ham tum gun -GPS, khoi hE."-ram m 5. mre [hdmdd] A ..i' n praise, appreciation, c:J}-fTlj!3' [h3may3t] A o.::.:;1.7 n partiality, support. 2 patronage. acclaim. mreH [hdmddm] P (..NZ n alter ego, bosom ~ [h3mayti] Pill.? adjpartisan, supporter, helper. friend, true friend. tJHi'i [hdmdn] See (WO. 2 Pu I, mine. "haman ki ~ 'i')'TW [hdmayti nala] near Anandpur a small branch of river Satluj, which proved pukare suno rajdhani."-saloh. 3 we. UHi'iF.ito [hamna:;;in] P ~(' adjsitting by one's helpful to the Khalsa Dal during the time of war. side. "sahIbe to hdmnd:;;ino hdmzuba."-ji'dgi. 2 n courtier, favourite. m-RfT [hdmara] adj our. 2 P fJ""'; of our, for every one. "hdmara ek as vdse."-varmajh mI. 'All m-n;ri" [hdmya] P uk'" n pouch (for keeping

Ul-IOl1o't [hdmkini] faithfu I friend, constant companion. See dHOito. "jIS guru te hdrI paIa



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have just one hope.'

uHf [haml] just we, we alone. 2 we all. 3 P

v::' this very, the same.
uHte' [hamid] A .A:! adj praised, commended,
~ [hamida] adj (of a woman) praised,

lauded. 2 See »ImRf adjvictorious, victor. "hath hamir."-kalki. 'tenacious and victorious.' 2 n a Rajput king of Ranthambore who ascended the throne in 1357 AD. Mir Mohammad, an officer ofAlauddin Khilji, revolted and fled to Hamir. Alauddin demanded from Hamir the custody ofMir Mohammad. Hamir replied that even if the sun changed its course, Hamir would not betray one who sought refuge. Consequently, Alauddin lauched an attack and Hamir died fighting valiantly, "tlnya tel hamir hath caqhat na duji var."-prov. 3 a raja of Mewar. He was also a contemporary of Alauddin Khilji. He kept on invading the province of Maldev Jhalor. Seeing that Hamir could not be overpowered by any other means, Maldev offered his daughter's hand to Hamir who accepted the offer. After the marriage, the bride disclosed the fact of her having been already married but had become a widow by then. Hamir went to Maldev's territory, during the latter's absence, won over the army and occupied the entire province. m-ita"fi:fur [hamir sigh] The first raja ofNabha who was younger son of Surtie and great grandson ofBaba Tiloka Singh. After the death of his grandfather, Gurditta, Hamir Singh became master of the area comprising Dhanaula, Pakkho and Kapurgarh, etc. He was very brave and shrewd. He founded the city of Nabha in 1755 AD and made it his capital. By dint of his valour, he annexed many territories into his state. At the time of the

m-ita" [hamir] A


murder ofZain Khan, the governor of Sirhind, in 1763 AD, he was with his Khalsa brethren and, in this victory, Amloh area fell to his lot. Hamir Singh died in 1783 AD at Nabha. His memorial is located there at a short distance towards east of the fort. Ulj' [hamu] P '"'" all, entire. "khel khana brradar hamu j;'ljala."-maru solhe m 5. 2 P ~I(' the same, the very same. 'ij'!f [hamel P '7- a suppletive Persian suffix which is used as a filler like N. See N. mf'f.l' rhame:;;], mfF.RJ" [hame:;;ah] P ..>.:. part always, ever (perpetually). 00 [hamer], ~ [hamel] A Jl7 shoulderbelt. 2 a gold or silver necklace. It is an ornament for men, women and horses, etc. 3 The Muslims also wear Koran as rosary. uH [hamEl to us, for us. 2 See ill-I'U. uH~~ [hamEnek] sen we, many. "hammek mari."-GV 10. 'We fired many shots.' 'ijtif [hay] Skt 1?If. vr go, move, produce sound. 2 n horse. UliI'R"'a" [haysar], c:JtiIFI'T"1? [haysal] Skt ~ n stable. "chor layo haysarahI te hay."-ramav. 'untethered the horse from the stable.' ~ [haykratu], ~g [haykntu] horse. sacrifice. ~ [haygriv] Per Visnu Puran, army chief ofBhomasur was a companion ofdemon Mur. He was killed by Krishan. 2 In Devi Bhagvat, he was an incarnation of Vishnu. The story goes that once Vishnu's neck got severed with the string of his own bow. At the bidding of the goddess, the gods fixed a horse's head on Vishnu's trunk and thus was born the incarnation of Haygriv. Haygriv saved Veds by killing Madhu and Kaitabh. UtiI<!t [hayJ)i] cavalry.-sanama. U1il'"it fuR"it fuR"it fuR"it fuR"it ~ [hayJ)i ISJ)i ISJ)i ISJ)I ISJ)I arJ)i]-sanama. Master

Page 44



of UCCE:;;rava horse, Indar; his master, Kashyap; the earth which came under Kashyap's sway; its master, a king; and his army's enemy, the gun. ~ [haytraI;] n armour meant to protect a horse's body. m;mfu [haynanl, clGl(')i3a [hay;matak] enemy of horses, killer of horses; lion.--scmama. UlilOT [hayni] cavalry.-sanama_ ~ [hayal] A J:?' power. "hayal kayam ruh." -mdgo. 'ij'{iJT [hdyal, ~ [hayau] A p n rain. 2 modesty, bashfulness. 3 woman's sexual organ, vagina 4 Skt (JW. mare. iJliI'T3' [hdyat] A .:-p n lifetime. iJliI'T3' W' [hayat xa] commander of a hundred and twenty-five cavalrymen whom Buddhu Shah got employed with Guru Gobind Singh at Paonta. He became disloyal andjoined hill chieftains. In the battIe of Bhangani, Baba Kirpal Das killed him with a club. See fcg1rnt'Ff.

this har. See~.
~ [haraul] See ~.

mmrfu [har-an] n Kam, who is the enemy of
Shiv. "gIri murchana hVE dharanI har-an sar gayo rna r."--cCJrI tr 9. mr ~ [har Ik] adj everyone, each, every. ~ [harae] dative; to God, the Creator. "harae namaste."--g5c;i namdev. tml1 [haras] Skt ill'i' n joy. 2 comfort. See fq1:r VI' 3 a raja of Thanesar who was son of Prabhakar Vardhan. His full name was Harsh Vardhan. At the age of sixteen, he ascended the throne in 606 AD and became emperor of India. Vann, the best poet of his court, authored a fascinating epic entitled Harishcharitr. I-Iarsh made Kannauj his capital. He died in 647 AD. cldHCi[dF<! [harsaktaI:\I] See <Jfu "H"a"3i'o. trd"H'i'i' [harsan] Skt UFf~ n act of getting thri lied. 2 adj giving joy; who enjoys. "dars;m parsan sarsan harsan."-asa m 5. 3 Skt (JTJ1(')" n diminution" abolition. "dokh sagal rna] harsan." -kanm 5. mJFITd" [harsat] is thrilled or delighted. See <:KJH". 2 .;:..YVfi' every moment, always. "boL~hI han harI raIn namu hClrsalte."-var SOT m 4. uafJ:fCJTT'ij' [harsfgar] See <JlO ft:f~. 2 snake, which is Shiv's garland. 'tJ"ij"tJ"G [harhClt] Skt »f<JUfc n Persian wheel. "hClrhat bhi til til karahI bolahI bhali baDI." -Sdva m 3. UQclC }fT~ [hal'hat mal] n links over a Persian wheel, to which pots are attached. 'cl"a'tJ'T6' [harhar] Shiv's garland, white snake. Shiv wears a white snake around his neck. "harhar si halbaner." -dkal. "sukh gayo trash harhar."-cJc;ii 1. ~ [harak] See <:T/?"C{". ~ [harkat] A .::.J:.7 motion, movement, effort. ~ [harka] adj petty, shallow, hollow. "tum kanh bhae harka ho."--krISCll1.

i'JtitTaT [hdyati] adj living, alive. "sekh hayati
jagI na koi tlum rahIa."-asa fdrid. [hayatulla xan] See F.P<J cwr;:r W'. CJit [hayo] murdered, killed. "samarsm raja pun hayo."-carItr 52. mr [har] adj green. "jEse ban har pa t." -sar kdbir_ "ban har pat re."-dhdna m 5. 2 Skt Ii Shiv. "bmlasar. dhyavat jahI bhaje har."-GPs. 3 fire. 4 Yam, the god of death. 5 remove, cure. "meri harahu bIpatI."-gdu rdVIdas. 6 P fi part every, each, per. "hardInu han SImranu mere bhai."-gdu m 5. "bade khoju dII harroj."-tIl.'Jg kdbir. 7 This word has also been used in place ofha!. "hal' bahat Ik purakh nIhara. "-ddtt. 8 At various places in Gurbani har has been used for han which means God. 9 a Raj put clan largely inhabiting largely the Boondi region. The word haravli derives from
~w J:f'O

Page 45


~ [harkaIa] adj rabid. See ~. "jIU

kukar harkaI a."-sri m 5. ~ [harkat] plural of'(RJ"CB. ~ [harkI] P .Jfi pron whoever, whosoever. 'ij'ij' ott tI'Oi'IT [har kI dh<Jrni] Shiv's consort, Parvati. "han rup kIye har ki dharni hE." -cacJi 1. ~ [h<Jrbr] daughter of Sardar Hari Singh Jodhpuria who was consort of raja Jaswant Singh and mother of raja Devendra Singh. mn:r [harakh] See (JOFf. See ftrJ'r. vr 2 happiness, joy. "harakh anat sog nahi bia."-gau m 5. 3 anger, rage. Sanskrit word »rH1'f has become ~ in Punjabi. mrl:fJl'ar [harakhsog] joy and sorrow. "h<Jrakh sog jakE l1<Jhi bEri mit saman."-s m 9. ~ [harkhal).] v be angry, be enraged. 2 be

produces sound like a lion's roar, the gun. -Si3nama. um:ro [harjan] god's creatures, holymen. See

n loss, harm. 2 ~fi everywhere, "h<Jr ja asr Ese sunyo k<Jr<Jt ek te dor. brrahr ba<;l.hann ke badhe ek dor te hor."-carnr 98. 'Everywhere it is heard that the sword severes a thing into two parts but persons severed by a sharp sword of separation become one.' 'ij"ijC [h<Jr<Jt] See~. mr<!' [har<Jl).] See <it vr. n carrying from one place to another; transportation. 2 pilfer, steal. 3 Skt ~. deer. "harl).a baja tE srkdara."var mi31a m 1. mr<!' ~ [h<Jr<J1). hOl).a] xa v take to one's heels, run away like a deer. mJ<!lf [harl).akh Skt ~~ n a demon having brown (golden) eyes. "turn dusat tare h<Jrl).akhe."-nat m 4. See~. ~ [h<Jrl).<Jkhe] like flJd61'Gl. See~. ~ [harl).a] v steal, pilfer. See'iJ'd<!'. "partrry harl).a."-BG. 2 See ~. ~ [harl).akhas], ~ [harl).akhasu] See ~ »B 'Y:fu'c?re'. "harl).akhasu Ie nakhahu brdhasa. "-g<Ju a m 1. See ful:rw. "h<Jrl).akhasu dusatu han marIa prahrlad tarara."-asa ch{'jt m 4. ~ [harl).,akhi] Skt iJfdc:'d] adj doe-eyed. "harl).akhi ku sacu VEl). sUl).ai."--var ram 2 ill 5. "sul).r mOdhe harl).akhie."-sava m 1. ~ [harl).i] Skt hind, doe. 2 xa louse. 3 See
uatfT [h<Jrja]



[harakhvan], ~ [h<Jr<Jkhvat] adj happy. "h<Jrakhvat anat darala."-maru solhe m5, 'ffiJ1:ft [h<Jrkhi] adj hot-tempered. See ftrJ'r. vr 2 joyful, glad. 3 sheer happiness. "sogu nahi sada harkhi hE reL"-kan m 5. mratC!" [hargal).a] a village in tehsil Samrala of district Ludhiana. Guru Gobind Singh visited this place. U'a<IJTU [h<Jrgahl P ~~ adv when, any time. 2 See tRr »B 'CIJ"<J. mJfam' [hargrj] P ~ adv quite, absolutely. 2 never. 'ij'ij'fu [h<JracI] P ",?fi whatever, whatsoever. 'ij'ij' ~ [har cadauri] See iJrdAtf~. um:r [h<Jrajl P ~fi n loss, harm. 2 A i';.J scarcity, tJfuo1. ~ -er fi:rcrra' [harl).ia da ~rkarl xa killing want. 3 snare, noose. ~ [harjacch] Skt ~61. yellow-eyed; lion. oflice. "adr sabad h<Jrj<Jcch ucaro. ta pache an pad ~ [harl).ota] young deer, fawn. 'iJQ3' [harat] See <:J'fao. 2 short for <Jd'3T. "dukh dE <;l.aro."-sanama. 'lion's enemy, the gun.' harat brta sukhah suami."-dhana chat m 5. ~ nrfu [harjacch <In] See <:Rl'tf5'. 'U'i3"if&:fo 7l"fuo't [harjacchanr nadrni] which ffiJ3T [hdrta] Sktf3~ adjpilferer, thief. "atamghati


Page 46


663 harte."-illiOlla m 5. 'They commit suicide and

are thieves.' 2 one who takes away or siezes, 3 destroyer. "dukh harta hannam paehano." -bIla m 9. ~ [hartal] Skt Ntnc1 n a yellow-coloured semi-metal used in various medicines, which is also of use to painters and writers. It has a warm and dehydrating effect. Yellow orpiment.! Physicians use it in various medicines. mreH [hardam] adv with each breath, each moment. 2 always. ~ [hardas] See ~. 2 Name of Guru Ramdas's father. ~R'3i'i1iI' [hard a stan ay ], uotTFf~ [hardastane], <Jdt:!IH3(; [hardastam:] son of Hardas, Guru Ram Das. "hardastane guru ramdas sal' abhar bhare." ~savEye m 4 ke. See
<J ra€'H3(')Gl.

mrfuo [hardIn] adv eachday, daily, always.
"hardIn harIsImranu mere bhai."-gau m 5. 2 Skt n Shiv's day; 14th of the dark fortnight ofPhagun. mrtft [hardi] Skt ~T n turmeric, L Curcuma Longa; a tuber resembling ginger having yellow colour. It is used for dyeing and for imparting yellow colour to various dishes. "kabir hardi piari."--5 kabil'. ~ [haradu] adv both. "haradu gajE."-gyan. ~ ID/tlT [hardegi eamea] a ladle for use in all cooking pots, i.e. one who moves in every religious group and society to achieve his own purpose. devi ko bhagat kabu mira ko upasak hE das sultan ko ~ bbulaibegi hE, man me hE ~r aru mukh maIn duji bat param pakh~Q.i nakh SIkh 10 pharebi hE, svarath ko manat hE mukkh parmarath tE

nfbu ko nICOr age karat rakebi hE, sfgh rup dhari anay mat ko pracari bhari p~th te nIkaro jo camac hardegi hE. ~ [hardo] See ~. DO -e- mJT [hal' do sara] P I;-'JJfi both the houses, i.e. this world and the next world. See ~<ft. ~ [hardokhi] Dg n Kam. 2 adj inimical to all; malevolent. ~ nH~ [hardo namoh] See ~. DO trd" [hal' dhar] See (J(? trd". 2 See ~. tRI?i [haran] See~. "haran bharan ja ka netr phor."-sukhmani. 'Giving and taking occurs with the twinkling of His eye.' 2 destroy, obliterate. "patakharan."-GPs. 3 deer. "locan haranvari dosan haranvari."-GPS. 'doe-eyed, obliterator ofall blemishes.' 4 gold. ~ [haranbsapl See F<Jd(')O(Hlf. tRI?i ~ [haran bharan] See (Jd7) 1. mJOT [harna] See <JO<!l'. mf()Tt:fFf [harnakhas], (Jd7)TCflJ [harnakhasul See ~ »B 1.f~. "han harnakhas hare paran."~g5c;t namdev. "harnakhasu jInI nakhah bldano."-bhEl' namdev. ~ [harnakhI] Harnakhas did. "pralnlad jan harnakhI pakna."-mali m 4. '<J"d"OTiir [harnach], ~ [harnachas] See ~l::f

»f3' l{ftrw'e-.

In Mahabharat and Harivansh it is mentioned that yellow orpiment originated from Vishnu's semen.

[harni] n doe. "harni sam akh su :;;rimatI ki."--GPs. 2 adj pilferer, bungler. "ratI ki prabhuta sagri harni."--GPS. 'pilferer of all the grace of Kam 's wife.' ~ [harpat] See DO 1 }2 l.fT3". ~ [harpalpur] a village in Rajpura tehsil ofPatiala state. At a short distance to its north, there is a place dedicated to Guru Teg Bahadur. Only sanctum in the form ofa platform exists. No custodian has been appointed. Towards the south of Kaul i railway station, there is a four-mile long unmetalled road leading to this place.

Page 47


666 Dharamraj). The c;'lQal sent him to the 2 blossoming tree. "gurmukhr br;:}h;:}mu crematory to fetch shrouds ofthe dead bodies. h;:}rravla."~sri a m 3. He spent twelve months there doing this menial ufu>,fmr [harI-~bCJr] deerskin. 2 elephant's job. One day his wife Veshya brought, for skin. 3 lion's skin. "jaM bfthe har harI-~b;:}r cremation, the dead body of his own son Rohjtl ko QarkE. "-caQi 1. who had died of snakebite. Both of them ~3" [harI~mrIt] n ambrosial name (of recognized each other and wanted to immolate the Divine). 2 tears of bliss. "h;:}rr ~mrrt bhfne themselves on the funeral pyre of their son. IOIl.).a."-asa c11at m 4. But Harishchandar did not want to do so ~ [h;:}rIe] See ~. without the permission of his master, c~Qal, "R'Cf3fn [han saktanr]-sanama. army and was firm in peforming his duty. Pleased having the strength of a lion. 2 army equipped at this, all the gods, accompanied by with bows and spears.-sanama. Dharamraj and Vishvamitar, appeared on the uFdH\3'i [harIsc~dr;:}] Skt 6R~iH;. 28 th raja of scene. Indar told Harishchandar that the the solar dynasty who was son ofTrishanku. latter's wife and son had conquered heaven He was famous for compassion and justice. with their virtuous deeds. Harishchandar It is written in Mahabharat that because of replied that without the permission of his having performed the Rajsuy sacrifice and his master, the caQal, he could not proceed to extreme charity, he went to Indarlok (Indar's heaven. At this Dharamraj appeared before paradise). In Markandey Puran it is mentioned him in the form of the c;'lQal. Then that one day when Harishchandar had gone Harishchandar said that he would not go to out for hunting, he heard the lamentations of heaven without the company of his subjects. Indar agreed to this wish of his as well, and Vidyakala who, in the guise of women, were when Vishvamitar performed the coronation wailing in fear of Vishvamitar. When Harishchandar proceeded to save the of his son Rohit, Harishchandar went to distressed women, Vishvamitar got enraged. heaven, along with his friends and subjects. In order to destroy the results of Harishchandar's At this the women disappeared and the raja meritorious deeds, Narad Muni, through was taken aback. Being a Brahman, Vishvamitar asked for some donation and the deception, made him indulge in selfpraise. For this Harishchandar was ousted from heaven. raja replied that he was ready to donate During the course of his fall from heaven, he whatever was asked for. Vishvamitar took all the wealth of the king and left him with only begged pardon for his lapse and was pardoned. So he halted on his way to the earth. one dress of tree bark and his son and wife. Now, Harishchandar and his subjects live Thus deprived, Harishchandar left his capital in an airy city called Harishchandarpur of and set out for Benares. But the pitiless sage which various names, such as sJbhnagar, was waiting there to torture him even more harrcadJri, gadharavn;:}gar, crtrrm, sikot, etc, and demanded from the raja a present to fulfil have been fancied. his vow of donation. Suppressing his feelings, Harishehandar sold his son, wife and even lIn Purans his name is also mentioned as Rohtashv himself to a c;'lQal (who, in fact, was also.
~ [h;:}navla] adj green, verdant.


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In fact, Harchandauri is nothing; like a
mirage it is an imaginary formation in the fog. Sometimes, before the winter sun rays become brighter, in the desert or near the sea coast, images of various real or imaginary objects become visible in the thick fog. In district Hissar and the sandy expanses by the sea coast, the spectacle ofHarehandauri looks very exquisite. A person, not having seen it before, craves to stroll through beautiful houses, palaces, forts and gardens. But as the sunrays get brighter, the fog starts thinning out and the whole structure (of Harchandauri) disappears from the sight. Colonel Todd writes that once, during a sea joumey, he felt that a ship ofHarehandauri would soon collide with their ship and reduce it to smithereens. In fright he raised an alarm as he was worried about his life. But the officers of the ship, who were aware of reality, started laughing and Todd felt humiliated. The metaphor of Harchandauri or Gandharab Nagar has been used in Gurbani for the ephemeral and mundane objects. "pekhu h<::lrIc<::ld;mrri <::lSthIru kIChu nahi." -asa chat m 5. "drIS<::ltI dekhu jEse h<::lrIcaduri."-asa m 5. "mrIg trIsna pekhI bhull).e vuthe ndgdr gadhdrb."-savEye m 5. trfu Ff~ [hdrI Sdjjcll).] adj Creator's friend. 2 friend-like Creator. ~ [hdrIS<::lrl n Amritsar, which is the Creator's tank. 2 holy congregation. "harIs<::lr nIrmdlI nae."-suhi chJt m 4. trfm:rfu [hdrISdrI] in the Mansarovar lake. "nIrmdl hasa prem pIarI. hdrIS<::lrI VdSE h<::lUmE marI."-majh am 3. i.e. in the holy company. 2 in the Creator's tank, in the holy company. 3 n river like the Creator's discourse. "hdrI sarI tir<::lthI jal).I m<::lnua naIa."-var mala m 1. 4 river Ganga. ~ [h<::lrISdrul Creator like lake. 2 Amritsar.

[hdrI Sf ghaSdl).u], ~FfUjT'R7i [harIsfghasanl the Creator's throne. 2 the heart of the devout. 3 Indar's throne. 4 golden throne. trfu Fit ~ [hdrI si kdrbha] radiance like that of the sunrays. trfu ~ [harI sevdk] the Creator's servant. "h<::lrIsevak nahi jdm pir."-brla m 5. trfa" 'JfarF3' [hdrI sagalI] Sikh community, congregation ofdevout Sikhs. "VdQ bhagi hdrI sagdtI pavdhi."-majh m 4. 'U'fu 1faft [h<::lrI sagi] adj the Creator's companion; saint, devotee. ~ [h<::lrsatl adj a devotee of Vishnu. "sun bhupatI ya jagat me dukhi rdhIt h<::lrIsat." -krIscm. 2 the Creator's servant, devotee of the Lord. "hdrI sata no horu thau nahi."-asa chatm 4. ~ [hdrISapEl n divine treasure; spiritual wealth. "hdrI sapE nandk ghdrI takE."-bawm. trfu trfu ~ [hdrI hdTI chetr] the place where God effected the release of the elephant gripped by an octopus. It is situated on the bank of river Ganga, about five miles away from Patna. A large fair is held here on the fullmoon day ofthe month ofKattak, in which many elephants are brought for sale.] trfu trfu ~ [hdrI hdrI rukhu] See tJfu 44. ufu u+ [han hal vocative. 0 God ! the words "hdrI ha:" have been used at the end of phundhe chats in the same way as "ho !" has been used in the last line of dFll. See yc'i"UT. tJfacr [h<::lnk] advevery. 2 Skt ~ part without, except, sans. 3 forsaking, renouncing. 4 near. "hIrdktva hrIdana.--gyan. 'you are near the heart. ' ~ [hdrIkdthal narration of the Creator's glory. "hahE h<::lrIkdtha bujhu hi mure !."-asa patim 3.
'Compare it with



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~ [hClrIkaram] adj devout actions. "kClr

hClrI karam srClvan han kCltha." -sukhmcmi.

ufuwfaru [han ka grIh] abode of the Divine,

the world. 2 human body. 3 congregation. 4 pure conscience. 5 I-Iarimandir. 6 Gurdwara. ufu cit ihft [hCln ki p::Jri] meritorious act, a step towards union with the Divine. 2 a step of the tank at Amritsar, behind Harimandir on the side ofDukhbhanjani. 3 Per Hindu belief, the step of the stairs of river Ganga, near Brahamkund. at Haridwar. clfaofla30 [hankirtCln], <Jfdofl~336 [hClnkirtanu] chanting of the Creator's glory. 2 chanting of Gurbani. "hJnkirtClnu gurmukhI jo sunte." -bavan. ufu -& ~or IlDn ke loki. ufu -& NOT [han ke log] saintly people. "hClrI ke 10k SI sac suhele."-bher u m J. "hCln SClrCll)agClt hCln ke log."-guj d m J. -ufufcp:ro 11'faQr~ [harIknSCln SCltIguru] the eighth Guru of the Sikhs. He was born in the house of Guru Hari Rai to Mata Krishan Kaur, on Monday the 8 th of Sawan (10 th of dark fortnight) Sammat 1713 (7th July, 1656), at Kiratpur and was invested with Guruship on m3. 8th ofKattak, Sammat 1718 (7th October 1661). clfarnfae [hdngubfd] See <JfaalfJe. 2 Krishan "hClngubfd par Idrdn sIdhava. hangubad pdr On a complaint of Baba Ram Rai, Aunmgzeb tIm Ih ava."-GPS. As the god of death had summoned him to Delhi where due to smallpox th assaulted Krishan similarly Abdul Khan he breathed his last on the 14 of the bright fortnight (3 rd of Baisakh) Sammat 1721 (30 th mounted assault on Guru Hargobind. March 1664). Bala Sahib and Bangia Sahib, ufu'QJ9 [hdn guru] adj Satgurulike the Divine. 2 the Guru who frees his disciple from are two holy places in Delhi, consecrated to aberrations and blemishes. "han guru nandk his memory. His Guruship lasted for 2 years, jinI pClrsIo te It ut sClda mukte."--savEye III 5 5 months and 26 days. "$ri hClnknsan dhIaiE jItu <;lIthE SClbh dukh jaI."-C.3c;!I 3. ke. ~ [han gal] narration of the Creator's ~ [hangopall See f'm::rn<r '€"'Ff. ufaiij-fiie- [hangobfd] See 1::f'OT wft:m. 2 See glory. "han gal gdloiE.-var vac;! m 4. clfad~d' [hdrIgita], <Jfda~f3C(t [hClrIgitIka] a ~€'~. 3 See ~ ft:fur. 'clfaaTfife- 11'faQr~ [hdrIgobfd satIguru] the poetic metre. Its stanza has four lines, each sixth Guru ofthe Sikhs. He was born of Guru line having 28 matras. The first pause is at the

16 th matra and the second at the final 12 th • Each line ends with lClghu guru or a rdgdl), that is, SIS. Example: "sdbhI drol) gIrIVdr sIkhar tar ndr, pap kdrdm bhde mdno, uth bhaj dharm sdbhdrm hVE chClmkat damanI so mano." .. -kalki. (b) There is a second form of this metre wherein the first pause comes at the 13 th matra, the second at the final 1yh and a ragal) at the end of the line. This form is also known as sCltpdta and pEc;li (pEri). Example: "phIr kClr sdgre nagdr me, mardana ur ClkulaIkE, bEthe $ri nandk jaM, tahI thClkIt su bESyO aIkE, sri mukh so bujhat bhaye, tIh bdddndhI bIkCll nIharkE, bIn rClbab aVCln bhClYO, nIj bIrtha bhandhu sudharkE."-NP ~ [hdrIgUl)] the Creator's qualities. "hdngUl) gavdhI dndInu jage."-maru solhe

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669 Arjan Dev and Mata Ganga, at village Vadali on 21 5t Harh (6 th ofthe dark fortnight) Sammat 1652 (14 th June, 1595). He received rei igious teaching from Baba Buddha. He contracted three marriages with(a) Damodri, the daughter of Naraindas of Dalla village on 12th of Bhadon, Sammat 1661. (b) Nanki, the daughter of Harichand of Bakala, on 8th Baisakh Sammat 1670. (c) Mahadevi, the daughter of Daya Ram (Dvara) ofMandiali, on 11 th Sawan, Sammat 1672. Guru Hargobind, the spiritual hero and true mentor, had five sons (Baba Gurditta, Suraj Mal,Ani Rai, Atal Rai, and Guru Teg Bahadur) and one daughter named Biro. He was invested with Guruship on 29 th Jeth (14 th day of the dark fortnight) Sammat 1663 (25 th May 1606). At the time of accession, he gave up the previous convention of wearing black woollen cap and instead wore an aigrette on his turban and carried two swords of chieftainship and religious headship. Having viewed the decline ofIndia, he felt the need to preach valour along with spiritual awareness. He raised the Akal Bunga, facing the Harimandir, in Sammat 1665. He got Guru Arjan Dev's shrine built at Lahore in Sammat 1669. During Sammat 1670-71, he lived at places like Daro I i, etc. In Sammat 1684, he helped Mohan and Kala to inhabit Mehraj in Malwa and, in the same year, he got constructed Kaulsar tank. In Sammat 1685, he got Bibeksar constructed for the devout Sikhs. As against the conciliatory policy ofAkbar, Jahangir, on the instigation of some people, started doubting the Sikhs and the fifth Guru was martyred, Guru Hargobind exhorted his followers to become militant and to keep weapons for self-defence. At this, Jahangir confined the Guru in the Gwalior fort. This incident did not lower the esteem of the Guru but raised his status in the eyes of the people. Some leading Muslims persuaded the emperor to release the Guru. Consequently, the emperor not only released the Guru but also mainained friendly ties with him. But when, in Sammat 1685, Shahjahan ascended the throne, he adopted a strict policy towards the Sikhs. As a result, the sixth Guru had to fight four battles in selfdefence, against the army ofthe Mughal emperor Shahjahan. (a) The first battle took place in Sammat 1685, against the Mughal commander Mukhlis Khan, at Amritsar. (b) The second encounter took place against Abdulla Khan, the governor of Jalandhar, in Sammat 1687, at Sri Hargobindpur. (c) The third battle was fought in Sammat 1688 at Gurusar, near Mehraj, against the Mughal commander Qamarbeg. After this battle, the Guru blessed Phool with the reign ofa kingdom.! See ¥. (d) The fourth battle was fought in Sammat 1691, at Kartarpur" against the soldiers of Kale Khan and Painde Khan, etc. After this battle, the Guru moved to Kiratpur but continued the task of imparting religious teaching. He spread the doctrine of Sikhism far and wide and showed the path of salvation to lacs of people in Kashmir, Pilibhit, Bar and Malwa. He was able to bring around many Muslims to the Sikh fold. He sent Udasis far and wide to unfurl the flag of Guru Nanak. He passed on the Guruship to his capable grandson Har Rai and breathed his last on 7th Chet (the 5 01 day of the bright fortnight),
'Many historians have erroncously writtcn that the Phool dynasty was blesscd by the sevcnth Guru but the fact is that he only conl1rmcd the blessings bestowed by his grandfather.

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bicari hanjani."-bdsat m 5. See~. "jo saca hanjan." -var bIha m 4. 2 vehicle of Vishnu, garor. 3 Indar's vehicle, Airavat. 4 the sun's vehicle, horse. -sorm 5. ~ [han jam:] of the pious people. "carni tJfatfe" [hanc;'ld] See (JfaHtl~. 2 See ~. aIpavE hanjanE."-kdlI m 4. 'U'fdtf~ [hanc5daur-ril, c:rfutf~oT 'ij'fu;:fo [hanj;'ln], ~ [hanj;'lni] See ~ [hanc;'ldauri] See (JfaHtl~. '»13" ~. "vican QItha hanj;'lni."-var VdQ ijfatle(') [hanc;'ldan], (JfdtleO [hanc;'ldanu] SkI m4. n a kind ofwhite sandal tree (santalum album), "ijfuc!" [harII:l] Skt n deer. the fragrance ofwhich turns the neighbouring ~ [harII:lakhi] See ~. trees also fragrant. "ram paras cadan ham tJfait [hanl).i] Skt n female deer, doe. kasat losatu, han sagI hari satIsagu bhae han ufdo [hant] Skt adj green. "hant vast tan dhare."-pards. 2 See f<r3". kacanu cadanu kine. "-dhcma m 4. 'God is the philosophers' stone and as also the sandal tree, ufa'3T [hanta] short for ~. "laI tanE hanta."-knscm. 2 greenery, vegetable. 3 See we are the wood and the iron.' 2 one of the '(J'd"3T. trees in heaven. See 'Ef03'Sf. 3 moonlight. 4 lotus ~ [han tal] SkI n yellow orpiment. See pollen. ~oT [hancMd;)ri] See (JfaHtl~. 'iRf3'TC? 2 a kind of yellowish-green pigeon. trfai:r [hanj] See UOR. 2 n lotus springing from ~ [handas] servant of the Creator. "caraD malahu handasna.",---g5Q m 4. 'Massage the water. 3 tree. 4 day that emerges from han feet of the Creator's creature.' (the sun).-so::mama. trfai:r ~ [hanj an] the day emerging from ijfaeHi'lT [h,HIdClsna] of the Creator's creature. See~. han (the sun) and its enemy, the night. -so::mama. 2 a tree coming out of han (water), ijfaeGt'M [handClyal] an astrologer, resident of Talwandi, who was family priest of Saba and its enemy, the elephant.-scmama. ufdt:m [hanjas], ~ [hanjasu] praise of the Kalu. He prepared the horoscope of Guru 5. Nanak Dev. 2 See Creator. "harIjasu karat sat dInu ratIo" 'Ufa"e'a' [handClr] See ~. -sukhmcmi. 2 See ;:it3" Ji13T. dfdeaH(') [hClndClrsan] intuitive vision of the trfat:fir [hanjacch] See ~. 'Some historians have erroneously confused the date of supreme One through self-realization. 2 philosophy of Sikhism, doctrine of the faith the demise ofBaba Gurditta in Sammat 1695, with that articulated by Guru Nanak Dev. "hClndarsanu of the sixth Guru.

Sammat 170 I (the 3 March 1644).1 The name of his memorial at Kiratpur is "Patal Puri". See ~-a-. His Guruship lasted for 37 years, 10 months and 7 days and his life span comprised 48 years 8 months and IS days. "arjun hargobrdu nu SImr;) sn hanraI."-caQi 3. ijfdd1faey-a- [hangobfdpur] See 1J't ~-a-. ijfddlfsog [hangobfdu], ijfddlf~e [hangovfd] See (JfdJirJe. "hangobrdurakhIO parmesan." -guj m 5. "hangovfdu gun rakhIa."


'ijfu;:f&:fo ~ [harijacchanI nadanI] See (JdH5f(') orefcr>.
'(J'fu;::ro [han jan] n creatures of the Creator,

the saintly people. "han jan han atar nahl."

CJfai:ro't [hanjani] pious and saintly people. "Ih

ufutro [hanjan]


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paVE vaqbhagI."-asa m 3. 3 Sikh religion. "harI darsan ke jan mukatI na magahI." -kalI am4. ~ ~ cl 'tIi'l [harIdarsan ke jan] people having faith in the religion ofGuru Nanak Dev, the Sikhs. "harIdarsan ke jan mukatI na magahI." -kalI d m 4. clFaei:lHFo [harIdarsanI] through the glimpse of the Creator's vision. "harIdarsanI trIptai."-g5c;l m 4. clFaedl1Q [harIdarsanu] See <JfaeijH('). ~ [harIdaru] gateway for realising the Creator; congregation of true believers, thl~ Sikh community. "harIdaru seve alakh abheve."-sri chat m 5. ufue'rJ:r [harIdas] a physician, resident of Talwandi, who came to cure Guru Nanak Dev from some illness and to whom the latter then recited this salak, "vEd bulaIa vEdgi." 2 See i:Jl}f e'Ff ~. The name of the father of Guru Ram Das is written as hardas and harIdas. 3 a person of the Vij lineage who was a devotee of Guru Arjan Dev; and the Guru instructed that he (Vij) shoulld first serve food. 4 ajailor ofthe Gwalior fort who became a disciple of Guru Hargobind. 5 a yogi of Kankhal who, in February 1837, performed before Maharaja Ranjit Singh a feat of going into deep meditation for 40 days. The Maharaja got him locked up in a box, buried in the ground and an guard was posted at the spot. When on the fortieth day, the yogi was taken out ofthe box, he was just like a corpse. His disciples revived him with the help of massage, etc. The Maharaja gave a large sum of money to the yogi. Dr. MacGregor and some other European historians have given an eyewitness account of this episode. 6 adj God's servant. "harIdasan ki agIa manat te nahi phunI garabh paran."-sar m 5.

[h a rId a s-sut ], <Jf'd''tTFfOo'Gf [harIdastandy], c:rfu€'1~ [harIdastanE] son of Hardas, i.e. Guru Ramdas. ~ fuc; [han dIn] See ~ ~. clFatfls i <! [harIdibal).], (JFdel'i!'(') [harIdivan] the court of the Creator, religious congregation, or community of the Sikhs. "jo mIlIa harI dibal). SIU, so sabhni dibal).i mIlIa."-var sri m 4. 'He who is a member of the Sikh congregation is a member of every religious community of the world.' ~ [harIduar] See~. "sukhu pavahI harIduar parani."-gdu m 5. ~ [harIdr] Skt turmeric-coloured. See~. ~ [harIdra] See iJOt!T. ~ [harIdvar], ~ [harIdvara] door or means of spiritual-realization, holy congregation. 2 knowledge ofthe self(soul). 3 per Hindu faith, a famous bathing place at river Ganga, near Kankhal, in district Saharanpur (U.P.). It is also called Brahamkund. "nahI mIHE harIdvara."-sordm 5. Mayapur is another name for Haridwar. ~~ [harIdhaul] See ~. 'clfa'm; [harIdhan], 'ufa<:rQ [harIdhanu] the wealth of the Creator's name. "harIdhan ke bharIlehu bhaqar."-sukhmani. "harIdhanu saci rasI hE."-var gdU 2 m 5. ~ [harIdhar] cloud. 2 tank (of water). 3 river.-sdnama. ~ e1l1d 'F;a [harIdhar Israstra] a noose i.e. the weapon of Varun who is the master of water contained in a tank or flowing in a river. -·sanama. ~ [hdrIdh:ll] the white mansion of Indar, paradise "Itno sukh na harIdh:llan ko."
~ [harInakh], ufuorcn:r [harInakhas] See
~ »r3" l{fuwe-. ufuotH [harInam] Skt


12R'1IJ1;\ the Creator's

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Fa?)' fa


name, sdtInam vahguru. "hdrrnam rdsna manas ko janam lin, SImran nahI nImakh kin, kdhdn."-bIla a m .5. 2 a kind of bean. dara sukh bhaI0 2 din, pagahu pari beri... " digestible pulse. See Jioft. 3 See ~ t!T ~1..f 2. ~ [hdnnan] illusion, the phenomenal ~ [hanbaD] Cupid's arrow. 2 arrow of world. 2 an ardent devotee, who regards God's name. "harIbaDe praharaDah." himself as the Creator's consort. "han nan -ga tl1a. 3 See ~ ~ 2. suhagDe ! sdbln rag maDe."-bIl1a cMit m 5. tJfuarit [hanbaDi] the eternal Word, Guru's ~ [hdnnavl See <:J'fuo1H. "hdrInaVE nalI utterance. "mIlI satIs5gI bali hanbaDi." gdla hdnnaVE nalI mdsldtL"-var vac;l m 4. -majhm 4. 2 ferry-like Creator whose name ferries one ~ }fc'jT [hanbol mana] name of a poetic across the ocean-like world. metre which is also known as tIlka. It has BfuoT [hdrIni] See Dfuit. 2 army comprising four lines and each line comprises two saga.t:\S: elephants.--sanama. 3 the earth.--sanama. liS, liS. 'tl'fatre [hdnpadl, ~ [hanpadul fourth state Example: of the soul. "han pad cinI bhae se mukte." "karuDalay hE. anghaldy hE. --bhEr a m 1. khalkhaQan hE. mahIm5Qan hE."-japu. ufuyQ' [harIpur] paradise, heaven. 2 world of 'ij'fuiFf [hanb5s] See ~F.f. 2 a bard who Vishnu. "ta dIn so sukh jagat mE han pur me became a devotee of Guru Arjan Dev. His htl nahL" -carItr 103.3 celestial firmament, poetic compositions have been included in abode of harI (the sun) "han pur pur sar." bhatta de savEye. "harrb5s jagatI jasu --ram. 'The firmament was filled with arrows.' sacaryau."-savEye m 5 ke. 3 an ascetic who 'ij'faiffu [hanp::Jn ] See '(Jfu "Ie hdnp::Jr underwent religious austerities to attain selfacman ae."-GPs. realization after having become a devotee of ufufl:r;rr [hanpnya] Vishnu's consort, Lakshmi Guru Arjan Dev. He was an ardent admirer (Lachhmi). 2 a poetic metre which has four of Bhai Gurdas and preached the message lines, each line has 46 matras with three expressed in his poetic compositions. pauses, each after the twelfth matra; the ijFai3dld [hanbhagatl devotee of the Creator. fourth pause is at the final tenth matra, the 2 a nrr5jania ofvillage Jandiala. He got Sardar last matra being a guru. Mehtab Singh ofMirankot arrested at Lahore. Example: I-Iaribhagat also got many rewards for getting "dhare pat vIvrdh rag, hir cir vrmal ag, killed many other Sikhs. ratdnan mal:lImal :;;ubhra bhukhan amol hi, ijFai3dlFa [hanbhagatI] contemplation of the damanr chabI chatakar. damkat ur mukt-har, Creator. "hanbhagatI han ka pIar hE."--sri maDI gan phaDI nil katI, manIk atol hi." m3. -salah ijFaiiiJdl'd [hanbhagatl devotees o;the Creator. Guru Tegh Bahadur's hymns in the jEjavati "te han ke jan sadhu hanbhagat."-sar m 4 rag are also in this metre. partal. tI"fu'iiiJT [han bha] the Creator's Ium inos ity. Example: "re man, kaun gatI hOI hE teri l .?... 2 spiritual light. "harr or dhano gun

orr ti'm.

'This first verse of that of the pause.

'For the sakc of thc mctre, it is pronounced as bhvyo.

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673 harrbha."-prabha m 4. 'ij'fu i~ [harI bha]1U] remembrance of the Creator. See i'¥. ~ [harI marag] pathway to the Creator. 2 the Sikh way. "mo kau harImaragI paIa." --majh m 5. ~ [harImaragI] in the pathway to the Creator. "ohu harI marag apI calda, horna no harImaragI pae."-var majh m4. ~ [harImala] introspecting over the Creator. 2 mental rosary comprising involuntary repetition of the Word. "harImala ur atarr dhan:."-asa m 5. ~ [harrmIla] adj who has realised the Divine, who has attained self-realisation. "ham jivahI deklu harImIle."--lIdl'm 4. iJfuH~ [harrmadar], ~tg [harrmadaru], ~ [harrmadIr] palace ofthe Divine, the world. "harrmaddr ehu jagat hE.·"-prabha am 3.2 human body. "harrm5daru ehu sarir hE." -prabha d m 3. 3 holy congregation. "harrmaddr soi akhiE jIthahu harIjata."-var ram 1 ill 3. 4 the magnificent mansion got built by Guru Arjan Dev as Temple of the Divine in the midst of a pool of water at Amritsar. "harr japE harrmadar sajn sat bhagat gUlf gavahI ram. "-SUlli chat m 5. See l'>ffli3'FlQ. 5 abode of the sixth Guru in Kiratpur. 6 birthplace ofGuru Gobind Singh at Patna. 7 a Hindu Temple. "kahD kahyo hdrrm5dar me han, kahD masit ke bic pramanyo."-sdvEye 33. trfut;rro [harIyan] See ~ 2-3 and 4. ~ [hdfIrdSl, ~ [harIrasu] relish of the Creator's name. "piE harIrasu bahufI nd trrsna lagE aI."-dnadu. 2 ecstasy of spiritual knowledge. "hdrIras uparI avaru kIa kahiE?"--sor m1. CJfua'rfu ~ [hanraI satguru] the seventh Guru of the Sikhs. He was born to Baba Gurditta and Mata Nihal Kaur. on 20 th Magh (13 th day ofthe bright fortnight), Sammat 1686 (26 th February, 1630), at Kiratpur. On the 3 td day ofthe bright fortnight ofthe month ofHarh, Sammat 1697, he was married to the daughters of Daya Ram, resident of Anup Shahar (district Buland Shahar, UP). Ram Rai was born to Mata Kotkalyani and Guru Harkrishan was born to Mata Krisan Kaur. He attained Guruship on 12th Chet (the 10111 day of the bright fortnight), Sammat J 70 I (8 th March, 1644). He preached Guru Nanak's religion in full nobility. He toured the Malwa, known as jungle, in Sammat 1703 to enlighten the people of the region. At Mehraj he blessed the Phool family by re-contirming the blessings bestowed by his grandfather, Guru Hargobind l .

Aurangzeb charged the Guru with helping Dara Shikoh and summoned him to Delhi. The Guru sent his elder son, Ram Rai. Very shrewdly Ram Rai developed closeness with Aurangzeb who felt pacified. He passed on the Guruship to Guru Harkrishan and hreathed his last on 7th Kattak (9 th day of the bright fortnight), Sammat 1718 (6 th October, 1661), at Kiratpur. The Guruship remained with Guru Hal' Rai for 17 years 5 months and 8 days and his lifetime comprised 31 years 8 months and 17 days. "sImn sri harrraI."-cJQi 3. dfaarfu [harrrasI] wealth of the Divine's name. "harIraSI meri manu vaDjara."-cmJdu. ~ [harrrata] adj devoted to the Divine, imbued with love of the Divine. ~ [harrrukh], ~Cf [harrrukkh] dF<3tlt"!('). 2 the wish-granting tree of (Indar 's) paradise. "kamdhenu parjat harr harrrukh."-toQi m 5. 'The Divine are the Kamdhenu (wish-granting, heavenly cow), Patjat (one of the five trees of
'See footnote to ~t!' Rf3qr~.

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cereals a sin l . 2 Sunday. ~ [harIv~:;;] the lunar race. 2 the solar race. 3 the Vaishnava people. 4 a book, supplement to Mahabharat, which contains 16374 saloks about Vishnu's race. It includes the genealogy of many kings. mil [hari] warded off, removed, abolished. "nanak tapat hari."-asa m 5. 2 green, verdurous. "hari nahi nah QaQuri."·-sri m 5. 3 n a Jait subcaste. See <:Ji:ft '&. 4 See ufo. 5 SkI sit modesty, bashfulness. 6 Lakshmi. "hari Salok~. bISunu Iakhe."-ramav. Vishnu's consort. ~~ [harIIIvm;'}Qal] the state in which 'Lakshmi took Ram for Vishnu.' the mind, oblivious of all else, gets immersed ~ [hariaI] SkI tJTfac;) n a green pigeon, a pigeon-like green-coloured bird. in the love ofthe Creator. All other attachments vanish from the mind. "man harIlIv m;'}QaI ~ [haria] adjstealing, capturing. "haria kI m;'}Qa he."-sohIla. ja va tan ke."-ramav. captivating life and body. 2 suf having, possessed of. "dukh bIQaran ~ [harIlok] n Vaikunth, Vishnu's heaven. haria."-majh m 5.3 n white water-lily said to 2 Indar's paradise, heaven. 3 holy congregation. open at the moonrise. "c;'}drama carhe te jya 4 the Creator's creatures. "harI ke s;'}g base bIrajr set haria."-krIs~m. 4 adj verdant, harIlok."-sar surdas. flourishing. "manI mauiE tanu haria."-suhi ~ [harIlog] creatures or servants of the Divine. "te utam harIiog jiu."-asa ch{jt cMt m 5. 5 third declension, God, the Creator. "nIrgUI). haria sarguI). dharia."-suhi m 5 m4. partal. 'The abstract God has become ~ [harIvar] the Creator as husband; concrete.' husband-like Creator. "nanak harIvar paIa m;'}gal."-vd(l m 4 ghoria. 2 the Divine as the ~ [hariara], ~ [haria vala] adj green, verdant. "saphiio bIrakhu huriavala." best sword. "harIVdr dhar kar."-ramav. -sri d m 1. "Ihu hariara tal." -5 kabir. 'The clfaOiijdH [harIvaras], ~ [harIvarakh] SkI pool ofthe world is surrounded by the verdure ~. a region of the Jambudveep. "tho harIvarakh kh;'}Q jIh thai."-NP See iW cf~. of sensual pleasures.' clFaOiijIH(')1 [harIvasna] eternal desire for mft»fT ~'W [haria vela] a gurdwara of Guru realising the Supenne Soul, self-realisation. Hal' Rai, situated at a distance of six miles "jIni ap tajIa harIvasna samaI).i."-dn{jdu. towards south of the railway station in district Hoshiarpur. It is situated inbetween the villages 'Those who have given up their ego, have their of Chaggran, Bohan, Chabbewal and Bajror. minds occupied with the desire to attain spiritual 'It occurs in the fourth chapter of the vnddh harit realisation. ' clfaOiijiHd [harIvasar] the day of Vishnu, the SIInntI that a Brahman who eats cereals during 11 th day of a Iunar fortnight when the devotees h<Jnvas<lr should be made to sit all a donkey and sent of Vishnu observe fast and regard eating of into exile.

paradise) and the Kalp Birchh (another wishgranting tree of paradise).' ~ [harIr;'}g], ~ [harIr;'}gu] love of the Divine. "harI kau IOCE sabhkoi."-suhi m 4. "harIragu kade na utrE." -gal} m 4 karhale. ~ [harIlal] a Brahman ofKashi who was brother ofKrishan La\. Both of them gave up their casteist pride and became disciples of Guru Arjan Dev. They preached the life view of Sikhism in Kashi and its surrounding areas. It was for them that the Guru recited Sahaskriti

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There goes a story that here dried-up climbers turned green with the blessings of the Guru and hence this name was given to the gurdwara. Seventy-one ghumaons ofland has been attached to this gurdwara since the time of the Sikh reign. A fair is held here on every Baisakhi and Maghi. BabaAjit Singh had also visited this place. The story of his visit goes as follows: Two girls, named Harian and Bharian, residents ofBajwara, and proceeding to Jejon after marriage, were snatched by the Pathans of Bassi Kalan. At this, their relatives went to Anandpur Sahib and lodged a complaint with Guru Gobind Singh who ordered his son to get those girls released and punish the culprits. Baba Ajit Singh fought a battk, got the girls released and duly punished the culprits. Both the girls thanked Baba Ajit Singh and then breathed their last. Their memorial is situated to the north of the gurdwara. The gurdwara, in memory of the Sikhs who laid down their lives in the said battle, also stands there. mft"p [haria] adj destroyer. "harIa karia." -japu. the destroyer and the creator. 2 of the Creator. "kIrpat haria."-sahas ill 5. 'by the Creator's grace.' "ffiftR" [haris] A Lf!..7 adj avaricious, covetous. ual ft::fur [hari sigh] a Rajput fighter of the hill states who fought a battle with Husaini. See ~ '('i"T'2"q »r: 11. 2 Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa who was son of Sardar Gurudyal Singh (Uppal Khatri) of Gujjranwala. He was born to Mai Dharam Kaur in Sammat 1848. This Sikh warrior was an eminent general of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Till date, the dread of his name is prevalent among the frontier Pathans. He won many a battle for the Sikh empire. He died on 19 th Baisakh, Sammat 1894, fighting valiantly in a

fierce battle against Pathans near the Jamrod fort. The memorial of this jewel of the Panth is situated in the fort of Jamrod. 3 grandson of raja Gajpati Singh ofJind and son ofMehar Singh. He died at the age of 18 years, in 1791 AD, of a fall from the roof in inebriation. 4 See~. 5 See ~ -et~. ual qr tf'30 [hari ka pattan] There is a barrage near village Harike. At a short distance upstream, there is the confluence ofthe rivers Satluj and Beas. This barrage is the boundary ofthe districts of Lahore, Ferozepur, Amritsar and the state of Kapurthala. ual if [hari ke] members of Hari subcaste. 2 a village, populated by Jatts of Hari subcaste, on the north bank of the confluence of the rivers Satluj and Beas, near Valtoha railway station, under police station Patti in tehsil Kasur of district Lahore. Guru Angad Dev visited this place. Earlier a gurdwara was there but it no longer exists, and the old habitation, has been inundated by the river. The present habitation is new and there is no gurdwara. mflJifae y'ij" [harigobid pur] See JIT ~'ij". ual tfe" [hari cad] See (JfdHB\;:. "hari cad dan karE jas levE."-gau a ill 1. 2 name offather-inlaw of Guru Hargobind. See ~}fl3T. 3 hillchiefofhac;lur who had come to help raja Bhim Chand ofkahI1 to fight against Guru Gobind uri Singh, in the battle ofBhangani in the month of Baisakh, Sammat 1746. 1 He was a great archer. His bravery was mentioned by the tenth Guru in Vichitar Natak. "taha ek bira hari cad kopyo."-VN. He died of an arrow shot by the tenth Guru. ~ [harijE] become green or verdurous. "ITIIlI sadhu sag harijE. "-kaii a ill 4. 2 (please)
iSome writers have given Sammat 1743 as the year of the battle of Bhangani which is not correct. See footnoteto~.

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eliminate, remove. mft3cft [h~ritki] Skt n myrobalan. L Terminalia Chebula. "g~n jok h~ritki Jr m~d5."' ~sdmudrCJmthal.1. It has a dry and hot effect. In books on Indian system of medicine. it is recommended as an effective remedy for constipation, cough, sprue, piles, intermittent fever and flatulence. ~'ij" [hClripur] See ~'ij". 2 a major city of district Hazara, founded by Sardar Hari Siugh Nalwa in 1822 AD. See tRftmur. 3 a village in tehsil and police station Abohar of district Ferozepur. It is situated at a distance of haifa mile westward from railway station Panjkosi. On the bank of a pool named Bat Tirath, to the north of the village, there is a gurdwara of Guru Nanak Dev and Guru Gobind Singh. The tenth Guru visited this place on his way to the Deccan. This gurdwara came to be known in Sammat 1933. It has been tastefully raised through the efforts of sardar Gurmukh Singh Nilewale. ~"ijT [hClripura] See ~Cf 3. ~ [hClriph] A .....fi.7 adj riv81, adversary, coprofessional. 2 cunning, deceitful. 3 friend. "hClriphul CljimE."-~japu. 4 enemy. "hClriphul sIk~n hE."-japu. "h~t~n h~riph rohyo Ih kIthu, n~hi sClstra kar pdkClryo jaI."~GPS. ~ [hClriphi] A Lt.7 n friendship. 2 enmity. 3 deceit. "adhrk hClriphi jan bhog partrry jo k~rhi."-cCJrItr 21. UtftaT [hClrira] A ~!,.7 n a liquid dish. 2 the dish especially, prepared fro'm the kernels of almonds, pumpkin and gherkin seeds, etc. and wheat milk. It is used as an invigorator for the brain. ~ [harira], <::Rft;:ft [hariri] of the Creator. "sadhu s~gatI sac tClkhat hClriri."-BG. 2 See

humble, flippant.
~ [lnruvai] n triviality, flippancy. "hdruve

[hClruva] adj not heavy, light. 2 trivial,

purkhan ki hdruvai."--GPS. ug»fT (harua], ~ (hClrue] adjnot heavy, light. 2 i.e. free from the burden of pride and perversion. "harue harue tIrIgCle <;lube jIn SIrI bhar."-s kabir. 3 adv by degrees, slowly. "cal c~lf: harue harue."-krIsan. ~ (h~ruf] plural ofhClrdf. W ~ [hClrufe tdhdjji] A !~J.7 plural of haraf is h~ruf and tahajji is the mode to spell; alphabet. .~ [hClre] adj green. 2 eliminated, warded off. "apI kare ape hare."-asa am 1. 3 merged. "jo harr hare su hohI na ana."-gau kabir. 4 adv slowly. "hare bol bal yo bhyo."-krrscm. ~ (harek] P ..ffi adj every, each. ~ [harekha] Skt ~w n neighing (of a horse). "bhayo ~abCld hoy kin harekha."--GPs. ~ (hdrev], ua-~ [harevi] A (J'fi adj resident of f-IiraL "k:idhari hdrevi rraki nr sake." ··bIki. 'the dauntless people of Kandhar, Hirat and Iraq.' da-w [horEya] adjstealer, pilferer. 2 vanquisher. 3 snatcher, seizer. ua-'l? [horol], ~C? [hClT:)l] Dg n vanguard, forefront "hawl hal calya."-·VN. "mar hawl bhoja I d~e." -krrsall. 2 A ,JJfi cantering of the horse. "h~TJI th~myo hoe t~b kh~re."-PPP mfar [hClr~g] every limb. "harrsatua har~ge." ·-gyan. '0 Divine! you are present in every limb.' 'ffif3' [h~r~tl pilfering. 2 neighing. "har~t bajI opar."-gyall. ~ [h~ryau] removed, eliminated, abolished. "~gh5n h~ryau."-scwEye m 4 ke. (J'l? [hal] Skt ~ VI' plough; pull; draw a line. 2 n a plough. See UCi. It is written in ~ 218 of the atrr srmrrtr that the pious plough with eight bullocks, though the use of six bullocks

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is not looked down upon. The merciless people plough with four bullocks and those who use two bullocks to plough, commit cows laughter. The confirmation of this rule is available in the first chapter ofthe apastabh SImrItI. The same is written in the saloks numbering 8, 9 and 10 of the 2 nd in chapter of the Parashar Simriti. 3 the area of land which can be tilled and cultivated well with the help of only one plough. l "bhumI pac hal ki In dijE."-GPs. See tJ;fFfT. 4 In grammar, a vowelfree consonant. The name hal is given to such a consonant because of the line drawn under it. 2 5 See ~ vr 6 A J pron and adj what. ~ [halhar] ploughman. "jEse hCllhar bIna jImi nahI boiE."--g5Q kdbir. 2 bullock (that pulls the plough). m;rm;r [halhal] See ~. ~ [halak) A n throat. 2 Skt ~ ,LJ!t:-.j hydrophobia. This disease is caused by the bite ofa rabid dog, jackal, fox, etc. It should be got treated immediately from the Pasteur3 institute, Kasauli. When it affects the brain of the patient, it becomes incurable. In some cases the virus remains latent for some time before becoming active. Larger the amount of virus injected by the rabid animal and closer to the brain of the patient, the faster is the effect. The patient ofhydrophobia fears water and


IThe unit of measure of hal is not constant in different parts oflndia. It comprises 30 ghumaons at one place, 35 at another and 40 somewhere else. But generally a hal of irrigated land comprises fewer ghumaons than a hal of arid lands.
2S ee W >?fcfa".

'Pasteur was a French scientist. He was born in 1822 AD. He invented the best cure for hydrophobia. The said institution has been named after him.

his appetite disappears. He loses consciousness and his tongue hangs loose. Saliva and froth flow from the patient's mouth that gets dry. He finds light disagreeable and in terror pounces upon others to bite them. These are symptoms of this disease. The wound caused by the bite of the rabid animal should be immediately cauterized with a burning coal or a red hot piece of iron, sufficient potassium permanganate should be rubbed into it. Application of the paste of nuxvomica is also beneficial. The following medicines are beneficial for the treatment of hydrophobia. Pills, each weighing two rattis, should be prepared from the paste of parched grams soaked in the milk of banyan tree under the shade. Depending on the age and strength of the patient, one to eight pills should be given with water. This medicine will expel the poison (the virus) through loose motions. The patient should be made to lick the paste ofthe powder of achyranthus aspera (phuthkaQe) and honey. The root oftulsi (sacred basil plant) levigated in rice water (i.e., the water in which rice has been washed) should be given to the patient. The patient should be given black peppers levigated with the leaves ofsacred basil (tulsi). ~ [haIClkI).a] v become rabid or hydrophobic. 2 become extremely greedy; get omnivorous. ~ [halka] adj not heavy, light. 2 low. 3 A ~ n area, region. "haJike dalke halke kar Qare." -krrscm. 4 Some people use this word for the rabid. See~. dMcl'Fs))fT [hakaIa] adj rabid, extremely greedy. "atar lobh ph IrahI halkae."-asa ill 5. See (J"l"SCt 2. dM«'d' [haIkara] n messenger, courier, postman. "IIkh harkare badsah phIr turat pathae."-j.:ig.

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~ [hdlvan] See ~. 2 ploughman. 2 »B tlMo(lr~»fT. "halkIo sabhahI bIgare." ~ [hdlahal] halhal, halahal and halahal -natam4. are all correct in Sanskrit. That poison which ~~ [halakk] adj dreadful. Who makes others (like a plough) cuts furrows in the stomach. I tremble with fright. "halakk hak marhI" See P Ji\- "char bhayo dal danav ko jIrnI -suraj. 'They raise such cries in the battle as ghum halahal ki rnakhia."-c.JQi 1. ' ...as flies cause dread.' die hovering over poison.' m?\JM" [ha1cal] stir, commotion. n one who ~ tRf [halahal dhar] adj venomous. 2 n makes others tremble with fri2;ht. snake. 3 Shiv. See o'tM'ofo. m;fu [halacc] adj bestirred, in commotion; one ~ [halak] A Ji\- kill, murder. 2 perish, get who makes others tremble with fright. exterminated. "chudhIt hdlak hOI ndr rndre." ~ [hdh).a] v stir or move. See f<:rM" vr. -GPs. ~ [halat], ~ trM"3" [haldt pdlat], trnE l.ffiB ~ [halakat] A di\- n murder, man[hdldtI palatI], ~ [halatu], ~ l.fMg [halatu slaughter. 2 destruction, extermination. pdldtU] Skt fu'u3Jr ~ adj here and there, in ~ [hdlaki] adj killing, destroying. 2 n See this world and the next. "halatI palatI rnukh UWCB. ujle."-sri m 5. 2 this world and the next. ~ [hdlacal] See <:JM" trn'. "kabdhu na hdiia "halatu palatu sdvanonu."--majll barallmalla. pari halachdl."-carItr 327. 'tJ'li5Tt!ftr [halayudh] Skt n Balram who has m?tft [haldi] See ~. plough as his weapon, Balbhadar l . "aSI kop tJ1'5t«f [hdldhar] adjplough-bearing or farming. halayodh hath Idyo."-krIsan. 2 n elder brother ofKrishan, Bah'am, who used ~ [halal] A JtJg having religious sanction, the plough as his weapon. See ~»B l:fR"ffi. lawful. "rnaraI). pahI hararn rndhI, hOI halal tJ1'5t«f »fQ;:r l)ffu [haldhdr dnuj an ]-sanama. na jaI."-var majll m 1. 2 the meat of the the arrow (the enemy of Krishan who was animal slaughtered in the Islamic way which, younger brother of Balbhadar). See ~. according to Islam, it is lawful to eat. "jia ju ~ [halaph] A ....oJ., oath, swearing (by anything rnarahI jor kan kdhI te haln ju halal."-s kabir. sacred). . 3 butchered (in the Islamic way). "hOI halalu ~ [halab] A ~ a famous city of Syria. 2 the lag£ hak jaI."-var ram 1 m 1. area around Halab. d('5El '6d [halbaner] City of Halab. See ~ l. UMTl'5'liQ' [hdlalkhur], ~Q' [hdlalkhor] P "harhar si halbaner."-akal. 'In Halab resides .JfJtJg adjone who eats what is lawful; whose earnings are legitimate. 2 people ofthe lowest glory, luminous like Shiv's necklace (i.e. the castes, such as sweepers etc., who get white snake).' tJ'l'5fa:' [halabI], (Jl'5"lft [halabi],~"lit [hdlabbi] adj converted to Islam are also called halalkhor alpine. 2 the alpine sword (regarded as of for honour's sake. "hE hdlalkhur nic carnar." outstanding merit). "rnahId phuladi tej -GPs. I Balram used to carry a plough on his shoulder. Wielding halabbi."-GPS. 3 alpine glass. it like a crooked stick, he used to hook his enemy's ~ [hdlva] A j}> sweetmeat. 2 pudding. neck. Pulling him towards himself, he used to crush the d('5'i@ie9 [halvai] adj maker of pudding or laltcr's heild with a threshing club. See l:fFlC'ft. sweetmeat, confectioner. See ~.

~ [halkIO], ~ [halkra] adj See ~

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[halalu] See~. m;ft [hali] See <:J"ffi!T. "it ut na hali."-keda m 5. 2 Skt -gfu-';f, adj possessing a plough. 3 n Balram. "kanh hali bal kE tab hi caturag daso dIS bic bagai."-krIsan. 4 ploughman, agriculturist. 'tI1'fuf [halim] A adj clement, forebearing. 2 calm, humble. See fum.r. mmtt [halimi] P ~ n clemency, forbearance, humility. See fum.r. ~ [halu] See m? "halu jotE udamu karE."-gau m4. ~cft [haluki] adj light weight, "haluki lagE na bhari."-gau kabir. ~ [haluva], ~»fT [halua] See ~. ~ [halunJ.).a] v shake. 2 joggle (a tree, etc). ~ [halupha] See ~GT. ~ [halul] A J".L> alight, descend, penetrate, enter. See }{(TW. ~ [hale] part hello ! "hale yara! hale yara ! khus khabri."-tI15g namdev. 2A 4- part take care ! beware ! 3 be it known, pay heed. ~ [halemi] See uffiHt. "tijE halemi cauthE khEri."-maru salhe m 5. 'Humility is the third namaz (prayer) and God's grace the fourth.' 2 adj humble, clement and polilte. "Ihu hoa halemi raju jiu."-sri m 5 pEpaI. See fum.r. ~m '6"'H [halemi raj] See '<ffim 2. mfCf [halak] See ~. 2 he who carries a plough on his shoulders, See~. 3 See m?~. 4 See m;5'Cf. "halak hak marhl."--VN. "Jlri [hall] A d" dissolving, mingling. ri, [halla] See (J"}{W. ~ [hav] Skt n See Sf and it. what is given to a god after invoking him. 2 sacrificial rite. 3 permission. 4 See ~. 'iR'R" [havas] A v'joz' n avarice, convetousness. 2 a kind of mania. ~ [havak] A ,j? n herd, flock, group, mass.

"aspan kuday ae havak hiik line. "-salah.
twO [havan] Skt n act or process of invoking a


god by uttering Vedic hymns and simultaneously pouring clarified butter, etc. into the fire; an oblation or offering made to the fire. ~a [havan kuc;l.] a sacrificial pit, prepared according to procedure given in Shastars, for oblation by fire. According to the Amnay Rahasay, the sacrificial pit should be of quadrangular shape in the east; in the southeast it should be vulva-shaped; in the south. crescent-shaped; in the south-west, hexagonal; in the north, lotus-shaped and in the north-east, octagonal. The Bhavishyat Puran says that the depth of the fire pit should be in keeping with the number ofsacrifices to be performed. For fifty sacrifices, the depth of the fire pit should be fist-deep, for a thousand sacrifices cubit-deep and for a crore of sacrifices the depth should equal eigl1t cubits. Writin p about the fire pit, Sadhu Daya Nand, in the 3 rd part of his Satyarth Prakash, says, "th~ time for oblation by fire is between the sunrise and the sunset. A square-shaped metallic or earthen altar should be made. It should be 12 or 16 fingers wide and.deep and 3 or 4 fingers wide at the bottom. The width of the bottom of the altar should be Y4 of its width at the top. Some pieces of good quality sandalwood, bastard teak or mango tree, etc., cut according to the dimension of the altar, should be put into it. After kindling fire at middepth ofthe altar, the aforesaid sacrificial fuel should be put therein. After this, oblation by fire should be performed by chanting these mantars. "... ~ [haval, ~ [havaI] A IJ1 nair. 2 desire. 3 avarice, covetousness. 4A t? Eve. See »f'tH. ~ [havai] adj aerial. 2 A JtJ1 friend, lover.

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3 n coloured matchstick, a kind of firework. "prem palita suratI havai."-bher kabir. In ancient times, the fuse ofa cannon was ignited with the help ofhavai. ~ J:fH'RT [havae xamsa] A J LfJ1 five objects corresponding to the five sense organs. ~ [havas] A Ll'l.P plural offuH; sense organs. 2 the power that renders a word tactile, sensuous and fragrant. ~ 'l:llfRT [havasI xamsal A J sense organs. ~ [havall A JI..Yf plural of tJ"T1? state, condition. "tIn ko kaun haval."-s kabir. "Ihi haval hohIge tere." -gau kabir. ~ [havala], ~ [havalE] A ...Jl.P n consignment, custody. "kahu nanak ham IhE havala rakhu satan kE pachE."-sor m 5. "han bhagta havalE hota."-ram m 5. 2 reference, allusion. ~ [havarl n sultriness. 2 humid heat; vaporous heat (of the earth). ~ [haVIl, ~ [haVIkhy], 00 [havil Skt~: n the offering to be put in an oblation. 2 clarified butter (which is the main item). "havi jIm khir mahI."~NP 3 Skt ~ adj (objects) which are regarded fit for oblation. "lut khat havIkhy."-ramav. ~ [havelil A n a walled house, a house with a surrounding wall on all sides. ~ 'fI'Tfus' [haveli sahIbl the haveli in which the Sikh Guru or his consort resides. 2 a house, at Delhi, inhabited by Mata Sundari. This house is outside the Turkman Gate. See Jj-em (b) kntakrIt (dried sesame seeds, rice, etc.) (c) aknt (unhusked rice, barley, etc). See Uf§'. CN:if CN:iI' [havy kavy] See CN:if and ~. 'ij;f [har] n flow. 2 floodwater, "gobrd bhdjan bmu har ka jal."-to<;fi m 5. i.e., ephemeral objects. 3 har-the cry of the dead warriors (who laid down his life in a battley. "har bolte jIs thor."-GPs. 'ij;f'ij;f [har harl onom sound of loud laughter. "durga bEn sUl)adi hassi hdr-hdraI."-cJ<;fi 3. mrc')T [harnal v be washed away, drift away. ~ [hartall See ~. 2 See ~. ~ [haPPpl)al v gobble up, gulp down. u31.r' [hdrappal n act of gobbling. 2 a city in district Montgomery, which was visited by Guru Nanak on his way to Multan. Nanaksar is the name of the gurdwara there. See ~ 3. Antique objects are being discovered from the digging of old ruins there. On seeing them, scholars have estimated that they are 3000 years old. ~ [hardppul adjwho devours. 2 omnivorous. ~ [hdrbdrl See ~. cl3S3 i (')i [hdrbdranal v be confused or flurried. 2 be in a hurry. "hdrbaraI pdhuci dukhIari." -GPs. ~ [harbaril n flurry, confusion. 2 commotion, bustle. 3 haste, rashness. ~ [hdrVal)il flood water. 2 flowing river. "rattu de harval)i calle bir khet."-cJ<;fi 3. "nrddk la-Itbar mIle harval)iE."-var mala m 1. 'Slanderers and backbiters get lost in the flow of death.' 3 Skt ~ qr;fu:- the cane of a caq,al. Slanderers and backbiters are caned by the caq,als (i.e. the lowest and most despised people) in ajail. '(jT [hal Skt vr give up, wander, go about. 2 adj killer, destroyer. "sajog nam sdtru ha."
lPeople believe that the souls of the soldiers killed in the battlefield keep on crying: "Kill!" "Catch!". etc.



lfT3T n8



[havyl Skt adjfit for oblation. 2 n anything that is offered to a god during oblation. Three types of objects fit for oblation have been mentioned in the 24 th chapter of Katyayan Simriti. (a) krIt (cooked rice, parched barley meal, etc.)

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--paras. 3 part expression ofgriefor dejection, alas! 4 woe. 5 slander. 6 P ~ a suffix indicating plural in Persian like ~JT thousands (of). 'iji [hal part expression of acceptance or assent. 2 aye, all right. 3 also used as a reminder. 4 P U~ take care! beware! ~ [haubhau] See (J~ ~. [haul adj killer, destroyer. 2 n bogey created by ignorant people to frighten children. "vak karur te jhrrkato hau rt ora."

'ij'Tfu [haIl part expressing distress or sorrow,


ah! "har har kare drnu ratI."-dhana chat m 4. See (J-rfu M. ~ [haIhu] See (JTtjf ~'. UTfu [har bhar] See ~~. "brsekh har bhar k£."-ramav. "harbhar hahu bhat drkhae." -cantr 16. 'iJTful;r [harl] See <::Jl'l:il?? [hail n a blue bottlefly that, while sitting on an open wound, muJtiplies genn$ and bacteria. 2 Skt used for Skt »rft;r. "t1J. mera guru hai."-sor m 5. 'You are my guru (teacher).' 3 L~. used at the end of words to indicate plural. "grani dhrani gut gur hai."-sodarv. "guruhar guru." See E high. 4 adj killer, destroyer, assassin. "dalahot hai."-GV 10. (J'Tff [has] See <:IFf vr n laughter. 2 joke. 3 a subcaste of Rajputs. 'ijiJ.f [has] n an ornament, worn by women around the neck. WR'3T [hasta] laughing. See ftrcr ftrcr. ~ [hasad] See 'U"fi::re'. 'U"fIli5' [hasal] A ~L> adj acquired, attained. 2 n consequence, result. 3 purport, object. 4 toll, revenue. "hukam hasal kari bEtha."-sri m 1. urw [hasa] See (J'Tff. 'U"fi::re' [hasrd] A yL> adj jealous, who resents the prestige and glory of another. "sikhya hasrd jan6 ki pyari man navab."-PP



[hasrl] See ,(JTFm. tJTfit [hasi] See tJTF1. ~ [hasi] See iJ'Ff, ('J1:IT. 2 a major city in district Hissarof Punjab. It is situated at a distance of fifteen miles from Hissar. This is a station of the Rajputana-Malwa railway. It has been -the capital of Anangpal, Prithvi Raj, Masud and George Thomas, etc. It came under the control of the English in 1803 and remained one of their cantonments for a long time. During the mutiny of 1857, the army stationed here revolted and killed many Englishmen. These days there is no cantonment, but remarkable is its agricultural farm. 'U""fitl)fI' [hasia], ~(J' [ha~iyah] A ~~ selvage, border; margin. urmr [hasy] Skt n laughter. 2 jest, joke. 3 one ofthe nine sentiments, of mirth brhumour in poetry. See OFf. (J'I(J' [hah] part expression of griefand surprise. ah! alas! ~ [hahla] n uproar, cry of distress or lamentation. U'tJ1' [haha] part expression of grief, distress or lamentation. 2 remorse, repentance. "haha prabhll rakhrlehu."-dhana m 5. 3 a mythological minstrel. See (JT(JTW. 4 sound of laughter. "haha karat brhani avadhahI."-jEt m 5.5 pronunciation of the character(J'. "haha hot hor mhi jana."-gav bavan kabir. 'iji 'iji [ha hal part expressive of assent. 2 all right, correct, true. 3 oh ! "ha ha laptIO re mureL"-togi m 5. 4 undoubtedly; without hesitation. "ha ha man caran renu." -kan m 5. tfl'(JT ~ [haha huhu] Skt two heads of Gandharavs who are musicians in the court of Indar. "haha huhu gadhrab apsra."-mala m 5 partal. It is written in Gajendarmoksh (a text from the Mahabharat) that Haha and Huhu became: proud of their art and, because


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of their pride, they were cursed by sage Deval to be born as elephant and octopus respectively. U'CJT qrij' [haha kar] n uproar of distress or lamentation. ~ [hahuk], ~ [hahuka] a sad sigh. "hahuk let gai sabh hi."-krIsau 'U'Ct [hak] n a call, shout. "jara hak di sabh matI thaki."-suhi kdbir. "When old age beckoned, then all the wisdom got weary.' 2 See, w. "soi sac hak."-var ram 2 m 5. 3 See~. uTa" [hak] n goading. 2 a call, shout. 3 See <:Jifq. ~ [hakna] v urge 011, drive. 2 shove on. 'ijTQ)f [hakam] A fl.> adj ruler, governor. ~ [hakamraI] a favourite companion of Bahadur Shah whom he sent, alongwith Bhai Nand Lal, to solicit Guru Gobind Singh's help in the battle of Jajovan. ~ [hakal], ~ [hakla] a poetic metre also called sudhadhar. It has four lines, each of which has 14 matras. The first pause is at the ninth matra, the second at the fifth thereafter, each line ending with two gurus. Example: "gal mala tIlak, lIlata, dUI dhoti bastra, kapata... "-var asa. "aI).marla madal bajE. bIn sayan ghanhar gajE. badal bIn varkha hoi. jau tattu brcarE koi."-sor namdev. 2 See 'U"CXW. ~ [hakarra], ~ [hakara] adjwho calls, janitor, messenger. "dan hakarra ara hE." ~vac;I m 1 alahl)i. "hakara ala ja trsu bhala." -vac;I m 1 alahl)i. uifcr [hakr] pron I. 2 part that I. "hiikr balI balI balI ball sad balrhar."-savEye m 5 ke. 3 undoubtedly, definitely. ~ [hakrni] according to Tantar Shastar, a species of female demon's. [haku] See W »8" 'U'Ct. "drla ka malIk bre haku."-ram m 5. 'does Justice (hakk).' ~ [hake] See <:Jifq. CJ'1'R'3" [hajat] A ~l.> n necessity, requirement. 'ijTfJ)-fI' [hajma] A /~ digestive power, digestion. 'ij'Ij1ij' [hajar] A /l.> adj present. 2 ostensible, visible. "or hajarumltha bo1de."-vargau 1 m 4. 'ij'Ij1ij' UijO [hajar hajur] A j? /l.> present and visible, transparent. "kr hajar hajur hE."-japu. ij'AdA<;'ij [hajarjavab] A ..... I?/l.> he who is ready with an answer; quick-witted. ~ [hajarnamah], ~ [hajarnama] a hymn attributed to Guru Nanak Dev, which begins as "hajra ko mrhar hE." "hajarnama kin bakhana."-NP 2 a rahrt-nama written by Bhai Harnam Singh. ~ UijO [hajra hajur] See <JTH'd" ~. "hajra hajur dar pes to mani."-trlag namdev. 'ij'1'H'ij'T3' [hajrat] A .::-I/l.> practice of calling the ghosts etc. "hajrat jab bEth magavE. dey bhut jfnat bulavE."-carItr 135. U'iRft [hajri] A If?l.> presence, availability; being at hand. tJTHg [hajaru] See <JTH'd". 'ijTHT [haja] A pron this. 'U"fit [haji] a pilgrim to Mecca. See <:JR. "jo dII sodhE soi haji."-maru solhe m 5.2 slanderer, vilifier. ur;:fty'd' [hajipur] a well known town of district Muzaffarpur in Bihar. "has kESi hajipur."-akal. ~ [hiijhi] See <:ft:it. U'G [hat] n shop. "aju mE bESio han hat." -mala m 5. 2 See ~. "mara gaia hat." -sar m 5. ~ [hatak] Skt n thorn-apple. 2 gold. "btl ~am~er mu~tI JIS hatak."-GPs. ~ [hatakpur] n Lanka, which is said to be built of gold. 2 translated form of Kundanpur. See rit7'i1::f'd'.

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'U"G'Ott [hatki] adj golden, made of gold.
[hatli] See ~. 'ijTfG [hatI] n shop. 2 adv afterwards. "mng pakre ghar a.t;le hatI." -bher IT! 5. 3 at the shop. "tIsu jan ke ham hatI bIhajhe."-mala m 4. ~ [hatIO] adjturned, refrained. "nfdakgur knpa te hatIO."-toQi m 5. 2 n shopkeeping. "jhuthE banajI UthI hi gai hatIo."-mala ravdas. 3 shop. ~ [hati] n shop. 2 home. "hati bati rahahI nnale."-srdhgosatr. That means 'within and without or inwardly and outwardly.' 3 adj abandoned, moved away. ij 1e1EI'i1 [hatibati] n shop and garden; home and garden; home and forest; family life and asceticism. "hati bati rahahI nIfale." -srdhgosatr . 'd"'? [hatu] See tJ"'C. ~ [hatuli] n shop. See 'R'Gm. ~ [hate] stopped, halted. "maIa bIkh mamta Ih bIadhI te hate."-guj m 5. ~ [htE] turns away. "gur ka SIkh bIkar te hatE." -sukhmani. ~ [hatEhat], ~tJ"'C [hatohat] sen from one shop to another. "rovahu sakatu bapure ju hatE hat bIkaI."-s kabir. i.e. 'born as various types of creatures in hell, heaven or other worlds.' ~ [hatoli] n bazaar, a row of shops. 2 shopkeepers. uro [hath] adj resolute, persistent. "nsvat hath hamir."-kalki. "bj sata.t;li hath p~ja joriE."-var guj 2 m 5. 2 n side, faction, aspect. "hatha dOVE kitio."-var maru 2 m 5. 'both sides of attachment and detachment.' 3 army's flank. "qahe ju khet jatale hatha jorkE."-c.3Qi 3. tJTi5T [hatha] plural ofuro. See uro. U"'i5t [hathi] adj resolute, persistent. 2 S bodystructure. 3 ashes of pyre. urc5'tw [hathisa] n longing to obtain with

obstinacy or persistence. "kure murakh ki hathisa."-suhi m 5. 'tJ'Ti5tw [hathila] adj resolute. 2 n persistence, obstinacy. "tIagahu man hathila."-guj m 5. urg fl:fur [hathu sfgh] In Sammat 1815 when a few imprisoned Singhs were presented before Ahmad Shah Durrani, he said, "A Singh (lion) can combat an elephant, can you with the epithet ofa lion do so? Hathu Singh showed his desire to combat an elephant. Ahmad Shah pleased with his courage, patience and strength, released all the Sikhs.-PP. According to Prachin Panth Prakash Ahmad Shah got him killed.] tJTc5' [hathol, <J"3' [hathJ] adjresolute, persistent. tJTir [haq] n bone. "haq mas nari ko pfjar." -sor ravrdas. ~ [haqsan] W.S.R Hodson was son of clergyman George Hodson. He was born in England on 19th March 1821. He was recru ited in the army and fought against Sikhs at places like Mudki and Sabraon. Charged with the stigma of dishonesty, he was discharged from the army. During the mutiny of 1857, his services were appreciated and he was appointed an officer in the ca1valry. It was named Hodson Horse. Hodson was a very cruel person. He arrested Bahadur Shah, king of Delhi along with his sons, from the mausoleum of Humayun and disgraced himselfby killing the princes. Hodson was killed during an attack on Begum Kothi in Lucknow on 11 th March, 1858. ij ' iilla'301 [haqphorni] body ache. Due to fatigue or a disease such as fever, ache is felt in the bones, as if they were getting broken. th 'ijT$T [haqa] a Rajput clan. In the 156 generation of Chauhan dynasty, there was a
'This version of Prachin Panth Prakash is true.

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majestic raja name Bhanuraj. He was a great nothing but a loss. worshipper of Durga. Once during a hunting tJT3' [hat] See U3". Skt (iRf. abondoned. 2 worth expedition, demon Gabhir devoured Bhanuraj. abandoning, worth foregoing. "bIn nam nanak After collecting his bones, Durga revived hat."-kan m 5. 3 A ..:.,.~ bring, give. Bhanuraj with her powers and named him ~ [hatak] adjwho destroys; who obliterates. Hada. The pedigree beginning from Bhanuraj "a11Ik bhat ke patak hatak."-GPS. is known as Hada to which Maharaja Bundi ~ [hatam] short for ~. belonged. (See }j d1d'le l (') ftr3" ftfa1c? fu:r) "gae,ta tJT3T [hata] A ,.1.(.,1 enclosure; fenced area. calf na hae,ta cal hL"-VN. 'A pitched pillar 2 division ofa country. 3 See U3". Muslims from may move but a raj put does not move away the hills who carry loads and split firewood from the battlefield.' "hae,ta alam c;")d hL"are also called hatas. EG. 2 a menial caste in district Kangra. ~ [hatIph] A ...;j~ n a prophesying angel. ~ [hada] n a cooking vessel. 2 a subcaste tJTfuH [hatIm] A ((., adj who judges. of Khatris, who do not eat meat and consider ~ [hatImtai] an Arab chief of Tai descent who was very prudent, benevolent and Sheikh Farid as their lineal spiritual guide. m [hae,ti] wife of Hada; a Rajput woman. pious. He lived before Prophet Mohammad "tab hae,ti patI s6 naru jari."-GJrItr 195. 2 adj was born. His benign book of sermons has one having weakness for sucking bones and been translated into many languages, including Persian, Urdu, English etc. eating meat. ~ [hae,ti] Skt ~ and "§"~ n a wide- tJT3' [hate] were destroyed. See U3". "kotI dokh mouthed earthen cooking vessel. "kubhar ke roga prabhu drISatI tuhari hate."-dev ill 5. ghar hae,ti achf."-toc;fi namdev. 2 plural of<J13T. ~ ~ Jfar3" [hae,ti vali s;")gat] See '€l'?i"11::fo. ~ [hatri] Skt ~ adj who steals. 2 who takes away. 3 See ifor. ~ [hae,th1).aJ, ~ [hae,than] v move. See CJTS" [hath] n hand. "satIguru kae,thIlie de ~. "dah dISI calI calI hae,the."-gau m 4. "karE nid bahu joni hane,thE."-g5c;f ravIdas. hath."-kan m 4. oar. "na tulha na hath."--var illCJla ill I. 3 rudder, helm. 4 depth, extent. "joni hae,thif."-var ram 2 m 5. ~ [ha1).] See tJl"fu" and (JTO. "SU1).IE hath hOVE asgahu. "-jCJpu. ~ [ha1).at] Skt <ftC'l"3"r n dearth, paucity, 'Immeasurable gets measurable.' "ham inferiority. 2 loss. "ha1).at kade na hOI."-var e,thue,thI rahe pai nahi hath."-kan m 4. U"a" tRJ?jT [hath carnal, U"a";::r;ror [hath carnal v bIha m 3. 3 A ..::r~' contempt, insult. tJTfc!" [ha1).I], <JTit [ha1).i] Skt <:JTfo n loss, harm. See <Ja" ;::r;ror. "hath cano han thoka."-guj "par gharu johE ha1).e ha1).I."-sIdhgosatI. 'It m5. is pure and simple a loss.' "mulu ja1).I gala U"a" 1JT6OT [hath 4arna], (JTl:f ~ [hath e,talna] v interfere. 2 lay hand on. 3 lay hand upon a kare ha1).I laI ha1).u."--var majll m 2. 'persons of the same age; equal in age.' 2 Skt tfTWi't. of woman for adultery. "tf' muhI e,tara hath batEh6."-CdrItr 266. the same age. "nav ha1).I nav dhan sabadI ~ [hathdena] v help, come to one's rescue. jagi, ap1).e pIr bhaia."~bIla chat m 1. "hath deI rakhe parmesdn."-guj ill 5. ~ [ha1).u] See tJTfu". CJTS" 1..I'Jl'T6'<!T [hath pasar1).a] v extend hand. ~ [ha1).eha1).u] See tJl"fu". 2 Skt tP?5": <:JTfo:

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2 beg. 3 dare to oppress. "hath p~sarI s~kE ko j~n ko?"-brla kabir. tJT'6' ~ [hath p~chorna], ~r ~;mr [hath p~chornal v repent, regret. "hath p~chorahI SIr dh~r~nI l~gahI."-bhEr m 5. "hath p~chop: SIrI dhunE."-trl.'lg m 1. tJT'6' 'ffiI1'TOT [hath l~ganal 11 show one's physical might. 2 plunder one's wealth. 3 warn and punish. "mG<;l ko muq utar dIyO, ~b caq ko hath l~gav~t caqi."-caqi 3. tJTa'l'W [hathalal n bottom, measure, extent. "sag~r gUIJ.i ~thah, kIn hathala dekhiE?"-var maru 1 m 1. 2 hand, palm. UTfir [hathIl in hand. "hathI tISE kE nabera." -maru solhe m 5. 'The decision lies with the Creator.' 2 See rn. 'ij'1"lft [hathil Skt"ilflJ, one having a trunk. "k~ha bh~IO d~rI badhe hathi?"-dhana namdev. In Rajputana's Dingal dialect, the following different names are assigned to elephants according to their age An elephant of five years age is bal ten years age is bot twenty years age is bIkk thirty years age is k~l~bh 2 arm, which carries a hand. "guru hathi dE nIklavEgo."-kan a ill 4. "'sasar sag~r te kaQhu, de hathi."-vaq m 5. ~ [had~r 1A ?t.. present, existing, at hand. "had~r hot jaha sImre."·--GPS ~ ~ [had~r h~dur], ~or <Jffu [hadra h~durI] See <JiHd<Jj;ld. 2 nearby.. "gaVE ko vekhE hadra h~duri."-japv. urfew [hadIsa] A ~-'''' accident, incident, event. ~ [hadi] A JJ~ adj one who gives instruction; instructor. 2 n religious preacher, spiritual guide. 3 arrow. urit [hadho] happens. "gurmati sudh hadho."

-kan m 4 partal. [han] Skt n abandonment. 2 See '(J'TtiJ('). "han bIkhE jeu jvan hute."-krrsan. 'who were of the same age.' (JT03' [han~tl insult, contempt, disrespect. See tJ1B 3. "hanat kahyo nabi ki k~ri."-carrtr99. 'ijTfo [ham], tJTo'T [hanil See c:JTf<y. urfeR [hafIjl A j;j", adjone who has memorised some scripture. 2 This word is especially used for persons who remember the holy Koran by heart. 3 a famous poet ofPersia who composed a sublime book of poetry. He died in 1389 AD at Shiraz, where stands his mausoleum. Many people call blind persons by this name, the reason being that they learn Koran by heart. [hafIja] A ';;t.. n memory; power to memorise. ij'fCiiH'S'€ [hafIjabad] a principal town of a tehsil in district Gujaranwala. It was founded by Hafiz, a revenue official ofAkbar. Situated to the west of Wazirabad at a distance of twenty kohs, it is an important railway station. Guru Hargobind stayed here on his return from Kashmir. A beautiful hall has been raised there. Since the Sikh rule, forty ghumaons of land from Hafizabad and twenty-eight ghumaons from village Batera are assigned to this gurdwara. A fair is held every year at this place on 15 th of Harh. uratft [habsi] See <Ja"F.it. "bhaje habsi halbi." -kalki. 'Warriors from Habash and Halab fled.' 'iJ'Tfin;r [habIl] See ~. tJlW [hamal n responsibility; showing agreement. 'Yes I am his supporter.' "gur piru hama ta bh~re, ja murdaru n~ khaI."-var majh m 1. "cor ki hama bhare na kOI."-dhana m 1. See



~ [hamIll A

Jt.. adj the bearer.



UTfi..Iw [hamIlal A j.t.. pregnant. See


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'ij1}ft [hami] A


diP supporter. ~ [haraIanu] defeated, subdued. "IkI [hayhu] P Y<L~ n loud noise, loud protest. manmukh karI haraIanU."-var kan m 4. 'ij'T'l;fi') [hayan] Skt n year. "ek dOI hayan me urfa' [han 1having been defeated, having been kijIye sucet so."-NP. 2 rice; paddy. 3 flame routed. "tIn jamu nep na aVE gursabadu offire. kamavE, kabahu na avahI harI jiu." ~ [harIo], <:Jl'funr' [harIa] adjwas defeated. ~ [hayaI] A J:iP adj interrupter, disrupter. 2 discoloured. "bhrIt mIt put pathaI, raja atI 2 was exhausted. hayal bhayo." -carItr 114. 3 A J:~ horrible, c:rrfatr [harIj] A [;;.11.> interrupter. terrifying, fearful ~ [hari] Skt n act of losing in gambling etc; 'ij'I'ij' [har] n defeat. See ~. "ran har nIhar defeat, reversal. 2 a group of pilgrims, horde bhae bal rite. "-cacji 1. 2 Skt garland. "har <;lor of visitors. 3 pearl. 4 Skt ~, adj carrier. ras pat patabar."-tukhari bara11mah. 3 adj S thief. 6 garlanded person. 7 charming, carrier, bearer. "ram bhagat ke panihar."-g5cj enchanting. "jInI die bhrat put hari."-ram a m 5. 4 suf having; owning. "dekhega m 5. Here the word hari is perhaps a transformation ofhara See 'UaT6. 8 fire, which deval).har."-sohrla. See ~ t!T ¥ 18. is the carrier of sacrifice to gods. 9 suf ~ [harai] gets defeated, meets with defeat. 2 a garland is like a rosary. "namu nIdhanu capable. "prema bhagatI upavanhari, hari rIdE UrI harai."-sava m 5. nfdak brfdan dah."-GPS. fire to burn a lJTa' [har sfgar] Skt Em: '1I~TJn: n L vilifier. 10 S ploughman, cultivator: Nyctanthes arbortristis; a tree which bears 'Ul'g [haru] See 'ij'I'ij'. white fragrant flowers; its twigs are ofgolden ~ [haru] adj abductor; thief. "manharu." hue and are used for colouring clothes. See -GPs. enchanting, fascinating. a?i1-f1'W. 2 adornment with a garland. ~ [haru] A dj.l~ Aaron; elder brother of ~ [harak] Skt adj thief. 2 carrier. prophet Moses. He used to carry out his orders and was his deputy. 3 destroyer. 'ij'I'ij' ~ ww ft:rQ' [har juar jua bIdhe]-gau 2 maternal uncle of Lord Christ, brother m 5. 'like a gambler's defeat in gambling.' of Mary. He was son of Imran from Hannah. Some scholars are of the view that Harun was tJTa<!T [harl).a] get defeated, be defeated. 2 loss not a real brother of Mary, but was her pious of strength. ~ [harad] Skt <JTe' adj related to the heart or soul brother. the mind. 2 n love, affection. 3 emotion, 3 A Harun of Abhas dynasty (~)ldj.lP was the fifth Caliph. He was born on the 20 th feeling. CJTQ1? [haral] Pkt lame, lameness. "harI han of March 763 AD. He succeeded as caliph in haral ki lakri jya pritI hE." -alJkar sagar sudha. 786 AD at Baghdad upon the death of his father Mehdi. He was a majestic king. He died tJ'TaT [hara] adj defeated, subdued. "karat pap ab hara." -jet m 9. 2 suf capabIe. "sadal).hara in Khurasan on the 24 th March 809 AD. His mausoleum is in Tus (Mash had). sImrir."-sohrla. 3 Skt ~ n a drumIn the 16 th chapter of the latter half of shaped earthen vessel in which dung cakes Nanak Prakash, Bhai Santokh Singh has are burnt and milk, green vegetable and khIqi mentioned Harun as brother of Karun which etc are cooked.


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is incorrect. Even otherwise the story ofKarun is fictitious. See~. ~ [harut] See GfuF.r3r. 'U'¥ [harun] See ~. ~ [haro] See <::JTaT. 2 defeated. "jito bUQE haro tar£." -bher kabir. ~ [hal] A Jl.: n present time. 2 love. "bhae galtan hal."-nat m 4 partal. 3 state, situation. "harI bIsrat hovat eh hal. "-gau thIti m 5. "anbolat hi janahu hal."-bIla m 5. 4 ecstasy of love, in which one loses control over his body. "khebt khelat hal karI."-s kabir. 5 description, narration. "banavE grath hal h£."-krrscm. 6 short for darhal; urgently. ~ '[l? [hal hull n loud noise. 2 commotion. ~ ~ [hal cal] See~. 2 condition, mood, behaviour. "us da ki hal cal hE?"-prov. ~ [halat] A ...:J(., n condition. ~ [halbi] adj of or pertaining to Halab. See

[hala] n revenue or tax per plough. "pac sIkdara pace magahI hala. "~suhi kdbir. 2 SkI liquor. "pIy£ ek hala guh£ ek mala." -ramcJdrIka. "hala sevan jIH kari kal nImatraI). din, sukh sampad ko khoikE at bhae atI din." 3 A IJ(" adv just now. "karh6 nahI Qhil deu pat hala."-krrsan. 4 P j~ halo, a circle of illumination around the sun and the moon. ~ [halahal] See ~. 'tJ'l'W [hala Qol] n commotion.. "hala Qol parat kuber hu ke ghar me."-52 Poets. U'H'fl:£tif [halaprIY] Skt adj addicted to liquor. 2 n Balram, elder brother ofKrishan, who was addicted to liquor. "hali madIra pit-tho." -krIsan. 'ij'11ift [hali] P J(" adj of or pertaining to the present. 2 n a rupee coin ofNizam Hydrabad, which is four ratties short ofthe English rupee and is in circulation in Nizam's kingdom for


fourteen annas. 3 a poet of Urdu, who followed the footprints of Mohammad Hussain Azad and was in favour of writing poetry in spontaneous vein. 4Skt ploughman, cultivator. "man hali kIrSaI).i karni."-sor mI. ~ [hav] SkI n evocatiion, act of evoking. 2 In poetics, longing manifest in bodyparts expressive of feelings of the heart. "hav paraspar duhuan bhayo."-carrtr 367. See OFf. ~ [havan] P (;),~ n mortar. n a stone or wooden mortar for pounding grain. ~ 'elf [havan dasta] pestle and mortar. ~ ~ [hay bhav] See ~ and ~. ~ [hava] n sigh. 2 repentance, remorse. "jItu vela vIsarahI ta lagE hava."-vdd m 5. 3 separation. "sa dhanu dublia jiu pIr kE hav£."-gdu chat m 1. ~ [havai] n which flies in the air; firework. See ~. "jEse havai chIn VIC asman nO car jadi h£."-JSBB. 2 adj just as air. "akhi mit gaIa havai."-BG. ~ [havi] A "",[.,. overwhelming, overpowering. 2 apprehender, controller. ~ [have], ~ [havE] plural of~. "tIn kade lla cukanI have."-var ram 2 m 5. 2 due to sighing or repentance. "nid na aVE hav£." -bIla m 5 pdrtal. ur;r [hal'] n sound produced by the dead in a battlefield. See (J;f 3. 2 fourth month of the Bikrami era. 3 flood. See €". 4 See ~. 'tJT37iT [harna] v estimate, assess. 'C]'l';it [hari] n winter crop. 2 a subcaste of Jatts who are residents of Jind state. ~ [haru] a devotee of Guru Arjan Dev. He belonged to Vij subcaste. 2 See ~. 3 one who makes an estimate. 4 will make an estimate. ur;far [haraba] the land surrounding Magahar. See }f(ffi)Q. "harI ka sat marE harabE ta sagli SEn tarai." -asa kabir.

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~ [harabE] in Harhmba, in Magahar. See
~ and l-l'Ol'<J"O.

te nClhi chuti."-sar pClrman5d. 2 tormenting.

fuJ:rrlr [hIsab] A ",:,",l? n calculation,
computation, addition. fJ1:rg [hfsaru] Skt animal killer. 2 lion. ffiw [hIssa] A ~ part, portion, share. ffii:r [hfsrCl] SkI adjtormentor, killer. 2 n animal like a lion. 3 See titi=r. fclij()I()1 [hIhnana] v neigh. "hInnavClt bClhu phUClhI turag."-GPs. ~ [hIhnari] n neighing. ~ [hIhnav] n neighing. "pun uce hIhnav sunava."-GPs. m [hIk] See fflor. 2 In Sindhi and western Punjabi it is ft:Jg. In Dingal it is ~. "je qekhE hIk var."-var maru 2 m 1. iJ fbfa" [hIk dli hIkr] one after another. "hIk du hIkI car£."-jet ch5t m 5. ~ [hIkni] some have. "hIkni ICldIa hIkr lCldI gCle."-maru am 1. fuorH3' [hIkmClt], fuc;n..rf'o [hIkmatI] A ~ n wisdom, sagacity, erudition. "murClkh paqIt hIkmCltI hujCltI."-Var asa. 2 art of healing. fual.r3t [hIkmClti] adjwise, skilled, ingenious. ~ [hIkayClt] See ~ and <JO:T1Jf3'. fu'f« [hIkIl indefinite pronoun; several, so many, numerous. See fuao't. fu'cg [hIku] See 'fu'q. 2 "hIku sevi hIku samla."-var jEt. ft:ra' [hIko] the only one. "hIko mEqa tu dha:r:ti." -asa a m 1. ~ [hIkk] n chest. 2 Skt ~ vr torment; give out a sound resembling a hiccup. mw [lukka] See f<JtJoIT. 2 It is also a transformation of~. only one. See ~. roar [hig] SkI ~ L Femia Asafoetida. Its effect is hot and moist. Asafoetida helps in digestion. It is anti phlegmatic, antiflatulent. It is also used in cooking pulses and vegetables and is put as a spice in small cakes ofgrounded pulse.

[harh] See »fl;:IT;f. [harhu] produced in the month of Harh. fu[hI] Sktvr go, inspire, send, feel distressed, grow. 2 part determination, faith. 3 cause. 4 fu denotes the end of a word, and indicates ~ (existence). "kI CltapClhI, kr ClthapClhI."~ gyan. 5 in old Punjabi it gives the sound of dulaia [E] as Rtlfuin place ofHlt, ~ in place of em etc. 6 at the end of the word it also gives the meaning of the second and seventh declensions. as "jISClhI jClgaI pian Ihu rClSU. "-sollIla. after awakening whom. "mClnClhI nCl kijE rosu."-ram namdev. 'One should not feel any regret.' fu>,r [hICl], fu»Ir [hIa] Skt ~ n mind. fu»fT [hIa] See fu»Ir and ClJIi'. ~ [hIau] n mind. "tClpE hIaU jiClra bIl laI."-dh,ma m 1. "hIau nCl thahe kClhi da." -s farid. See 'iJlilT. fu»fTfu [hIaI] See ~ and 'iJlilT. 2 earnestly. "bIn jIhva jo jClpE hIaI."-mala m 1. "hiaI kClmaI dhIaIa."-var manl 2 m 5. funrr'w [hI ala] mind as temple. "bClsE rClb hIali£."-s farid. "ghCltI ghCltI ramu hIali£." -maru am 5 {'}juli. 'In the mind of each and in every body puts up the Supreme. ~ [hIaliE] in the temple of the mind. See ft:r»Irw. fuJ:r [hIS] A Lfl n sense of touch; touch. ffi1:r [hIS] Skt ~ vr kill, torment, torture. [hfsClk] Skt adj violent killer who obliterates breathing from the body. [hfsClt] neighing. "hfsClt hE hayraj hCljare."-akal. 2 adjkilled. ftii;o [hisCln] horse's neighing. 2 Skt n killing, murder. fumf [hIsam] n part, portion. See fm:rr. row [hisa] Skt n killing, murder. "hisa tClU mCln

ur;r ur;r




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sugarcane with teeth and suck its juice, to heat sugar candy, to put five or ten drops of the palate of the goddess had fallen. A temple eucalyptus oil on it and then eat it, to drink saline water, to lick milk cream mixed with of the goddess stands on the bank of Hingol honey, to take in lemonjuice mixed with black river l in Lasabela state on the top ofHingula salt and honey, to grind rind ofsoap nut in water mountain located on the Mekran coast. According to Todd, it takes nine days to reach and use it as snuff, to lick powdered liquorice Hinglaj from Thhatta which is at a distance of mixed with honey and to inhale smoke nine miles from the seacoast. emanating from a mixture of asafoetida and fflqr [hfgu] See fflar. black gram flour put on burning coals. ~ [hfgul] Skt ~ n connabar. ~ [hIcDa] See fu"'8CXi'iT. ftTQrw [hfgula], fSenM'H [hfgulaj] See ~. fumr [hIjar] A )." n separation. "hfglajjagmat ko rahE dehura ek."-G~rItr165. fc:rR"a3" [hIjrat] A .:;.,fi migration; exodus. ftfQf~ [hfgulia] adj resident of Hinglat; fu"troT [hIjri] adj who migrates. See f'uRo. Durga, the goddess. See m-dTWH". 2 See fut:ral RO. fu1r [hf!)]' ~ [hf!)u] See f~. "rahi su beri futral RO [hIjri san] Muslim era which began with the migration ofprophet Mohammad from hf!)u di gai kathuri gadh."-s farid. i.e. hfg as sensuality remained entrenched. Mecca on 15 th July 622 AD. See~. futr [hIC] n hesitation, hitch. "hIcahI ta prem fut:n;ft [hIjli], ftlHMlaea [hIjlibadar] an old town ke chabak marau." -gau kabir. Hijli situated on the estuary ofRasulpur river. ft:recfor [hIcakna] v hesitate. See futr. Once it used to be an important base for ftRrcit [hICki] Skt~. hiccup. It is caused by mercantile ships. "hIjli badar ko rahE baniraI overeating and taking in rotten, sticky and stale nares."-carI tr 140. food. Unnecessary and frequent eating, fui::rlr [hIjab] A ":'"'~ n veil, privacy. exposure to smoke and dust and an upset row [hIjjaJ, fUR [hIjje] A If combining stomach due to hunger also lead to hiccup. characters to form a word; spelling a word. Wind from the gullet, mixed with breathing, fuotut [hIthaha] adv downwards. puts a drag upon the liver and the intestines to fmr [hfq,] obstinacy. Skt~vr go astray; insult; produce the sound ofhiecough. It is this sound Ignore. that is called hICk. If it affects children and ~ [hIq,ki] See ftJBl5it. persons of robust health, one need not worry, ftfit [hfq,i] obstinate. 2 Skt goddess Durga. but if it affects the old and the disease-ridden ~ [hfq,uk] Skt Shiv, Mahadev. persons, then it becomes a serious problem. ftiTa" [hfq,ur] See (]¥. According to Ayurved, hiccup is of five types ~ [hfq,ol] Skt lFcffi;r n swing. 2 palanquin. i.e. aja, yamla, k~udra, gabhira and mahati. 3 one from amongst six principal rags. It is a The usual measures adopted for its pacam dJrav rag of kalyaD that. rI~abh and treatment are these: gadhar are not permitted. dhEvat is primary To hold breath for a short while, to crush note and gadhar is secondary one. ~araj gadhar, dhEvat and nI~ad are pure and IThis river is also known as Agor. "morag agor maddham is sharp. Singing time is the first naypalbhit."~kalki.'People residing on the bank ofAgor.'
~ [hfglaj] Skt~, It is a place where

ftfarw [hfgla] See f<j'-qrw.

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puraI).a n~k~a


S <:

=r H

QJI ....

lumalay pahar




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FJeoeiil [hfdvaI,li] Hindu lady. "jatI saI).atihon
hfdvaI).ia."-trlag m 1. 2 pertaining to India. 3 pertaining to Hinduism. fcf~ [hfdvana] See fJ~~. 2 P ~1,.k1 n water melon. n See~. "kopyo IE knpan balvan $ri gobfd sfgh mare cun khan lutth roli rav rana ki, QakIni QakarE J pukarE pOj pretan ke khopri khavis khat mugal pathana ki, kahIt pratap sfgh mOQ badh gajkhal ladyo s;')bhu bEl kahfi sobha va thIkana ki, nadi ke kInara pE garib e becara kou, jat banjara lie gonI hfdvana ki." ~ [hfdvi] adjofIndia. 2 sword ofIndia. "katI yamani hf dvi." -s~nama. 'sword of India.' fue"rti:r3" [hIdayat] See ~. ftfe'rlir [hfdalJ See ~. 2 See f(')Ji'"l(')1il. fJe l (\)1i! [hfdalie] See foffi:«rflt. fthft [hfdi] resident of India. 2 of or relating to India. 3 Devnagari script. 4 a language used in UP. It is closely related to Sanskrit. 5 sword ofIndia. 6 Persian writers have used the word Hindi in place of Sindhi. ~ [hfdu] See fJ~. 2 fore:ign writers have mentioned river Sindh as Hind. fJtRd'o [hfdustan]~! [hfdustanu] the place where Hindus reside;. a country which is especially populated by Hindus. So many names have been assigned to it, such as Aryavarat, Bharat etc. Hidustan is surrounded by Himalaya and the ocean. Lengthwise it is 1900 miles while its breadth is 1500 miles. Total area is 1,805,332 square miles. 1,094, 300 square miles of it is British territory while the remaining area is under the: control of native states. The number of large and small native states put together comes to 666. Nine parts of the population of Hindustan is rural while one part is urban. There are 2,316 cities, out ofwhich 31 are metropolitan, with population

of more than one lac each. The total number ofvillages is 685,665. Hindustan is fifteen times larger than Great Britain. If USSR is excluded from Europe, then the rest of its area is equal to that of Hindustan. According to the 1921 census, Hindustan's total population is 318,,475,480 (247,003,293 in British territory and 71,939,187 in the native states). But ofthis population, 163,995,554 is male and 154,946,926 is female. Religion wise the number is as foHows:4,754,000 Christians Sikhs 3,229,000 Hindus 216,735,000 Jains 1,178,000 Parsees 102,000 Tribals 9,775,000 Bodhs 11,571,000 Muslims 68,735,000 Jews 22,000 The total number of widows in Hindustan is 20,250,075. In other words there are 175 widows for 1000 women. A total of 222 languages are spoken in India. The important languages and the number of their speakers are given below:Hindi (western Hindi) 96,714,000 Kanari (kanrhi) 10,374,000 Gujarati 9,552,000 Tamil 18,780,000 Telgu 23,601,000 Punjabi 16,234,000 Western Punjabi 5,652,000 Bengali 49,294,000 Brahmi 8,423,000 Marhati 18,798,000 Rajsthani 12,681,000 The administration is under the control of the Viceroy. There are two councils for

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managing its affairs. One is the Council of State while the other is Legislative Assembly. There are fifteen provincial governments under the central government. These are governed by their respective governors. Provincial governments are of dual nature. One is the real council, which controls some important departments, while the other consists oftwo or three ministers, who arc answerable to the legal council. ~ [hfdu] ancient people residing around river Sindh were called Aryans. Foreign writers have termed them as Hindus. Now this word is used for all the inhabitants of India. 2 practitioners ofVedic religion. So far nobody has been able to provide a flawless definition 'of the term Hindu. Hence it is also beyond our competence to do so. However a Hindu is regarded as one who has faith in four castes of the society, takes Veds as scritpures and does not eat beef. I "na ham hi du na musalman."-bl1E'r m 5. 3 Arabic and Persian poets have used this term for a thief, a slave and a black person. Numerous poets have used the word Hindu for a black mole. ~ [hfduana] ad} in the style of a Hindu. 2 of or pertaining to a Hindu. 3 n Hindu society. ~ [hfduku$] a mountain in the northwest of Hindustan, situated on the border of Afghanistan. Its height is 20,000 feet. Once several Hindustani people died here due to snowfall, hence its name Hindukush. ~ [hfdupati] a title of the Maharana of Udaypuf. Being Reghuvanshi, Udaypur dynasty is respected in the entire Rajputana.

Poet Bhushan has also mentioned Shivaji as I-lindupati. FJeHd'i'l [hfdostan] See ~ [hfdol] See ~. ~ [hIndkna] See ~. ~ thIn-nat] neighing. See ~ and



fuor [hIla] See



[hIphajat] A ..:;.J5lk supervIsIon. 2 protection, safety. fua'r [hIba] A ~ gift. fuH [hIm] Skt n snow. 2 winter season. 3 sandal. 4 camphor. 5 ad} cold, cool. fut.rcrQ [hImkar] Skt n moon. 2 camphor. 3 winter season; duration ofMaghar and Poh. In acomposition ofGuru Arjan in rag Ramkali under the title 'sr3t' sIsiar (~) is written in place of hImbr and hImkdr is attributed to the months ofMagh and Phagun as-"hImkdr rutI mall I bhavti maghu phagaDu gUDv;'it jiu." ilnd "rutI sIsiar sital han pragte m;'ighdr POhI jiu."-ram ruti m 5. 2 fillr~ [hIInkut], fuHfurfu [hImgIn] n mountain of snow. Himalay. See ill@'z. [himat] A ~ n intention, resolve, determination. 2 courage, persistence. "vedahG char VIcarat bat puran athardhI ag me dharE, rag te adI jIti caturai "sujan" kahE sabh yaln ke larE, cItrahG ap lIkhE samjhE kavItan ki ritI me varta parE, hinta hoy ju hfmat ki tu prabinta IE kah5 kup me c;larE." 3 concern. 4 a Rajput warrior who finds mention in the eleventh chapter of Vichitar Natak.
but this is not correct. Sec fRfJ:ra" and fuH. I1ere ~ means onc that givcs coolness.

keep them within their fold. some writers describe

2Some ignorant writers ascribe it to the error of the scribe,

Jains as those whc believe in predestination and burn their dead bodies.

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2 son of crown prince Sardul Singh, grandson of Baba Ala Singh, raja of Patiala and elder brother ofrajaAmar Singh. He died in Sammat 1831 (1774 AD). fm.fqa' [hImdhar] bearer of snow, Himalay. fuM ~ [hIm ntu], fuH g3' [hIm rut] ~. season of snowfall; period of Maghar Poh. ~ [hImv5t] Himalay, the house of snow. 2 the mountain that lies between Kalkut and Gandhmadan. It is also a part of Himalay. See ~. fuw [hIma] Skt n snow. "hIma si hImalE." -dkal. ful.Irfuo [hImaIt] See iJ}fT1jf:3'. fuHilI [hImasu] Skt fuHiB' n rays of which are cool, the moon. 2 camphor. 'fuHrcl3' [hImakdt] A ..:;;i17 n folly, foolishness. 'fuHrtffi [hImacdl], ~ [hImadn], r~T [hImadri] an immovable mountain of snow. On the northern side ofInciia aud inbetween Tibet and India, a huge montainous mass of snow. It is the highest in the world. Its peak is 29,002 feet in height. 2 ~+nfR..adjpertaining to Himalaya. Shiv. "rijhat hImadn P021t sis." -kdlki. fuwH 'elf [hImam dasta] P .=--"' (;!J~. pestle and mortar. ft:n.frl;ror [hI malay], fuJ..rrc? [hImala], ~ [hIma1E:], ftn-ftlC? [hIm5cal] See fuJ..rm;;. ~ [hIm5bar] heap ofsnow, an agglomerate of snow. 2 wind that melts and removes snow. -Sdnama. fu>.fatfa' [hImaban] son of the wind, Bhimsen. -Sd:Iama. See ~ 2. ffi1..ro fi:fur [hImmat sIgh] See l1;:r ~. futn [hIy], f<:n:;ror [hIyra], f'<:rGfT [hIya] Skt ~ n ,nind, heart, conscience. fuW [hIya] adv here, at this place. ~ [hIyau] Yl mind, heart. "hIau sabhIn

fJJ..Ia" fl:fur [hfmat sIgh]




ka qaryo."-krTsdn. See


fua' [hIT] See funr. 2 See

"hIrahI pardarabu udar kE tai."~gdu thrti m 5. 'steals the wealth of other people.' "jIsu pekhat kIlvIkh huahI."-sri m 5. 'Sins vanish.' fuaJ:r [huas] A IJ.x yearning, craving, greed. 2 fondness. 3 desire, inclination. ftre1:ft [husi] ad; ambitious, greedy. ~ [huaq], fu~ [luraqu] See ~~. "huaq palas sagI han buhia."-brla d m 4. "cadan nIkatI vaSE huaqu bapura."-g5<;i m 4. ~ [hua.Q.] deer, stag, skeleton. 2 stealing. See~. "pardarab hU.Q.a."-sdhdS m 5. 3 See


[hIra.Q.garabh] See f<JQ"i'iJI'iIToel. "hua.Q.garabh atam CIt cin."-GPs. Fdd<!d'C:: [hua.Q.:rat] n king of the deer, lion. 2 lord of the deer, moon. Fdd<!ij'<::iiSdli'l1 [hua.Q.ratbhagni] n sister of the moon - Chandrbhaga river.-s;:mama. ~ [hu.Q.a] See <:Kl<'!' stealing. "huahI par darabu udar kE tai."-gdu thrti m 5. 2 gold. "kesar kusam mIrgamE hU.Q.a, sarabh sariri carna."-trlag m 1. 'When touched, saffron, flower, musk and gold do not get defiled.' ft:Rrc!:;r [hua.Q.y] Skt n gold. 2 dhatura, thornapple. 3 wealth. 4 silver. 5 cowrie. fua<!OIlOlfHY' [hu.Q.yakas I pu] See f:f<J'-a:r:>('i'-'arrA'rrAl::f. f(Jij<!:I!chr [hIn:tyakef?] Skt adj one having golden hair. 2 n Vishnu. fclij<!OIldlij!!j [hu~lyagarabh] See f<Jd('iJidl@. fclij<!:III6'i( [hu.Q.yakaf?] See <:JO(!l::f and ~. fmJ3' [huat] steals. See ~. "jIu cor huat nIs5g. "-brla a m 5. 2 Skt ~. adj stolen, robbed. "maraI huat sasar."-CdU m 5. 'the robbed world (the duped world) is vanishing.' ftR!3' [hIrte] adv stealing, robbing. "kahu bIhaVE jiaIh hute."-ram d m 3. 2 killing, murdering. ~ [hIrday], f<:rd"tT [lurda] Skt ~ n

Page 75


conscience, mind, heart. "huda sudh brahamu bicarE."-gaum 5.2 one residing in conscience - the transcendent One. See ~ar ~. "hrIdyaya tasmat hrIdya." "hudE rIdE nIhal."-varmajh m 1. 'Find the Creator within your conscience.' 3 chest. "jEse ac;lo hude mahI."-mali m 5. 'as a bird broods the eggs under its chest.' ft:RreT firer [h uda rr da] See ft:RreT 2. ~ [hudEkamalu] mind in the form of a lotus. "hudE kamalu pragasIa."-sri m 3. ftrao" [huan] See ~. fudoaRY [hunakasapu] Skt f%{U£jCfl~I~ one wearing a golden dress; a demon who was son ofKashyap from Diti. He was elder brother of Harnakhas. According to Mahabharat and Purans, he was father of Prahlad. Narsingh Bhagwan killed him. ftrao" citro [huan kac;m] See ~ and citro. Where these two words are used side by side, there the former stands for silver and the latter means gold. ~ [huankhac;l] Skt ~ \8U6. according to Bhagwat, a region of Jambu island, mentioned as golden land. "pahuce huankh;}c;l me jai."-NP fudodldB [huangarabhl See f(J<:!OJtdl<:!i3. ft:Rror&r [hunach] See ~ and ~. fuao't [huni] See ~. 'fu'aQ [huanu] See~. "loha huanu hOVE S;}gI paras."-kan am 4. fudOOlidlij!!J [hunyagarabh] Skt~adj born from a golden egg. 2 n according to Rig Ved at first there was Hiranyagarabh. He was the lord of all living beings, pillar of the sky and the earth, creator of body and soul, top most amongst the gods and bestower ofsoul to all the beings. 3 According to Manu, Hiranyagarabh is Brahma who was illuminator as the sun and in the beginning was born from a golden egg. After spending a year in the egg, according to his own sweet will, he, divided it into two parts - one the heaven and other the earth. 4 the abstract and the concrete. 5 the Creator, the supreme Soul. fiJijo:iiiil [hunyak~] See ua<!Cf and ~. ft:Ja'cs [huphat] A ":;',?- n vocation, profession. 2 craftsmanship. fuamft [humaci], fum.ffiT [humaji] A tJ)'/i dust of red hue used for colouring floor, wall etc; cochineal. ~ [huaIa] got robbed, got depossessed. 2 astonished. "herat herat sabhE hiraIa." -tansukh. ft:ra'rt [hI rae] See ~. "kan pharaI huae tuka." -prabha am 1. 'Having turned a yogi, he asks for alms; disciples beg food and take it to the guru. ' ftrerJ:r [huas] P vI;< n fear, dread. "her aj ko j;}g huasa."-GPs. 2 See ifQTA". FudlRd [huasat] A ..:..v-'f.7 supervision. 2 protection. ~ fi:'ao [huasul phIkan] See fuao. ftra"ra" [huat] is robbed. See fqo. 2 robs, steals. 3 a region ofAfghanistan and a principal town, it is situated 2,500 feet above the sea level. It is known for hides and silk. ~ [huana], f'<:Rro"t [huani], ~ [huano] adj lost. "pl1ji huani banaju tut. "-basJt kabir. 2 robbed. "bahu bIdhI maIa moh huano." -mala m5. fufu [hIrr] SktfI vr take away, steal, rob, copy, give, accumulate, finish, abandon, stop, beat, roll together, insult, oppress, combat, snatch. 2 adv having stolen, having robbed. "hIrr VIt CIt dukhahi."-asa partal m 5. fuFa1r [hUIO], fufu>?fT [huIa] SktffO adjstolen, snatched. FuFao:ii' [huInyo] Short for fCTIf~1J. "hIrrnyo huanachs;} dtH bira."-vE'Tah.

Page 76


fa fa M'I('j I
ftlfaMl('jI [hlrIlina] See


bdhE hlvdhar.'''-s kabir. in peace of mind, repeating the name of the Creator with every Sdbh ko hUllina."-gau m 9. breath is like putting a stream of cold water ft:Rft>,fr [huia] adj one who takes away; a thief. "pdr kdU huia."-suhi m 5 partal. 'thief of into the vessel to chum curd, for making butter. This way rarefied butter gets thickened and is another man's wealth.' "kanh bd<;1e rdS ke easily collected. hlria." -krIsan. 'fW" [hue] See ~. stole. 2 eliminated. "kotI fdiiiPMGI [hrvaldy], ~ [hlvala], ~ [hI valE] See fu~., "kotr jdU tirdth kdrE tdnu blghdn hue khln mahI."-gau m 5. jo hlvale garE. "'-ram namdev. fc:rij' [hln:] takes away. 2 steals. 3 gets reduced. "labh mIlE tota huE." -gau thIti m future" [hlVEgh;3r] n moon. 2 Himalay. "guru data guru hlvEghdr."-var majh m 1. 5. 4 sees. "h6di kdU dnh6di hUE."-ram m 5. "b<;1a <;1ardt hUE juari."-g5q namdev. 3 i.e. a peaceful soul. M1\i [huJl] See uif~. 2 commotion. 3 a 'fu;flJT [hIrabaJ Skt ~. hI<;1fbi is also correct. She was sister of Hidamb, a demon, mountain in the background of which the whom Bhimsen had killed. In Mahabharat it god (sun) resides. "hfmClt badh hir:>ldl1I h" is mentioned that she was very beautiful. -carrtr 2. 4 army squad. "jEse cir hUJl ko." Bhimsen's son Ghatotkach was born from his -carrtr 103., marriage with her. Ghatotkach showed great ftJ'ffir [hua<;1] See ~ and ~. valour during the battle ofKurukshetar. ftRfo [huan] See ~. tit [hi] part must. 2 only. "nath hi sdhai satna. " ftlai'laHY' [huankdsdpu] S,ee fiJdMHY. -bIla m 5. 3 strange. 4 n mind. "sunr sunI ftld"i'l'SH [huanachds], fiJ"6'<'i"JITS" [huanyach] hi <;1araIa."-suhi m 5 partal. "hdrI kirtan hi See~and~. ft:ra* [hrryo] stolen. 2 snatched. 3 seen. "akhdn trIptavE."-sor m 5. 5 chest. "cdrdnkdmdl hi huyo."-carItr 231. pards."-gau m 5. fuH' [hll] A J'; adj legal, legitimate. 2 See~. ~ [hiu], '6ffi' [hiiJ] n mind. "hiu kio kurbana." ~ [hIlI).a], fm?or [hIlna] v swing, move. -sar m 5. 2 reasoning power, conscience. 2 get used to. "mera mdnu t;mu hdrI sagI "hiu deu sabh tanu man drpdu."-Csar m 5. hIlra."-gau chat m 5. "hIIIO Jr VdSdtU IE tftW [hio], <il»r [hid 1, ~ [hidu 1, ~ [hiardu 1, titnfdT [hidra], ~ [hidro] n mind, conscience. javE."-GPs. "nandk nam ddhar hio." -asa m 5. "bed puran ftn;m [hIldm] A ~ n humbleness, humility. jas gun gavdt tako namu hiE mo dharu re." Words like <JM1H and <JMb.rr are derived from it. -gau m 9. "merE hidrE rdt;mu namu hdrI "fuwa' [hIlak] See UW"a'. ft:Jwli5' [hIlal] A J~ new moon; moon of the bdsIa."-j£t m 4. ~ [hidlu] heart's core. See 3(11)'. second day of the lunar month. ~ [hidra] heart, mind. ~ [hIV] Skt fuH. snow. "guru hIV sitdl dgdnI cfl))(T [hia] See i:fP,r. "jia hia pranpdte."-bIla bujhavE."-asa am 1. ~ [hlvghdr] abode of snow, Himalay. chat m 4. 2 courage. [hiI] See i:fP,r. "hie ko pritdm brsarI TId 2 moon. jaI."-kan m 5. ~ [hlvdhar] bearer of snow, Himalay. 2 adj cold stream, stream ofcold water. "pdvdn 'dtR' [his], tifJ:r [hIs] Skt f61:r. a thorny shrub.

Ma-. "rdtdnu granu


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"bIra his ko s~gh<mgh;mo."-GPs. L Coix Barbata. Its hedge is very strong. In jungles which are very dense, animals such as lions and pigs turn these shrubs into their dense or pens. ~ [hik!).aJ v hiccup. 2 n braying. m'ar [illgJ See~. 2 See ft:fqr. "hig lagaI taha uth aVE."-carrtr 193. tiforc!:t" [hlg!).aJ, til<Jror [hignaJ See ~. "nIt uth hasE hlgE marE." -gau kabir. ~ [hlguJ See ftfor. "ba!).ie ke ghar illgu achE." -toeji namdev. tfu:r [hij], ~ [hijraJ, ~ [hijraJ P j:;. eunuch; they make both ends meet by singing and dancing on the occasions of weddings and births of newborn children. "nac<m hij gaI sur racE."-GPS. tfur [hic;l.J Skt ~ vr draw, tear, give vent to one's rage. til1r [hlc;1.J Dg n exertion, running about. ~ [hlc;1.a!).J Dg whirling. 2 wanderer. ~ [hic;l.uJ heart, conscience. 2 Skt ~ vr go. 3 n motion, gait. "bholta!).I bhE manI vaSE heko padharu hic;l.u." -var maru 1 m 1. 'Same is the path and same is the gait, stilI there is fear in one's mind of going astray.' See ~. "tifi [illdEJ Dg runs. 2 n race, rout. m1l [hlc;1.o] Dg swing. ~ [hic;l.ol] See ~. 'dtiw [hic;l.olaJ See fJ~'l? "hic;l.oli cap aia." -asa am 1. 'They came riding in a palanquin.' tit<!" [hi!).J, ~ [hi!).auJ Skt<flo adjcondemned. 2 deficient, less. "dhan rup-hi!). kIChu sak na sfna."-jet var. 3 less, imperfect. "hi!).au nie karau ben~ti."-suhi eMit m 1. ~ [hi!).asyJ Skt ~ is low, is devoid of. "gurm~tr hi!).asy jo prani."-sahas m 5. ~ [hi!).aJ, ~ [hi!).uJ, "ti'li [hl!).OJ, tfti [hi!).;)J See tit<!". 2 adj devoid of. "bhagatIhi!).u kahe jagI a Ia?"-sri a m 3.3 cowardly, timid. "na

koi suru na koi hi!).a. "-ram am 5. "na ko hi!).u nahi ko sura."-gau a m 5. "hi!).;) nicu bUD bUrIaru."-prabha m 1. [hitJ, tilg [hituJ See fu3". "til mera pritamu tum S~gI hitu."-gau m 5, "S~gI na calahI tInI SIU hit."-dhana m 5. 2 adj well wisher, affectionate. "hit moh bhE bharam bhram!).~." -sahas m 5. <flo [hinJ See ~ and titor. tfto'3" [hinatJ, 'dto3"r [hintaJ n loss, lack. 2 meanness. 3 disrespect, insult. "kalu ! mE hinat rnanat ho.';-NP. 'titn;p [hinraJ, 'tit?i;ft [hinri] adj worthless, mean. "hinri jatI meri."-bhEr namdev. titor [hinaJ adj See <flo. "sabh utam kISU akhau hina?"-bas5t a m 1. 'Whom should I call mean?' 2 weak, feeble. "nEni drIstI nahi, tanu hina."-bhEr m 1. tita" [hirJ She was daughter of Chuchak -a Rajput of Sial caste. Her mother's name was Malki. She lived in the town of Jhang, situated on the bank of Chenab (Jhanan) river. J She was married by her parents to Saida of Rangpur (district Muzaffargarh). He was a Jatt of Khera subcaste, but she was in love with Ranjha son of Mauju,2 resident ofTakhat Hazara. Numerous Punjabi poets have penned this love tale in high literary mode. Hir died in Sammat 1510 on hearing the news ofRanjha's death. Her grave is situated at a distance of half a kohs from Jhang. Numerous people offer milk at her grave. "rajha hir bakha!).iE oh pIram pIrati."-BG.



Jhang was founded by Rai SaJ:ia in Sammat 983. Due to the huts of Sial Jatts, it was known as Jhungi Sial. Later on, it came to be known as Jhang Sial.

2The name of Ranjha's father was Muaazudin, also termed Mauju. During the reign ofBahlol Lodhi, Mauju was governor of Takhat Hazara. During the reign of Lodh;s, Hazara was a well populated town.

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In Dasam Granth, Hir is mentioned as Menka and Ranjha as Indar. "rajha bhayo sures tahI, bhai menka hir. ya jag me gavat sada sabh kavIkul jas dhir."-carrtr 98. See -aiw. 2 a poet in the court of Guru Gobind Singh. Having listened to the following stanza, the Guru bestowed upon him so much wealth that he needed nothing else from anyone else for the rest of his life. "pas tha<;lho jhagrat jhukat darerE mohI bat na karan pail maha bali bir s6, ESO an bIkat nIkat basE nIsdIn mpat nI~ak sath ghere pher bhir s6, dand kuput! tero maran banyo hE aj karkE salam vIda hUjE kabI hir s6, nataru gobId sIgh vIkal karEge tohI tuk tuk hVE hE ga<;lhe danan ke tir s6." 3 Skt diamond. "gUrI mIliE hir parakha." -jet m 4. 4 Shiv. 5 lion. 6 short for J?Kfkr. "ae sabh brIj hir." (krIsan) 7 a metre also known as hirak characterised by 4 lines, each with 23 matras, two pauses aft:er six matras each, the third at the eleventh thereafter; the first character ofevery line being guru and the end being raga!).: SIS. Example: "saty rahIt, pap grahIt, kruddh cahI t ja11Iye, dhann hin, ag chin, kroddh pin mamye."... -kalki. (b) ga!).Ik metre is a typical characteristic of cfur [hirJ, each line being organised as 511, 115, III, 151, III, SIS. Example: "~ri guru dhar hi caran rIde nar dukh ke hari, hot na bhav me bhramaI). sada rahI mud ko dhari." ... 8P;::t. fire. 'dI'aQ [hirak] Skt n diamond. 2 See cfur 7. 'dtGr [hira] See cfur and macr. "hira namu javehar lalu."-asa a ill 1. 2 This word is also used for the Creator; It stands for a high quality diamond


not affected by any colour, with its brilliance illuminating everything. "hire karu ades."-ram kabir. 3 soul. "hirE hira bedhI." -asa kabir. 4 a man of sublime qualities. 5 a disciple of Guru Hargobind. He was very brave and he fought fiercely in the battie of Amritsar. 6 Skt tin. Lakshmi, goddess of wealth. 7 ant. 8 short for titnRJr. fi:fur [hira SIgh] son ofPhulvanshi Sardar Sukha Singh, rais ofBadrukhan. He was born on 61h ofPoh Sammat 1900 (l843 AD) to Mai Raj Kaur (daughter of Sardar Basava Singh of Borhavalie). As there was no issue of raja Bhagwan Singh of Nabha, he ascended the throne on Bhadon Sudi 10 Sammat 1928.( lOth ofAugust 1871) Maharaja Hira Singh managed the affairs so efficiently and provided so much relief to the people that his achievement should be an example for other rulers. He was very fond ofeducation. He established numerous schools in the state and liberally gave scholarships to students. He provided great help to Macauliffe in writing his book "Sikh Religion" and put the Khalsa College on firm footing. He spent lacs of rupees on the construction of magnificent buildings in and around the capital and spent huge amounts ofmoney to modernise his army. So far as his personal expenditure went, he was very austere. He~regarded state exchequre as a trust. Daily he took out time for deliveringjustice, and everybody could go to his court without any restriction. On 7th of Magh Sammat 1939 (l8 1h of January 1883) a daughter -Bibi Ripudaman KaurI-was born to queen Parmeshvar Kaur

IBibi Ripudaman Kaur was married to Maharana Ram Singh, ruler of Dhaulpur in 1905 AD. But she did not lead a happy married life for long, as the Maharana passed away in 1911 AD.

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Rallewale and on 22 of Phagun 1939 (4 1h March, 1883) crown prince Ripudaman Singh was born to queen Jasmer Kaur of Longowal. He was awarded GCSI in 1889, GCm in 1903 and was granted the title of hereditary Maharaja during Delhi Darbar in 1911. On 11 th of Poh Sammat 1968 (25 th December 1911), the topmost of Vairarh dynasty, Maharaja Sir Hira Singh, breathed his last at Nabha. ~ [hirahir], ~ [hirahiru] the topmost diamond, the topmost gem. "hIrdE rdVI rdhIa hdrI hira hiru."-var suhi ill 3. tit~J1UI'G [hiraghat] See ~ ?lOlO. tiW 'e"IJl [hira das], <fur" ~ [hira dasie] In Sammat 1867 a noble soul was born to Abdullah, the cobbler. He gained a lot in the company of Sharandas Udasi and ultimately adopted the sublime religion of Guru Nanak and became Hiradas. During the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, he established a big dera in village Gandi Vind and started free kitchen. He died in Sammat 1936. The followers of Hiradas came to be known as Hiradasie. Mahant Sant Singh succeeded Hiradas, who died in Sammat 1953. tiW ifu" [hira n~d] See ~ 3. c:ft2 [hiru] See tiRr and <fur". "ddIa kdrE hdrI hiru."-srr ill 1. "maI).Ik lal nam rdtdn pddardth hiru."-sri ill 1. tita" ~ tiW f.fcj~ [hire nal hira vfnhI).a] v diamond is a hard substance. To penetrate and make a hole in it, a diamond is to be used as a tool. Likewise in order to liberate the distressed soul, miracle of the realisation of absolute Braham is helpful. "hirE hirabedhI pavdn manu sdhje rdhIa sdmai."-asa kabir. ~ [hildh] See tiTw 3. u9l'hlH l [hildhsaji] P J';lr-~ n pretence, evasIOn.


uTl?3' [hilat] See

u-rw 3.

~ also means

pretence and fraud. [hilra], tiTw [hila], ~ [hib] n fraud, deception. 2 distress, suffering. "mdn nd suhela pdrp;}C hila."-g;m ill 5. "sadhdn ko harta jou hib."-krIsan. 3 A ~ pretence. "hilra ehu sasaro."-vac;f m 1 alahl)i. 4 effort, plan, scheme. 9' [hu] Skt vr perform an oblation; eat; satiate. send, get. 2 In old Punjabi !J is used in place of C'] as ~ in place ofe«r, t=rLrg in place of t=ril etc. "meri hdrdhu bIpat jan kardhu subhai." -gau ravrdas. 3 part must. "bhdrdmu bhedu bhdU kdbahu nd chutasI."-bhEr m J. 4!J also stands for the fifth declension; from. "pretahu kitonu devta."--var gau 2 m 5. -q rhO] Skt ~ part response--a sound of "if. 2 disrespect. 3 question. 4 acceptance. ~ [huE] See -q. '[»f [hua] adjhappened. became. 2 n response word of hua. "hua sabad dSIdhujahI ucara." -carItr 405. ~ [huro], ~ [hui] happened, became. 9lft ~ [hui hE] happens. "anad rup hui hE." -gujm 5. ~ [hue] became. "mukh hue P;}QIt mIthe." -savEye m 3 ke. YFf rhus] See ~. 2 See m:n=r. 3 P hush, short for "ih::r (sense). ~ [husI).a] Skt~. be short. 2 be tired. "hOI nd dS dSU hus nahI jaI."-GPs. "dIye husaI turagdm sare."-GPs. "YH"O [hus;m] A ? n beauty. "kI husnul vaju hE. "--japu. 'beauty has existence.' See ~ and ~. 2 adjbeautiful. ~ [husnak] P Jc ~ adjbeautiful. "dmIt ddrdb husnakdn dehl."-carrtr 111. 2 See
~. ~HQMtHI'dl [husnulcarag] P itA1cf" lamp of


beauty. "kI husnulcdrag


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sP''1Q t'SH~ [husnuljdmal] A J~fd'" extremely

yFl"Q"'M3J-f'}f [husnultdmam] A

(vJ.;r" perfect

yHQt'S'(!1j ~ [husnulvdju hE] A ~?}fd'" having

a charming face. See




~ [husIar], ~ [husiar] P J~J1 adj

wise. 2 watchful. "dunia husiar bedar."-ram
y~ [husiari] P 15J~J1

n intelligence, wisdom. 2 watchfulness. alertness. yH'O [husm] ~ second son of Hazrat Ali from Fatima, daughter of prophet Mohammad. He was born in 625 AD.--(Hijri 4). Having been thirsty for three days, he was brutally killed at Karbala (which is at a distance of 60 miles from Baghdad in the southwest direction) by commander Simar of the seventh caliph Yazid on 18 th October 680. The reason was that certain persons of Kufa, having arrived at secret understanding, called him for handing over the caliphate to him. King of Damascus, Caliph Yazid, came to know of this secret and sent his army against Hussain. Hussain did not want to fight but the army of Yazid attacked him without any reason. This dispute went on from the first to the lOth of Muharram. On the lOth day, Hussain was killed. Hence Shias mourn for these ten days. See <JR<'i" and RlJIt:. ylto WU [husm $ah] a hermit of Lahore. He ft:fur. is also known as Shah Hussain. See '61""qT. During the time ofthe Gurus, edicts written yRhia l € [husmabad] a town in the district of from them to their disciples, were also known Gaya (Bihar) "hira si husmabad."-dkal. as hukdmnamas. Mata Sundari had also been ~ [husmi] adj relating to Hussain. sending these edicts to the sagdt (congregation). 2 pertaining to the lineage of Hussain. 3 a Edicts have been issued and are still being devotee of Hussain. 4 n the slave of Dilavar issued from the four holy Seats under the Khan, an official incharge of an army 01'5000 controlofGurupanth. soldiers. When Dilavar Khan's son, fearing ycrnr [hukma] A ~ plural of()Ciihf. for his life, returned from Anandpur Sahib, ya'Hi' [hukma] See nf}-Rf ffiur and 'H"'fu"a fHur.

Hussain marched towards Anandpur along with an army of two thousand men, but he could not reach there. He was killed on the way, while fighting against other hill chieftains. See~. "kdryo jar sma husmi pdyana."-VN. 5 Muslim cultivators, who are Sayyads, are chiefly found in Montgumary district. 6 There are Hussaini Brahmans as well, who tell and sing the story of Hussain and also get alms from Muslims. y~ [husagabad] See M~. ymr [huhdr] adj astonished. "cdracdrya huhra."-VN. ~ [huhu], W [huhu] See 'tJltJT and ~. 'SiC{ [hOk] See <ICX'IJ. "bhdt hOke dhOke bakare." -ramav. 2 neighing, sound of hihi. "hOke kIkal)."-VN. 'Horses neighed.' gmft [hukdi] adj hubble-hubble, (hookah) smoker. 'SJCfi'i'T [hukna] ,.::A> enema. ~ [hubm] A n order, command. y ~ [hubmsdtIJ, "Q'cmR3" [hukdmsdtt], ~ [hukdmsdty] the Creator with truth as his dictum. "]:k oakar hukdmsdtI vahIguru ji ki phdtdh."-jdfdr. 2 true command. 3 xa death, demise. "hukdm Sdtt Ik SIkh hVE gdYO."-GPs. yalf'OTW [hubmnama] P ~~ n an edict, carrying a dictum. 2 royal decree. 3 an edict of the true Guru (spiritual guide). See ~cx


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~ [hukmau] as per command. "mE kahra

sabh hukmau jiu."-suhi m 5 gUI).v;;jti. ~ [hukmavE] as per command. "satIguru ke hukmavE."-var ram 2 m 5. 2 command may come. gcmr [hukamI] as per command. "hukamI mIlE vaqIai."-japu. 2 See gm.it. ~ [hukmil adj one who issues command. ruler. "hukmi hukamu calae rahu."-japu. 2 as per command. "hukmi barsaI:lI lage meha." -majhm 5. ~ [hukmibada] adj one who obeys the command, slave. "hukmib;3da hukam kamavr."-maru solhe m 3. ~ [hukamu] See 9Wf. "hukamu tera khara bhara."-asa ch;;jt m 3. ~ [hukmr] in command. "hukmE adan sabhu ko."-japu. 2 command. "nanak hukmE je bujhr." -japu. ~ [hUkar] See ~. yqtH [hukam] A (if> plural of~. ~ [hukami] adj of or relating to command. 2 as per command. "bIcarde phIrahI sasar mahI harI ji hukami." -var maru 2 m 5. ~ [hUkar], ~ [hUkara] Skt sound ofhU. "tIh chIn sri prabhu kIy hukara."-NP 2 response, confirmation. ~ [hukumat] A .:;/~ n act of issuing command. 2 kingdom. sfcr [hukk] n pain in one's side. 2 piercing pain in the lung. 3 E hook. ~ [hukka] A ,J; n a small box. 2 an enamelled earthen pot or glass pot. 3 hookah; hubblebubble. "hukke se hurmat gai nem dharam gayo chut."-gIrIdhar. ym [hugH] a river in Bengal which, after having confluence with Bhagirthi and Jalangi, falls into the Bay of Bengal. 2 a town situated on the right bank of river Hugli, which falls in Baradvan Pargana. This town was inhabited

by the Portugese in 1537 AD. ym [hugH badar] a harbour situated at a place where Hugli river makes a confluence with the sea. "hugH badar ko huto hfmat sfgh nrIp ek."-carItr 133. g;:E" [hujatl, ~ [hujatI] See ifR3". "gurmatI sad hujatI dUrI."-asa m 1. gt=raT [hujra] A ~ j. n a small room, closet. 2 cloister for meditation. "badgi alah ala hujra."-maru solhe ill 5. 3 a place in Madina where prophet Mohammad was buried. 'YWf [hujum] A (p- n crowd, gathering. 2 heap, stock. "ifR3" [hujjat] A ~ n argumentation, disputation. 2' doubt. YC [hut] See t:JZ<!T. ~ [hutI).a] v keep away. "mic hutE jam te chutE. "-gau thIti m 5. 2 get tired. "harImagu na hutE."-savEye m 4 ke. 3 love strength, get weak. "nEn sravan sarir sabh hutIO." -sar


ya [huq] n boar's tusk. 2 Skt a leather-mounted musical instrument, which is specially sounded in the battlefield. It is also known as huqquk. 3 cloud. 4 an army camp. ~ See ~. <ja [hUq] Skt ~ vr collect, select. s.r.rcr [huQ.ak], ~ [huqkia] camp administrator. 2 player of huq or huqquk. This instrument belongs to the family oftambourine and tambour.. 3 ram fighter. See ~ and ~. "kIqe mevedar han huqak huqkie lolaI).loli."-BG. <jara- [hUqar] See ~. ~ [huqrara] a village in police station Barki, district Lahore. Guru Hargobind had stayed at this place. There is a beautiful gurdwara. One hundred ghumaons of land is freehold in this village. A fair is held on MaghL It is at a distance of nine miles from railway station Jallo in the south-west direction. <jilt [hUqi] n bill of exchange. "hUqi nIdhan

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sahu ko bhar."-GPS. 'ifiiPw [hUqia] See 'ifm. See ~¥. "matr sakatI hUqia tIh karyo."-carrtr 228. 'made a ram of him. , ~ [huqu], ~ [hUqu], ~ [huqlu], ~ [hUdua] Skt M; n ram. "phn hVE larke huqua duhU or te, apas me SIr melat hE."-krIsan. ~ [huquhuq] n ramfight. 2 adjstubbornly, ins istently. "s ISU khelat rEn huq uhuq." -narsrgh. YC!' [hu1).], ¥<r [hU1).I], ~ [huJ)..e] adv now, just now. "hUJ)..I kadI mrliE pna tudhu bhagvata."-majl1 m 5. Its origin is from Sanskrit 3!1?R, which means during the day. . Y3" [hut] n argument, unnecessary reasoning. 2 part ind icative of past tense. "abar cahiyat hut gnyo."-PP 'The sky was going to fall.' 3 present tense marker. "ad I maddh ar at hute, hut-hE pun honam."-BGK. 4 Skt adjmarked by fire ritual. 5 n offering. ~ [hutbhuj] Skt~. consumer ofofferings; fire. ~ [hGta] happens. "patItpavan nam kEse hGta?" -sri raVIdas. ~ [huta$], ~ [huta$an] Skt n fire, which consumes the offerings. ~ [hutasankhel] n fireworks. y3t [huti] was. "huti ju pHS pIUS pIvan ki." -saveye m 4 ke. sr3" [hute] were. 2 they were. y3' [huto] was. "karJ)..o huto su na kio."-s m 9. ~ [hUdmar] adj who attacks like a ram; who wrangles without reason. ~ [hUda] past tense of 'to be' (it<!") ~ B'/'€>'W [hUdIa sudIa] while having a lot of wealth; notwithstanding. ~ [hudud] A ')JP plural of*= (boundary), boundaries. ~ 'ff'e' [hUde sude] See 'ifR"»fi" BR"»fi". F [hudda] See ~.

[hun] now. "u(;1 hun kaga kare."-gau kabir. Yi'iO [hunar] P )1 n craftmanship. 2 quality. "nIj hUJ)..ran ko rIdE chapavE."-NP yol>w [hunia] n lullaby. "putrahI den lagi hunia hE." -krrsan. ggt!' [hunud] A ,y". plural of ftf~; Hindus. 2 plural of~vo't; Indians. glMl" [hubab] See uara-. 'ifa' [hubb] A ...;...> n love, affection. 2 longing, yearning. sfH [hUm] Skt ~lf n sultry. 2 Skt ~ response. ~ [hUmas] Se(~ cjlf. 2 A ~ low sound as of footsteps. sfHJf ljl.rR' [hUmas dhUmas] n hue and cry, furore, hustle and bustle. "ban vIqanrE hGmas dhumas, kuka paia rahi."-var guj 2 m 5. 'Doors of the rich are ornate but hue and cry pervades them. i.e. they are haunted by lamentation. ' iJH ~ [hum humauJ)..a], ~ '!.jWi'iT [hum humana] v come with fanfare. "hum humaI sagatI sabh ai."-GPs. ~~[hUmardhUmar] See~-gl-lFf."Mmar dhUmar jagi ghatti suna."-cJc;ii 3. yw [huma], ~~ [humau], ~ [humaI] Pin n phoenix; an imaginary bird. A person is believed to be: fortunate on whom falls its shadow as it t1ys non-stop in the sky. "per humau sag lagyo kana."-GPs. I "huma ra kase sayah ayad bazer."-jafar. 2 ,,-In. daughter of the Persian king Bahiman, who had a son named Darab. 3 Bhai Santokh Singh has written humau in place of humayu. "dIlli ka humau bha sahu."-GPS. See !JWli. ~ [humayu] P uiln adj lucky. 2 n Humayun Tuglak. See lj"'Rffi{ToT BT WB Wtr ~ if: 20.
IPoets have written that if an arrow. attached with the feather of a phoenix. is shot into the sky, it does not return to the earth, rather it continues hovering in the sky.


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3 elder son of emperor Babar and father of Akbar. He was born in Kabul on 7th March 1508. His mother's name was Maham Begam. He ascended the throne on 26 th December 1530 at Agra. Gfall the Mughal rulers, he was a great scholar but lacked soldier-like qualities and was a big opium eater. In the year 1540, Sher Khan Sur Pathan (who was earlier known as Farid), son of Hassan Khan - a fief of Sahasram-defeated Humayun and pushed him out of India and himself ascended the throne of Delhi and assumed the title of emperor. After his defeat at the hands of Shershah, when Humayun was passing through Punjab, he went to Guru Angad at Khadur. The Guru was engrossed in meditation, so he did not pay him any attention. Enraged, Humayun began to draw his sword from its sheath in order to assault the Guru. At this the Guru said. "Now you are drawing the sword to kill hermits. Where was it when you were fighting? Where was it when Shershah was to be combated?" Humayun begged his pardon and was able to get blessings from Guru Angad Dev. Humayun spent many years in asylum with the Persian emperor. With the help of his army, he once again occupied the throne of Delhi on 23 rd June 1555, but could not enjoy his rule for long. Just after six months on the 24 th January 1556, he fell from the stairs of his library and died on 28 th January, 1556. His magnificient mausoleum is situated at a distance of four miles towards the west of Delhi on the bank of river Jamuna. It was got constructed by Begam Hamidabanu (mother of Akbar) in 1565 AD at a cost of 15 lac rupees. ~ [huyau] became. "bIkl teamrrthuyau." -sav£ye m 4 ke. ~ [hursa] See ~. [hurak] A J.7 n fire. 2 flame. See ~. [hurakl).a] v frighten, threaten. 2 challenge by quivering the nose in anger. ~ [hurkam] adj like a flame. "kacan hurkanI rup sarupa."-carItr 247. See~. ST'6H3" [hurmat], \T0J18 [hurmatI] A ..:Y.7- n pride, honour. "hurmatI tIS no agli. "~var asa. F [hura] A l)y lady with fair complexion and black eyes. Its p!!1ral is ~. Mohammedans have used this word for fairies. ~ [hurras] A vI} plural of ~ (0'1:fT); guard. 2 emperor's bodyguards. ~ [huria] n leap, jump. "paga bIn huria marta."-bas.:'1t kabir. 'The mind leaps without feet.' See Rfu 1::fmf. ~ [hurehIa] was pleased, was overjoyed. "kar kar sag hurehIa."-BG. ~ [hurehi] adj lightweight. "katth hurehi bhusli."-BG. 2 was pleased. Y1? [hul] See~. "hulE' nara."-ramav. 'People are frightened.' 2 Skt J-ftw. 3 a musical instrument. ~ [hulas] See Y1?'R. ~ [hular] n flood. 2 passion. 3 flow of passion. g M;:liiPal [hularval).i] floodwater. yw [hula) short for Y1?'R (~z.wr). "rag maD 1£ pIana ja joban nau hula. "-sri ill 1.


Y'H"'R" [hulas] Skt 0R1ffi. See ~z.wr. 2 See qffi1. ~ [hulara] n swing. 2 wave of passion. ~ [huliya] A ? ornament. 2 appearance, features, traces. 'ifWl'5" [hullal] n sound and fury, noise produced during an attack. "ral). hull kalola hullala."

[huvmi) See ~. y [hu) See <:ft. "pivat hu parvaD bhaIa. "-sri m 3. just after drinking. 2 with. "bahurr bahurr uahu Idptera."-gau m 5. 3 See \T. 4 A ~ pron


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he. \[ [hu] ego. "mujh me raha na hu."~s kabir. 2 fifth declension: from. "uci hu uca than." -var guj 2 m 5. 3 Skt part See 'if. "druga hu kly;'\ khet dhOke nagare.'·'~caQi 2. 'Durga responded by uttering hu.' W>f [hua], ~ [hua] happened. "jE kar apar sudhar hua."-VN. ~ [hue] happened. ~ [husna] See ~. '[U [huh] n oppression, braze:n aggressiveness. "blnsi haumE huh."-sar m 5. 2 assault, attack. "pare huh if kE." -caQi 2. 3 sound and fury. ~'ij' ~'ij' [huh kuh] n noise produced at the time of attack, assault's fury. "huh kuh;'\ bhari."-ramav. ~ ~ [hu hu] a musician in [ndar's court. See

ur. ur.
[huk], -gq [huk] n sound of hu. 2 lamentation. 3 call, outcry. ~ [hUbr] See 'ifqro. ~ [hug] sound of hu. 2 P ...£, army. "QIgge vir jujhare huga phuttia. "-caQi 3. 3 altertness. 4 force. 5 nation. 6 blow, percussion, attack. ~ [hut], ¥7i [hut~m] See i~. "01 blkhadi dokhia te guru te hute."---asa m 5. "blkhE bladhI tab huto."-dl1ana m 5. '[CT [huta] adjexhausted, tired. 2 n swing, jolt. '[3' [hut] Skt short for ~ adj called. "bIn hut nlket dhare carna."--NP '[3?i [hutan] n calling. "mal1dv ek pathyo hIt


~ [hutI] Skt n calling. 2 name.

[hutu] happens. "bacaH sabad ka saphla hu tu." ~ratdnmala. See "iJ3. ~ [huda] P adj old. 2 correct. 3 real, actual. va- [hub] See if.~. "det dub ko dekh hub ko." -GPs. ~ [hubahu] A ,1;"';; adj exactly identical.


of~. n fairy; virgins in heaven, who in Islam are offered to momlns. They are also offered to crusaders who lay down their lives fearlessly in defence offaith. See QO. "hura srol)at bij nu ghat gher khaloia." -caQi 3. ~~ [hull n attack. "debr ek bar dal huI." -GPS. 2 tip of the sword. 3 A J;. surrounding. "hul paVE kahaha."-s brid. 'having surrounded lamented.' "jodhlc1 dekhal) aia. hule hoia."-ramav. 'gathered all around.' ~ [hurl Skt obstinacy. 2 stupidity. "apan hur kaha urjhayo."-33 savEye. 'fr [he] is. "agE jatI na he."-var asa. "SIkh vaQbhagi he."--sukhmani. 2 Skt part 0 ! oh ! "he pral) nath gobfdah."-sal1as m 5. 'frfu [heI] is. "efta tIS hi heI."-var ram 1 m 2. 2 See ihir. 'fr'ij' [heh] n "fr'JT. desire (~.'hJT) for sexual intercourse ('ij'). "aheh hehe." -rama v. 'Those sans sexual desire were provoked erotically by women.' ~ [hehar], [hehra] a village of district and tehsil Lahore. This is situated at a distance of eight miles from Kot Lakhpat in the south·· east direction. The in laws ofBhai Prithi Chand, elder brother of Guru Arjan Dev, belonged to this village, He breathed his last here. His memorial is located here and abundant land and estate is attached to it. 2 a village in police station Raikot, tehsil Jagraon, district Ludhiana. Sant Kirpal Das Udasi belonged to this village. On his way to Malwa, the tenth Guru stayed here. Guru Hargobind also stayed here for some time at the earnest request of a disciple, Bhai Hamira. The bed upon which the Guru sat and the hearth upon which his food was prepared have been preserved. Since the times of Mahant Kirpal Das, Sikh

'VI' [hurl A J.P plural


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congregations have been held here. The gurdwara of both the Gurus is located to the east of the village. During the Sikh rule, onesixth land ofthe village amounting to thousands of bighas was attached to the gurdwara. This place is located at a distance of six miles from railway station Chaukiman in the south-east direction. [heha] See fro. 'frcr [hek] n long high-pitched call. 2 chant. 3 Dg adj one. See 'frw »8" ~. ~ [hekal)], 'frcrn" [hekal], ~ [hekro], 'frw [heka], ~ [heku], ~ [hekuro], u-&- [hekE], mt [heko] adj only one. See 'frcr 3. "CIt TId aVE hekro."-gau var 2 m 5. "heko padhahu hek daru."-var mala m 1. 'fr'arr [hega] Pu n drawing plank; a plank to break lumps in a ploughed field. See 7J(J'OIT. [heel P ~ a little, insignificant. "dIl hee TId dani."-tIlag m 1. ~ [heekas] P anyone. ~ [heegah] P o~ adv sometime. " 'frtr [hej] idea originating from within. 2 love. "dhan ko na hej rahE ganka pras;'igi ko." 3 Kamdev, Eros. [hezam] P ();i n fuel, firewood. 'frtr [heju] n love. 2 happiness. See iTR. fro [heth] adv under, below. 2 Skt ~ vr stop, be cruel. 'froT [hetha] See fuoru+ and 'fro. 'Me [hethI] adv under, below. "kGne hethI jalair."-s farid. UoT [hethi] n derogation, insult. 2 cruelty. See 'fro 2. fur [het] love. See fu3". "dhanu OI bhagat jIn tum s;'igI het."-gau m 5. 2 cause. See ~. "het rog ka sagal s;'isara." -bher m 5. [heta] Bhai Heta, a devotee of the tenth Guru. See FH(;iij'R1. 'frftr [hetI] due to love. "kamal hetI bInsIo hE






bhavra."-dhcma m 5. 2 for. "s;'it hetI prabhI tnbhaval). dhare."-gauam 1. "nad hetI SIrU <;lano kur:3ka."-dhana m 5. ~ [hetu] Skt n result. 2 cause. "sarab kale~an hetu aVIdya."-GPs. 3 This word has also been used for ~. "S;'ipE hetu kalat dhan terr." -bher kabir. "nanak sace nam VII) sabho dusman hetu."-var suhi m 1. 4 a figure of speech, which describes cause and effect at the same time. Example: "jInI sevIa tInI paIa manu."-japu. 'Service is cause and getting of honour is effect. ' "sadh kE sagI nahi kIChu ghal, darsan bhetat hot nIhal."-sukhmani. "darsan dekhat hi sudh ki na sudh rahi budhI ki na budhI rahi matI me na matI hr." -BGK. 'Holy appearance is the cause and disappearance of sensibil ity is the effect. ' (b) Narration of the oneness of the cause and effect is the second form of this figure of speech. Example: "kahI kabir ab kahiE kahI, sadhsagatI bEkGthE ahI."-bher kabir. Holy congregation leads to heaven, but here it is held that the holy congregation itself is heaven, and there is no heaven other than this. 5 It has also been used for hIt (moh). "Msu hetu lobh kop."-var majh m 1. 'violence, infatuation, greed and anger.' 6 It is used for hIt as well. "mina jInI jal SIU hetu ba<;lhaIo." -dhana m 5. ~ [hetuta] n causation. "IS mahI karam hetuta jane."-GPs. ~ [hetumala] See ~ . ~ftJ [hetvapanhutIl See »ItfQB. (c) 'frH [l~em] Skt n gold. 2 thorn-apple. 3 one

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masha by weight. renunciation. [hemkar] goldsmith. ~ [heral:tl, ~. [heran] v behold, observe, look. "herau ghatI ghatI sagal kE."-bavcm. ~ [hemkut], ~ [hemkuc;l.], ~ [hemkut] In Himalay range, there is Hemkunt mountain "herat herat he sakhi!"-oakar. close to Indardyumansar pooL It finds mention ue(')'€!le [heranvar] ad; observer, seer. in the 119 th chapter of the earlier part of 'freoT [hemal See'frw>. Mahabharat. "f dradyuill;}nSarah prapy fr6r [hera] adj watched, visualised. 2 n a hemkut matityac." (43) "hamkut parbet hE hunter's job; deer hunting. 3 meat. "hera roti jaha"-VN. 2 Ratangiri, one of the five hills kame gala katavE kaunu?"-s kabir. 4 Punjabi in Rajgiri in district Patna, is also called song sung in a prolonged sing-song voice. It is 1 Hemkut. specially sung on the occasion of marriage. 'clfacf [henk] Dg n detective; secret agent who fu.rfurfu [hemgIn] See ~r. observes everybody minutely. 'frHymr [hempusap] Dg n a tree which bears golden flowers, magnolia. 2 a flower made of -mIT [heri] adj seen, observed. 2 n huntsman, gold, which in ancient times was showered on hunter. "mngni jnn ghavat heri."-knsan. the hearse of the rich. See e5rno ~. 3 vocative: he ali! ari! he sakhi! ~ [hemphullIka] jasmine blossoming ~ [hem] adj observing, looking. See 'frfuq. msprmg. 2 investigator, researcher. 3 he who eyes Uw [hemal a devotee of Guru Arjan Dev from people's wealth for providing information to a Kapahi subcaste, who belonged to Sultanpur. thief. "taskar hem aI lukane."-bIla a m 4. He became a disciple of Guru Arjan and got 4 Skt ~cx n messenger of death, agent of enlightened. death. "jam raje ke hem ae."-asa patti m 1. ~ [hemacal], ~ [hemadn]. hill of"fr>-r 5 adj abductor; thief. (gold), Sumer; hill (adn) of go Ie!. -mhr [herab] Skt ~ n Ganesh, who enjoys with Shiv. ~ [hemu] a gentleman of Suini subcaste, who lived at Shahdara. He became a disciple of ~ [hel], 'frw [hela] n attack, invasion. "hel Guru Arjan Dev and grew into a great ethical pukarat gonn marat."-GPs. "hela karahu and philanthropic personage. 2 a bania of parahu ik bera."-NP 2 a carnivorous creature, which belongs to the wolffamily; hyena. See Dhusar caste, who was a nobleman of the Delhi king Salim Shah and was appointed a 3Q<5f. 3 Skt %en disobedience, insult. 4 game, minister in the times ofMohammad Shah Adil. sensuous play or sport. "sIdh budh gaD He opposed emperor Akbar and after gadharab banvE hela."-mala namdev. 'enact play in the theatre.' 5 In poetics, gesture born defeating the Mughal army, conquered Agra. He declared himself king and acquired the title of coquetry; flirtatious gesture. of Bikramaj it. Finally on 5th November, 1556, 'fr'€!' [hev], 'IT~ [hev] See fmf. means coo l. "man tan hey bhae sac paIa."-mala ;:I m 1. See~. he got wounded in the battle of Panipat, was captured and killed by Bairam Khan, the ~ [hevai], -rr-'<!6T [hevhi], ~ [hevat] is cool; endures the chill; fj:eezys like snow. "sital jal minister. 'frtr [hey] Skt adj worth renouncing; fit for hevhi." -var m;oJla m 1. "jal hevat bhukh aru naga."--kan m 5. ISee Geographical Dictionary.

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~ [hera] n huntman, hunter. 2 meat. 3 body,

~fq~ [hEkntu] n ritualistic sacrifice of a

physique, mortal frame. "here rnuti dhah."-s farid. 'the body wailed. ' "hera j2llE rn2ljith jru Up2lrI agara."-sfarid. ~ [herh] n herd of animals, flock. 2 herd of animals assembled by traders. ~ [hE] n present form of be. "hE bhi S2lCU." -j2lpu. 2 Skt"'Q[I.. horse. "hE g2lI bah2ln."-skabir. 3 part a word expressing grief and pain. "hE hE k2lrke oh k2lrenI.."-sava mI. tt [hf'] part interrogative, sorrowful and exclamatory expression. 2 plural of hE, h2ln, hEn. ~ [hEas2l!).] n sitting on (horse) with a good grip. "gIan hEaS2In C2IrI2IU."-SavEye m 3 ke. 2 folded cloth put under a saddle. 3 saddle. ~ [hEsala] n horse stable; building in which horses are kept and fed. ~'JillE [hESiy2lt] A ~ n condition, state. 2 way, method, manner. ~ [hEh2ly] Skt~. a king ofthe lunar dynasty who was son ofStrajit. 2 a caste; it is written in Vishnu Puran that they are from Yadavs. Present day scholars consider sidyans to be this caste. We understand from Mahabharat that they were the offspring of Manu's son Yayati. Sahasarbahu (Kartiviray) was their famous king who was defeated by Parsuram. Colonel Todd wrote that this tribe still exists in the Baghelkhand's Sohagpur valley. ~ [hEhaha] wailing, sorrowful sound, mournful cry. ~ [hEhat] A.,::..lr-'; adjdistanced. 2 part, alas! ~ [hEk2l1] A Jj n appearance, figure. 2 idol house. 3 armour made from engraved metal worn like an ornament for protection by warriors. "hEk2l1 jin h2lrneI2lpara."-saloh ~ [hf'kar] Skt 3~. haughtiness, arrogance. 2 arrogance due to inflated opinion of one's own self.

horse; a ritual in which a horse is sacrificed. "hEkrItu jagg 21rabh n21 kijE."-ramav. m=r [hEj] A woman's menses. [hEj2lrn] Dg n army, m{litary. ~ [hEjrn2lp] Dg n commander of the army. mtr [hEja] ~ Skt f(;1j filo(' cholera; a dangerous contagious disease. It is caused by foul smell of rotten things, by eating stale and contagious food, drinking unclean and smelly water, use of rotten fruit etc. When germs of this disease pervade polluted air and dirty water, it annihilates the entire families and villages. Only one patient may carry the germs to numerous places and contaminate the water of wells, rivers and tanks and eatables causing the death of many people. When cholera grips a patient, his body slackens, stomach feels heavy, uneasiness is felt, head gets giddy, acute thirst is felt, urine does not flow. The stool is loose and of white brown colour. Breathing becomes difficult. The patient vomits, his body feels pain as ifpricked by needles, due to which it is called VISUCIka. When the patient feels weak due to loose motions and vomits, then the body has cramps, lips turn blue, head feels giddy and eyes sink. This disease requires immediate treatment. The excreta and vomits should be buried mixing them with lime so that the germs of cholera are destroyed. Loose motions should not be stopped at once. The following are the few effective remedies for cholera: Keep ice in the mouth; give properly boiled water and milk, especially water boiled with cardamom, ginger and clove; suck lemon sprinkled with black pepper and salt. Mix asafoetide, camphor, seeds of red



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chillies, ginger, opium with onion juice and make tablets of half a rati and give two tablets to the patient with aniseed-essence four or five times a day. Mix camphor, peppermeIllt, essence of aniseed in a small bottle in liquid form. Four to thirty drops of this liquid mixed with sugar should be given every half an hour. Massage this juice on palms, soles, telllples, forehead and navel. Lick the juice of ginger mixed with salt. It is also very beneficial to drink water boiled with two tolas of bark of neem tree. Mix piperaceous, black pepper, ginger, cloves of calatropis procera (a wild plant of sandy region) and salt in equal amount, and make tablets of one rati each and take two tablets after every 15 minutes wiith hot water. Give juice of the leaves of basil (osmium sanctum) mixed with salt. Burn new coconut kernel red in fire and dip it five to six times in boiled water. Drinking this water is very beneficial. When there is cholera epidemic, going out of home on empty stomach should be avoided. Never drink water or milk without properly boiling it. Never eat stale food or rotten fruit. Never stay at dingy or damp places. Use spicy things, onion, ginger, vinegar and lemon and not to hold back urine and stools. ~ [hEdar] A .JJi> n lion, tiger. 2 This is also the surname of Hazrat Ali, son-in-law of prophet Mohammad. ~~ [hEdrabad] There are two famous cities by this name, one is in Sin.dh and the other is in the south which is the capital ofthe Nizam. ~rn "ffer [hEdri jhaQa] adj flag in Hydar's name; sign of Ali; a flag' raised by Muslims for religious war. 2 When Banda Bahadur


raised the banner ofrevolt in Punjab, the whole Majha region rose against the Mughal empire. The subedar of Lahore being weak, Muslim priests led the army to fight against the Sikhs. Due to this, the battle came to known as battle ofHaidri Jhanda.This incident took place in Sammat 1767. See fuRwH w. [hm], Mo [hmI] plural ofthird person. are. "hmI yule nah:l ghaDe."-slok. 2 See~. [hEph] A ..;p} n grief, sorrow. "hE sad hEph ju kari kamai."-NP 2 tyranny, cruelty. 3 vr phew, shame. [hEbat] A ..::.p~ n fleaI', terror, dread, fright, scare. 2 awe, dominance. [hEm] Skt adjmade of gold. "sis pE hEm su nike hE Qhari."-NP 2 mountain of snow. mh:r [hEmedh] n (fljf (horse) }fq (sacrificial offering). See ~'}fq. ~ [hEmacal) Skt fuHTtR? mountain of snow, Himalay. ~ [hEmacalI J in the mountain of snow. "tanu hEcali galic"-sri a ill 1. ~ [hEyat] See ~r. ~ [hEyati] adj living, alive. See ~. [hErat], ~ [hEratI] A .::.-~ n astonishment, bewilderment. "tinI dey am kop: tetisa tIn kihEfatI kachu I1a rahi."-guj ill 5. 'Their astonishment knew no bounds.' mr3t [hEfti] adj astonishing, amazing. ~ [hEfaD], m)" [hEfan], ~ [hEranu] A l;)j~ adjastonished, bewildered. "gungaI rahe hEfan."-prabha ill 4. "bhagatI teri hEfan daradu gavavahL"-asa a ill 1. [hEvar] superior and beautiful horse. "kanIk kamIni hevarg{!lvar."-sor a ill 5. ~ [hEvan] A (jl:!:'. aaj animate, living. 2 n living being. "hEvan haram kustani."-tIIJ ill 5. tt rho] v be. 2 Skt part vocative. "lalac choQahu adhho."-asa a ill 1. 3 indicative of future. "mujh te kal.'u na hua, ho na."-asa 'CllJt ill 5.



m m.r


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"iJ<J. be, become. "hohu sabhna


if' [hO] 2 ego, I-ness. 3 am. "mE ji nama hO ji."-dhcma namdev. ~ [hou] future tense of be; will be. iflW [hoa] happened, occurred. "hoa apI daIalu."-var guj 2 m 5. irfu [hOI] be. 2 will be. "na ko hoa na ko hoI." -sodaru. 3 adv having been. "hOI amra gnh mahI bEtha."-sor m 5. ifremft [hOI pari] has happened, appeared, manifested. "Esi hOIpari."-sar m 5 pdrtal. itfi::ai [hOIba] about to happen, worthy to be. 2 will be, will occur. 3 happens. "jo kIchu brahI SOI paru hOIba."-prdbha m 1. irfu ~ [hOI mahOI] See fchrr and l-ffrft:. mft [hoi] happened. 2 godess Ahoi. See ~. irH [hos] will be, shall be. "jo tIS bhave so bhal hos."-prdbha m 5. 2 P JYi n life, soul. 3 intelligence, wisdom. "hos bhai pharmos sabhf."-NP ~ [hosmad], ~ [hosvad] P VYi adj intelligent, wise. "har6 hosvad ab dham nIj janIye."-NP irfu [hOSI] will be, will happen. ~ [hosIar] See ~. fu:it [hosi] will be. "nanak hosi bhi sacu."-jdpu. -m:rar [ho~ag] P ~-'" famous emperor of Iran. ifFforwt!' '[hosagabad] a prominent city of a district at the bank of river Narbada in Central India (CP.), which is 476 miles from Bombay. -m:r [hoh] may happen. See ~. [haha] happens. "manurahu kacan hoha." -var ram 2 m 5. 2 n jolt, jerk. "bdhufI na maIa hohIa. "-sri chat m 5. 3 swing, oscillating motion, elation. 4 wave, current. "jEse mdha sagar hohe." -sar m 5 Pdrial. Sa metre also called sudhi, characterised by four lines, each line comprising 151, S. Example: tutepare.navemure.asadhare.rIsabhare. -ramav.

irfu [hohI] present. 2 may be.
~ [hohu] See

ki reDuka." -var maru 2 m 5.

mrr [hog], -Joft [hogi] shall, will be.

-ijw [hoka] n call. 2 public proclamation.
~ [hogia] has happened. 2 shall be, will

be. "tu ape brahI su hogia."-var kan m 4.

irQr [hogu] See ilor. "hogu tIsE ka bhaDa."-gcw
m 1. "dusar hoa na hogu."-bavan. ~ [hochau] adjtrivial, petty, mean. "hochau kaj alap sukh badhan."-sCJvEye sri mukhvak m 5. ~ [hochta] n pettiness, triviality, meanness. "bEthyO nIbt hochta heri."-GPS. 'fur' [hacha], -mit [hachi], W [hacho] See~. "hacha si1hu na kijai."-BG. "kavan su dana bvanusuhocha?"-maru solhem 5. Hereilw [hocha] means stupid. "hanras cha<;lI hochE raSI mata."-asa m 5. 'happy with trivial matters.' "hochi saraDI pan rahIDu na pai." -asa m 5. weak refuge. ~ [hotDa] v dissuade, forbid. "ucItna bhojan ke bhI hote."-GPs. "bhe ham tha<;lhe sabh kohota."-BG. ircr [hota] See ~. 2 n loss, deficit, diminution, dearth. "pir murida pIrhari hUI bde na hota."-BG. 'fro [hath] SkI fui lips, especially upper lip. ~ [hothia] a village in district Gurdaspur, tehsil Batala, half a mile away from which is the gurdwara of Guru Arjan Dev. The Guru stayed here while going from Barath to Guru ke Bag (Ghukewali). Ninety-three ghumaons ofland (eighty-eight ghumaons here and five ghumaons in village Valewal) is with the gurdwara. It is three and half miles to the east of Batala railway station. [ho<;l] Sand Dg n bet, vow, pledge. "badahu kin ho<;l madhau mo SIOU?"--sor namdev. 2 SkI ~ vr go, insult.


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~ [hoq-hoqi] adv in rivalry. 2 as a wager. ~ [hoqi] adj stubborn, obstinate. "]:h murakh hoqi." -prdbha d m 1. 2 who put the condition. ~ rhode] adv iinspite of having, even after

3 a raja of Gakhar, clan, famous by the name ofHudi. See~. "hoqi tako rup nIharyo." -CdrItr 97. hoi£."-dev m 5. tTC!"ijTij' [hoDhar] n which must happen, troH [honam] ad) likely to happen; inevitable. inevitable, destined to happen. See~. See Y3". ~ rhoDa] v be. 2 worth happening. "hoDa sa tTor [hona]See iJ·(!T. "hona hE so hoi h£."-gdV soi phunI hOSi."-gdV m 5. kdbir. ~ [hODi] sense of being. "jal te sHal hODi." 'frfo [honI] are. "honI najik khudaI d£."-s {drid. -dev m 5. 2 which must happen, destiny. "hoDi jan sabhIn ke math."-GV 6. tT7IT [!toni] See it,ft. 2: adj existing, being. "so fur [hot] short for tT~."hot punit kotI braham ajoni h£ bhi honi."-sor m 1. apradhu." -baVdn. tTlf [hom] Skt n clarified butter. 2 offering tTa-r [hota] denoting continuous or habitual clarified butter etc to the sacred fire for the action. "satI hota asatI karI manIa."-maru deity; ritual fire. "hom jag tirath kie bICI haumE badhE bIkar."~gdv m 5. m 5. 2 Skt ~ who performs a fire ritual. ~ [hotaIa] has been happening. 2: who Burning of clarified butter and other performs worship of a ritual fire. 3 n fire in fragrant elements in the fire have been highly praised in Rig V~:d and Yajur Ved. In the Bible which sacrificial material is poured. tT3t [hoti] has been. 2 one who performs a fire also, this ritual is regarded as a part ofreligion. ritual. "mala tIlak soc pak hOti."-gdV CI m 5. See Ex chapter 29. Vmse 13 and 18.3 sacrifice, offering. "nIuli karam jal hom pavak pavan 3 a town near Mardan of district Peshawar. hom."-dkal. 'offering something to water and Both are jointly called Hoti Mardan. sacrificing the same to fire and air dieties.' tT~ [hot:J] is present; i.e. omnipresent, the Creator. "hob sagI na jano.. "-mdla m 5. ~ [homkOq] n a fire pit, where after ~ [hotr] Skt n fire sacrifice, oblation. oblation with Vedic riitual, worship is done. See ~ [hotn] Skt ~ adj who performs a fire ~~ for a comparison between ~~ and ritual; who does an oblation. ~~. ~ [hotri] IDfcm adjwho performs a fire ritual; fu.m [homan], fuf<'i r [homna] v offering clarified butter and other fragrant thing to the fire; concerning the oblationer; ofthepersofl who perform rituals. performs an oblation. tT't!' [hOd] n existence, being i.e. potential. ~ [homagau] will offer clarified butter etc to the fire; willi worship with Vedic rituals. 2 presence. 2 will offer sacrifice. "karau benti atI ghani ~ rhoda], ~ rhoda] adj present, existing. "gharI hoda purukh na pachanIa."-sri m 3. Ih jia homagau."-bTla m 5. 2 existed, believed in asserting. "hoda tTHt [homi] was offered to the fire. 2 who offered clarified butlter etc to the fire. ~ phariagu nanak jaDu."-var mdla mi. tTtiIil [hoyau], 'V"!ijT [hoya], <I'Gf [hoyo] was, tTtft [hodi] See ~.

having. "je ghan hodE magan Jiaie."-ram d mi. tTn [hon] be, be present. 2 existence, being. tTi'i'UTa' [honhar] See 'fr~. "mai honhar su

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existed, happened. "jrh krrpal hoyau gobf d. "-savEye m 5. "hoyo jE hovato. "-ga tlla. -mr [horl part and, other. 2 other, another, different. "karE duhkaram drkhaVE hor."-gau m 5. 'does false deeds, shows himself as noble.' 3 See "fr-a?)T. "rahe hor 10kJ."-VN. 'People were warning.' ~ [horatu] See g. 2 in another way, in a different style. "horatu bhagatr na pae koi." -majh am 3. ~ [hortE] from someone else. 2 See 'iJW. ~ [horth£] adv another place. "horthE sukh na bhal."-var brha m 3. [homa] v prevent, prohibit, forbid. "rsu mithi te rhu man horE."-gau m 5. "nfdak so jo nfda horE."-gau kabir. 'Our actual slanderer is he, who forbids someone else from slandering us. ' [horanr] because of others, from others. "ap!).a karaju apr savare horanr karaju na hoi." -asa m 1. 'ijw [hora] prohibited, stopped. 2 Skt ~ 24 th part of day and night; one hour. 3 horoscope. ~[horr] other, another; plural of-mr "horr kete gavanr." -japu. ~ [horro] forbidden, prohibited, prevented, distracted. 2 quite different. 3 from entirely different side, from another angle. "horro gag vahaiE."-var ram 3. i.e. 'The tide has turned back, or the Guru has fallen at the feet of his follower.' ~ [horra] forbade, stopped. iJ'ffi [hori] prohibited, forbidden, stopped. "mohni mohat rahE na hori."-sar m 5. 2 someone else, with someone else. "vr!).u manE jr hori naIr lujh!).a."-var sri m 3.3 See "frm. 4 vocative used to denote pleasure, surprise or disappointment etc. aho ali! "gvaranr yo kahyo hori."-krrsan.

'frg [hom] See -mr. "gu!). eho, hom nahi kor."
-sodaru. 'His biggest attribute is that there is none equal to Him. ' 2 prohibition, restriction. "trthE hom na koi hom."-japu. ~ [hore], <'rn [horE] See"fraor. "kotr jore lakh kore manu na hore."-gau m 5. 2 something else, opposite, quite different. "sara drn lalacr atra manmukh hore gala."-var gau 1 m 4. fuiir [hoI] Skt ~ n grains, rice and grams along with bran roasted in dry hay are called 'ih?+. u~ [holgarh] a fort in Anandpur Sahib, where the tenth Guru started the tradition of playing Hola Mohalla on the first of Chet Sammat 1757. 'i:tw [hola] See 'iJl;) and 'iJw l-fuw. barcha Qhal katara tega karcha dega gola hE, chaka prasad saja dastara am kard:ma tola hE, subhat sucala am lakhbahakalgasfgh sucola hE, apar muchahrra darha jEse, tEse bola hoIa hE. -kavr nrhal sigh. 'i:tw l-«fw [hola mahalla] n attack; attack and place of attack. Guru Gobind started this tradition to train Khalsa in martial arts. Two armies used to be formed under two leading Sikhs who fought to occupy a particular place. The Guru himselfused to watch the manoeuvre of these fictitious battles and give them valuable instructions. Of the two armies whichever won, was offered a robe of honour in the congregation. See ~ ~ and }-I(]'w. ~ [hoIr], ~ [hoIrka], <Jc;ft [holi] Sktfrwc;;r or ~ n burning ofholrka, a festival which is celebrated on Phagun 15 in the light half of a lunar month. See 'liP. "hoIr das-hara darsan avahu."--GPS. "holi kini satsev."-basJ m 5. [hovag] shall be, will be. [hova!).] See ~. [hovat] v used for denoting continuous or habitual action. "hovat ae sad sadiv."-bavan. eRn [hovan] being, existence. 2 adj inevitable;




m m

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i.e. death. "hovan kaura anhovan mitha." -brla m 5. 'Death is bitter and l:ife is sweet.' J<1()ijid [hovanhar] n fate, destiny. 2 eternal Creator. "hovanhar hot sad aIa."-bavan. 'J'm [hovanI] be, happen. "hukmi hovanI akar."-japu. ~ [hovi] will be, shall be. 2 use:d to happen. "tIS da kade na hovi bhala."--vaI' gdU 1 m 4. 'J'~?IT [hoVEni] adj likely to happen, worth happening. "sa hOVE jo bat hovEni."'-brla m 4. 2 They happen. 'iM-g [hovato] been. 2 inevitable. '''hoya hE hovato."-gatha. 'J;r [hor] See ~ and ~. ~ [horna] v forbid, prohibit, stop, distract. "surbir varIam kInE na horiE."-var guj 2 m 5. 2 tip; roughen by cutting grooves, i.e. to tip the stone mill. fu1r [hora] n enclosure in which animals are kept and stopped from going out. 2 obstacle. 3 attached vowel sign in Punjabi; (') [0]. ~ [hJ] See ~. '5" [h5] See ~. m=r [hJs], '5"H [h5s] See~. ~ [hJsla] A ~j> n animall's liiver. 2 effort, valour. 3 Philanthropy ~ [h5kna] v pant, puff, be out of breath. mrnt [hJkni] n heavy breathing due to fast heartbeat, breathe heavily. "dJre avat h5kni soe uradh svas."-carrtr 7. [hJjl, B-e" [hJd] A Jj> n pit for holding water; water tank. "baq.o hJj Ik huto banayo."-GPS ~t!tf [hJdaj], ft~ [hJda] A c,.. ,., n open or covered seat placed over a camel or an elephant; howdah. "kacan rajat ghare jIn hJda."-GPS fur; [hJn] See ~. -m=t [hJmE] See ~. [hJr] See "rJr para pur d:,r cale nar har uthyo ur." -NP 2 A .JJ1 throw upward. "jamna


kahu gvaranI h;)rE."-krrsan. 'Milkwomen splash water of lamna upward while swimming.' [bray], i'Rro;r:J [hxvat], ~ [hJrvata] n lightness, meanness, flippancy, triviality. "alap arbal chIma karat hE. Ih jetho hJrvar dharat hE."-GPS [hJra] light, not heavy. See (~. "hJra bhaya sagal turkana."-GPS ~ [hJI] A JJ1 n fear, terror. 2 heart's trembling, fright. See BtJ<'S". ~ [hJla] adj light. 2 mean, base, low. UHf [hJIi] adv slowly" gently, softly. 'd [M] short form of '»l"ti'. 1. "ha bhi vaJ1a q.umDi."-sri m 1. Ufl [Mu] See~. "tInkEhaulagaupae."-vac;i m 3 alah1).i. "hau vari hau vari gurusIkh mit pIare."--vac;i chait m 4. ~ [MumE] See ~if. "sabhI blmse haUmE papa ram."-vac;i chat m 4. ~ [has] Skt n a bird of the duck family which has white feathers and red beak and feet. I It is written in ancient scriptures that its beak contains sour content, which when dipped in milk, water gets separated. On the basis of this simile, he who differentiates bt~tween truth and untruth is called a swan. Many poets have termed it as collector of pearls. "jEse mansar tyag ha,s an sar jat, khat na mukatphal bhugatI ju gat ki."




"pachIn me has mrIgrajan me sardu1."
-BGK. 2 sun. "mahIma ja ki nJ:rmal has." -bher a m 5. 3 soul, spirit. "kaIa has kIa pritI hE jI para hi chaq.IjaI?" -var guj m 3.


4 wise, discerning. "SIkh has sarvarI Ikathe hoe."-varram 2 m 5. "hasa vekhI tradIa baga bhI aIa cau."-var vac;i m 3. 5 a raja who was a friend of Jarasandh. 6 white hair, which are
IS wans have blackfeathers too.

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swan-coloured. "has ulthare aI."-sri m 5 pahne. 7 has pra!)ayam. While inhaling one utters the sound of 'ha' and while exhaling, it is the sound of's' that is uttered. See »iRlfT and <5w. 8 has incarnation. See JH"ikl'd. 9 Vishnu. 10 Shiv. 11 horse. 12 adj superior. 13 a metre of which the features are: two lines, each line has 15 matras, pauses at the seventh matra and the eighth matra thereafter, with guru laghu at the end. Example: jahI tahI baq.ha pap ka karm, jag te ghata dharm ka bharm. --kalki. (b) Keshav Das has prescribed a bhagha!), 511 at the beginning ofthis metre: avat jat raj ke log. , muratdhari manahu bhog. -ram chadrIka. (c) See illm". (d) See -e-~ tT~ 11. -mr ~ [has hasa] swan among swans, superior swan. "has hasa bag baga lahE man ki jala." -wJ<j chat m 1. 'By shedding the scum of the mind, you will turn from a hypocrite into a pure person.' [h::'isak] a metre. It is also called uchal and p::'iktI. It has four lines, each structured as 511,5,5. Example: bEfam khana. kin madana. khEC krIpana. biran hana.-GPs. Many books of prosody term it as has. 2 Dg a ring or ornament for ankles or toes; jingling anklet. tTRiJrf3" [h::'isgatI] swan's gait. 2 whose gait is like that of a swan. 3 a metre characterised by four lines, each line having twenty matras. The first pause is on the eleventh and the second is on the ninth thereafter, with laghu guru atthe end. Numerous books on prosody have prescribed a raga!), SIS, at the end.

Example: kete kahahI vakha!), kahI kahI jav!)a, ved kahahI vakhIa!), atu na pav!)a.... -var majh. teri panahI khudaI, tu bakhsadgi, sekhfaride kher, dijE badgi.-asa. (b) See l@tt tT ~ 4. ~ [hasgammi] adj she who walks like a swan; one having the graceful gait ofa swan. tfmr [hasat] Seefu1:r3". U'J::i'7ft [hasni] female swan. ~ [hasyan] he who rides a swan; Brahma. :2 she who rides a swan; Sarasvati, wife of Brahma, goddess of speech and eloquence. ~ [h::'israj] See ~. 2 a particular kind of swan; royal swan. ~ [h::'isram] a great poet in the court of the tenth Guru, who, besides other literary works, translated Karan Parav ofMahabharat into Hindi poetry. "km baq.o ya jagat me ko data ko sur? kake ran aru dan me mukh par barsat nur? racyo brahm kar apne dino bhu ko bhar, so to guru gobfd hE nanak ko autar. Ese kahu ke nahi sur surpatI ke bh:m, is munis dIlis e nar nares ke bn? car baran car6 jaha a:;;ram karat anad, ta ko nam anadpur hE anad ko kad. s::'ibat satra Sf baras bavan bitanhar, marag vadI tIthI duj ko ta dIn magalvar, has ram ta dIn karyo karan parab arabh.... prItham krIpa kar rakh kar guru gobfd udar, taka I kare bakh:;;i:;; tab mo ko sath hajar, ta ko ayas paykE kara!) parav mE kin, bhakha arath vIcItr kar sune sukavI parbin." ashirvad"kayam kuber sat sayar sumeru jJb kiratI karan ki karan avgahbi, jJb pJn pandg prdbdl puhmi ke bhar

Rupees; silver coins.

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parath ko jJb purkharath sarahbi, jJb ~;IvsaIItal su kavI h~sram kahE jJb ram ravan ko ramay,m cahbi, jJb dhruv dharanI tarun tej rajE jag tJb 1?ri gobId sIgh tere sis sahbi." -amft [h~sli] Skt~. a bone below the neck and above the chest; collar bone. 2 See umft. tfffi!TUO [hasvahan] Brahma, who rides a swan. J'H'il1i']i'll [h~svahni] Sarasvati. -m, iR [h~s v~s] swan's clan (sun). 2 sacred clan, pure clan. ti1fr [h~sa] who own a swan or has a swan; Brahma. "tace hasa sagle jana."-dhana namdev. 2 human soul. "hasa sarvar kal sarir."-gau kabil'. 3 opposite oUt<i. <i (I) "AT (he). "nanak soha hasa japu japahu." -val' maru 1 m 1. J'RJ'ildiij [Msavatar] incarnation ofVishnu who existed in the guise ofa swan. There is a story in the thirteenth chapter of eleventh Sakandh ofBhagvatthat Sankadiks questioned Brahma about the enlightenment of the soul. When Brahma began to ponder for an answer then Vishnu in the guise of a swan provided them metaphysical knowledge. tii:ft [h~si] female swan. <iJ=ro9" IDJ [h~su] See -m,. 2 See fJw. "Msu hetu Iobhu kopu care nadia agI."-val' majh m 1. 3 conscience. "kaIa h~su nnm;':l]u darIsacE jaI).u."-maru solhe m 3. 4 human soul. [MsuIa] swan's son; young swan. "bagule te phunI h~su]a hOVE."-basJt m 1. ~ [h~sesuri]' goddess of swan. Sarasvati, who rides a swan. "kI h~sesuri hE."-datt. ~ [h~k] adj proud, haughty, egoist. "bhne bhumI h~k~."-VN 2 n call, entreaty for help. 3 monosyllablic response, indicating a listener's attention or concurrence. 4 pride.


[h~ki] adj

proud, haughty. "m~Qe an


tTar [h~g] P ...£. army, military. See ~.
See })ftBr. <:farrH [Mgam] P (~, n time, occasion. "JaTrw [h~gamaJ P ~~ n community of people. 2 war, battle. 3 expedition. "bahut bafakh ko hUI h~gama."-GPs. See <JaTT}-fT. tfqrQT [hagura] See -q~. "Iae Ia1?tIka det h~gura."-NP. <:fur [h~gh] n capability, strength, vigour. tfureT [h~ghai] strong, capable. "k~n koi kaQhI na h~ghai."--sri m 5 p£paI. 'None dares hear a calumny.' ~ [h~ghura] See 'if~ and 'J-~. tl1:ft [h~ji] only il[~ boatman, oarsman, rower. 'ti1fur [Mjir] See nf;::fRr. 2 See ~. tft::itai [Mjira] !)C> Skt JlO'sAIMI. Scrofula. The causes of this disease are : Disturbance in the digestive system, infection of blood Inherited from the semen and blood of addicted parents suffering from syphilis, living in dirty place and eating rotten and stale food etc. Due to this disease, hard swollen glands are formed around the throat, sometimes these burst and start oozing. Sometimes these glands spread to armpits and chest. To escape this disease, digestive system should function properly. Things causing indigestIOn be avoided. Things prepared from the buds of bauhinia vaiegata and black grams are useful. Eating medicinal nuts like haraTS, drinking essence of china-root and decoction of HID '[it (a medicinal plant common in eastern and central Punjab) and the bark of neem tree is very useful. Decoction of the root of barna tree mixed with honey is very effective. Following are some good ointments for scrofulo:
~ [h~gta]




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Take saphed kasgari 6 mashas, sadhur (red 2 wield, wear. oxide oflead or mercury) two tolas, ten tolas ~ [haQhIaya] See ~. of sesame oil; cook these things on low flame ~ [haQhIkE] adv travelling, wandering. in an iron pot, make an ointment and apply it "can gavaIa haQhIkr."-s farid. on glands whether dry or oozing after washing '(jo [hat] Skt~. part joy. 2 grief, pain. 3 so far, them with decoction ofleaves ofnfm margosa now. 4 It is obligatory for Hindus to say 'hat' tree azadirachta indica. while offering food to a guest for religious Take leaves of cotton plant, margosa tree, purposes. See Cl(i:::S:,l'GtC'i "l:hr 13 ~ 12. 5 See ~. "dokh sabhE hi hat."-majh drnTEJ). ~ ~ castor oil tree and of bhagra weighing one chatag grounded in 3 chatag mustard oil, 4 tolas (J3T:. 6 Skt ~. killer, destroyer. "sarab papa of wax and cook in iron pan. When cooked hat jiu."-ram ruti m 5. properly, make the ointment and apply on the ~ [hatkar], ~ [hatkari] adjdestroyer, glands. who devastates. "prabhasm ke pran ko hatkari." White mustard seeds, seeds of suhajana, -carItr 286. 2 Skt ~ n food kept aside after uttering hat. See fu 4.3 sound of bliss. of hemp junica, seeds oflinseed barley, reddish seed be grounded in sour butter milk for ~ [hatna] n bodily pride, corporeal vanity. 2 destroyer. "tIagi h;)mE hatna."-maru solhe applying on the glands. "huti hajira gar mahf tah], m5. det bIkhad mItat so nahi."-GPS. ~ [hata], <Joro [hatar], ~ [hatn] Skt ~ adj killer, assassin. "jIu hata mIrgah."-var ~ [haju], i:hr [hajh] n swan. "aI ulthe hajh." -s farid. 2 heron. "kel karade hajh no."-s farid. asa. "sarab-hata."-japu. 2 hata is also used for ahata. 3 wild goose. ~ [hada] See ~ 2. 2 genitive case part ~ [hajhu] n tears. "dukh hajhu rovr."-BG. ~ [haQia] See uim. "SIr mUQIt hE haQia of. "jas hada baD."-var ram 3. jEse."-GPs. ~ [hadall See FodHole. 2 J1.h son ofemperor Babar, who was born in 1518 and died in 1551. ~ [haQur] or ~ [hfQur] Now this is the name of the princely state of Nalagarh . Ajit His grave is near Babar's tomb. Chand ofKahlur dynasty conquered Nalagarh ~ [hadalie] See FodH(')le. and made it his capital. In history about Guru "ti'o [han] v are. 2 ~-or are not? Gobind Singh, it is referred to as Kahlur only. 'ij7;r [hana] n pommel, usually the rounded part that sticks out at the front ofa saddle on which See~. the bridle is hung. -ij!~~ [haQuria] who is related to haQur. 2 resident ofhaQur. tffi; [hanI] plural of hE. are. "te gUD mE tanI cfv' [hadh], ~ [haQhaD], ~ [haQhanr] Skt hanI."-suhi m 1. ~~ n wander, roam. "haQhanI karma ~ ~ '8"'t!'F.I"'df [hane hane bad~ahi], ~ ~ bahre."-var majh m 1. "haQhE un kataIda Hhft [hane hane miri] chieftainship for every cavalry soldier. Each rider is his own lord. pEdha lOTE patu."-s farid. "kaItu garabI haQhiE?"-var asa. 2 writing. 3 wielding, "hane hane bad~ahi bhogte mahanrye."-PP "hane hane In ki miri."-PP supporting. l [haQhal,JDa] Jil'Qa v to delude, rotate. ~ [hanebaQ], ~ [hanevaQ] a division

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which is done for each rider; each rider's equal share. If hundred riders conqmlred an area it would be divided into hundred parts. The division of wealth and other things is done in the same manner. See 'CX'C>'t h. ~ [habli] See ljol 'ij'tfta' [Mbir] See ~. 2 egoistic hero; a conceited warrior. "hahle habir." -l"amav. 'ti't [MbE] bangar pal"t yes; right; true. It is true. certainly. See~. ~ [Mbhla] l?iti-ID?T courage. 2 impulse to exert oneself, enterprise. 3 desire; zeal. ~ [Mbhi] l?iti '»ffu me too. See ~. ~ [habhE] See ~. 'iP(T [haya] Skt~ adv here, hither. "te hya aI prabhu kahIvae."-VN. "Ese kaha sabh hya na tIko." -kl"IScm. • 'qR" [hras] Skt ~ vr decrease, bec:ome less, abate, utter. {}'If [hrasv] Skt ~ adj short. 2 one matra character. 3.dwarf, short-statured. ~ [hrad] Skt ~ n rhythm, beat. :l sound, noise. ~ [hras] Skt."fJJ3 n deficiency loss, subtraction. fq [hrI] Skt"ff vr take, steal, destroy, adopt, collect. fqPr [hrI$] vr be happy, tell lie, get excited. 'fqpftQ [hrI$ik] Skt ~ senses which get pleasure from indulgence. fql'ftaa [hrI$Ik] Skt ~. the: Cr<eator, who is the inspirer of senses. fVI! [hrI$t] Skt ~ adj happy, glad, pleased. ~YJ1 [hrI$t PU$t] Skt~ F· happy and fit. ~ [hrIkhik] See ~. fq'3' [hrIt] Skt"Wl" adj stole. 2 snatched. fqt!' [hrId], fq"el:;r [hrIday] mind, heart. 2 chest, breast.

fqet;r '6"H [hrIday ram] See fq'er [hrIda] Se~: 'f<,r:or.
~ [hrIdE] See

<JQ1-IT"i'l ~.

2 in the mind, in the heart. "hrIdE kapatu mukh gIani."-Sol" kabil". 2 in the chest, in the breast. fq~JfUfT8" [hrIdEsaghat] shock to the heart. Heart is wounded in many ways: by a stone, stick, a blow with clinched fist or due to a fall. In the same manner, separation from a relative, some sad and horrifying news can give a blow to the heart. So dUl~ to this the heart gets a shock. It should be treated accordingly. The person whose heart suffers from excessive drinking, due to eating too much of spices or due to hard work, should take nourishing food to strengthen it and remain happy. The damage to the heart can be cured by eating calcinatch horn of a black buck mixed with cow's clarified butter in small quantities. "ardhIsra ar hndESaghata." -Cal"Itl" 405. -qt [hari] SktfJ vr feel shy. 2 abashment, shame. 3 carry, steal, destroy, forsake, prevent, collect, snatch. ~ [hre$] Skt~. vr neigh, go, slip. -gw [hre$a] Skt ~fT n neighing of a horse, neigh, whinny. ~ [hlad] SktE'!~vr enjoy; be happy; rejoice loudly. 2 n bliss, happiness. See~. ~ [hladak] rejoicing. 2 who gives happiness. VlI5" [hval] Skt ~1. vr tremble; be enchanted. W[hva] adv the:re, thither, at that place. 'ifO [hvan] Skt~:1irf n invocation, call, entreaty. -q [hve] Skt vr call, beg, challenge. ~ [hVE] ~ be. 2 adv being.


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cr [kakka] sixth character of Punjabi script, aij'ocr [kautak] Skt ~ n desire. 2 spectacle.
articulated at the velum. Skt n Brahma. 2 Vishnu. 3 Kamdev. 4 sun. 5 light. 6 fire. 7 air. 8 Yam, the god of death. 9 soul, conscience. 10 body. 11 time. 12 wealth. 13 peacock. 14 word, sound. 15 knot. 16 See ci. 17 adj who does. In this situation it comes at the end of the compound words, i.e. tJ1l,.l'Cil', ~ etc. 18 part also used in place ofg. See ~. 19 also short for fucr i.e ~ (reer ~). crij' [kau] postposition for the dative case; to, for. "krIpa jalu dehI nanak sarfg kau." -sohrla. "nam ki baQai dai gur ramdas kau." -s;wEye m 4 ke. See ~. $ [kaus] P?Sktmf'r n pair of shoes. "jInI akas kulah SUI kini kause sapat p Iyala."-bhEr namdev. 2 pair of wooden sandals. See fu:r. ~ [kausak] See afucr. ~ [kausal] See ~ and ~. aQRP(i)R [kausIIs] See ~. crltsr ~ [kauk badar] See ~ -a'eo. $ [kauc] See ~. ~ar [kauQa] See ~ar. 2 small seashells, cowries. See~. "kauQa Qarat hue juari." -g5Q namdev. 'While throwing cowries, the gambler watches his move intently.' ~~ [kauQi] Skt iXlffi:fqr n cowrie (used as money). "kauQikauQijorat."-gujm 5. 2 chestbone. $ [kauD], ~ [kauDu]pron an interrogative: who, which. "kauD kauD apradhi bakhsIanu pIare."-sor m 3. "kauDu su gIani kauDu su bakta."-majh am 5. 3 action that enraptures the mind. "kautak kOQ tamasIa."-var jEt. 4 a wonder. ~~ [kautak-har] adj who performs a miracle. "soi ram sabhe kahe soi kautak-har." -skabir. ~ [kauta] See ~. 2 adj performer of a miracle. 3 who amuses people by doing mimicry. "kapri kaute jaguta."-sri a m 5. qQ-q [kaudh] See ~. ~ [kaudhan] See ~. $ [kaun] ~ [kaunu] who, which. See ~. "kaun karam bIdIa kahu kEsi?"-sor m 9. 2 any, some. "ban bic gae dIn kaune." -krrfjan. ' ... some day went to the forest.' aQaftlfd [kaubcItI] sen~-»r8'-ftfu'Mrto-nowin the mind. "maIa kaubcItI dharau."-dhana a m 5. 'nurturing the idea of wealth in the mind.' ~ [kaur] n morsel, mouthful. 2 prince. 3 See


~ [kaurau] See ~. 2 See ~. ~ [kaurpal] See ~.

[kaurav] See ~. acrid, pungent. "ohkade na bole kaura."-suhi chJt m 5. "amnt kaura bIkhIa mithi."-ram m 5. ~ [kauraI], ~ [burapan] n bitterness, pungency, acridity. "mukhI mithi khai kauraI."-prabha am 5. "kaurapan tau na jai." -sorkabir. ~ [kauri] See~. 2 adj bitter, pungent. 3 n embrace, hug.
~ [kaura] adjbitter,


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~ [k;ml], or ~ [k;mlu] n lotus-shaped bowl;

~ [kaua]

drinking vessel. 2 Skt m-I'(? "kaulu tu hE kavia tu hE." -sri m 1. 3 heart of the sizc~ of the lotusbud; mind. "manmukh udha kaulu hE, na tIsu bhagatI na nau."-var guj 1 m 3.4 A J]word of honour, utterance, promise. "'putri kaul na paho."-var ram 3.5 a bite, mouthful, morsel. 6 See chl. Ol~ MRd [kaulsar] See ~. Ol~M(')IfiiS [kaulnabhI] See ~~. ~ [kaula] Skt m-rw n Lakshmi, whose abode is in the lotus. "seve caran nIt kaula."-var kan m4. 2 See~. OlijM'R(! [kaulasaI).] See WiWFlO. 2 according to Ratanmala, the location of the ultimate stage, which is the seat ofthe Creator. See 6(@M'Hfe. OlijM'Rfc! [kaulasaI).I] (that) whose seat is ]Iotusshaped; ultimate spiritual realisation, in which, according to the yogic doctrine, the Supreme Being is poised. 2 the Supreme Creator, who is poised on the seat of the ultimate spiritual realisation. "puria satIupan kaulasaI).I." -ratanmala bJno. 'The Supreme Being transcends seven orders and stages.' OlijM'Ri'l [kaulasan] See ~. ~ [kaular] Skt ~ n blue lotus, waterlily, red lotus. "cad dekhI Inge,sahI·k;:mlar." -basat m 5. 0l~M'M1 [kaulali] Skt c!lj~t n row of blue lotuses. "kaulali surajmukhi lakkh kaval khrrde rasiale. "-BG. ~ [kaulu] See~. O('ij";nrfe [kaUrataI).I], ~;t'37i [kaurattan] n bitterness, acridity. "bIkhE kaurataI).I sagal mahI."-var gau 2 m 5. ~ [kaura] adj bitter, pungent. 2 neglected, ignored. "kaura kISE na lagai."-var brha m 4. 3 n a subcaste of the Bahujai Khatris. 4 a Jatt subcaste. ~ [kauri] See ~. 2 adj bitter., pungent,

Skt or~ n crow. "kaua kaha kapur carae."-asa kabir. 2 creature given to

sensuality. "jagu kaua namu nahi citI."-asa kabir.3 See ~rr<X'Ol'. 4 See G1c5. 5 a reed like the stick of a weaver's warp. "phasI panI so kaua lae."-cantr 93. 'handled the warps of one hundred sticks.' ~ [kauakag] Skt Sf)cl1lc;CfiIlI a crow that feeds on carrion. "kaua kag kau amnturas paiE."-guj m 4. ~ [kausak] See i5!fF.ror. Olfqa' [kaudhat] See ~. ~ [kaumari] See mroT. ~ [kai] did. "tEsi bIdh kai."-GV 6. 2 adj many, numerous. "kai janam bhae kit pataga." -gau m 5. cm [kas] adv how, what for, in which way. "ram kahat jan kas na tare'?"-gau namd'ev. 2 n bark of a tree like acacia, which can be separated by pulling from the trunk. "kan karI).i kas paiL" -asa m 1. Its root is cn:ftt:n 3 Skt em whip. , 4 Skt onsr hone:, grindstone, whetstone. 5 criterion, touchstone. 6 test, examination. 7P attraction, pull. See 'O(F.[}fO(F.f. Used after a word, it means 'a puller', i.e. Hdls6(F.l 8 P pron someone, somebody. "kas nes dastagir." -trlag m 1. 9 See cm~. "tuphag;m me gulIka kas marat."-GPS. See cW=r. 10 short for 'O('J'jT{1f (cUtw) as in "p:[ttal kahe de bhaQe VICC dahl kas gai hE." 11 short for~. See O«ffi. ~ [kasauti] Skt orJSJl.l'<!t. n flat s]late of black stone of a special kind, on which is tested.the purity of gold by rubbing it; whetstone. 2 trial, examination. "ram kasauti so sahE jo marjiva hoI."-s kabir. CUI'Ol" [kasak] n shooting pain, pang. 2 old enmity. 3 jealousy. 4 attraction, fascination. 5 See ZH'O('. ~ [kasakI).a], ~R"O(7)T [kasakna] v prick, rankle, pierce. "nIs dIn kaskat hE man



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mero."-GPS. curcRf [k<:>sk<:>r], ~ [k<:>skar] See~. atrG [k<:>s<:>t] SktClYf. n grief, pain. 2 crisis, trouble. aAzaFa [k<:>s<:>tk<:>rI] n which causes pain; poison.-scmama. aHZlij'ij [k<:>satvar] ~. a princely state to the east of Kashmir. King Dashrath's queen Kaikai was the daughter of the king of this state. In the ancient scriptures, this place is mentioned also as Kekay. , In 1687 AD the Rajput king of this state embraced Islam after a treaty with Aurangzeb. Now it is a part of the Jammu state. See~. aHc:lijlijl [kasatvari] adj citizens of Kasatwar. "k<:>te ka:;;miri hathe k<:>s<:>tvari."-k<Jlki. ~ [k<:>stuar], ~ [k<:>s<:>tvar] See~. "g<:>J). yahI bh<:>yo k<:>s<:>tvar nnpa. jfh kek<:>yI dham suta supr<:>bha."-ramav. 'Qffi!T [k<:>sJ).a] Skt ~ v pull. 2 tie securely. 3 press; hammer. 4 dry by frying in clarified butter. QFI"3' [k<:>s<:>t] adj tight. 2 In Shastarnammala some ignorant writer has written k<:>sat in place ofh<:>s<:>t. "k<:>s<:>t karikar prItham kahI pun an s<:>bad sunaI". The actual text is "h<:>s<:>t k<:>rikar pntham kahI". h<:>starI and karikar-an stand for a sword, which can chop offan elephant's trunk. ~'ijT [kastura], ~fu [kastunl ~fu"ar [kasturIka] ~ [kasturi] Skt ~ 'TT, Cfi~CfiI, ~ deer ofa particular breed whose navel secretes fragrant fluid. musk-deer. It is smaller than a deer of the red-brown species and lives in cool places, especially on high mountains. The aftereffect of deermusk is hot and wet and it is used in preparing many medicines. L Moschus Moschiferus. Poets are of the view that this deer, fascinated by the fragrance of musk present in its own navel, nurtures an illusion that the

scent comes from the jungle and gets tired of running in search of it. This illustration applies to those who, not realising that the soul is identical with eternal bliss, seek joy in worldly pleasures. "jIu k<:>sturi mIr<:>gu n<:> jaJ).£."-var sor m 3. "kastun kugu ag<:>ru cadan."-sri m 1. ClJre' [kasad] A ~ n resolution, thought, resolve. 'QA7jT [k<:>sna] See 'Qffi!T. cmfo [kasanI] n a rope or lace with which an object is securely tied. "k<:>s<:>nI b<:>h<:>t<:>rI 1agi tahI."-b<Jsat k<Jbir. Here the reference is to the seventy-two veins. ~ [b:;;niz] P or coriander. See


mr->'>f8' how-now. "chutE kasab lagan lag gai." -c<Jritr 289. 2 A ~ n profession, occupation, work. "IS brabar Jr bh<:>g<:>tI n<:>m jo kasab kark€ badgi karE. "-prem sumar<Jg. 3 condemnable deed. 'QJi8T [k<:>sba] A ~ n town. 2 handpump, water tap. 'Q'H1ft [kasbi] adj resident of a town; of a town, related to a town. 2 professional. See amf 2. 3 one who does condemnable work. See amf 3. ~ fkasam] A n oath, vow. 2 resolution. 3 P ~ 1will pull. 'QEI1-f'aF.I' [ka:;;amka:;;l P ~ n struggle, tussle. amfli5' [kasmal], 'QFJ1-R5 [kasma1ul Skt qF,ffl?' n loss ofconsciousness; a fit. 2 sin, vice. "SIman SIm<:>n k<:>sm<:>l sabh haru re."-g<Ju m 9. cmfi.ro [k<:>smIn] ~ seventh declension: in which. "kasmIn :;;astra pravnttI dIj?"-GPS. "he dVIj, tav kasIman :;;astre pravnttIh?" 'O! Brahmin in which branch of knowledge are you adept?' ernHta' [ka:;;mir] Skt qF,f-mr an enchanting region in the north-west ofIndia, 84,258 square miles in area with a population of32,20,518. To the north of Kashmir is the Himalayan mountain
cunr [kasab]




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range, to its south are Jehlum and Gujarat etc, to the west are Hazara and Rawalpindi and to the east is Tibet. King Lalitadity was a renowned ruler of Kashmir who expanded his empire by defeating the king of Kanauj in 740 AD. Martand temple, which Yashovardhan got built, is famous all over the world, but only its ruins are to be seen now. In the 14 th century, a large number of Kashmiri people got converted to Islam. Emperor Akbar annexed Kashmir into the Mughal empire in 1587 AD. Jahangir made lots of efforts to enchance its beauty. After Aurangzeb, there was turmoil in Kashmir for a long time. In the middle of the 18 th century, _ it became independent ofthe Mughal rule. At last in 1819 (5 Saun Sammat 1876) Maharaja Ranjit Singh conquered it. After the AngloSikh War, Gulab Singh bought it in 1846 AD.' Now it is a part of the Jammu state, Srinagar with as it capital. It is at a height of 5276 feet from the sea level. Its saffron and heavily embroidered shawls are very famous. Here beautiful engravings are done on wood. Its fruit are very sweet. In Raj Tarangini, Kalhan, the poet, has penned the history of Kashmir in a style that is so elegant. Following are the places rendered sacred by visits of the Gurus: 1 Guru Nanak Dev visited the city of Srinagar, and made Shankracharya mountain his seat, but such being the apathy ofthe Sikhs, no gurdwara has been erected here. 2 There is a beautiful pool near a mount beyond Gulmarg. The Guru visited this place also. 3 Guru Nanak Dev also visited Harmukh Ganga, which is between Srinagar and
ISee Gulab Singh 5.

Baramula on the other bank pf Jehlum. 4 Kaliyan Sal', where there is a spring ofpure water, was rendered sacred with a visit by the Guru. Bhai Mohar Singh ofPunsh has got a gurdwara built over here. This place is seven miles away from the 38 th milestone on the metalled Kashmir road. S Three miles from Dumel Parao, on the confluence of Kisan Ganga and Jehlum is Naluchhi village, which Guru Hargobind visited. A gurdwara has been built here, where every Sunday and on the occasion ofBaisakhi a fair is held. 6 In Baramula there is a holy place where Guru Hargobind set his foot. See ~. 7 A gurdwara of Guru Hargobind is also situated at Kathi gate in Srinagar. He stayed here while on a visit to bless Mai Bhagbhari.

8 In several villages, where the Guru stayed, there are places known as th;:lra sahIb. ~ [k;:lsmirghas], cv:n-flm:r [k;:lsmir;:lj] grass of the Kashmir; saffron. "k;:lsmirghas ghor;:lt subas."-manu. ~ [k;:lsmiri] adj of Kashmir state, related to Kashmir, Kashmiri. qmr [k;:ls;:lr] A ./' n deficiency, loss. 2 part, portion, section. :3 act of breaking. 4 a muslim tribe in the RawaJlpindi area from which many villages have corne to be known as Balaksar. C5ffre'a" [k;:lsr;:lt] A .::./ n exercise, practice, toil. 2 A .::. profusion, abundance. ~ [k;:lsv;:lti], c~ [k;:lsv;:ltti]~. See ~. "m;:lnu ramI k;:lsvati laIa."-asa chJt m4. cmr [kasal Skt orEIT n rope, fastener. 2 whip, lash. "k;:l$t n;:lr;:lk ko k;:lsa dIkhav;:ln kijIye." -NP. "kar kasa kuthare."-akal. ~ [bsau] n tightness, pull. ~ [bSaI 1 Sktcf1Pl:;r adj astringent.


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2 catechu-coloured, saffron-coloured. 3 n 'Ql'TFfu:r an acrid liquid flowing from a mine, used for separating gold dissolved in acid, and astringent substance. 4 gum. 5 kalyug, evil era. cmr8l [kasai] n act of pulling. 2 attraction, helpful in testing the specific quality of steel. Sulphas ferri. fascination. "sabadI suhai prem kasai."-vClQ chat m 3. "akhi premI kasaia."-var kan m 4. ~ [ka$idgi] P S~ n pulling. 2 annoyance. "han premI kasae."-var guj 1 m 3. 3 A Jl..J. cn:fteo [ka$idan] P '.:J~ v embroider; draw. is also correct and its root is ~,; (hard- cn:ft;:r [ka$ida] P ~~ embroidered. 2 n embroidered (flower etc.) with a needle on heartedness) meaning a butcher. cloth. "kaq,hI kasida pahIrahI coli."-bClS5t m cmTff [kasas] n admonition, punishment. "sahfde bahut kasas."-mClgo. See fcu:r1:r. 1. 3 A ~ adj thick, dense. 4 n a poetic composition in which the verse is closely ~ [kasab] A ...... W;; n slaughterer, butcher. QWftr [kasabI] 'butcher (in the nominative interwoven, which should not have fewer than case). See cn=rT'a'. "maha kasabI churi 15 stanzas. "karyo kasida pe$ guru ke."-GPS. satIpai."-ram m 5. 'The indignant butcher cu:fta" [kasir] Skt ~ n sharp bristles growing threw away the knife of violence. , on the ears of corn as rice, barley or wheat 0l'fl'Ta' [kasar] Skt ~ n pajiri, a preparation of adj broken, disintegrated. etc; awn. 2 A / flour, roasted in clarified butter and made 3A / lots of; in excess; abundant. sweet with sugar. See ~. 2 See crnTa'. cmt6r [kasira], ~ [kasiro] n one fourth of a cmrw [kasala] n ~ trouble, botheration. "anbe paisa. 2 itw [dhela] half a pice. "kamuk matr kasire ke kam na."-VN. "kaq,q,h kasira sJpIa het kasala kyo tum jhala?"-GPS. 2 A ~ laziness. raVIdas gaga di bheta."-BG cUR' [kasI] securely. See m=r 9. 2 See ornT. a1J [kasu] SeeaFf. 2 pain, warning. "drum sapur 3 adv after warning or testing. "ape kIS hi jIu nIvE khaVE kasu."-sClveye m 2 ke. ' ... Iike a tree ladden with fruit bends and has to suffer kasI bakhse."-maru sohle m 1. 4 after pulling, after rubbing. "kaSI kaswlti laiE."-asa am 1. the onslaught of stones.' ~~ [kasIaUl).a] v for eatables to get CllJ'Q' [kasudh] impure, adulterated. See~. astringent in a utensil of bronze. 2 get w3¥ [kasubh], cxff~ [kasubhraJ, ~ [kasubha] astringent. Skt ~ n flame; a plant which has flamecoloured flower and hard core like saffron. crll:n:r [ka$I$] P n attraction, pull, Its red colour is gaudy, but fades fast in the gravitation. ~ [kasIkar] See~. "kasmir kaSIkar sun and in water. In Gurbani, the glitter of kabaj kabul ko kino."-cantr 217. material things is compared with this colour. crfi:ry [kasIpu] Skt ert'F.ry n a mattress made "kura rag kasubh ka."-sri m 3. "hathu na laI from straw. 2 pillow, cushion. 3 cot, bedstead. kasubhrE jalI jasi dhola. "--suhi farid. See Rfu. 4 diet; food got from different households. 2 a reddish brown distillate or juice of opium, 5 clothes, attire. 6 See used extensively in Rajputana. "pan q,araI 'QJ'ft [kasi] n spade; implement for digging soil. kasubhro ruro."-cantr 111. 'liquor mixed with 2 subdistributary of a canal. 3 v past tense of opium sap.' atliil,reM' [kasubhaIla] adj having the colour of ~. cmtJ:r [kasis] n attraction, pull, gravitation. 2 Skt a kusubh flower. 2 with the colour ofkusubh,




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suggestive offlamboyant and false things. See

[kasut] See


v untie. [kasur1 See ~o. aft [kase] P L pron someone. ~ [k::lseral Skt CX"'F.fuo n grasscutter. 2 Skt ~FlJrcFo one who makes bronze utensils. ~ [kasEla} See a:wfu. orFicT [kas:Jti] See ~. ~ [kas~mall See w:I1-ft5. "pap kas~mal bhane." -gau var 1 m 4. cU!tr [kassap] Skt01BJRf I adj ~(liquor)1..f(one who drinks); who drinks liquor. 2: n son of Brahma's son Marichi reckoned as a Prajapati; whose son was Vaman the deity. "pun dhara brahm kassapavtar."-braham. Simritis and Purans mention that Kashyap married Daksh Prajapati's thirteen daughters (Aditi, Diti, Danu, Vinta, Khassa, Kadru, Muni, Krodha, Arishta, Ira,Tamra, Ilaand Pradlha). They gave birth to all the living beings of the world. 3 adj with dark teeth. ~ [kassapsut] Kashyap's son, Vaman. 2 Indar. 3 sun. "kassapsut nIksIo."'--GV 6. 'CilfI!o [kasCIt] Skt ~ pron somebody, anybody. ~ [ka~t] Skt n suffering, ache. ~ [kastrrpu] sword-sanama. 2: ambrosia, nectar. ~ [ka~tvarl See O(HC~ICl and W1~. 0(1~IJlnrr [ka~tvaria] a Rajput subcaste. Its capital was Kastvar. See '8"'itqTCJ'. ~ [kasyl Skt pron whose. 2 :0(BJf adj drawn or sucked through a pipe. 3 n liquor, wine. cmiI1..f [kd~yap] one who drinks liquor. See cfmr.
'In etymology,

~ [ka~udan] P r.:)J,lf


~ [ka~yapsut] See ~3". 0!F.r.iItIY'a' [ka~yap-pur] a major city of Kashmir, now called Srinagar.. It was founded by sage Kashyap after killing demon lalodbhav. ~tiI" [kd~yap-prIY] liquor, which is very dear to Kashyap. 2 Indar. 3 Vaman. 4 sun etc. dear to Kashyap for being his sons. om [kah] adv where, at what place. "man, kah ahakar aphara?"-dev'm 5. "garabh jonI kah aVE?"-nat m 5 :2 sometime, any time. "kah phulahI anad b:[khE sag kab hasno kab roiE." -dev m 5. 3 pron what. "kah karE mula kah karE sekh?"-bhEr kabir. 4 See cmo. 5 See 0«]'. 6 part of, belonging to. 7 to. "asuraD kah Im agya dini."-saloh. [kah~l sufffor, for the sake of. 2 to, for. "guru manu a kaha kahyo sudhari."

~ [kahaul, cf<J<J [kahahu] recite, utter.

is the antonym

ofk<l~Y<Jp. pa~yak

means an observer. In several scriptures, one addicted to drinking is mentioned as kasyap. See aBJr'-l11{Gr.

"kahahu gusai unIiE keh?"-gau m 5. 2 may I speak, may I recite. "kahau kaha apni adhmai."-toc;fi m 9. ~ [kahak] n cawing of crows. 2 peel of laughter. See 6(lJO((JT. omom ~ [kahkah divar] See 0(lJ0((JT ~ "jIS prakar kahkah divar."-GPs. ~ [kahkahal A ,:£} n onom peel oflaughter. C(ijC(ij1c:: [kahkahat] n See 0(lJ0((JT. noise of loud laughter. "kahkahat kahO kal sunan." -cantr 52. ~ ~ [kahkaha divar] P Ai.J~ n a wall in China, by looking at which one starts laughing loudly. This wall is 1500 miles long, 20 feet high and as many feet wide. At gaps ofevery 100 yards, strong minarets have been raised. King Sihvangti of China got it built in 213 BC to stop invasions by his Mangol enemies. 2 Now this term is used for very challenging and astonishing tasks. See Fi'3'~ and cmcm t:flwa..

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n mixture of mud and chaff used as building material. ~ [kahal)], ~ [kd1wa] Skt mI7l n utterance, statement. "kure kahal) kahan."-var bIla m 3. "tamE kahIa kahal)u."-va<;l ch{jt m 1. "kahna sunl)a akath." -prabha m 1. iiRl'f.!" [kdhal) I ] by uttering, through talking. "kahal)I na va<;la hOI."-sri m 1. ~ [kdhal)u] See~. au! [kahI)E] through talking, by saying. "kahl)E kathanI na bhijE gobfdu."-sor m 5. 0l'U3' [kahat] adv saying, talking. "kahat sunat kachu jog na hou."-bavall. 2 A JJ n starvation, famine. ~ [kahtau], C«J3T [kahta], ~ [kahda] adj (one) who speaks, or narrates. 2 speaks, narrates. "kahtau partau sUl)tau ek."-dhalla a m 1. "kahde kace sunde kace."-anJdu. ~ [kahan], qu('iT [kdhna], C«JQ [kdhanu] See C«:J<'!. "prabhu kahan malan dahan."-kan m 5. "ustatI kahanu na jaI."-phunhe m 5. ~ [kdhyon] See ~. C«J6' [kahar] 1'1 wrath, anger. 2 oppression, tyranny. 3 punishment, penalty. 4 calamity, disaster. 5 suffering. ~ [kaharna] v groan, cry with pain, beseech for pity. 2 suffer pain. "bastra na pahIrE ahInISI kahrE."-var asa. See CilBO. ~ [kahri] adj angry, irate. "maha bir kahri dup-hari ko bhanu mano."-c{j<;li 1. 2 n a Rajput subcaste. ~ [kaharu] See CilBO. "jaharu kaharu sava pah<)ru."-sava m 1. ~ [kdhal] n fever, pain. 2 adj agitated, nervous. "kuram kahal phaniphan naskat hE." -52 Poets. 'The tortoise underneath the earth gets nervous.' 3 See ~. 4 See orf'<:R;). orcJ(i5' ~ [kahal gau] a town ten kohs to the east of Bhagalpur in Bihar, visited by Guru Teg Bahadur. The gurdwara here is under the

~ [kdhgal], ~ [kdhgII] P


supervision of the chief priest ofPatna Sahib. ~ [kdhlur] part ofBilaspur, a feudal state. Its feudal Rajputs originated from Chanderi (Malwa). Bhim Chand, king ofKahlur fought unwarranted battle against the tenth Guru and damaged the country a lot. See fuwRy~ and

mJT [kaha] said, uttered. 2 advwhere. Skt~.


"kaha sukhel tabela ghore?"-asa am 1. 3 why, what for. "SImrat kaha nahi."-sor m 9.4 pron whom. "an kaha pahI javahu?"-sar m 5. ~ [kdha] See CI(]T 2. ~ [kdhaul)a] v get one iterate, make one utter. iil'tJ'Iit [kahai] loincloth. See ~. croru [kahah] n brouhaha. 2 uproar, lamentation, outcry. "bIn bohIth bhE <;lubiE pure, kadhi pa I kahah." -sor a m 1. "bha kahah ko sabad mahana."-NP. ~ [kdhal)] n discussion, oration. 2 saying, discourse. ~ [kahal)i] CIiJTOT [kahaniJ n story, tale. "akath ki karahI kahal)i."-anJdu. ~ [kahano] n narration, context. "srJn sunyo sakhI, pritI kahano."-krISall. ~ [kdhar] n a: (water) (J"I'O (carrier), water carrier. 2 palanquin bearer. 3 A .JL:j the Creator, inflicting his wrath upon mean and ignoble persons. "sIphat kahar satar hE."-GPS.

"musdlmal)u kahaval)u muskalu."-var majh m 1. 'Claiming to be a true Muslim is arduous.' ~ [kahavat], ~ [kahavath] n proverb, saying. 2 riddle, puzzle. 3 tale. "ua ki kdhi na jaI kahavat."-sar m 5. "manmukh Jdhu kahavath."-maru m 5. Olfu [kahI] See em. 2 to. "prabhu ju, to kahI laj hamari."-hajare 1O. cffij [kahf] adv where. 2 See qfu 2. ~ [kohIo], ~ [kahIau], ~ [k<)lua]

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said, told, uttered. "kahIO na bujhE adh." -prabha m 1. "kahIa na manE SUI khak chanE."-jEt chat m 5. afuFfarr [kahIsagal can say, can tell. "Ik gu]). nahi prabhu kahIsaga."-maru solhe m 5. ~ [kahIgall See ~. ~ [kahI]).al v narrate, say. 2 n big spider that weaves a cobweb in the houses. See 0RJ7iT. Q'fu3" [kahItl See ~. 2 adj said, stated. 3 n utterance. "rahIt kahIt ke sath b<:tQere."-{IPs. 'through what one says and does.' ~ ~ [kahIt-ah kahti] mere utterance; empty statement. "kahIt-ah kahti su]).i, rahat ko khusi na ayhu."-savEye m 3 ke. 2 utterances of the poets. afua'r [kahItal narrator, spokesman. afuor [kahmal See ~. afu()I'i!d [kahInavat], aftma" [kahIbat] See

aftnr [kahul See amr. afual [kahuil See -auoT. 2 See fi:~l 3 See -&um.
a:ft:rz;r [kahIIl S mercy, compassion.
~ [kahIvat] See~. 2 statement,

conversation, tete-a-tete. "gur ki kahIvat sakal sunai."-GPS. am [kahi] stated, told. "upma jat na kahi." -bIla am 5. 2 See w:it. '''kahi curai."-GPS. 3 anybody. "hIau na thahe kahi da."-s [arid. 4 a practice common with revenue officers in the olden times. Assessors used to go to the fields and after estimating the quantum of the crops got the boundary lines raised between the fields with a spade and noted down their number. This practice was called kahi kClrna. 5 also used for plunder, meaning to take stock ofthe fields without authorization. "nubhE jaI kahi kar av'E."-GV 10.6 a group ofsappers, who used to go ahead of the army cleaning the path with spade-like implements, was also

called kahI. E Sappers and Miners. "kahI ChIri turkan lakhi."-PPP. 7 See e«:fl'. "kahi na upjE."-asa kabir. -auT [kahi] Skt c~(JTflf adv at some place, somewhere. ~ [kahiat] (used to be) said, stated. "kahiat das tumara."-maru In 5. ~ [kahu] speak, utter. 2 n speech, tale. "suk sag raje kahu kahi."·-krIsan. See~. ~ [kahul adv somewhere, anywhere. crsfa- [kahukl advat a particular place. 2 at a particular time. o:<i [kahu] See <rtf. "kahu na bhijE sajam suami."-dhana m 5. ~ [kahukl See gJc\. 2 See rgD'a". ~ [kahatl deliver a discourse. "kahat beda gu]).at gunia."-sa.has m 5. ~ [kahyon] orful")fT-~r> he said. "IIau kahyon, lIaIh6."--krIsan. 'He said, 'Bring' and the response was: I am bringing.' ~ [kakai], [kak-hi] Skt ~ n comb. orao [kakm] short form for ~ bull, studbull. See~, ~~i'\. 2 For many this word means water-fowl. "ltokak kakan kok."-NP. 'rainbird, cuckoo or partridge.' crnQ [kakar] Skt crn"o n pebbles. "kakaru cuganI."·--s [arid. 2 See l.f'W a"a"O. cm6t [kakril See ,:xa31~. 2· corncob of a wild plant. "raja ram kakri abre pakae. "-asa kabir.



[kakaru] See cmcr 1. ~ [kakreji] P ,J~f(black colour with red hue. "dastar ko subh kakreji rag."-GPs. qa;f [kakarl n hill deer, smaller than one ofthe red-brown species. It barks like a dog. So in English it is calle~d a barking deer. Beautiful objects like gloves and socks are made from its skin. a-a;ft [kakril Skt 'orafi't melon; oblong fruit; cucumber.

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~ [kakl'Ell skin of a hill deer. See ~. ~ [kakl'Elil adj made of the skin of a hill


deer. See~. ~ [kakal pronunciation of character or. 2 or character. "kaka Karan karta sou."-bavan. ~ faott [kaka kIkil n recitation of consonants along with vowels; recitation drill for learning by rote. "dua tia visrE sal) kaka kIki."-BG. 'all the tables and recitation ofconsonants with vowels.' 2 S ~-fuoft young child, male or female. aor'Q [kakarl See aqT and aw. ~ [kakutasthl See QT)-f 3 and lJ~tn:if for Ram Chandar's genealogy. ~ [kakudl Skt n peak of a mountain, high mound. 2 canopy, whisk of a peacock's tail etc as a sign of royalty. 3 hump of a bull. ~ [kakudasthl See lJ~. ~ [kakudmml Skt Cfi't,i\fi:I'\, bull with a heavy hump, male bull, stud bull, buffalo bull. 2 bullock. ~ [kakubhl Skt n Shiv. 2 a mountain. 3 round part of a musical string instrument like lute or lyre. 4 according to Ling Puran, a place of pilgrimage. 5 a metre, with three lines as its distinctive feature, the first having eight, second twelve and third eighteen characters, there being no laghu guru norm at the end. Example: bhajo sada da~me~, karE ~rIgalan turat mrIge~, catka baz kag hVE h;'}sa patbijna dIne~. ~ [kakubha] a metre also called 'kukubh' and 'pramodak' with four lines, each line having thirty matras, pauses being at 16-14 matras with two guru's at the end. Example: ~astar vIdya sIkkhi nahi, na tur~g di asvari, sIkkhi di na rahIt kamai,

tankhahia hE bhari.... cl'ara" [kakkarl See~. 2 ofa snow-like pebble. 3 pebble of snow; hailstone. 4 a Khatri subcaste. It is also pronounced as kakkal'. ~ [kakkal'l See ~ and cl'ara". crOfT [kakkal pronunciation of character or. 2 those signs of the Sikhs whose initial sound is 'k' i.e. ke~ (hair), kIrpan (sword), kacch (breeches coming to the knees). 3 a clan, settled on the eastern bank of Jehlum. It originated from the Khatris. 4 See~. 5 See ~qr. 6 adj brown. ~ [kak~al Skt n armpit. 2 gateway, porch. 3 equality, uniformity. 4 a small measure of weight. 5 orbit ofthe revolving planets. 6 hem of a c~oth; loose or hanging end of a cloth. Ql:f [kakhl Skt C& n dry stalk of grass; straw. Ql:fTfu [kakhaIl See ev::fl'fu. W:fT8t [kakhail adjofashen-grey colour; saffron coloured. 2 loose end of a long cloth worn round the waist and covering the lower body. "tel' dhoti kakhai."-var asa. According to Hindu scriptures, the prescription is to tie a loose cloth around the waist, three parts of which are to be tucked.

"crrit ~


~ CFif[ c:r:r ~ I CF~: ~ <iT ~ ~: ~:."


-atrI SImrItI. 1

[kakhutarl in the womb. "ardh raha tan mat kakhutar."-cantr 297. oraRf [kagar1 n wavy line made on sand by the blowing wind. 2 bank of a river. 3 raised boundary of a field; field's demarcating line. Cffi" [kacl n rawness. "kac pakai othE pa I." -japu. 2 glass. "kacahu kkan bhaIo."-savEye m 4 ke. 3 See or;;r. 4 n dross of iron. "paras paras kac k;'}cna huI." -savEye m 4 ke. 5 Skt hair, which shine on the head. (~ vr shine, articulate) "kac ghOghrara J hara."-ramav.

yagy viJbky has also confirmed it.

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"chatri VEsan ke kac hare."-GPS. 6 cloud; son ofVrihaspati. 1 "baruni k;m kaVI syam bhanE kac ke hIt to bhngunad karayo. "-knsan. In Brahamvaivart and Mahabharat etc there is the story that Shukar, mentor of the demons, acquired the knowledge ofturning the dead alive. So the dead began rising and Kach, son of Vrihaspati, became his disciple, and started acquiring this knowledge from Shukar. The demons began to think that the gods would become invincible, if Kach acquired this knowledge. If anyone of them died in the battle, Kach would bring him back to life. For this reason, the demons killed Kach. Shukar's daughter Devyani, who was in love with Kach, got perturbed in his absence. She prevailed upon her father to make Kach alive again. Several times the demons killed Kach, but with Devyani's grace, he was brought to life every time. In the end, irked by this, the demons minced Kach, dissolved him in molasses, a mixture of water, jaggery and acacia, distilled it into liquor and made Shukar drink it. On Devyani's request, when Shukar called Kach, he responded from inside his belly. Shukar taught him how to revive the dead inside the belly. He got Kach out of his bdly by tearing it apart. With the help of his knowledge Kach revived Shukar. ~ [kac-arI] n Romnashni, which is destroyer ofkac (hair).2 "kac-an lay dur kac kIye."-carrtr 119. 2 razor. C('tl'ij"ijt [kac-hari] Skt ~~; which puts an end to a condemnable act - the court. 2 eradicator of hair. See ~.
'In Sanskrit occur both the words i.e. ~[bnhaspatI] and ~ [vnhaspatiJ. 'A mixture of man;nI, hartaI, cuna (kaIi), Iota sajji, dissolved in water, when applied to the body, removes the hair.

~ 1. [kackara] glass bangle. 2 glass bead. ~ [kackol] PJ.$' n mendicants' begging bowl. "bhar kackol ~rasad da."-BG. ~ [kacdhaga] fragile thread, meaning a feeble relationship. "jute kac dhage."-var ram 2 m 5. CrtJO cfu' [kacan kacc] adj most unripe, not ripe at all; transitory to the utmost. 2 who cannot be firm even for a short while. 3 devoid offaith. CrtJOTa' [kaenar], crtrc'l'1.'? [kaenal] Skt CflI5(iF"lI{ n a tree, whose flowers are cooked as vegetables for treating maladies of blood. L Bauhinia Variegata. Cl'tlr(')Cl~ [kacanIkacu] See 6(130413. "adha kaca kacanIkacu."-sri m 1. 'C("tl'1.f'8' [kacpac], m31.fTi3T [kacpaca], ertl'""fu" [kacpIcl, ~ [kacpIcu] adjnot fully baked, unfaithful. "bInaSI jaI kura kacpaca."-gau m 4. 2 n falsehood and lack of faith. "kacpIc bolde se kUrIar."-var gau 1 m 4. 'C('tl"ijT [kaera] n fruit like melon, or water melon etc, which is yet not ripe. Cl'tl\j'!l::a [kaeraIl).] onom sound of eating raw fruit; gossip, babble. "bharamI bhule nar karat kaCraIl).. "-bhcr m 5. 2 unripeness; an utterance that cannot stand logic. atl"6t [kacri] n dry slice of an edible wild fruit borne on a creeper. ~ [kaqa], a:'tJT [kaca] adj not ripe, raw. 2 lacking in faith; who does not have conviction. "jo hukam na bujhE khasam ka soi nar kaca."-var maru1 m 3. 3 liar; who breaks a vow. "bac;m karl' te khIsakIjaI boll' sabhu kaca."-var maru 2 m 5. "jInI man I horu mukhI horu s I kac;lhe kacIa. "-asa farid. "nanak kaqIa SIU tor."-var maru 2 m 5. 4 mortal. "kaIa kaci kaca ciru hac;lhae."-majh am 3. C("tl"I'ffi [kacai] n unripeness.

CrtJfu6t [kac-hIri] See


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[bca:r:t] n rawness, immaturity. 2 ad) raw. "rag kasGbh kaca:r:t."-g3q m 4. ~ [bcaru], ~ [bcalu] n a type of tuber which like potato grows under the soil. It is viscous and pungent like yam and causes cough. It is eaten boiled with sauce. As cooked vegetable, its dish tastes well. patJr (a snack of pabras prepared from its leaves mixed with gram flour, spiced and fried) is made. "~abr kacaru lyae."-carItr 24. L Arum Colocasia. ~ ~ [kaci sari] an unreliable pawn. See tioit FI"'QT. "ape dhan dekhahI bci paki sari." -ma)h am 3. ~ [kacici] n gritting of teeth or tightening of jaw in anger. ~ ,rm [kaci coli] ad) not a lasting dress, suggestive of body being perishable. "kam krodh ki kaci coli."-maru solhe mI. ~ tr'Q [kaci dhatu] ore extracted from a mine which is not purified; unrefined person. ~ trit [kaci ba:r:ti] n utterance sans practice. 2 a composition going against the doctrine of Guru Nanak Dev. "satguru bIna hor kaci hE ba:r:ti. "-anadu. iWtHfu" [kaci matI] wisdom without firm belief. "kaci matI phika mukhI bol."-mam solhe m 3. ~ [bcu] n glass. 2 ?dj of fading colour. "na bhagva na kacu."-var maru 1 m 1. a'ijfl'la'ij [kacunIkacu] See ~. "jo man jamE su kaeunIkaeu."-var asa. ~ [kacupark€] sen by pulling out the hair. "SIro kaeuparkE."-carItr 150. ~ [kacua] ad) raw, unripe. "manmukh rag kasGbh hE kacua."-mali m 4.2 offading colour. 3 See~. ~ [kaeur] Sktmf~ n wild turmeric. It is used in several medicines. L Curcuma Zerumbet. ~QT [kacJri] n a salted delicacy, which is stuffed with ground material and then fried in clarified butter or oil. Its original name is

ghnteJri, which means absorber of oil.
ol';:p- [bcca] See atJT. ol';:p- ri, [bcca bola] xa an utterance that goes

against the ethos and practice of the Khalsa like roti instead of prasade, kha:r:ta instead of chak:r:ta, pagri instead of dastar etc. crnt JJTOl [beei sari] See 01BT FI"'QT. crnt m=ret [kacei rasoi], cfu1 ~ [kacci roti] per Hindu religion, food cooked in water i.e. ~ [dal], roti and boiled rice etc. See tl'oit oHm. mr [beh] See~. 2 See cf6. 3 tortoise, turtle.

~it [kachauti] n small underwear, or

drawers worn by wrestlers. "karam kan kachauti maphitasI ri."-dhana trIloc;:m. asftre'r [kach-hrra] a special type of stitched underwear worn by the baptised Sikhs. mr ~ [bch kuram] See a5 3 and ~ 5. ~ [beh:r:ta] v measure boundaries of the fields. 2 plan; design a loose cloth. "kura kaparu kachiE."-var suhi m I. iUl"it [beh:r:ti] female tortoise. 2 power of reincarnated Kashap. aiii'IT [bchni] small underwear. ~ [kachap] See cti:tr. ~ [behvaha] a Rajput subcaste, of which Maharaja Kashvaha of Jaipur was a descendant. Many poets have held that devotees of Kashap deity are known by the name of Kashvaha. "jay SIgh bhup huto kaehvaha."-GPs. ~ [bchar] See cf6 1. "nrksyo janu SIgh kachar tr.."-GPs. ~ [behu] See ~q. "kaehu bIgno nahan ajahu jag."-basat m 9. 2 n turtle, tortoise. 3 Kashap deity. "ape maehu kachu kar:r:tikaru." -maru solhe m I. awa- [kaehuk], [kaehu], [behua], ~ [kaehuak] ad) a little, bit ofsomething. 2 a little, a bit of, a little bit. "ham bank bchua na



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janahI gatI mItI."-jet m 4. "man sCJmjhavan easily be resumed. Vyas has written that the back of this tortoise extended over one lac karne kachuak pariE gIan."-bavan kabir. "kachu sIanap ukatI na mori."-suhi a m 5. YOJans. 3 When bchu or kuch is suffixed to another ofstft [bcchpi] Skt n female tortoise. word, the word denotes a thing or an object. ~ [kacchal], c:f5;JW [kacchala] adj who wears "sabhkachu prapat hOI tumko."-saloh. drawers. 2 who practises celibacy. See ~. ~ [kachua] n tortoise, turtle. "kachua sakh c:hft [kacchi] n womb. 2 Skt armpit. 3 inner bajave."-asa hbir. See ~. 2 a type of part of a shirt which is towards the armpit. 4 belonging to the Kacch area. "ucchlIye stringed musical instrument, with its gourd kacchi kacchale."-ramav. 5 who wears an shaped as a tortoise; sItar. underwear kacch. ~ [kdchotra], ~ [bchota] small underwear. See ~. 2 body, mortal frarGe. "gaya 4 [kacchu] See ~. cii{TU"" [kachhvaha] See ~. "kachhvahe kachota laddha."-GPs. rath::lre baghele khac;lele."-carItr 320. ~ [kachot], ~ [kachotI] adj ~~-W3" not worthy of touch; which should not be touched. Crtr [kaj] P (; n bend, curve. 2 deficiency, shortage, loss. "sou suratvat raei brahma karkE "nam bIna jhuthe kucal kachotI."-bIla am 1. atI hi rucI, kE na kajE."-krISdn. 3 Skt Lotus ~ [kach::lti] See ~. that grows from water. k;':ij is also a Sanskrit [bchch] Skt ~ region close to the bank of a river etc; kachar. 2 a state in the area of word. 4 See ~, 5 P;f short for fu"-»fE; from Bombay, which has Bhuj as iits capital; a him. territory by the bed ofSindh river, which had ClHC2l MlU [bjkulah] P ~ If{ one with a tilted cap Kotishvar as its capital. 3 loose corner of a i.e a fop. cloth worn around the waist, to be tucked ~ [bjl).a] v cover, enshroud. behind by pulling through the legs; Iloincloth. 'ClmI [kajab] See f~. 4 See cf5tr. 5 big underwear of the Khalsa, 'C('R'ij" [kajar], q;::jQT [kajra] See ~. "har kajar bastra abharan kine."-bIla m 5 pdrtal. worn by baptised Sikhs. It is their third 'k'. cistr [bcchap] Skt ~ n tortoise; Etymology ~ [kajrakhi], ~ [kajrachi], Clfld1dfi'i explains its meaning as one protected by the [bjraranI] adj who embellishes her eyes with sheath, i.e., kacch (sheath) + p (protected); collyrium. "kajraranI ko na brItha dukh dije."-krIsdn. hence bcchap (Kashap). The body of a tortoise is covered by a thick sheath. 2 See 'C('ffiJTijT [bjrara] adjwho has kajjal (collyrium). "khajan se manrajan rajat kajan se atI hi ~5. cistr ~ [kacchap avtar] There is a story in bjrare."-CdrItr Ill. 2 of lamp-black colour, Bhagvat that, when the deities and the demons of pitch-dark colour. began to churn the ocean of Kheer (rice ~ [kajrari] See c~. cooked in sweetened milk), then a m;:\dracal 'Clffiftao [bjriban] See ;~. "tahf raj bjriban ko dio."-gursobha. was put in place ofa churning stick.But it was so heavy that it got stuck at the bottom. Vishnu C'iIil15' [bjal] See cftm". "kajal rekh lld sahIdIa." -sfdrid. transformed himself into a tortoise and put his back under it, due to which churning could Clf.ll'SSif.l [kazalba$l T l..hJ1 adj with a red head.


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When emperor of Iran, Ismail Safvi tJ~~ recruited his army, he made the soldiers wear red caps. From then on, they have come to be known by this name. The descendants ofthese soldiers were also given this name. ~ [kajIakhi] See ~. ~ [kajIil something finely ground like collyrium. ClRM1so [kajIib;m] grove of bananas. "kaIa kajIibanu bhaIa, manu kDcaru maymat."-s kdbir. 'An inebriated elephant can even break trees, for him to crush a banana grove is very easy.' 2 a famous forest of Assam where elephants are found in abundance. aRT [kaja] P Lii n command of God or God's Will i.e death. 2 Qaziship; the rank of a Qazi. 3 a decision/judgement made by a Qazi. at.ri' [kaza] PU'J short for m-»ffi"-1?fT; from him. awfu [kaja I] See 0ItlT. ~ [kajava] P ~JI{ or 00;1{ n camel's saddle on which people can sit on both sides. It is very common particularly in Arabia. ~ [kajIa] covered. "han parda kajIa." -var kanm 4. atft>w [kajia] A ~ n conflict, lawsuit. iitrc!' [kajjaI:tl n cloth for covering; lid. "raUu bhana kappra kar kajjal) tas."-BG. 2 v cover, enshroud. ~ [kajjl)a] See ~ 2. ~ [kajjal)u] See~. ~ [kajja1l Skt n collyrium, antimony. 2 blackness, darkness. 3 riches. 4 a metre, having four lines, each line having 14 matras with 1aghu guru at the end. Example: guru sevau karI namaskar... aju hamarE magalcar. 1 aju hamarE gnhI basat,
'For flow in the metre, the text employs magal and

gun gae prabhu tum beat.-basJt m 5. cf~ [kazzak] A J I1 dacoit, robber. 2 a tribe living in the southern arid plains of Russia, a large number of whose menfolk join the Russian cavalry. It is believed that they are a mixed breed ofTurks and Russians. Cossack. i5fG [kat] See qfc. 2 See ~. 3 short for katak (kara). "kar mahI kat pad nupar SOhE."-NP. 4 See ofC'. 5 Skt mat. 6 grass; Andropogon muraticum. 7 bater (patar) grass. 8 weather, season. 9 corpse. 10 bier, ladder. 11 elephant's temple. ClGmr [kat-har], azm;) [kat-hal] Skt 'filJC~ adj katE! tree and its fruit. It is an evergreen tree and is found in hot countries. It bears fruit without any flower, which grows fro:,,' its branches. The fruit has fine bristles on it. The raw fruit is used for making vegetable dish and pickle; the ripe fruit is used for eating. L Artocarpus integrifolia. ClCCl' [katak] Skt n army, legion. "katak bator an rajdhani."-NP. 2 community, gang. "palro katak kutab."-s kabir. 3 rock salt. 4 capital. 5 bracelet, metal-ring. "anIk katak jEse bhulrpare."-sor ravIdas. 6 a famous city of Orissa. ClCCl' CJi'a' [katak kutamb] See qzcx 2. . i5fG orfc [kat katI] adv having cut into minute pieces, tiny fragments. ClG(!I' [kama] v pass or spend i.e. pass time, spend day. 2 Skt Cfi'fR n severing mutilating. "katiE tera aharog."-gau m 5. See E cut. azar [katra] n commercial lane, goods market, walled market. 2 witness box, grating, railing. ClGt'5' [kataI] See azm;). ac;p [katra] See azar. acr [kata] n chopped fodder; anything chopped into small pieces, minced (meat). "kata karahu satru samudai." -GPs. '6l'G"'Et [katai] n (wheat) harvesting. 2 wages for harvesting.

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0lGTR' [katas] a place of pilgrimage in district

Jehlum, situated fifteen miles to the north of village Dadankhan, where there is a spring of natural water. While preaching his doctrine, Guru Nanak Dev visited this place on the Baisakhi fair. Hindus believe that Katas (~) and Puskar (:J,1SCfll:) are two eyes of Shiv. "madhy katas kara asthana." -paras. Per Dasam Granth, Parasnath breathed his last at this place. ~ [katah] Skt n cauldron. 2 scalp of a tortoise. 3 a special hell. 4 male calf of a buffalo, whose horns have begun to come out. ~ [katakutt] massacre, genocide. ~ [katak$], CfCTl:f [katakh], CR~ [katakhy] azr6i [katach] Skt CflCT~1 n act of glancing obliquely; oblique look; graceful thinking. "krIpa khatakhy avrlokan kinau."-dhana m 5. "jrnr kau tumre vaq katakh hE te gurmukhr harI srman.:te."-nat m 4. 2 insinuation, hint. 3 taunt, gibe. CW<!'" [kataJ:ta] a village oftehsil Payal in Patiala state, situated three miles to the north-east of Doraha railway station. A gurdwara in memory of Guru Gobind Singh stands on the bank of a canal to the east of the village . The oak-tree under which the Guru rested for a while is still there. ~ [katar] Skt adjsexy, lecherous. 2 Skt~ n double-edged small dagger, which is tied to the waist. See "FI"Fl'g. aGTQT [katara] See ~ 2. "kam2lrI katara bakura." -var ram 1 m 1. 2 Cl"C'G{ pinpricks, which cut dagger like. See Btr. 21 a Khatri subcaste. 4 a goldsmith, who was a devotee of Guru Arjan Dev. acral [katari] small dagger. "apan katari apas kau lai."-sar m 5. ~ [kataru] an Arora Sikh, who was a shopkeeper in Kabul. Unknowingly his

weighing stone was not a standard one. By making up the deficiency of his weighing stone in the court of the emperor of Kabul, Guru Arjan Dev upheld his honour. 2 Malik, a resident of Burhanpur, who, after becoming a disciple ofthe sixth Guru, turned a warrior and philanthropist. -afu [katr] after cutting away. "katr devau hiara ten." -kan m 4.2 after being cut into pieces. "purja purja katr man:."-maru kabir. 3 Skt n waist. "kaskE katr ayo."-GPS. 4 wife. 5 small red and black seed ofAbrus precatorius used as fractional weight by goldsmiths (one eighth of amasa). ~ [katrara] cut (past tense) "katrara jam kalu." -sri m 5.2 (which has been) cut. ~ [katrk] metallic: bangle. See 'C.\CC1:. "kcmrk katrk jal tarag jEsa."-sri ravIdas. qfuo [katrt] adj (which has been) cut, chopped. af<::aailfo [kCltrtkatitr] adj who maims those already killed. "ham bahu pap kie apradhi gUrI kate kCltrt katitJ. "-kan m 4. 'We, the sinners, have committed heinous sins, and the Guru has put an end to our crimes which were so outrageous.' Immoral acts like carnal desires destroy even the dead. ~ [katfda] adj who cuts. ~ [katrde$] portion ofthe body comprising waist. "katachin desi."-ramav. 'whose waist is slim.' af<::"e'm [katrdesi] pertaining to the waist, meaning ache in the: waist. See ~. afGt.r1;r [katrpir] Skt backache. J4DJ Lumbago. Backache is caused by heavy work, weakness, excessive indulgence in sex, severe cold, long sittings, discharge of semen with or following urination, tying ofa wet cloth around the waist, obstructing the discharge of urine and sleeping at a damp place. This disease

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should be treated only after knowing its cause, but the general treatment is as under: Sleeping on a dry (hot) bed, massaging the affected parts with turpentine or sesame oil, applying ground paste of stag's horn and aloe, fomenting, taking decoction of ginger and bhClkhra seeds (tribulus alatus) early in the morning, taking pure ~Ilajit (kind of mineral or rock secretion) with hot milk, taking two mashas ofmgJri Clsgadh (physalis hexussaitel) daily with hot milk, taking decoction ofginger mixed with castor oil, applying cupping glasses or hollow horns or cones on the body. "paou rog pinCls katdesi."-carItr 405. See~. ~ [kCltIbClddh] Skt adj who has girded up his loins; ready for undertaking any task. ~ [kCltia] n young female buffalo, calf. 2 minced meat, chopped fodder, anything chopped into small pieces. "ek-hf bar karE kCltia."-GPS. 3 adj who cuts. "so katia SIr durjClnCln. "-krIsan. -ait3' [kCltit] See cifc3"~. ~ [katila] adj prickly. 2 thorny. "kClmlE katilo kahE."-BGK. 'There are delicate thorns on the stem of the lotus.' ~ [katu], ~~ [kCltuk] Skt adj bitter, sour. 2 unpleasant, unpopular. ~ [katuvaci] adjbitter-tongued, scurrilous. ~ [katu] See ~. 2 waist. See qfu-. "katu par kehClrI ros."-aj. ~ [katua] a biting creature. See ~. ~ [katera] adj which bites. [katen:] removes, cuts. "mEl katen:."-kan m5. ~ [kat£ya] adj which cuts or bites. ~tl' [katoc] a Rajput subcaste. The earlier capital of their rule was Jalandhar, but later they setup Kangra state. They believe that their first king Bhup Chand was born from the sweat ofDurga's eyebrows. After the downfall


ofKangra state, the king ofLambagaon is their leader now. The wealthy people ofGuier, Siba, Nadaun also belong to Katoch subcaste. "tClb£ kopia kagresa katoca."-VN. ~ [btona] adjwho cuts or bites or kills, or murders. "kate pap kCltona."-val' kan m4. ~ [kCltoraJ, aZm [kCltori] n wide-mouthed metallic bowl; a utensil, cup, small bowl. ciG [kClttJ See ~. 2 black pigment prepared by mixing iron etc in asour solution. It is used for dyeing clothes and is also useful if given to one suffering fromjaundice. ~ [bttl.)a] See ~. fu [kattClr] adjhot-headed and short-tempered. 2 ignorant, fanatic, bigoted. 3 obstinate, obdurate. ckr [kCltta] buffalo's young male. See ~ 4. 2 xa "iJTElT. ~ [kClttU] a village in Dhanaula police station ofPhool administration in the princely state of Nabha. The ninth Guru visited this village. The hymn "kahe re ban khojan jai" was recited by the Guru while addressing the audience here. The gurdwara is situated half a mile away from the village to its north-east. Land, equivalent to the area tilled by two ploughs, is exempted from revenue by the Nabha state. The village is situated about four miles to the south-west of the railway station of Sekhe. Bhai Dhian Singh, a spiritual personage was from Kattu. He substituted 'Sarabloh' in place of 'Charitars' in Dasam Granth. 2 See

a Kashmiri muslim, who acquired spiritual knowledge after becoming a follower of Guru Hargobind. He preached the Sikh doctrine in Kashmir. oro [bthj a sage. 2 an Upnishad ofYajurved, containing the discourse between Yam and

cf~'f.lTU [kattu~ah]

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Nachiketa. [kathgarh] wooden fort; fort constructed by using wood. "tIn kathgarh navras par badho."-VN. 2 See ~ 3. ~ [kathan] Skt cffis7i" adj hard, stiff. 2 cruel, merciless. "kathan karodh ghat hi ke bhitarI." -gau m 9. 3 difficult, arduous. ~ [kdthnai], '6fi57i"3T [kdthanta], ~ [kathnai] n difficulty, toughness. 2 hardness, cruelty. . aoy31'ft [kathputli] wooden puppet. 2 one who cannot think by himself but act lik(~ a puppet in the hands of another. ~ [kathphora] woodpecker, hoopoe - a bird that draws insects from the hollow of the wood after breaking it with its pointed beak. It is of many species. Its beak is very sharp and its head is quite powerful. ~ [kathmaq.u] capital ofNepal situated on the bank ofriver Vishnumati in the Himalayas to the north-east ofIndia. Its height above the sea level is 4784 feet. This city was founded by king Kamdev in about 723 AD. ~ [kathal] See Ci!Z<:J"ij". "kathal baq.hal bar pipar khare."-GPs. [kathm] See orcso. ~ [kdthInta] See CifO?i3T. ~ [kathur], ~ [kathul] adjhard, cruel. "atI papIst kathur."-kalki. "Ik:r r;;lhe SUkI kathule."-basat m 5. i51"8'o'l [kathmi] adj hard, difficult. "eha bat kathEni."-brla m 4. ai5"a' [kathor] Skt adj hard, rigid. Poets have regarded the following things as hard: mind of a miser, bones, diamond, tortoiseshell, wood, metal, stone, warrior's chest. 2 cruel, merciless. ~ [kathorta] n hardness, stiffness. 2 cruelty,. crn-w [kathola] adj wooden pot. 2 wooden effigy.

~ [kathJta] n wide wooden vessel, kneading


trough or basin made of wood. crc5"a1 [kathJti] n a musical instrument of wood with a single string; oval shaped begging bowl. "man mera c~ga, hi kathJti VIC gaga." -provo 'Cf$T [kaq.a] adj hard, stiff. See vr crn-. [kaq.i],~ [kdq.u] , ~ [kdq.u] S adv when. "phIrI kaq.u aVE rutI?"-var maru 2 m 5. ~ [kaq.(~J Skt vr harden, stiffen. ~ [kaq.hl).a] v drag. 2 pull out. "dusman dut sabhI marI kaq.hie."'-var brla m 4.3 expose, disclose. "kal).I kaq.han te chutI pari."-asa m 5.4 dig, excavate, uproot. "kaq.hI kup kaq.hE panIhare."-nat a m 4. 5 embroider on cloth. 6 plan a new thing, think of a new idea. "koi kaq.hahu Ihu vicaru." -val' ram 1 m 3. ~(!T [kdq.haul).a] v get extracted. 2 get something said, or articulated. "ghasi kau harInam kaq.hai."-gau m 4. "apni bIrtha bahu bahutu kaq.hasa."-g5c;l m4. c:mr [kaq.hI] adv having extracted. "harI coli deh savari ka~~hI pEdhi."-var SOl' m 4. 'having embroidered'. ~ [kdq.hIbha] became a saviour. "q.ubde bah deI kaq.hibha."-pl'abha m 4. ~ [ka~lhie] expelled, pulled out. 2 expel, pull out. ~ [kaq.hijE] kindly save; let us pull them out. ~ [kaq.hu] S extract, embroider. 0f\T'l?c')T [kaq.holna] v extract. "mathI tatu kaq.hoIE."-var ram 1, m 3. 'extracts'. 2 search. 3 drag, pull. "tan jabuk gidh kdq.holat." -krrsan. crc!" [kal).] Skt n pmticle, granule. 2 grain, particle, seed. "kal). bIna jEse thothar tukha."-gaum 5. 3 broken rice. 4 Skt CfiUf. vr become small; close the eyes; meditate. ~ [k;mas] n Cf(!'-'~3T, mild fever, slight fever. ~ [kal).SoI]" [kal).soi] n overheard



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information; inkling. [kdl)dk] n wheat. 2 See ~. ~ [kdl)kdcch] n measure of grains, appraisal of standing crop; particle. C1<!C1iil'l') CfMT [bl)dkval kdla] a village in police station, tehsil and district Sunam in Patiala state. A gurdwara of Guru Teg Bahadur is situated about two furlongs to the north of the village. An incomplete shrine was constructed in Sammat 1978, which is now in dilapidated state because no attendant is there. The village is about seven miles to the west ofthe railway station Chhajli. ~ [kdl)ka] n small piece; particle, granule.
~ See~.

[kdl)kut] See ~. [bl)dCh] See 'CIi6i. 2 See ~. 'CI'ic [kdl)dtt] granular stone, generally seen studded in old buildings. ~'(!T [kdl)taUl)a] v harass someone like grains roasting in a furnace; torture. 'CI<!'t!' [kdl)ad] Skt n a sage who lived only by eating grains of rice; hence his name. His real name was Uluk. Out of the six shastars, Vaisheshik Darshan was written by him. See



[kdl)addk] adj who eats grains of rice.

2 See

orf<!""CI" [bl)Ik] Skt n particles, granules.
2 wheatflour.

'CIit [kdl)i] n drop of water. 2 particle, small
granule. "de naVE ek kdI;i."-sor m 5. 3 tiny piece of diamond. 4 tiny and fine broken piece from the tip ofan edged weapon like an arrow. ~ [kdnJq.] n pressure. 2 obligation. 3 an act that makes one abashed. See ~ vr. diJT [kdnJq.a] adj obliged. 2 (one) who is abashed. 3 shy. See vr~. Qi&; [kdl)Jch] n sound, word. See ~ vr.

"kdl)JchJt gajL"-kdlki. "bl)Jche kIkal)J." -raluav. CG' [kdt] part why, for what. "sfghsdran kat jaiE jdU jabuk grasE."-bIla sddhna. "kagdr nay laghdhI bt sagdr?"-mala m 5. 2 pron whose. "kdt ki mai bap kdt kera."-gau m 1. 3 adv where. "kat jaiE re ghdr lago rJg."-bas:'it ramanJd. 4 anywhere. "kdt ndhf th:>r mulu kdt lavdu?"-gc)U kabir. 'There is no place where to apply the herb (medicine).' 5 A 13 act of chopping. "SdCI nd lagE kdtu."-maru m 1. 'Truth cannot be chopped', means that truth cannot be refuted. 6 jealousy, envy. "dadi md nd kdtU mdn jibhE Sdca soi." -var sor m 1. 7 See~. "dkhi kdt nd sajrE tIn."-BG. ~ [kdta] A cut away, settle something one way or the other. 2 determination, belief. ~ [kdtdi] A I ~ adv exactly, surely. 'CI3U [kdtdh], 'C!"3fu [btdhI] part for what, why. "pavan patI t punit kdtdh nahi seviE."-phunhe m 5.2 adv where, whither. "pIrdhI bIhun btahI sukh pae?"-suhi farid. iEtit [[kdtdhi], i5l'3"g [kdtdhu], ~ [kdt-hu] adv no where. "kdt-hu na jae ghdrdhI bdsae."-kan m5. CI'OCI" [kdtdk] Skt c:M3'CI" n month of Kattak; it derives this name from the full moon night of Karittaka (the third lunar mansion, the Pleiades). See cUoa-. ~ [btxuda] See ~. CI3'(!T [kdtl)a] Skt CE7> v spin or make fibre or thread (tendril) of wool, cotton etc on the tip of the rotating spindle of a spinning wheel; twine a cord. "nandk kUrE katIE kura tdl)iE tal)u."-var suhi m 1. ~ [kdtdhau], csil: [kdtdh5] Skt afu"qr adj of many kinds; variegated. 2 from many sides, from all directions. See .q'. "bhdrdm adher mohIo katdhau."-savEye sri mukhvak m 5. 'CI3'ffiJ' [btrdh] See ~.


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[katraI).] n a small piece of cloth left after cutting. 2 See ~. ~ [katarI).a] Skt cut into pieces with an implement or scissors; cut. CE6it [katarI).i] Skt cE?iT n scissors. See ~. ~ [katarna] See ~. ~ [katra] A ~)J n drop, droplet. 2 run, flee. q3l? [katall A n assassination, murder, violence. c(d(i5dl~1 [katalgarhi] a mansion (a large walled house) of Sain Budhushah in the mohalla of Saihwani Sayyeds of Sadhaura; Banda Bahadur assassinated hundreds of Muslims who had gathered there. See 'iflJRrcr. CE'(i5T [katla] A bE adj murdered, assassinated; plural of~. 2 P JV chopped stuff, minced meat, anything chopped into small pieces. "katla karo muro nahI dhur lag."-CPs. "C(d"(i51}f [katlam] A (lo>J n massacre, genocide. ~ [katvar] n garbage; useless straw. "katarta katvar buhan:. "-krIscm. 'C(dT [kata] A n plan; finely cut piece, chiselled stuff. "kat kata kar lino."-e;"iQi 1. See~. Qdlli [katab] See fuora". ~ [katar] A Jlbj n line, row, class, bevy. 'C('dT(i5" [katal] A J(j n human soul. 2 power, capability, competence. 3 body, physique. 4 See~. afo [katI] Skt adj how many. Cl'faq [katIk] month of Kattak. See CBC'{. "katIk hOVE sadhu sag."-majh barahmaha. 2 adj to what extent. 'Clfufa" [katIkI] in the month of Kattak. "katIkI karam kamavI).e."-majh barahmal1a. ~ [katia] See oGt. ~ [katiph] A d adj having rancour, malice or grudge. "car6 VICC ~arif ko, kon katiph kahaI."-mago. ~ [katipha] A ~ velvet, satin.. 2 See cBtG. ~ [katiphIa] plural of~. ...:a:Jlbj silken




clothes ofvelvet, satin etc. "r;"igparag katiphIa pahIrahI dharmai."~var sar m 4. 'Worldly person wears multicoloured silken clothes.' 'Clg [katu] See Ci\2l". ~ [katun] S tape embroidered with a golden thread used to fix on clothes for glamour. See EActon. ~ [katura] See '3¥. 'Cl3'a' [kateb] A .~ book, sacred book. It is a transform ofkItab. 2 In Gurbani, kateb stands for kutab, and refers in particular to the four books, namely tJret, zabbur, ;'iji! and Koran. "dev bhev na janhi jIh bed Jr kateb." -japu. "bed kateb sasar habhahu bahra."-asa m5. cclw [katela] Ai JI; adj assassin; murderer. "kJm katele."-BG. cEw [katEyal adj engaged in spinning. 2 performing the act of cutting. cEtf [kat;"ic] Skt ~ adv where, at what place. 2 ~ from where, from what place. "kat;"ic mata kat;"ic pIta."-sahas m 5. c{aT [katta] n small sword, which is broad and straight. A ..J2f' . if~ [kattal] A JCi adj who kills. "suI). nanak kattal."-mago. 'O! Guru Nanak, you who put to end with words, listen!' dar [katti] Skt ~~'fiT n rapier; thin straight sword. "parE kattrj1;"i ghat."-VN. ~ [katr] See '3'~, ~ [kath] n legend, story, 2 See CXEf7). 3 See REf excr. 4 See chr. ~ [kathau] tell, relate. 2 say, speak. "kathau na kathni hukam pachana."-gdU d m 1. ~ [kathakl Skt adj expert in narrating; adept in delivering a religious discourse. 2 See ~ 2. ~ [kathakkarl See a:tm'. 'C('l:fd' [kathatl Skt cfl~-n:rFc'r v narrates, speaks. 2 See cxfua". 'C(QdT [kathta] Skt ~ adj who narrates. 2 of

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a story, of an anecdote. "kathta bakta sunta soi."-gau m 1. orao [kathan] n utterance, statement. "kathan sunavan git nike gavan."-dev m 5. trn?)T [kathna] v say, narrate. 2 n description, explanation. See am. iil"l'f01 [kathni] n act of talking; explanation. "kathni kahI bharamu na jai."-sor kabir. ~El?.,"hrm [kathni badni] n only in words; mere talk sans action. "sabadu na cinE kathni badni k'lrE." -sri m 3. ~ [kathniy] Skt n describable, expressible. CfflQ [kathanu] See orao. ~ [bthri] n tale. "bthria satah te sukhau padhia."-var maru 2 m 5. aar [btha] Skt n story, anecdote, description, explanation. 2 annotation. "katha sUl)at malu sagli khovE."-majh m 5. ~ [kathaIa] got described, got expressed. "mIlI sadhu akathu kathaIa tha. "-maru m 5. ~ [kathak] narrator; story teller. await [kathagi] sang the story. 2 singer of a tale in verse. "ham hankatha kathagi." -dhana m 4. 'We are singers of the Creator's praise.' C!$i"iCI" [kathanak] Skt n summary of a story. 2 legend, story, tale. crfu [bthI] adv having described, having narrated. "bthI kathI bthi koti kotI kotI." -japu. 'Mill ions of speakers have described it again and again giving millions ofarguments. ' meaning, it has been described in many ways on innumerable occasions. "saca sabadu kathI."-sri m 5. See em 4. orfu3" [kathIt] Skt adj said, told, described. ~ [bthI tal Skt i5fEIftr3"r adj in the profession of story telling, expert in oratory. mit [kathil described. "kathna kathi na aVE totI."-japu. wfur [bthir] n cU'EB-wuttered composition;

tale in verse, eulogy. "bVIan katthe kathire." --caQi 2. "katthe kathira."-VN. 2 bangle. ~ [bthuri] See~. "ratI kathuri vaqiE." -s farid. i.e 'narration of God's glory.' 2 glory. 3 auspicious smell, fragrance. qtf [katha] Skt Cf)'I-1+\adv how, in what way. "jag bIvhar katha so lahE."-GPS. ~ [bthacan] Skt~ part how, in what way. ~ [bthaCIt] Skt~ adv in some way, somehow. 2 perhaps. of"Ef [btth] n tale. 2 thick extract of acacia catechu, prepared by decocting its bark which is coated on betel leaves and is used for dyeing and in many medicines. Uncaria Gambier. 3 Skt ~T praise, appreciation. "dal gahan katthe."-caQi 3. 'an admirable, warrior.' 4 adj proper to narrate, describable. See chf. of"EfC{ [btthak] Skt adj expert in narrating, maker of a statement. 2 n singer who expresses the meaning ofa song through bodily gestures. chr" [kattha] See em 2. ofEf [bttha] recited, uttered. "pare sam beda jujar bed kattha."-VN. m!" [kad], ~ [kadahu] advwhen, at whattime. "kaul) kahE tu kad ka."-tukha chat m 5. "kadahu samjhaIa jaI."-var sri m 3. 2 See ort!. 3 A .iJ effort, endeavour. 4 P ./ house. S person, someone. ~ [kadxuda] P uP./ owner of the house. 2 king. 3 soul, human soul. 4 married man. m:!O [kadan] Skt n anguish, trouble. "sumatI sadan bhayo kadan bIram hE."-NP 2 war, battle. 3 destruction, assassination. at!H [bdam] See ~. 2 A (~ feet, foot. "tere kadam salah."-bher m 5. 3 Dg stride, foot. ~m- [kadamposi], ~m- [kadambosi] P (fY.') n act of kissing the feet. In the following utterance, the scribe has used kadamposi

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instead ofk;:,d;:,mbosi. "plnrf' kadamposi k;:,u k;:,rte."-GPS. ~ [kadar] Skt n saw. 2 goad. 3 white catechu tree. "bd;:,r bat b:mal."-GPS. See G Kedros. 4 A.I) honour, glory, respect. S measure, standard, weight. ql€af.t(')'R [bdar~anas], qceae '(') [kadardan] P l.![:;.I) adj appreciative; seeking merit. ~ [bdr;:,y], ~ [kadrai] SkI ~ n cowardice; faint-heartedness. 2 nervousness. 3 fear, terror. ~ [kadaI] See cfec;). ~ [kadli] Skt n banana. 2 deer of darkbrown colour found in the Kamboj region. 3 a tree that grows in Assam and Burma; boats are made from its wood. ~ [kadlipuhap] n heart, which is shaped like the flower of a banana. "kadlipvhap dhup pargas."--bhEr CJ kdbir. O(€l')la(') [kudliban] See O(tmla('). ~ [bd;:,v] Skt ~ n ball; ball made of rags; material rolled into a round mass . "khIIat ja!)v kadd-va."-ramav. 0(t!T [kada] Skt adv sometime, at some moment. "jag sukh me vrjhE mIn kuda."~GPS. 2 A C,,) n prohibition, taboo. "nili sIahi bda br!)i." -sri m 1. 'Blue dress is meant to dispel mind's darkness.' 3 A v) tear, saw. 4 set on fire. S taunt. creTB' [kadac], ~ [kadac], ~ [bdacah], ~ [kadacahv], ~ [kadacan], 0!€1ftr3' [kudacIt], ~ [bdaCId], ~lfu [k;:,dapI], ~ [bdapi] adv perhaps. 2 some time, rarely, seldom. "kadac naln SImrat nanak." --var jEt. "n;:,ln sImrat m;:,r!)a k;:,dacah."-sahas ill 5. "bhalo karam nahI kin kadapi."-GPs. ~ [bdamat] A .::/1) n sense of being antique; antiquity, ancientness. ~ [bdI] adv when, at what time. "saphal darsan kadI pau."-sar m 5. "pap bInase

kadIke."-bavan ~ [bdimJ A r{) adj ancient. 2 primitive. 1 "sevak kadim tak ae teri sam hE."-caQi 1. cctfu.ft [kadimi] adjfrom the beginning, See Oltfu-r. "hute bdimi gurughar kere."-GPS. ~ [bdu], ~»f'. [bdua] P L.j.;!' n gourd. "beIahI te bdU21 bt q.aryo."-cJc;li 1. ~ [kadurat] A ':::'-H;/ n darkness. 2 muddiness, dirtiness. 3 anger. ~ [kaduri] See ~'"dO. 2 P U.lj.-d' n diningtable cloth; cloth on which meals are served. 3 meal taken in the name of Fatima, daughter of prophet Mohammad in which prayer is offered in her name. "mIsImIII tam;:,su bharamv kaduri."-bhEr kabir. 'Pray after killing ignorance and confusion.' Those who read the text as bharam kaduri, do not pay heed to the vowel sign [v] after [m]. ~ [kade] See m~. "sahsa kade na jaI."-var maru 1 m 3. ~ [bdac], 0lt!3. [kadat]. See 0!€1ftr3'. "bdac k;:,w!)a na up;:,rjate."-sal1as m 5. "CIt me cItvyO nahi kadat." and "janyo gahyo na chutE

'O(tfo [kadan] Skt n food prohibited in religious

scriptures. 2 medically forbidden food. 3 food grain of the coarse variety. Olthr [bd;~b], ore'"H [bdam] Skt ~ n group, community. "sIrjat hE brahmaq. bdab."-NP 2 a particular tree that has yellow flowers. Krishan loved these trees very much. Mostly he frolicked among these trees in the forest. Now the devotees of Krishan in Vrindavan garland his idol with these flowers. Nauclea Cadamba. eft!' [kadd] Khatri subcaste of the Sarins. 2 A ;S height, physique, sturdiness. ~ [kaddavar] P .IJ!;S adjtall. ~ [kaddu] See O(~. ~ [bddub~] P LX/ n toothed sieve; a

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device with a rough surface against which gourd is rubbed into curled pieces. A dish is prepared by dipping these pieces in curd. ~ [kadru], ~~ [kadruka], ~ [kddru] Skt ~ n according to Purans, daughter ofDaksh and wife of Kashyap who gave birth to snakes. "bInta kddru dItI ddItI e nkhI bdri bdnay."

Ol?i¥ [kdnkut]


[kddhar] See chPo. [kdn] See a<!:". 2 ear. "jIn kan kine dkhi nak."-dhdna m 1. 3 drop of water. "jal kan subhdg jhare."-parCls. 4 short for kdmk; gold. "ue bhdwm k;m kamni. "-s kCJbir. ~ [kanauj] See ~tr. Cil'i'fftfu [kansoI] See ~. -ana- [kamk] Skt n gold. "kandk kdtIk jdl tarag jEsa."-sri rClVIdas. 2 thorn-apple. "kandk kamk te SJ guno madak me adhIkaI. "-bIhari. 3 palas tree; Sutea frondosa. 4 wheat and its flour. See ~ 2. 5 See Gifl..fOf 3. Ol(,)OlOlfF.ty [kanak-kd:;>IPU] See nJCI(')J!Olf8Y. Ol(')OlOlW [kamk kala] Skt Ol?lOlOlM: one who knows the art of making gold ornaments; goldsmith. "jEse kanIk kala eItu maQiale." -ram namdev. 'O(("j"O('GT [kankdtal, ~ [kankati] a disciple of Gorakh, or a woman, who has pierced ears. 2 with ears cut or shortened. Ol(')OlaH' [kankabja] Some ignorant scribe has substituted this for kankubaj. See Bfug 217 number 3. ~tl'O [kanakloean] See ~ (f<JCI?lJ!'iS(). O("(')'O(T [kanka] See ~. 2 virgin; unmarried girl. "Jr mIli kanka tahf an."-NP Ol(,)Ol't1M [kankaeal] kamk (gold) aeal (mountain); mountain named Sumer. 0l'i'l0l'Hi'I't [kankamniJ short for -ana- and "6l"'"fi.ro9". See 010. q('j'O('Tli(T [kdnkaya] Skt cfWOl": n water crow, water ouzel. "kak bhek kfeal kankaya."--GPs.


[kankhal] a city on the bank of the Ganges two miles to the west of Haridwar. According to Kuram and Ling Purans, it is the place where Daksh Prajapati performed the sacrificial ritual. The famous temple relating to Dakshesvar Mahadev is situated here. Guru Amar Dev stayed here for some time and a gurdwara is situated here. qOtfit [kanpati] n area between the eye and the ear; temple. 2 See ~. ~ [kdnpataJ, ~ [kanpatiJ, WiGCT [kanphatal, 0l?iGit [kanphati], ~ [kanphata] See C'i(('i'O(GT-~. "jogabhyasi dru kdnpate." -GPS. wi1;rr [kamyya] n spider; a species ofcreatures which spin a web. 2 Krishan. "ateru ko kanayya nam."-Clkal. ~ [kdna-dt] A .::.-rD n content with very little; satisfaction, contentment. ~ [kanaIt] See ~3'. ~ [kanai] n Krishan. 2 the Creator. "sImno nahI kanai."-maru m 9. 0l0l3' [kanat] See ~. 2 T"::'- D tent wall; wall of cloth around a tent. 3 A lance. 4 backbone, spine. q()Tli['3' [kanaydt] See ~ and ~. 'O('i'j'Tij' [kanar] P .It;{ bank, side. 2 margin of a book. 3 catarrh afflicting a horse. 0l'i'i"QT [kanara] See Ci("()TCJ" I and fuoror. 'OlO'1? [kdnal] measure of land equal to one eighth of a ghumaon. ~ [kanavez] n a kind of silk cloth of the danai mould; kanavez from Bakhara used to be very popular. a:fo [kaOI] to, towards, in the direction of. "aI na sdka tujh kanI pIare."-vClQ m 1. 2 in the ear. "kanI mOdra pai."-var ram 1 m 1. 3 S adv near, in the proximity of, close to. ~ [kanI$th] Skt adjtiny, very small. 2 mean,

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abject. [kam:?tha] adj the smallest. 2 n little finger. 3 in poetics, a lady not loved enough by her husband. C1f(')fI'j)CII [kanI:?thIka] n little finger. 2 younger sister. qfoCI' [kamk] gold, wealth. See mcor and Cf<'iCI". "kanIk kamni het gavara."-asa dill 1. C1f(')C1C1w [kamk-kala] See ~r. CI'for;rr [kamya] P n armpit. "kanIya bIkhE krickan dharE."-CarItr 184. 'Bhimsen holds Kichak and his brothers in his armpit.' 2 lap. 3 an embrace, hug. 4 See ~. ~ [kani] See ~. ~ [kania] an embrace, hug See qfow 3. "sadar so nIj bhar kar kania."-NP ~ [kaniz], ~ [kanizak] P ;:! n slave girl. 2 maidservant. CIC5re' [kanir] See ~. ~ [kanu] Sear. QQ~ [kanuka] n particle, mote. "dhUrI ke kanuka pher dhurI hi samah:Ege."-akal. 2 spark. "jEse ek ag te kal).uka kotI ag uthr." -akal. ~ [kane:?ta] See "CIfo1r. [kanec] a village in district Ludhiana, one and a half mile to the south-east of Sahnewal railway station. Guru Gobind Singh came from Machhiwara and stayed here for some time. Phatta, a landowner who, on one pretext or the other, refused to offer his pretty mare to the Guru, was a resident of this place. ~ [kanet] See ~. ~ [kaner], ~ [kanel] Skt ~d" n a flower plant, flower of which is offered especially to Shiv; it bears flowers throughout the year. Snuffis also made from its leaves., and its bark and roots are used in numerous medicines. Pterospermum Acerifolium. P 'l:R1~. ~3' [kanEt] a tribe dwelling in mountains,


which originated from Rajputs. Many writers have described its root as kanyahet, because Rajputs used to kill their daughters, while these people regarded such killing as a sin. ~ [kanJj] Skt ~ ~ n a city and its surrounding afl~a in the district of Fararukhabad in U.P. In the ancient times, it used to be a famous capital of the Hindus. In 1194 Mohammad Gauri put an end to the Kanauj state along with its ruler Jai Chand. 2 a subcaste of Brahmins. See 6(1(')g8tL ~;::ftl)fT [kamjia] adj resident of Kanauj. 2 n a Kanyakubaj brahman. ~ [kanJQ], oW [kamQa] See ~-O(";!'~. ~ [k,mhail n Krishan. 2 the Creator, the Divine. ~ [kanhEya] n killer of Kans, Krishan. 2 the Creator, the Supreme God. 3 a devoted disciple of Guru Teg Bahadur who, while serving the tenth Guru in the battle of Anandpur, served water to the enemi,~s as well. He is also known as Ghanaiya. Many writers have mistaken Bhai Mihan as Kanhaiya. See J-it<:Jf. ~ \ft fi..n:rl;r [kanhEya di mIsal] one of the twelve misls of the Sikhs which was established by Sardar Jai Singh, a Sandhu Jatt, son of Sal'dar Khushal Singh, resident ofvillage Kanhe. The misl's income was rupees 40 lac and its army was eight thousand strong. At the time ofconquering Sirhind in Sammat 1820, Jai Singh along with his troops sided with the Panth. This heroic: Sikh died in Sammat 1847 (1789 AD). Mahtab Kaur, Jai Singh's granddaughter and daughter of Gurbax Singh, was married to Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Sardars (chieftains) of village Rakkhanwale in tehsil Kusur and chieftains of Fategarh in tehsil Vatala were from this misl. ~ [kanyaka] Skt n unmarried girl, virgin. 2 daughter.

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qo:;rr [k;mya] Skt n daughter. 2 unmarried girl.

3 one of the twelve signs of Zodiac, Virgo. 4 variety of large cardamom. 5 a poetic metre.

[kdp] See ~. 2 See c:hf. "hath marOrE tanu kapE. "·-majh barahmaha. 3 See qf'tj-. 4 Skt ~ vr walk, move, tremble. mrc [kdpat] Skt n deceit, guile. "kup kapatr krnE nd para. "--sri m 4. 2 See mrz. "kholr kdpat guru melia."-jEt ch5t m 5. "nanak mrlahu kdpat ddr kholahu. "-tukha barahmaha. ~ [kapat-hathrar] Skt ~C"1J n a weapon like baghndkha (shaped as non's claw) kept hidden underneath the dress. "kur kaPdt hdtluar iru."-BG. mrc mrrc [kdpat kdpatl deceitful doors; doors of guile. "khulE: nd kdPdt kapat. "-rahIm all. mrcy'ijl:f [kapdtpurdkh], mrcygJIr [kdPdtpurU~] n scarecrow, frightener i.e. effigy as of a man made to stand in the field to scare animals. mrfc [kdpdtr] with guile, by deceit. See mrc 1

2 wrong path, misleading path. ~ [kapdrdd], ~ [kapdrdak] Skt W-fu~ fully purified by water; lock ofShiv's hair, from which flows the Ganga. 2 knot of matted hair. 3 small seashell, purified by the seawater. ~ [kapardan] See ~. ~ [bpardrka] Sktw..rf'€'wn cowrie. See

mRrfeo [bpardrn], ~ [kapdrdrnil, CRKJtft
[kapdrdi] Skt"ifi11f<fi, adj with tangled hair. See ~. 2 matted hair; female with a knot of hair on the head. "iE iE hosi mahrkhasur mardanr ramkapardrnr chatrachrte."-aka1. 1 ~ [kaparvat] See W-fQ. qtRjT [kapra] See W-ST. ~ [kapdfU] See W-fQ. ~ [kapre] plural of extST. "mde kapre kahalau dhovau."-mala ravIdas. means polluted mind. atre l:Piit ~ [kapre bage vali] sen n kuj, a migratory bird which is white in appearance. "gagan phrr;'lti uc;l ti kdpre bage vaH."-gau m 4.
'''bhagvati pady

stotr" composed by Pandit


Ramkrishan is a very old text, and has thirty three-lined stanzas. Its free translation in twenty such stanzas forms Akal Ustat, not to be found in Chandichrit. For the information of the readers some pieces from both are given below: "raktasur mardanI cae,l c<JkardanI danav ardanI bIe,lal bad he, s<Jrdhar bIbarkhaDI durjan dharkh<JDI atul amarkhaDI dh<Jr<Jmdhuje. dhumrach vIdhvas;)nI sroDItcusanI subh nIpat nIsobh mathe, jE jE hosi m<Jlukhasur m<JrdanI ramk<JpardInI chatr chIte."-akal.
m'if('''lf5flilT5:m:~~TflSTflilT~I ...

ql..fcT [kapti] adj deceitful, beguiling.
2 hyprocritical.

mIZ [kapte] deceitful persons. "k)(;li bc;li jorat
kdpte."-guj m 5. 2 with guile, fraudulently.

[bpl,la] Skt a3'o v cut, chop. "pharida ir drh nala kdpra."-s farid. qt..I(ft [kdpl,li] adj of the monkeys. "cdli SEl,l kdPl,li sdkruddh. "-ramav. ~ [kapat] See cffl..B. ~ [bpthdll See '&'8('). "pdri lut kapthal vrkhE."--GPS. 'Looting took place in Kaithal city.' ql.fQ [kdpdr] Sw..rg n steep bank of a river. "bera kapdr vat."-s [arid. 'Due to the strong wind, the ship gets pushed towards the steep bank of a river, leaving aside its ford. It is feared that it will be smashed on striking against the bank.'

fuq- fuq- ~


f.1~ ~ !iII lIfcll

~fqQ~ f1'1Z;q!lllfilld4t~ I

f.111JPl'f ~ 'dfifu 'tdfi1~II'<'Ig~

~j';'I'fI6~BM1 {RFfigF<ff.1 ~111011

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stick while that of a saint or a sage with a bII fruit. This ritual transfers the dead to the 2 Skt ~ one who transcendental world of the forefathers. 2 wears a ragged blanket. "kapar kedar£ jai." ~trO [kapalmocan] a pond in Kashi. -sor kabir. According to Padam Puran, Mahabhairav (Shiv) ~ [kaparkotha] n tent; dwelling; camp. beheaded arrogant Brahma with the nail of his Q1.r.JT [kapra], ~ [kaparu] Skta;tfz n clothes, left hand. The head ofBrahma clung to the hand dress. "kaparu rup suhavl).a."-var asa. 2 robe of Mahabhairav. It separated only when of honour. "sIphatI salah kapra paIa. "-var Mahabhairav visit~:d Kapalmochan Sarovar majh m 1. 3 mortal frame, human body. "karmi (pond) in Kashi. 2 According to Mahabharat, a . aVE kapra."-jClpu.! "parhan kaparu je PIr mIlL "-var sor m 1. Renunciation of pilgrimage centre, Aushnas, situated at the bank of river Saraswati is named as Kapalmochan. hypocrisy is meant here. The head of a demon hacked by Ram Chandar mfTJT [bpas], 0\l-fT(J [kapah] Skt crtfTJT L clung to the leg of sage Mahodar, which could Gossypium Herbaceum. "daIa kapah s;'itokh sut."-var asa. not be separated by taking dips in many sacred ponds. It separated only when the bath was taken ~ [kapahahu] from cotton. "tagu kapahahu kati£."-var asa. in this holy pond. This place is five kohs to the ~ [kapahi], ~ [kapahia] adj Il1lade of north of Jagadhari near Sadhaurain Ambala district. Guru Gobind Singh came here in cotton. 2 n a Khatri subcaste. This name is derived from the dealers in kapah (cotton),just Sammat 1742 to preach his doctrine. A gurdwara as Ghei is derived from uft [ghi] (pmified has been built here, which has 250 bighas of butter). "hema VIce kapahia."-BG. land attached to it. "Ik kapalmocan subh tal. mrz [kapat], cn-ri [kapata] Skt n that which tahf ko mela ayo vIsal."-GPs. Kapalmochan keeps the air out as also stops it; a door. pilgrimage is on the land ofthe village named 2 ignorance. 3 final stage; palate. 4 cloth Milakh. Another pond called "Rinmochan" is near this pond and is regarded sacred by the wetted with water, washed wet towel:, it is a ritual to keep it on one's shou lders during the Hindus. 3 In Mahabharat, Kapalmochan is also evening prayers. "duI dhoti vastra kapat;'i." the name of a sage. -var asa. ~ [kapali] Sktq;qr'~ adj bearing or carrying ~[kapal] Skt n skull 2 forehead. 3 half the a skull. 2 n Shiv. 3 monk with a begging bowl. portion of a pitcher or of an egg, which has 4 Kapalini, Goddess Durga, Kali. "katI katI daye kapali."-cgj<;li 2. the shape of a skull. 4 beggar's bowl. ~ [kapalak] See w~. ~ l')fTHO [kapali asanJ posture in Yog, with ~w [kapalknya] n a Hindu ritual of head on the earth and legs raised towards the breaking skull of the burning corpse with a sky. wooden stick. As per Garur Puran, the skull ~ [kapalu] See c~. "karam kan kapalu ofa family man should be broken with a heavy '31U ;;ri:t S~T<'!T 'J:'f fficilffi'l:[ ~ I l"iffi1ifB ~ <:f'..TI ~ 'l'!1f.1 ~'lTr "inlU! I ~~TI'l~ Of> R;--1" <:ffi"Ri '>fT~'l'~ I
~ [kapar] See


[kapal] See ~.

Cfl-TI"!ITfmfITr ~ "1~IOlfr;qr;qlf.1 ~


~! I


-gita a 2


-garur pural)


10 !? 56-57.

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60,000 sons of king Sagar only with one glance, when they were searching for a ~ [kapala 1 See mfTffi. "hahasa kapala." horse stolen by Indar. "gavahI kapIladI -blki. 'Kapali (Shiv) laughs.' adIjogesur."I-saveye ill 1 ke. 7 There was ~ [kapavanl See~. "kar kaQh krIpan another Kapil, son of sage Vittath, different bpavhfge."-blki. from the author of Sankhya Shastar. 8 In afu [kapIl adv having cut off, having chopped Purans, we also find a reference to a third off, "so SIrU kapI utaL"-s farid. 2 Skt n Kapil, son of Vasdev born from the womb of monkey. 3 elephant. 4 sun. See ortr 4. 5 adj Narachi. 9 adjbrown, blackish-yellow. who wanders. "bhramat phIrat telak ke kapI ~. [kapIlvastul a town situated on the jIU."-guj kabir. 'going in circles like an bank of river Rohini in Gorakhpur district in oilman's ox.' Nepal's foot hills, ruled by Shuddhodan (father crftretJ:r [kapIis], cm.m [bpISl See~. "ban of Buddha). It remained capital of the Shakya maIn rahIt kapIs hanumana."-NP. dynasty for a long time. According to the modern scholars, Piprava Cil'f1.rq [kapIkl Skt n monkey. "phaho min bpIk ki nIai."-g5c;f ill 5. 'got trapped like a ofPargana Mansur in district Basti 25 miles fish and a monkey. ' to the north east of Faizabad is, in fact, Kapilvastu. ~mr [kapIkOjarl supreme among monkeys, Hanuman. 2 Sugriv. cm.rw [bpIlal Skt n a river of Kamrup. 2 Indian rosewood tree; $i$am. 3 Kapil-a cow ~ [kapIketul Arjun, whose standard bears the emblem ofamonkey. ofbrown and white colour, whose teats are black. crll.rtr [bpIC], orft.I6i [kapIchl See In Hindu mythology, this cow is regarded very qfl(il1? [bpfjall Skt n kind of patridge. 2 rainsacred. See ~. 4 See ~ 2. bird. 3 a sage. ~ [bpIladl, ~ [kapIladIkl sage Kapil etc. See orf1.r1? 6. [kapItthl Skt n kind of wild pear; tree on which a monkey [kapIl sits (Monkeys enjoy ~ [bpil See afu. P ,£ lagur. its fruit). See m:r. ~ [kapi$], ~a [k;pi$var], ~ [kapldr] qfug;:r [kapIdhujl, ~ [kapIdhvaj] See ~ king of monkeys, Sugriv. 2 Hanuman. "Qar kapIdhvaj rath lai bahu biran ko ghaI." ~ [kapiral n cutting tool. 2 dagger. "ekkapira lehu hamara."-GPs. 3 S unlucky. 4 vicious, evil. -carrtr 137. 'Arjun threw it in his chariot. ' afutrfu' [bpIpatIl, orf't.Rri:r [bpIrajl lord of ~a [bpur 1 Skt wfa n camphor; a tree and the fragrant white material produced from its the monkeys, Sugriv. 2 Hanuman. crftni5" [bpIll Skt n fire. 2 dog. 3 Shiv. extract, which is volatile and like ghee is 4 brass. 5 sun. 6 a celebrated sage who inflammable. It is lit during an ~ [artil (a wrote Sankhya Shastar; son of Devhuti and ritual worship performed with lighted lamps Kardam. According to Bhagwat, Kapil is or Kapur in tray moved in circular motion in regarded the fifth incarnation of Lord Vishnu. front of an idol or person). It is used in many In Geeta, Krishan has talked about medicines. Camphora Officinarum. lts latent effect is cold and dry. It gives "sIddhana kapIlo munIh." There is a reference in Purans that he incinerated ladIjoge~VJr means Kapil, of noble birth.

maphitasI ri."-dhcma trrloccm. See ~



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energy to the brain and the heart and relieves cough and cold. It is beneficial for curing lung diseases. It relieves irritation of the liver, quenches thirst and induces sleep. 2 a Khatri subcaste; a Hindu business class in Punjab. 3 In Dasam Granth, some scribe has wrongly written kapur instead ofkarpur. See ~o. CXlJ'6TIfur i"iWS' [kapurs:rgh navab] In Sammat 1797, the governor ofLahore offered to confer the title of Nawab, a Jagir worth rupees one lac and a precious robe upon the Khalsa in Amritsar through Sabeg Singh, Vakil, so that mutual trust could be established, but no Sikh wished to accept these gifts from the tyrants. On repeated requests by Sabeg Singh, Panth agreed to confer the title of Nawab upon Kapur Singh - a VirkJatt of Faizalpur who was swaying a hand-fan over the assembly. This religious warrior rendered great service to the Panth and is regarded as one among the few eminent Sikhs. Kapur Singh expired in Sammat 1811 (1753 AD) in Amritsar and was cremated in the premises of Gurdwara Baba Atal. See avO'"ER)T. 2 grand son of Gurditta-an eminently pious personality of the Phul dynasty and son ofSurtia, who founded the village Kapurgarh after his name, which is now in Nabha state. He was childless, therefore Bhai Hamil' Singh, younger brother of Kapur Singh, succeeded him to the throne. 3 See avO! 1. ~ [kapurgarh] a village founded by Hamil' Singh's elder brother Kapur Singh, in Nabha state, subdivision Amloh, police station Bhadson. Baba Natha Singh, a highly pious Sikh, lived here during Sammat 1840. A Jagir ofRs. 1050 was donated by the state to Baba's dera. The sacred sword ofGuru Gobind Singh is preserved here.

[kapurthala] a city on the eastern bank of river Beas (Vipash), which is the capital of Kapurthala state. Hoshiarpur is situated to the north of this state, while Ferozepur and Jalandhar are to its south and east respectively. Its area is 652 square miles with a population of284070 (as per 1921 census). Thirty villages ofKapurthala state fall in districts ofAmritsar and Lahore also. The state owns 461 032 acres of land in the Avadh area. The total income of the state is about rupees 40 lacs. The forefather of Kapurthai a state, Sadhu Singh (some historians refer to him as Sadda Singh and Saddo) was a magnanimous person. He founded the village Ahlu, now in district Lahore. His dynasty Ahluwalia derived its name from the village Ahlu. 1 Badal' Singh, the grandson of Sadhu Singh, wa a follower of Nawab Kapur Singh, the chief ofFaizulapuria misl. In 1718 AD, a son, Jassa Singh, the light and glory of the dynasty, was born in the house of Badal' Singh. Badal' Singh died when Jassa Singh wasjust five years old. Mata Sundari brought him up with great affection, keeping his mother with hl:~r. Mata J i bestowed upon Jassa Singh a mace and entrusted him to Nawab Kapur Singh for instruction and orientation. Nawab Kapur Singh regarded him as his own son and educated him in the disciplines of religion and martial arts. While I on death bed, Kapur Singh, the sublirhe hero, presented Kalghidhar's sword to Jassa Singh, which was b,estowed upon the former by Mata Sundari. This precious sacred weapon is now preserved in the treasurehouse of the Kapurthala state. Following the footsteps of his illustrious

IVillage Ahlu, alongwith a few adjoining villages is now under the control of Kapurthala State.

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mentor, Sardar Jassa Singh earned name and fame in the Panth, served the community as chief of the Ahluwalia misl. He established his authority by capturing several territories. He captured Lahore in 1758 for some time. He made Kapurthala his capital after conquering it from Rai Ibrahim Bhatti in 1774. Illustrious families thought it an honour to be baptised by Jassa Singh. Raja Amar Singh of Patiala state was also baptised by him. Jassa Singh expired in 1783 in Amritsar. He was childless, therefore Sardar Bhag Singh was made chief of the state. He was 38 years old then. Bhag Singh died in 1801 in Kapurthala. His son Fateh Singh, born in 1784, was made the head of the state. He was a very close friend of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the lion of Punjab. They exchanged turbans in 1802. The far-sighted Raja Fateh Singh came under the protection ofthe British in 1826 and died in 1836. His son Nihal Singh succeeded him. Kapurthala army sided with Lahore during the first Anglo-Sikh war, therefore a portion ofthe territory Kapurthala state was seized. An annual tax of Rs. 1,31,000 was levied in lieu of the territory which remained under the control of Raja Nihal Singh who died in 1852. His elder son Randhir Singh, born in March 1831, was enthroned at the age of 22 years. He supported the British whole heartedly during the 1857 mutiny. For this overwhelming support, he was bestowed the honour of Rs. 15,000, salute of 11 guns, sprawling land in Avadh region alongwith the title of "farzade dIlbad rasixul Itkad d:>late fgla~ia." Raja Randhir Singh fell seriously ill in the ship, while sailing to England and had to return from Aden. He expired on 2nd April, 1870, on

the way in the ship itself. Kharak Singh, son of Raja Randhir Singh, who was born in 1850, was enthroned on 12 th May, 1870. He got mentally retarded, and the state was first put under administrative control of the Council, then was entrusted to the superintendent. Raja Kharak Singh expired in 1877 at Dharamsala and his five years old son, Tikka Jagatjit Singh, was made the ruler. Maharaja Jagatjit Singh, born on 24 th November, 1872, ascended the throne on 16 th October, 1877 and attained full power to run the state in 1890. Maharaja Jagatjit Singh was very fond of architecture. The buildings erected during his rule, the palace, courts, darbar hall, a gurdwara, a mosque etc are worth-seeing. He had good knowledge of Punjabi, English, French, Hindi, Persian and Urdu, and was an advocate of education. Above all in each department, he assigned his powers to his loyal and experienced employees. More than any other ruler of India, he travelled widely in the world. Pleased with his good governance, the British empowered him to dispense death sentence or capital punishment. In addition, the annual tax worth Rs 1,31,000 was waived off. The full title of the maharaja is-His Highness Colonel Farzande Dilband Rasikhul Itkad Daulte Inglishia Raja-e-Rajgan Maharaja Jagatjit Singh GC.S.I., GC.I.E., GB.E., Walie-Kapurthala. The eldest son of the Maharaja is tikka Paramjit Singh, who was born on 19 th May, 1892. Other sons, younger to him, are Mahijit Singh Amarjit Singh, Karamjit Singh, and lit Singh. Under the capable supervision of their father, they got very good education.

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Dynasty of Kapurthala State Sadhu Singh (Sadda Singh) Gopal Singh DevaSingh


Gurubakhash Singh KirpaI Singh Sardar Laddha Singh Raja Bhag Singh (d 180 I)

SadarSingh Badar Singh (d 1723) (b 1718)SardarJassaSingh(d 1783)



I I Raja Fateh Singh (d 1836) I
Raja Nihal Singh (d 1852)


Prince Bikram Singh (d 1887)

(b 1831) Raja Randhir Singh (d 1870)

Prince Suchet Singh (d 1902)

Raja Kharak Singh (d 1877) (b 1851)Raja Sir Harnam Singh l

(b 1872) Maharaja Jagatjit Singh


(b 1879) Raja Sir Daljit Singh l

SardarCharanjeetSingh l

(b 1870) Sardar PClrtap Singh I (d 1911)

(b 1892) Tikka Paramjit Singh

[kapurdeu] a dedicated disciple of Guru Arjun Dev. See Fft.Io. WJ'6T [kapura] a Brar Jatt Sardar, after whose name is founded by the town of Kotkapura. When the forces of the subedar of Sirhind reached the jungle while chasing Guru Gobind Singh, Kapura was with the royal forces at Mukatsar. After the terrible battle had taken place, he told the subedar that there was no water in the vicinity and prevailed upon him
IFor fear of dilation, detail about his genealogy has been witheld.


not to chase the Guru. Kapura was baptised as Kapur Singh by the Guru. The Guru presented him a sword and a shield, which are preserved with reverence in the palace of Faridkot. The shield made of rhino's skin is 22 inches in diameter. The sword is 31 inches long and is made of a special kind of steel of the Sikhmani variety. Its width is 1114 inches and the handle is golden. See GdlecXz. Manj Isakhan (who was the master of the neighbouring territory hanged Kapur Singh to death in 1708 AD. 2 testicle or kidney of a

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male goat etc.

~ [kafan] A

Cfl;fift [kapuril adj (substance) made from

camphor. 2 camphor-coloured. 3 a colony, four kohs away from Sadhaura, which was the 37. capital of Sayyed Ammanulla, subedar of iiIil"i'ft [kafni] A n coffincloth worn by fakirs Gujarat. Band~ Bahadur destroyed this town around the neck; also worn by persons who and the Khalsa army looted it before regard themselves as dead. devastating Sadhaura. ~ [kafayat] A 0.%11 act of being enough. Qi)' [k3pE] trembles. "hath marof£ tanu kapL" 2 moderation, restraint. -majh barahmaha. 2 See ~. ~ [kafarah], ~ [kafarat] A vl1 and ail3' [kapot] SkI n which flies in the air like an '::-.111 n payment of penalty to atone one's sins; aeroplane I ; - bird. 2 pigeon. Poets compare meditating, fasting escaping from evil or sins. a graceful and well-built neck to that of a ~ [kafabt] A .:J11 n responsibility. pigeon. "kir J kapot bib kokIla kalapi ban lute ~ [kaphi] adjphlegmatic. "kaphi Mkari khaI phute phIr£ man chm hu na kIt-hi."-c§(;fi 1. grahan kar chatibojh ban£ baq. man."-GPS. 'A Pigeons flying in the sky are employed to vain person is phlegmatic, divine knowledge is ghee.' deliver letters. ailftr [kapotI] pigeon (nominative case) "jIu ~ [kafidan] P d+? n breaking, ripping. pakhi kapotI apu banaIa."-bIha m 4. 'as a "kafid£ dal ba-asurana."-salah. flying bird (the pigeon) tempted by the seed, mr [kab] adv when, at what time. "kab lag£ got itself trapped in the net.' mastak carnan raj."-BGK. 2 n poet, versifier. aif~ [kapotIkal, [kapoti] female ~ [kabahu], ~ [kab-huk], ~ [kab-hu], pigeon (nominative case). "saghan chav taru ~ [kab-hU], ~ [kab-huk] advsometimes, ban mahI aha. rahIt kapot kapoti taha." at a time, any time. "kab-huk kou pav£ abm -GPs. pragas kau."-saveye m 4 ke. "kab-hu na ~ [kapol] SkI n cheek. bIsarahu man mere te."-nat m 5. ~ cmtfi')T [kapol kalpanal n gossip; a concocted mrM [kabaj] A j'1 n act of obstruction. story not based on any authentic reference. 2 controlling. 3 catching hold of. 4 a disease. cfu:r [kappaf] clothmaterial. See ql.fST. "kappaf Skt ~ constipation. It is of two typeskot usan an."-BG. first is a common one that may occur any time ~ ~ [kapPfe a[Jl;e] menstruate. due to a specific reason; the second is chronic Q1!~ [kapradan] See mrnfeo. from which one suffers daily. To cure ~ [kaph] SkI n cough, phlegm. See E cough. constipation, strong purgatives should not be 2 P ...;f palm, inner side of the hand. 3 foam, taken for they cause weakness. lather. \ The following are the reasons for constipation: excessive sitting, not answering CRF.r [kafa~] P n slippers" shoes. the call of nature on time, taking unsavoury 2 pair of wooden sandals. ~ P ~ or ~ cage. ~ [kafgir] P j'...;f n ilhplement to take dishes, weakening of the energy to push out faeces, drinking liquor, taking opium, cannabis, foam offa cooking vessel; a small ladle, spatula, lAccording to this derivation, aeroplane is also a kapot. hemp etc, not doing any exercise, eating tart

n coffin; cloth put over a dead body. "ab acho tIhkafan ban£YL"-cantr





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food in excess, doing excessive mental work, remaining in tension, not chewing meals well, not taking water when thirsty. This disease should be treated after knowing its cause, but the general treatment to get rid of it is as under: Taking hot milk or hot water at bed time, takingjam ofmyrobolan (harar); walking on foot; eating meals by chewing; taking butter, almond oil etc; consuming pith or pulp of amaltas gulk;}d (a medicinal paste prepared by mixing rose-petals with sugar), bamf$a (viola odorata-a medicinal herbal plant); aniseed (s5ph--pimpinella anisum), after boiling all these like tea. Taking kernels of almond, seeds of cucurbit, cassia lanceolate, raisin, gulk;'}d in equal measure, and making their paste by crushing them together and eating one or two tolas of this paste with warm milk or warm water before going to sleep. ~ [bbjah], a-aw [bbja] A ~~ n act of controlling. "dIl kabaj kabja kadro dojak sajaI."-tr]i;ig m 5. 2 grip of a sword. QS'ij1? ~ [kabjul vasul] A J';}Ir..f! n receipt given after taking possession of an object. ~ [kabaqqi] See ~. ~ [kabqhi] n prosody. "harI ke s;'}t kabqhi sunaii."-krrSdn. ~ [kabar] A j pit dug for burying the dead; grave; The grave should be as deep as the chest of the dead person is wide and, on one side of it, a cave should be dug in which the dead body can be laid spaciously. The face of the dead body should be towards Kaba. While closing the grave one should be careful that the soil does not fall on the dead body. Raising a building on the grave is against the Islamic code; Abu Huraira writes that when people leave after laying

the dead body, the angels, Munkar and Nakir, arrive and ask the dead person, "Do you have faith in Hazarat Mohammad?" If he says 'yes', the grave extends to 70 11, length and as many yards in breadth; light glows, angels tell him (her), "Have sound sleep till the doom's day; you will not experience any suffering." If the dead says. "1 do not know Mohammad," his(her) grave becomes so narrow that the body feels compressed. It is written in Mishkat that an atheist is so beaten with sticks that all the animals and birds near the grave can hear his wails, only the human beings cannot hear them. This suffering in the grave is called azabul kabaf. 2 See ~. ~ [kabra], q<ra- [kabro] Skto:<f.-a adjdappled, spotted. 2 Skt ~Q n gold. "jIu k;'}can kothari chapa kabro hot phIro."·-sar m 5. 'as an ornament of gold, melted in a crucible, takes the crucible's shape, but assumes its original form, after all to remain gold.' ~ [bbal] A j adv earlier, sooner. 0llfli5TR" [bblasl See ~. qaT [kaba], o:artI [kabau], o:arfu [bbaI] A ~ n dress, apparel. 2 gown. ~ [kabaII] See ~. ~tl"'Y'3' [bbahat] A.::.>~ defect, badness. 2 difficulty, hardship, distress. ~ [kabadah] P vV' n soft bow; to learn archery one has to start with pulling a soft bow. "gahr kabada khrchan kar"E."-GPs. o:a-rS' [bbab] A,";,,!) n roasted meat. 2 minced meat in roasted form. o:8"lft [kababi] adj kabab (roasted meat) eater. ~. [kabayal] A J~ plural of~. ~~ [kabalah] A .J~ stand surity. 2 take someone's responsibility. 3 He Qabbaleh E Cabbala (or Cabal); explication of the holy scripture's meaning, elaboration of the latent

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doctrine. 4 a secret group; friends' circle. I [kab'arl n garbage, junk, rags. 2 futile acts, evil deeds. "je sau kUfia kur kabar. "-dhana m 1. "choQahu pra!).i kur kabara."-maru solhe m 1. cmr;ft [kabari], ~ [kabaria] adj who deals in discarded articles or junk. ~ [kabaru] See ~. afu [kabI] adv at any time. 2 Skt qfu n poet, versifier. "kabI jan jogi jatadhari." ·-bas~'Jt kabir. cxfuo [kabIt] See cmf3'. aftraT [kabIta] See ~. 2 Skt poet, versifier. "kabIt pare parI kabIta mue."-sor kabir. [kabbIt] Skt ~ n poem; poetry. motIn kESi manohar mal guhe tuk acchar rijh rIjhavE, prem ko p~th katha harInam ki uktI anuthi banay sunaVE, 'thakur' so kavI bhavE hamE JUI sarv sabha me baQhappan pavE, P~Q It log prabinan ko joi CItt harE su kabbIt kahavE. 2 poetic art, poetic quality. 3 a poetic metre; generally all the poetic metres can be said to be 'kabbIt' but it is a special kind of a metre comprising long lines and is called m;:mhar or manhara!).. It is characteristed by four lines, each line containing 31 characters with three pauses - one each after every eighth character and the fourth pause is after the last seventh, ending with a guru. Use of the same characters and their alliteration in this poetic metre makesthe composition very delightful.

Although the above-mentioned characteristic specifies a kabbIt, some poets have also laid down the following rules to maintain its rhythmic charm: (l) It should not begin with a jaga!). that is laghu, guru, laghu. (2) A single word comprising a taga!). is also not permitted at the beginning. (3) A taga!). should not occur after four characters. (4) A word of three characters in the form of maga!). at the end is not appropriate. (5) At the end of the Ii :1C there should be no combination of guru, laghu, laghu, and guru i.e. bhaga!). and a guru. (6) All the four pauses should end at the exact number ofcharacters; without splitting a word. (7) Combinations should occur between similar words and not between a similar and a dissimilar word. For example: (a) chatr-dhari chatripatI chElrup chItInath, cho!).ikar chayabar, chatripatI gaiE..-gyan. (b) VI svpal jagtkal d mdyal vErISal, sada pratIpal jamjal te rahIt hE..-akal. (c) sodh hare devta VIrodh hare dano baQe, bodh hare bodhak prabodh hare japsI.. -akal. knpan and ghanak~ri metres are also included among the category ofbbbIt. See
~ [bbfdr] Skt~ poet laureate; leading


tIt is evident from the history cifEngland that in 1672
AD a committee was constituted to discuss foreign affairs. which had Clifford. Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley and Lauderdale as its members. This club came

to be known by the name of the word formed from the
initial letters of the five names comprising the group.

Skt ~ n Kailas is white like a crystal shining in water. It is 25 miles north of Manasarover. Per Purans, this mountain of silver is to the west ofSumeru. It is the dwelling place of Shiv. "kotI mahadev aru bbrlas. "-bher d kdbir. qaT [kabi] adv at any time. 2 n poet, versifier.

~ [kabIlas]

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"Kabir Chaura" with a temple built at Lahar Talao. ~ [kabir] a renowned Indian saint, Kabir The anthology of hymns of Kabir is named was born to a Brahmin widow on 15 th Jeth, as Kabir Bijak which was compiled by Sammat 1455. The mother abandoned the new Dharam Das and Surat Gopal etc, his born infant on the bank of Lahar pond in disciples. Kabir Bijak is said to have been Benaras. A weaver Ali (N iru) took. the infant written by Dharam Das in Riwa state during to his house and his wife Nima brought him Sammat 1521. up like her own son. His hymns are also included in Guru Granth At the proper time he was named Kabir Sahib. "kahat kabir ChOQI bIkhIarasu."-sri. as per Muslim faith. Islamic teaching was imparted to him but his natural inclination was See afcr "fll""fua. 2 A d adj elderly, aged, old towards Hinduism. On attaining the age of person. "haka kabir karim tU."-tIl5g ill 1. 3 n adolescence, he was narried to Loi and a son God, the Creator who is the greatest of all. Kamaal was born to her. ~ [kabirpathi]i a member ofKabir's sect, On the advice of Ramanand, who asked a disciple of Kabir. 2 The weavers also call him to recite the name of Ram, Kabir adopted themselves Kabirpanthis as the cobblers (shoemakers) are called Ravidasie. Vaishnavism. Kabir got ample opportunities to learn about doctrines of various sects and amaaH'l [kabirbasi] belonging to the pedigree discuss them because Kashi was a centre of ofKabir. 2 The weavers also call themselves as Kabirbansi. knowledge for scholars. His penetrating intellect made him adept in disputation. He -mftg [kabiru] See milo. "bhaIO kabiru udasu."-s. attained knowledge of the ultimate reality. ~ [kabi1a] A J..J n family, tribe, clan. "guru Due to his long association with highly kabi1a let 1aghae. "--GPs. learned persons, he became consummately ~ [kabuj] See cffi;,. 2 See ml"iJC?~. "kabuj erudite and many people gained from him in 1Ikha kaji te 1ai."-cantr 287. return. ~ [kabutar] P ]51 n pigeon. See qtfo. When Sikandar Lodi visited Benaras in a{jdaa1f.l [kabutarbaz] pigeon fancier. Sammat 1547, Kabir was brutally maltreated ~ [kabutri] female pigeon. on the instigation of fanatic Muslims. This ~ [kabud] P ,,51 adj blue. "sosanI kasanI found expression in Kabir's hymn: "bhuja kabud." -salah. 2 n a particular mountain. badhI bhIla kan dario."-g5<;i. But at last his ~1'5' [kabul] A JJ n acceptance, approval. "bIn bhagatI ko na kabul."-akal. 2 bag tied to elderliness left an indelible mark on the mind the saddle of a horse, in which the rider keeps of the emperor. his articles. To prove that one does not attain salvation by breathing his last in Kashi and damnation ~'d" [kabu1pur] See UFIC'lY'd". by dying in Mag-hal', Kabir moved to that place ~ [kabu1I] having accepted. "pahIla maraI). (which is situated 15 miles to the west of kabuII."-var illanl 2 ill 5. Gorakhpur) a few days before his death and criitr [kabojJ See ofij·tr. a*3" [kabot] See cxti"o. he left this mortal world in Sammat 1575. Kabir's memorial in Kashi is known as mfq [kabadh] Skt CPCsr.'tT n headless body. "larat

onitJ:r [kabis] adj leading poet; mentor of poets.

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adClr jaIkE pakhaQ kamatta."-BG. cnftr [kamClddh] See cnfq. "dhavat addh kamaddh aneka."-gyan. ID!O't [kamni], ~ [kClmniy], ~ [kamniv] Skt~ adjdesirable. 2 beautiful, charming. cnmJ:f3' [kClmbaxat] P adj unfortunate, unlucky, ill-fated. q}/lf}f3l [bmbaxti] P (If n bad luck, misfortune. 'Wia [kamClr] Skt adj loving, erotic. 2 P / n waist, loins. 3 girdle, waistband. 4 A ) moon. ~ [kamarkasa] n strip of cloth worn round the waist. 2 act of wearing a strip of cloth round the waist. 3 gum of pCllas tree and a dish prepared by mixing it, especially taken by women. It relieves them of pain in the waist. CIHQl.f [kamrClkh] Skt ~1T n a tree which produces sliced citron fruit used in pickle and sauce. Its fruit and roots are used in many medicines. L Averrhoa Carambala. iSI'l-f'C:fGlT• ~ [kamarbasta] P .:-.-;/ adj determined CQ-Itl'T3' [kamjat], m-rtrf3" [kamjatI] P ..:;..uf adj to act; with loins girded up ready. mean, base. "khasam vIsarahI te kamjatI." mralfe' [kamarbad], ~ [kamarbadu] P -sodaru. n cloth that is worn round the waist, girdle. aHito [kamzor] P adj weak, feeble. "kamClrbadu satokh ka."-sri m 1. 2 belt. 3 adj Cl'Jfi5' [kamath] n tortoise. 2 porcupine, rabbit. determined to act. 3 bamboo. 'Wia' [kamra] L Camera G Kamara. n room, IDfOT [kamtha], m-ro9' [kamthi] n small bow. cubicle. ~ [kamtar] P ? adj much less. Cl'H6t [kamri] adj related to the waist. 2 mad, infatuated. "jutIn 55 kClmri kClr Qari."-caritr ~ [kamtarin] P 4:l? adj minimum, lowest, poorest, inferior most. "man kamin 121.3 n blanket, thick woollen covering. "tan kamtarin."-var mala m 1. upClr kamri SIt lina."-NP. 4 loincloth. 5 brassiere IDf3T [kamta] n shortage, scarcity, loss, to which strings are attached. 6 A rJ) humiliation. "kIln kamta apni cahE."-GPS. pertaining to the moon. 2 adjperformed. See 'Cl'>f3'. "so QClrE jIm pap q}l'H' [kamal] Skt n lotus. "hClrI cara!). kamal mClkrJd lobhIt mClno."-dhana m 1. kamte."-bIha chJt m 4. lIn numerous chronicles. there are stories of valiant 2 water. 3 eyeball. 4 a metre consisting of four lines, each line comprising a mga!).: III persons fighting headless against their enemies.

kabadh turak gan sage."I-PP. 2 cloud, rain. 3 water. 4 Rahu. 5 abdomen, stomach. 6 a sage. 7 a celestial musician. 8 a demon whose head was detached from his neck by a heavy stroke of thunderbolt from Indar and got embedded into his abdomen. After chopping his hands, Ram Chandar pitched him alive in the ground in Dandak gardens. c5t [kabhi] advat some time. em [kam] P adj little. ~ [kamasret] E commissariat. n a department charged with furnishing of provisions, as for the army. ~ [kamxab] P n a costly cloth, in which the warp is of silk and the waft is of golden thread. This cloth manufactured in Kashi is of fine quality. It is also known as cfufcrra' [kimkhab]. mIlf.iIT [kamakhya] See Ci(T}-fTl:fJfT. 'Cl'>f(Jfij' [kamaggar] P ./If maker of bows. cpffit [kamci] T n fine stick. ~ [kamacchIa], ~ [kamachya] See

IDffir [kClmClUa] adj did; put into practice. "jagCll







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Example: bhdj;m. kdrdn. dukhdn. ddrdn (b) a variation of ChdPPdY metre. See ~ ~. 5 short form ofmrw; Lakshmi. "sdkdI dnup rup kdmdI bIkhE sdmat."-BGK ~ [kdmdIsut] Brahma, son of lotus. CX}ffi" 9lJH [kdmdI kusum] lotus flower. 2 See

tdnay], Wffi"3T3" [kdmdItat] Brahma, who is born to 10tUis flower; son oflotus. CX}ffi" 313" 313" [kdmdI tat tat] Brahma, son of lotus, his son Naval. "kdmdI ke tat ke tat sag nan lE."-GV 10. 'Narad, taking female demons along with him.' ~ [kdmdItral).] pond, which protects lotus flowers; a lake.-scmama. ~ [kamalmydn], ~ [bmaInm] adj having eyes like lotus. "kamaInm ajdo SIam." -caum 5. Cl'lfli5Y3" [bmaIput], ~ [kdmdIputr] Brahma. See ~3". 2 adj born to lotus. "brdhdm kamalput, min bIasa."-kan am 4. 'Brahma is the son of lotus and Vyas of Matsyodari. ' ~ [kamalpragas], ~ [kamaIbIgas] n act of heart's blossoming; that which is shaped like a lotus bud; blooming ofthe heart. "can padarath kamal pragas."-sukhmcmi. "kamal pragasu bhaIa guru paIa."-mali m 4. "kamal bIgas sada sukh paIa."-maj.ht am 3. ~ [kamalbadhu] sun, who is a friend of lotus flowers. ~ [bmdIvIgas] See C'Xlffi faorrFf. "kdmdI vIgSE SdCll mdn."-var mala m 3. 'QH'W [bmIa] adjmad, insane. "bInu naVE jdgU kdmIa phIrE."--var sor m 3. 2 lotus. "kutab dekh bIgdSdhI bmIa jIu."-sri kabir. 3 Skt Lakshmi, the goddess ofwealth. "kamla bhrdm bhitI kdmIa bhrdm bhitI he."-asa chat m 5. 'Looking at the wall of illusion, the ignorant

IDR?tf [bmldj], CX}ffi" 3?ilif [kdmdI

person is fearing c;onfusion.' 4 an ardent devotee I of Guru Nanak. "kdmIa nam das Ik aha."-NP 5 See ~)T 4. ~o [kdmIasan] Brahma, who uses lotus as his seat. ~ ~ [kdmlah gdrh] a village in the princely state ofMandi. Twenty four miles to its north, there is an aId fort bearing this name where Guru Gobind Singh stayed for some time. Close to this place, the king ofMandi got built a fort named Gobindgarh. In 1887 Sammat Maharaja Ranjit Singh conquered Kamlahgarh.

[kClmIalkat], m-rwof3" [bmIakat] husband [kat] ofthe goddess ofwealth [kClrnla]; Vishnu. 2 the Creator, whose maidservant is worldly power (maya) "kamlakat karahI katuhal."-maru solhe m 5. ~ [kamIachal).I] Skt ~ adj having lotus-like eyes. "krorI kralap karE kamIachal).I."-caHtr 115. 'Lotus eyed woman makes crares of lame:nts.' See ~. ~ [bmIapatI] See~. "bmIapCltI kClvIa nahi jana."--dhana kabir. ~ [kamlavati] See ~ (b). affi\ft [bmli] adj mad, headstrong. 2 n blanket. "IE kamli calIa pattaL"-bher namdev. 3 Skt


[kamIia] See y.fIffi1R3'. [kamles] n Brahma 2 lord [i~] of Kamla [lak~mi], Vishnu. 3 lord of material world, Brahma. ~ [kdmIehI] is of the lotus. "Esi hdrI SIU pritI kan jEsi jal karnIehI."-sri a m 1. ~ [kClrnIoha] dovl~-like bird found in the mountains which is pale yellow in colour and is the size of a pigeon. People kill it for food; its meat is greenish in colour.


lIt is different from bmlie (godrie); several writers have


taken kamla and kamIia to mean the same. See l1fffiflB.

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~ [kamaul).a] v make money by doing

work. 2 put into practice, practise. "apI kamau avra updes."-gau m 5. 3 rightful payment received by a village menial in return for professional service. ~ [kamau] adj earner, breadwinner. 2 practitioner, doer. ~ [kamau] Skt Kamrup comprises western part of Assam and eastern and northern parts ofBengal. "kasi bie jae te kamau jaye mare hE." -cantr 266. 2 See ~ 2. awt ~ (~) [kamau gaqh (garh)] a fort in the capital ofKamrup. "phatak si kdas kamau gaqh. "-akal. ~ [kamaIO], ~ [kamaIara], ~ [kamaIaro] earned; made with hard work. 2 practised. "dIn ratI kamaIaro so aIo mathe."-asa ch5t m 5. ~ [kamaIl).], mflf~ [kamaIl).u] n undertaken action. 2 adv as a result of hard work. "papi pacIa apI k<:>maIl).u."-bher m 5. ~ [kamai] n earning. 2 intense effort, hard work. 3 practice, action. "pure guru kamai." -ram am 5. 4 C{I}f-~ [kam-ai] is useful. "apna kia kamai."-sor m 1. 5 a small earthern bowl [ku-may] "pothi pural). kamaie. bhau vati Itu tan paie."-sri m 1. 'Acting upon teachings contained in the holy scriptures, is like a small earthen bowl for the lamp.' ~ [kamaie] is [ku-may] (a small earthern bowl). 2 See ~. CUfTfR' [kamasI] can do. "kIa Ih karam kamas I." -kan m 5. 'ii(HItft [kamahi] earn, earns. 2 practise, earn. "kural).u kateb dIl mahI kamahi."-maru solhe m5. ~ [kamac] a musical measure; also called khamac. It is a complete musical measure wherein the ascending scale, second note, n~abh, is forbidden. Therefore it is a complete

musical measure of six notes in the ascending order. The seventh note, nI~ad, is full tone, but in the descending order it is halftone. The third note, gadhar, is primary note and the seventh note, nI~ad, is secondary. The home note is the third note, gadhar. The first quarter of night is the time for singing it. ascending: ~a ga rna pa dha na ~a descending: ~a na dha pa rna ga ra ~a "gujan ar kamac dhanvati."-GPs. ~ [kamal).] See c:rnro. CUf'C!tIT [kamal).ca] See m-fTOBT. ~ [kamal).a] adj which has been earned or put into practice. "ethe kamal).a su age aIa." -maru solhe m 3. 2 earned. 3 used. "cahu jugI mas kamal).a."-var mala m 1. IDPit [kamal).i] put into practice. 2 earned, produced. 3 See ~. ~ [kamal).£] from doing. "kup kamal).e kuro hove." -var asa. cmr31' [kamata] earned, done. "sabh lathe pap kamate."-sor m 5. 2 C{I}f-»fT3T [kam-ata] is helpful. "sabh tero kia kamata he."-maru sollie m5. IDfTftr [kamatI] uses. "han han aukhadhu sadh kama tI." -sukhmani. mI"'e' [kamad] n smell of the field - sugarcane. "toIahu an kamad kapaha."-var mala m 1. ~ [kamada] earns. ~ [kamadu] See Wi"e'. COfTO [kaman] P l:1lf n [kham-an] curved weapon, bow. 2 earned, did "dUI mas raj kaman."-gyan. "nanak kIrat kaman."-bavcm. 3 E command, order, permission. ~ [kamangar] See wfoRr. aJ-I"i'ffiT [kamanca] P ,.ilf small bow. 2 soft bow, kabada. 3 bow-like instrument which carpenters use to rotate a drill. ~ [kamanjanau], ~ [kamanjany] n an arrow, which is shot from a bow.-s;mama.


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mile from this village to the north east. The Guru came here from Hehran. About 10 bighas flexible and bent metal which when pressed gets pushed but tends to return to its original of land has been donated by the village to the position when the pressure is relaxed. E spring. gurdwara. ~ [kamavhI] make use of. "hovahI raje awJf [kamam] A (If' roses in bloom. 2 A (,; ras kas bahutu kamavahI."-var majh m 1. sense of being mixed. 3 justice. 4 truth, reality. 5 thick syrup. 2See~. Q)fl'ij" [kamar] See g»I"Q 5. ~ [kamavdara], aJ~ [kamavdaro] v earns, does. "kuru kapatu kamavdaro janamahI ~ [kamal] A JIf' adj perfect, complete. s;-}sara."-asa chJt m 5. "karimul kamal. hE."-japu. 2 n Kalbir's son. "upjIo put kama!." -s kabir. 3 a Muslim of ~ [kamavan] v See ;~. Kashmir, who after becoming a disciple ofGuru ~ [kamIchya] See ~. Har Gobind, turned very pious and remained crlH3'r [kamIta] See iif,H'Er. "se karam kamIta." -var suhi m 3. in the service of the Guru at Kiratpur. 4 Two n loss, deficiency. famous Iranian poets also carried the same mit [kami] P name; one lived in Afhan and the other was a cnft>,rr [kamia] shortage, loss, lack. 2 is wanting; lacks. "tIsu jan ko kahu kaki kamia?"- gau m 5. resident ofKhajand. The first died in 639 and CDfu:r [kamij] A p! shirt. L Camisia. F Chemise the second in 883 Hijri. m.fto [kamin], CX'}-itnr [kamina], ~ [kamino] P ~ [kamaldf] See 1J?l'T (b) ~ [kamalpur] a village in Patiiala state, adj little, trifle. 2 low, mean, base. "man kamin kamtarin."-var mala m 1. "bInse tan district Sunam, tehsil Bhawanigarh, police te sab kam kamino. '·'--gurusobha. station Dirhba. To the north of this village at a distance of half a mile, there is a place which a>-ffir [kamir] See onnQ'. "kahI kamir kul jatI patI tajI."-ram kabir. was visited by Guru Nanak Dev and Guru a)j [kamu] S work. 2: less. See m-r. Hargobind respectively. Maharaja Karam Singh got a gurdvvara built aHQ' [kamer] See cPr.;r. "kotI kamer bharahI bMQar."-bhET a kabir. there. About 75 bighas ofland, free ofrevenue [kamo] See cia-. and as much with revenue, were donated to the gurdwara by the Patiala state. An Udasi ~ [kamod] See ~:fe-. aH-ecit [kamodki] Vishnu's mace. See~. saint serves as the priest. "kamodki hath ke bie s;-}bhari."-knsan. There is a metalled road from Sangrur railway station upto Sangtiwala. Next six miles aHfeo1' [kamodIni] See ~. are unmetalled. Again there is a metalled road ~ [kam;}Qal], cOO~~ [kam;-}Qalul n that which acquires the splendour of water; water from Nabha railway station to Bhawanigarh container with a handle, jug with a spout. but next seven kohs are unmetalled. 2 A village 2 water container used by fakirs, made of of this name also falls in district Ludhiana, riverine coconut; oval shaped bowl carried by tehsil Jagraon which is at a distance ofsix miles monks. "rajan $ri raghunath ke bE! kumaQal and a half from the railway station Jagraon to choQ kamaQal line."-ramcJdrIka. "hath the south east. A gurdwara in memory ofGuru kam;-}Qalu kapria meHU tnsna."-maru am 1. Gobind Singh is situated at a distance of one

mro1 [kamani] See m-r<it 2 P jlf' a device of




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CiIlN[kamad] p;;f n noose, snare. "ka varJ}adr bakhanke mad bahur pad dehu. hovat nam kamad ke em catur crt lehu."--scmama. 2 rope made by twisting cords. 3 See ~. mfq [kamadh] See mftr. "kamadh adh utthhi. "-rudr. mj' [kamr] Skt adj beautiful, pleasing. 2 See

mj"'G [kamrat] See ~.

vomit, puke, spew. See~. cflilTJ1 [kayas] A vll n guess, conjecture. 2 idea, thought. ~ [kayasan] adv supposedly, by guessing, by estimate. ~ [kayafah], ~ [kayafa] A Jg act of knowing someone's qualities and feelings from his appearance; physiogonomy. ~ [kayam] A (g stay; state. 2 to stand. gtiI"H3' [kayam;~t] A ...::/ 11 n condition, state. According to Islam, dead bodies will stand up on the doomsday. So on the last day, persistence [kayam] ofsouls in bodies is named as kayamat. "kayamat ke hi dryas me sabho nabera hOI."-mago. It is written in Surat 32 and Ayat 5 of Koran that the day after doomsday will equal thousand years of human life in which God Himselfwilljudge the good or bad deeds of the human beings. ~ [karl Skt n hand. "kar kapahr SIr Qol."-jE't chJt m 5 "kar karl tahal rasna gUlJ. gavau." -gau m 5. 'service performed with hands.' 2 ray. "caQ ke ban krdh5 kar bhanahr dekhkE dEt gai dutr dia."-cJQi 1. 3 land revenue, duty, tax. See C@" 2.4 elephant's trunk. "kucaru taduE pakarr calaro kar uparu kaQhr nrstare."-nat am 4. 5 hailstone. 6 adjwho does something, as in sukhkar, dU$kar etc. 7 suiof. "ja kar rup rag nah1 janrat."-hajare 10. 8 kar has been used for kal (peace, quiet or relief) also. "parat na chrn kar."-carrtr 278.9 See CiS'. "kartoryo

~ [kay] A


jrs ne nrj hath."-GPS. 10 imperative ofkarna Skt gg. "kar mrtrai sadh sru."-asa m 5. ~ [karau] See ~ "karau seva gur lagau caran."-dhana am 5.2 n distance covered by two steps, measure of one and a half yard. "karau aQhai dharti magi bavan rupr bahanE." -prablla am 1. 3 do, (I) act. ~ [karauti] See ~. ~ [karauli] See 0f6lWtl' [kar-aj] Skt nail, that grows on the hand [karl "harnakhas phare kar-aj."-sav£ye m 4 ke. ~1>w [karaia] See ~. ~ [kara$] Skt Cfi1>f n pulling, ploughing. 2 measure equal to sixte~n mashas. ~ [kar$ak] Skt cuf~ adj who ploughs; engaged in farming. 2 yoked to pull. a-am; [karsan], CiRJ"R"f?> [karsanr] will do (plural) "karsanr takhat salam."-var majh m 1. 2 Skt cufCf n pull, attraction. CldR,f~M [karsarl] See CldR'GtM. crdF.fTl:fT [kar$akha] n finger, which is a branch of the hand. "karsakha rksar vrsala."-NP CldR'Gtd [karsayar], CldR'GtM [karsayal] Skt ~ n black deer. "gharl ek pare tarph£ su mana karsayal sIgh brQare."-krrsaIl. Cl'd'J'ft [karsi] (He) wi 11 do. 0RIF.l[P' [kara$ma] P ,-:f n strange or wonderful action. 2 magic. Cl'dUM' [karhal], ~ [karhala], a:atJC1 [karhalu] Skt ~ A ~}, S aa-fr E Camel n camel, dromedary. "belr balha karhala. "-dhana namdev. "jEse karhalu belr rijhai."-asa m 4. "asv nag karhal arurrt kotr tetisa gaje."-saloh. In olden times, trading goods were carried to different countries on camelbacks and the camels always kept travelling in foreign lands. The idea of a camel as a transmigratory creature recurs in Gurbani. See the hymn karhale man pardesia.-gau m 4. under~.


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seawater. 2 P .If a powerf.ul emperor. 3 the [karhale] See ~. Creator, God. 4 Dg a bone. [karha] See ~. ~ [karhali] n cry, wail. "subh SUI;li karhali C1dCldfu [karkaraln] the Creator did. See 0RlCfd" srav!)atbij di."-caqi 3.2 a village in the Patiala 3 and C1fdCldFiJ. state, three kohs from Samana to the east C1dCldd' [karkarta] adj performing action; practising; putting into practice. "karkarta under Chuharpur police station. The ninth Guru utaraSI para."-ram kabir. visited this place. A gurdwara is situated at a distance of three furlongs to the nOlth east of crecrnr [karkara] crisp. 2 See ~. 3 crisp white gourd cooked in sweetened milk, candied the village. 150 bighas land has been donated white gourd, sweet pudding prepared with by the Patiala state. Rupees fourteen are white gourd. "bhato pahItI aru lapsi annually paid by the Jind state. This place, to karkara."-asa kabir. south west of Patiala railway station, is connected by 11 miles long unmetalled road. QdC{I' [karka] Skt n hailstone. "karka ko barkhaI bIsala."-NP ~ [karahu] do. "karahu anugrahu parbraham."-asa m 5.2 get done. "'han jiu! '6I'd"CI"9 [karkaru] Skt cfiCfif~ n white gourd. tIn ka darsan na karahu."-var sor m 4. ~ [karke] adj equall, comparable. "mE satiguru nu parmesar karke ja!)da ha." 2 adv ~ [karak] n shooting pain, pang, twinge. "karak kareje mahi."-sor bhrkhcm. 2 Iightning through, by means of. "guru karke gIan prapat huda hE." followed by thunder; crash. 3 Skt onf~. 4 pomegranate. 5 mJIsari tree; minusops ~ [kdrakh] See C«ll1r and ~ "tumre daras elangi. 6 karir, a wild caper. 7 kacnar tree. karakh man lina."-NP. 'fascinated'. bauhinia variegata. 8 Skt CJ:Cf crab. 9 fourth 2 t."J a town near Baghdad. sign of the Zodiac, whose stars are in the form ~ [karkha!)] SktcxR,! n pull. 2 drawing furrows with a plough. of a crab; capricornus. 10 Skt ororn- adj bitter, harsh. "karak sabad sam VIkh n~ vIkham hE." ~ [karxat] P .::;";'.1' adj harsh, rugged. 2 rough. 3 See Cl"oftrer. -BGK. 11 hailstone. ~ [karkas] See aoor 10. 'CIal:fOT [karkhana] See 6I""dl::!"<!. ~ [karkat] garbage, refuse. 2 Sktcftlc crab, ~ [karkha] a poetic metre with four lines, which lives in water and looks like a scorpion. each having 37 matras. The first pause is at 3 pair of circular logs. "karkat pai jhabiE." the eighth matra, the slecond at the twelfth -BG. 'Corn is threshed in a circle like a thereafter, the third at the eighth after that, and wooden frame for the well made oflogs, due the fourth at the penultimate eighth; the end to which there is no fear of grains getting comprising a yaga!). This metre describes best the emotion of heroism. There is a reference scattered.' 4 Cancer, a sign ofthe Zodiac. See CiRJq" 9. in Dasam Granth: "dhadhISEn dhadi bhav layo. karkha var ~ [karkati] Skt ~ a kind of sparrow. ucarat bhayo.-carrtr 405. "gae jE karkha." 2 See acfflt. crnoro [karkan] See 'i5SC«'l. "atI kark;m jIh ki -c{Jqi 2. kIlkari."-NP. The more the number oflaghu characters, the more enchanting does this metre become. crecRI' [karkar] Skt cNex n salt obtained from


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This metre is also known as ral).oddhIt." Example: uqat nabh garad, mukh jarad nIt bhramat raVI, udadhI ur darad, dal dabat laka, aC<:ll V<:lq qagat, $IV jagat nahI lagat II V, khagat bhay bhagat, bIdhI dagat $aka, ahIp hIy dharak pIth kamath luth kar<:lk uth, kharak sun bharak, har bnkhabh baka, bIkat bhat katak, npu thatak tan tajat jab, gajat gurusfgh, bhal bajat qaka. -srkhi prabhakar. 2 adj ~ fascinated, attracted. ~ [karkhIt] Skt csrfR'3' adj pulled, drawn. crear [karag], ~ [karag] See cx#ar. QQcJIl1 [kargas] P n vulture. "kargas min kacchu lumri."-saloh. 'The stream of blood has vultures, crocodiles, foxes and tortoises in it. ' ~ [karg<:lh] weaver's loom; comb in which warp is inserted. 2 P ~(;( n place of work, factory. "dh<:lranI akas ki kargah banai."-asa kabir. e«mfu' [kargahI] having acquired. "c<:lral). saral).agat kargahI lehu ubari."-hajare 1O. ~ [k<:lrgiri] n handicraft. "kyo na karo sIkhan kargiri?"-GPS. i5RJ11IT [kargha] See 'CiRJORJ 1. 2 strings tied to the pan of a scale. 3 string that passes through the middle ofa scale's arm and is held in hand while raising the scale. ern 'UijO l-IH'3'i5l' }h;r ~ [kar caran mastak mel line]-ram cMt m 5. Khatris, Shudars and Brahmans brought to an agreement. "car varal). Ik varal). karaIa."-BG. 2 having made Brahmans from Shudars. QO&T [karcha], ~ [karchi] Skt ~ n a ladle. "ns te karcha tapat uthayo. "-GPs. "juthi karchi parosan laga."-basat kabir. a'QH [karaj] Skt n nails, which grow on the hand. "karaj arul). jIm nag hVE suce."-NP 2 A


loan, debt. "ham karaj guru bahu saqhe."-gau m 4. 'We are highly indebted to the Guru.' See ~ 2. Q"atJ [kar<:lju] See ~ 2. "karaju utana satIguru."-brla m 5. ernitfir [kar jorI] with folded hands. See~. ern '{lTij' [karjhar] See '5Ta'. ~ [karat] Skt n crow. 2 elephant's temple. aa-it[karti] Skt n elephant, from whose temple an intoxicant oozes. ~ [karal).] Skt n main reason. 2 cause. 3 sense organs. 4 body, physique. 5 weapon. 6 in grammar, third declension. 7 Per astrology there are eleven cases such as ~ ~ etc which figure in the solar month. 8 Skt o:t ear "kar<:ll). dehu nahI nfda or."-GPS. 9 son of the sun from the womb of virgin Kunti, whose name was Vasushen. He was a great philanthropist and warrior. Weapon training was imparted to him by Dronacharya. He was also a disciple ofParshuram. Arjun killed him in the battle of Kurukshetar. There is a story in Mahabharat that once Durvasa, fascinated by Kunti, daughter of Bhojraj, taught her a mantar with which she could summon any god of her choice. Kunti summoned the sun and from him a powerful armour wearing son i.e. Karan was born to her. To avoid public disgrace, she put him on a float and left it in Asht river to be swept away. Adhirath Sut took the child out ofthe river and handed it over to his wife Radha for his upbringing. Karan was a friend ofDuryodhan and an enemy of Pandavs. His wife was Padmavati and he lived at Malini. "bh<:le karal). smapati chatrpala. macyo juddh kruddha maha bIkrala."-j.:mmejay. 10 triangular plank on the back side of a boat. See ~. 11 A cJ} one, indivisible. "karal). k<:lrimna jato karta." -maru ajuli m 5.


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mI. [karelI). adhar] basis of the senses; ~ [kara!).pur] n sarlh tree (allizzail bebbek) the Creator. 2 blue lotus. 3 an ornament which women CIld<!RRg Ml [kara!).saskuliJ Skt ~~rm near lobe. 2 a dish looking like an ear; samosa. wear in their ears. CIld<W'd [kara!).har], CIldc:ijig [kara:Qharu] adj ~tr [kara!).vedh] Skt n In Hinduism, the ceremony of piercing the ears. It has to be the Creator. "karal).har prabhu hrrdE vutha." - ram m 5. "kara!).haru jo kan rahIa sai performed from the sixth to the sixteenth month vaQIai."-brla m 5. after birth. The ear of Brahman and Vaish 1 [kara!). karava!).har] adj (one) ~ CIld'@C!d d should be pierced with the badkin ofsilver, that of Kshatri with the needle of gold and that of who himselfdoes and can get things done from others. 2 who gets things done by organs of Shudar with a packing needle made of iron. In perception. "kara!). karava!).har prabhu data." Sikhism piercing ofnose and ears is forbidden. -sorm5. ~ [kar!).a] v do; perform. 2 adj worthdoing. "jo kIChu kar!).a so kar rahIa."-var asa. 3 n CIldC!CIldC! [kara!).kare!).] adj the Creator of effect, work. "tudh ape kara!). ape kar!).a."2 causation; of all the elements, which caused the creation of the world, the Supreme. "hor -vaQ m 5. 4 caUSI~" "ape hi kar!).a kio. "-var nahi kara!).kare!).."-majh drnrc!). asa. 5 compassion. "kat;Jc kar!).a na uparjate." ~ W ~ [kara!). ka theh] three quarters of a -sahasm 5. mile from Thanesar to the north-west, on the 'CIldC!'G [kar!).at], ~c;TCCIl' [kar!).atak] n territory north-western corner ofthe Kurukshetar tank near Mysore. 2 language of Karnatak state. is situated a gurdwara of Guru Gobind Singh. CIldC! idCll [kar!).3tak] n Aljun, who killed Karan. -sanama. This gurdwara is half a mile away from Karan's mound. l See "EI7rno'if: 5. ~ [kar!).amayJ, ~ [karI).amE] adj CIldC!CIl i dC! [kara!).kara!).], CIldc:CIl'di'l [kara!).karan]. compassionate, merciful. "kartar kar!).amE din See CIldc:CIla c:. "kara!).kara!). samrathu hE."-var banti karE."-sukhmani. majh m 2. 2 apparently and conventionally. CI'd'ffi [kar!).an] n enemy of Karan, Arjun. 3 cause of the medium. -sanama. ~'@" [kara!).dEv] Karan, son of the sun. CIldC! i l'SGi [kar!).alay] ~ [kar!).aIE] abode of "kara!).dev praman lau arI jitkE bahu saj." mercy. See Cil2<!"?'l"l:if. -gyan. 'having conquered the enemy like the e«rc!t [karI).i] n deed, action. "jIh kar!).i hovahI glorious Karan. ' sarmfda."-dhana m 5. 2 toil, labour, work. adC!Q1d [karaI).dhar] n sailor, boatman; one "jah kar!).i tah:[ puri matI. "-sri m 1. who controls a boat, by rotating the oars. See 3 mason's implem<mt, which looks like a hand [kar]. 4 adj worthdoing. "kar!).i kar dhurahu ~. ~ [kara!). palah], ~ [kara!).palav] phurmai."-dhana chat m 1. 5 See afuit. Skt ~ i;[Wl.f n wail ofsorrow that generates 6See~3. compassion. "kara!).palahkare bahutere."-trlJg CIl'ditGI' [kar!).iy] adj worthdoing. mI. "kara!).palav karE bII-IavE."-maru solhe ~ [kar!).e] Se:e q;J<!". 2 duty. lIt is so known because it was at here that Karan and 'CIl'd'! [kar!).El of the Creator. "karte kE kar!).E
Arjun combated with each other. 2It also means 'He himself does and gets things done'.

~ l)fItI'I"6'

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nahi sumaru."-jdpU. 'There is no end to the feats of the Creator.' aa~ij'9 [kdrl).Eharu] See adC:lJ'd. "kdrl).Eharu rIdE mdhI dharu."-gduill 5. aoi3' [kdrl).at] Skt ~ up to the ear. 2 end of the ear; upper end of the ear. "saph SdmdSU ke kdC bIC eire. dISI dono kdrl).at ueire."-GPs. 'Divided the beard into two equal parts and wrapped one part around each ear.' aaiefd [kdrl).addrI] within the body. 2 See

<reo [kdrdt] does. 2 duty, action. "nana kdrdt

nd chutie."-oakar. 3 the Creator. "he gobfd kdrdt maIa."-sdllds ill 5. '0 merciful God!' 4 Skt~ difference, division. 5 pit, depression. 6 A.::.-J turn, time, opportunity. ~ [brtdgI], ~ [kdrtdgy] See ~

~ [kdrtdtt] S k t . n control; rightousness

of the Creator. cm30 [kdrtdn] Skt W n cutting. 2 spinning of yarn. 3 doers, creators. "kdrtdn mahI til brta bhidhI."-guj dill 5. Q'ij'3lf [kdrtdb] Skt~ adj worthdoing. "sdrdb kdrtdb mdmakdrta."-sdlldS ill 5. "tIS ke kdrtdb buthe jat."-sukllilldni. ~ [kdrtdri] Skt 91'efft n scissors. 2 See 0RJ3T

[kdrtdl] n palm of a hand. "mv nIdhI kdrtdl take."-sorrdvrdas. ";}SdtsIdhan thakur brt;}l dhdrIa."-soddTU. 2 Skt~ gimlet. "rId at;}r kdrt;}l kati."-prdblla beni. 'within is a deadly knife.' ~ ~ [kdrtdl kati] See ~ 2. ~ [kdrtdII], CX03ffi [kdrtli] on the palm. 2 n palm, fist (tight grip) "khdt d;}rSdn kdrtdli re."-asa ill 5. 'Evil deeds have tight control over the six systems of thought.' ~ [kdrt;}vy] See Q'ij'3lf. 0RJ3T [kdrta], ~ [brtar] Skt~' adj doer,


creator. "kdrta hOI j;}nave."-gduill 5.2 n God; the Creator. "kdrtara m;}m kdrtara. "-NP 'The Creator has created me.' 0RJ3Tij' f;fu' ~ [kdrtar CItt ave] sen Blessings of Guru Nanak (be upon you). Whenever some one greeted the Guru, he used to utter this sentence. aad'dh [kdrtardn] rays of the sun; rays of the sun to dispel darkness of ignorance. "k;}rtardn se subh yak vIlas."-NP. 2 clapping. "bIhag vIkardn ko k;}rtardn."-NP. See 3'00.3 kdrtarhdn. are the doers, are the makers. ~Q [kdrtarpur] a town founded by Guru Nanak Dev in Sammat 1561. It is situated in tehsil Shakargarh of district Gurdaspur. It is the same place where the universal Guru settled in Sammat 1579 after travelling far and wide to preach his doctrine. 1 Bhai Gurdas writes: "baba aIa kdrtarpur bhekh udasi sdgdl utara. pdlur sasari kdPpre maji bEth kia dvtara."- var 1. Bhai Doda and Duni Chand (Karorimall) put in strenuous efforts for the establishment of this town. They set up the village for the Guru and raised an inn (dharamsala). Guru Nanak Dev breathed his last in this town in Sammat 1596. Kartarpur has since long been submerged by river Ravi. The existing Dehra Baba Nanak or (Dera Nanak) was set up by Baba Sri Chand and Lakhmi Dass. The memorial ofthe Guru has also been reconstructed. The gurdwara has an annual donation of rupees 375 from village Kohlian and ajagir ono ghumaons ofland from various villages.
'From here also, the Guru travelled to other places for the reformation of the people i.e. Travel to Achalvatala etc.

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nak~a kartarpur

dehra baba nanak


c-_ ~~:....:. ~t.12mil.:

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sIalkot-naroval-amntsar relve


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nakS ""l kartarpur .lC

nallan gurdvara-





------::-~- - www.sikhbookclub.com

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This place is situated at a distance of twenty-one miles to the northwest of Batala. It is also a railway station of the NorthWestern Railway on Amritsar Verka Dera Baba Nanak line and its distance from Amritsar is 34 miles. Guru Hargobind also visited this place, where he met Baba Sri Chand. The following gurdwaras are located in this town: (1) Chola Sahib; (2 & 3) Rose-wood trees where Baba Sri Chand used to sit; (4) Dehra Sahib, where the memorial is situated; (5) Dharamsala of Guru Nanak Dev. The Guru initially stayed atthis place and preached sermons from there. (B) a town raised by Guru Arjan Dev in Sammat 1651 (1593 AD), which falls in J alandhar district. It is to the east at a distance of half a mile from Kartarpur railway station. DuringAkbar's reign, prince Salim (Jahangir) granted a freehold lease to the dharamsala in Sammat 1655, measuring 8946 ghumaons, 7 kanals and 15 marlas. This town bdongs to Sodhi Sahib rais of Kartarpur, who is a descendant ofBaba Dhirmall. In Kartarpur the following places are worth visiting: (1) Shishmahal, got constructed by Guru Arjan Dev and beautified by Guru Hargobind. The following articles belonging to the Gurus are kept here: (a) Guru Granth Sahib, which was dictated by Guru Arjan Dev to Bhai Gurdas. See ;3jl:f 'fIl'fua'. (b) Guru Hargobind's sword, which weighs standard six seers. Painda Khan was killed with this sword. (c) a Khanda, khaqa, (a broad double-edged sword) of Guru Har Rai. It has the fiJllowing

inscription on it: ~r ('iT(')q tit 'ffiI'Tft: ~. Bfu ~ tit 9.Et:8. (d) a Gutka, gutka, (a religious hand-book) of Guru Arjan Dev. (e) 'Ffc;ft [selil and topi - a garment and cap of Baba Sri Chand which he gifted to Baba Guruditta. (f) nI~;an - a standard of Guru Hargobind. (g) dastar - a small turban ofBaba Gurditta. (h) 'it=ro1' [sozm] (a quilted cloth used as carpet) by Baba Guruditta. (i) oqhaD di ~al _. a woolen wrap of Baba Guruditta. (j) godri (a patched cloth) of Baba Ii. (2) Mallian We 11 'where Bhai Gurdas used to sit and compose poetry in seclusion. (3) Guru ke Mahal and Tham Sahib. Guru Arjan Dev got constructed an audience hall. In the middle of it was a pillar ofTahli (Indian rose wood). Hence its name Tham Sahib. Now stands here a multi··storyed building which is visible from afar. (4) Gangsar Well, which Guru Arjan Dev got constructed in Sammat 1656. (5) Tahli Sahib -a place one and a half miles to the south-west of the town. This place is associated with Guru Har Rai. (6) Tham Sahib. See 3 above. (7) Damdama Sahib - a raised platform where Guru Hargobind would sit. Here he used to hear heroic balliads and inspect military exercises. He aliso rested here after killing Painda Khan. (8) Damdama Sahib 2. Guru Hargobind Sahib rested here several times. (9) Nankiana -- Mataji's residence to the south of the town at a distance of half a mile on one side of the Cli. T. road. People say it is her memorial, but she breathed her last at Kiratpur. No wonder, Sodhis might have brought the ashes from Kiratpur and erected

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a memorial over here. (l0) Ber Sahib- to the south-east ofthe town at a distance of one mile stands a beri, under which Baba Guruditta often rested and once Baba Sri Chand also came to see him. (11) Memorial ofMata Kaulan- It is located in Pacca Bagh near Ramgarhian da Mohalla. (12) Vivah-Asthan - where Guru Tegh Bahadur was married to Mata Gujri. This gurdwara is located in mohalla Rababian. In Sammat 1814 (1756 AD) Ahmed Shah set Kartarpur on fire and thus inflicted heavy loss on this town. (C) congregation, holy assembly. See
~ft:r [kartarpun] in holy assembly.

ct'd'3'w [kartoya] n a rivulet of east Bengal and
Assam which flows by Rangpur. There is a legend that at the time of his marriage with Parvati when Shiv held water of promise in his hand, this rivulet came into being. It is believed that crossing over this rivulet leads to the destruction of righteousness. See

cre:tt [kartri] Skt q;cf actor; doer. 2 nominative
case in grammar. 3 Brahma. 4 ~ female doer. ~ [karad] adj who is a taxpayer or octroi payer. 2 supporter. 3 Skt cp<f mud, filth. 4 P J) done. 5 P J.J( knife, sword. 6 Bhai Santokh Singh has written: "nrj karte satguru ko dai, yiite karad nam vrdtai."-GPS. But this etymology seems without any basis. cratm' [kardah] P OJ) done. Q\reO [kardan] P t,;)J) v do. "gusal kardan bud."-tIl.§g kabir. ~ [karadbhet] offering of a sword. See


"kartarpun karta vasE."-bIla ill 5. ~ [kartan] the Creaor did. "agikaru kio kartarI."-bIla ill 5. 2 to the Creator. "jo bhaI).i kartarI."-asa ill 5 ~ [kartari] Guru Nanak Dev's disciple, who is a devotee ofthe Creator. 2 clapping ofhands. "brkhe brhagan ko kartari."-GPS. 'clapping of hands particularly to shoo the birds away.' ~ [kartare] Skt CfiOf the Creator did. "thaq.hr pai kartare."-sor ill 5. ~ [kartal] n castanet. "kar kartal pakhavaj m:nahu."-raill ill 5. 'castanet for the hands and timbrel for the eyes (a kind of drum).' 2 clapping of both the hands. ~ [kartali] See ~ 2. ~ [kartra] adj got done. "kita kartra os da sabhu gara."-var gau 1 ill 4. 'Everything done and got done proved futile.' aafda"ji(')l [kartrkyani] Kartikey's might. "namo karatrkyani srva sitlaya."-c.§<;ii 2. 'ctdiO [kartut], ~ [kartutr] n deed. "kartutr pasu ki manas jatI."-sukhill,mi. 2 satirical naming of a misdeed. "cagi kartut kiti he!" -provo

"k "ctQ?jT.
Qdt!lf [kardam]

Skt~ n mud, filth. "kardama

tarat papilakah."-sahas ill 5. 2 sin. 3 a sage, who was born from the shadow of Brahma. His wife was Devhuti, who gave birth to Kapilmuni. See qfl,rn-. 4 P (J) I did. ~ [kardal] crying, shouting, screaming. 2 crushed. 3 Skt ~ house, home. 4 abdomen, womb. 5 See -e<? 4. cretft [kardi] P t.)J) you did. Its root is ~. ~ [kardem] P (-J) we did. "kardem badi khral."-tIl.§g ill 1. ~ [karda] See ~. C('d"O [karan] See ~. "kunq.al karan vari, sumatr karan vari, kamal karan vari gatr he kann ki."-GPS. 'with rings in her ears, provider of good sense, bearer of lotus in her hand, with gait like that of an elephant'. 2 sense organs such as eyes, nose, ears etc.

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"karan SIu-Icha carah."-saveye m 2 ke. 'use senses in accordance with their will' i.e. ' ... have control over organs of perception'. 3 See~ II. ad(')a'd(,) [karankaran] See ~ ~r" ad(')Qid [karandhar] See o(ij<!Q'ij. ~ [karanpalah], ~ [karanpalav]

[karanpur] See ~'ij". "karanpur bar besar kine."-NP ~ [karanphul] n ornament for the ears, which is flower-shaped. ~ [karna] v do, put something into action. 2 citrus plant. 3 citrus flower. "kahIna kahIna phul hEn sugadhI guru karna karna karna."-GPS. 'The saying of an ordinary person is odourless like grass but the action of the Guru is fragrant like a flower of citron.' 4 See 0(ij'(!T and ~. 5 See 0('ij'('iTfu" 0('ij'('iTfu [karnaI], ~ [karnai] Skt ~ n compassion, pity. "chordeyo muhI kE karnai."-krrsan. 2 A LtJ:.t} corw;t. "daph s6 mudi karnai."-NP. "sakh Qhol karnae gaji."-carrtr 97. See E cornet. ad(')'ea [karnatak] See O('d<!'cO(. 2 swindling, cheating. ~ [karna!] a district of Punjab, part of the commissionery ofAmbala. It is said that this was founded by Karan. [karI).alay] Banda Bahadur took over Kamal in 1709 AD. Guru Nanak stayed in this town on his way to Delhi. There is a gurdwara in mohalla Thatheran. 2 a gun, fired with hand without any support. ~ [karanI] in the ear. "kade na karanI dhafIa."-sri a m 5. 2 (they) do. "mane ka bahI karanI vicaru."-japu. 3 have been done. ~ [karni] See ~. "kaha kahau mE apni karni?"-sar m 9. 2 See orfuol. 3 with ears. "karni suniE jasu gopal."-gau thrti m 5.


[karninama] It is another name for the disputation he ld between Qazi Rukannudin and Guru Nanak. ~H [karnEse] sen karaI).-jEse. like the ear. "kruddhkE juddh karyo karnEse."-caqi 1. 2 with the ear. "'parath jy6 fIske karnEse." -krrsan. ad6'efa [karnadan] See O(ijC£efa. 2 See ~. ~ [karpat] Skt <XLr<; n tattered garment, rag; bell. 2 dress, robe. 3 ochre-coloured robe. ~ [karpatabu] See ~. ~ [karpatr] SeeOl~d". ~ [karpaphal has done. 2 (they) do. 3 (let it) flourish. "japI sobha gurmukhI karpapha." -prabha m 4. 0('ij1..(Q [karpar] Skt Ol'l.f'ij" n cup, bowl. 2 skull. ~ [karpalav] Skt O('""~ n finger. ~ Ffll:IT '8h3'~ [karpalav sakha bicarE] -ram beI;ri. 'should regard the world as leaves and branches of the Brahma tree.' ~ [karpallavi] n an alphabet of signs, depicted with fingers. Various types of alphabets of signs have been canceptualised. Composers hay\:: assigned their own signs and have created characters and matras of their own. However a very well known karpallavi is given below:"ahIphaIl kamal cakr takar. taru palhv y::>Van $rfgar. ugH acchar cutkil mat. ram kah~t lachman se bat." Shaping the hand like the hood of a snake brings to the mind the ~ [ura] row; changing it to a lotus depicts the 0(' [kakka] row; moving the finger in a ciircular way depicts the tr [cacca] row; a gesture showing the beating of a gong with a gavel stands for the z [teka] row. Raising the hand like a tree, shows 3" [tatta] row; making a leaf-sign suggests tf [pappa] row; caressing the moustaches suggests lif [yayya] row. Fingers


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suggest letters and their snap the vowels. To See srJh'>. explain the word QW [guru], moulding the hands At present there is a big town at this place. into the shape ofa lotus, meansC{[kakka] row According to the preceding census, its of which or [gagga] is the third character. population was 60,000. Located there is a gold Raising the third finger, to depict or, that carries tombed mausoleum of Imam Hussain. Many the fifth vowel, which shows snapping the Muslims consider it their sacred duty to bury index finger five times. The second character their dead at this place and, therefore, bring is d'" [rara]; for it at first touch the moustaches, dead bodies from far-off places. Rich people and it will indicate the or [yayya] row. d'" is the from India as Mirs ofKhairpur also take their second character, so raise the second finger. dead bodies there. 2 a compound where It has the sixth vowel, hence snap the thumb models ofthe martyr's tomb are buried. and the index finger six times. Thus becomes ~ [karbal] See ~. the word qr~. In this may be grasped the ~ [karbur] Skt~d'" n gold. 2jimpson weed, formation of all words and vowels. datura stramonium. 3 water. 4 sin. 5 demon. 0CQtP' [karpa] n a double-edged broad sword, "karbur bInasi."-bhavarsamnt. with a \vooden handle. It is used like a lance. C«l1J [karabh] Skt n young one of a camel. 2 protector of the hand, tongs. 3 glove. 2 young one ofan elephant. "kankarabh bIsal ~ [karpati] Skt Cf){QI8"\ adj who uses his kar."-NP. 'anns as long as the trunk of an hands as a vessel; who discards other vessels elephant's young one.' See ~ 13. except his hands. "man bhaIO karpati rahIO ~ [karbhIkh] son of king Dhritrashtar. nagan phIno ban mahi."-sar a m 5. ~ [karbhi] feminine of~. ~ [karpan] See~. 2 drinking with hand iiRJH [kar;nn] Skt ~ n a long stride, pace, step; or one who drinks with hand. one and a half yard in length; a three cubit ~ [karpal] tax collector. 2 See ~. measure. I prem pIr~m kE ganau ek karT ~ [karpali] See~. karam."-cau m 5.2 Skt mf action. "karam ~ [karpur] Skt elephant, who fills his belly karat hOVE nIhkaram."-sukhmani. with the help ofhis trunk. "karpurgatI bIn akal Scholars have divided actions into three dujo kavan?"-gyan. Some ignorant scribes have categories: written this term as "kapurgatI". "k~bugriv (a) krTymaD, which are underway.2 karpurgatI. "--salah. 2 Skt the tree and the (b) prarbadh, which have brought forth the existing body. fragrant substance made from its sap; camphor. ----=~--='------------"karpur puhap sug~dha."-gatl1a. See Ci11JO. 'In Delhi, Hissar, Ambala etc, the measure ofa karam is 'iil"a"S' [karab] doing. "bahur jagg ko karab 57 inches, and in Simla it is 54 inches. Such variations mItayo."-arhJt. 2 A -:-) n sorrow, grief, exist elsewhere also. woe. 3 distress. 4 anxiety. 2knyman karam is of two types: one performed as a 'iilQ1f'li5T [karbalaJ A ytJ.) a place in Iraq matter of routine like having a bath, doing meditation, (Mesopotamia) situated on the western bank performing prayer etc; while the other is performed on of river Euphrates, where Hm-;ain, son of the some special occasions such as Gurpurabs or prayers, fourth caliph Hazrat Ali, was mercilessly killed charitable deeds and oblations performed on the occasions by the army of Yazid on 10'h October, 680. of death and marriage etc.

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[kdfamkMq] n country of grace; situation or role in which God bestows His mercy and forgiveness. 2 philanthropic role or detached action. "k<:lfam kMq ki bani joru. "-japu. ClOH1JT [kafamca] based on actions. "dhufkafamca." -var maru 2, m 5. ~ [k<:lfamcari] worker, employee, official. ~ [bfamcacl] son ofChandu, who fought against Guru Hargobind and was killed by him in the battle ofHargobindpur. 2 See~. 3 a devotee of Guru Hargobind from Hafizabad who attained ultimate realisation after listening to the meanings of J apu J i from Guru Hargobind, when on his way back from See~. ~ft:fur [kaf<:lm sfgh] son of raja Sahib Singh Kashmir, the Guru stayed at Hafizabad. of Patiala from rani Aas Kaur. He was born ~ [kafamjar], i:'fo6Hf~ [k<:lfamjal] n group on Assu Sudi 5, Sammat 1855 (16 th Oct, of actions. 2 warp of actions. "bIthfyO 1798). He ascended the throne at the age of adnsat jIh kafa:mjar."-akal. 15 on Harh Sudi 2, Sammat 1870 (30 th June, creHH'iIT [kaf<:lmjog] Skt on-f~ilT n practising 1813). He was a perfect Gursikh, brave fighter, altruism, for the purification of mind without man of good deeds, great administrator and expectation of any reward. 2 always very shrewd person. During his reign he got remaining ready to perform actions as part of constructed numerous pacca gurdwaras within one's duty. and beyond the state and grantedjagirs to such C«JHO [kafm<:lthL qij'Hlll [kafmathi] Skt 'fiTJfo holy places. adj performer ofactions, doer of good deeds. Maharaja Karam Singh breathed his last "maha kafmathr maha sujajml."-dIlip. on 23 rd December, 1845 at Patiala. ~ [kafmal)a) Skt Cfil+fon third declension: ~ [kdf<:lmhil)] ~ [k<:lf<:lmhin] adj due to action. "nd kam\al)a bacsa."-gujjedev. unfortunate, unlucky. 'due to mind, a<:tion and utterance.' aol-/({ [k<:lfmak] See ~. ~ [kafmal)o] adj .qfi.f"Q who is a doer, ~ [k<:lfdmkaq] Skt Cfi4j",fiIU:S n part of a worker. 2 ~ capable ofperforming action, shastar dealing with kafam (actions). ][t includes capable of doing a deed. 3 n m.fQ action. actions which are pennitted or forbidden. CRJHt!if [kafamdak:;;] ad} adept in performing Apart from this, it also mentions who has to action. perform which actions and at a what time. ~ tIIDf [kafam dhc1fam] adj mundane action and spiritual activity. "kafam dhafam ki saf na "kafamkanq bahu kafahI <:lCaf."-gaum 3. jal)e, sUfatI mukatI kIU paie."-asa m 1. ~ [kaf<:lmkaqi] performer of an action. ~ [kaf<:lmkIrat] actions performed. CiI"a'H7)T [karmana] See ~. "mansa baca "kafdmkuat ki fekh. " -ba van. kafmana mE dekhe doj;:lk ja t."-maru kabir. (c) sacIt, those actions from previous births whose consequences have not yet been experienced. 3 adj~ (one) who performs. "kaul) kafam kaul) nIhkafma?"-majh m 5. 4At one place in Guru Granth Sahib kafam is used in place ofkaf me. See lj1:n:IN. 5 practice. "mansa kan SImratu tujhE... baca karT SImratu tujhE... kafam kan tua dafas pafas. "--saVt:ye m 4 ke. 6 A (f generosity. 7 kindness, benevolence. "nan<:lk fakhIlehu apan kan kafam."-sukhmani. "aval) jal) fakhe karI kafam."-gau m 5. "nanak nam mxll? vaqIai edu upan k<:lf<:lmn<:lhi."-ram am 1. ~ [kafam-fdf<:lY], ~ [k<:l!am-fdfi]


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desh; territory between Vindhyachal and the which has its origin in the Kaimore mountain Himalaya. In Purans, actions performed on of Shahabad district. It traverses a distance this terrain have to be accounted for in other of 146 miles in the districts of Mirzapur and territories. All other territories are the terrain Gazipur before joining Ganga near Chausa. for suffering their consequences. "ketia There is a myth that this river originated from karambhumI mer kete"-japu. 2 according to the saliva ofTrishanku. Others hold that it came Sikhism, human body is both the territory and into being from the urine of Ravan. The t:1e terrain. "karambhumI bijansokhavan."-to<;li orthodox Hindus believe that taking a bath in m5. this rivulet results in the ruin ofvirtue. , "calat ~ [karambhra~t] adjwho has gone astray calat kramnasa salta. taha aI heryo jal caItu." from good action. -GPS. In order to remove this misconception ~ [karam-ma.Qi] gem of virtue. Guru Teg Bahadur took a bath in it. 2 arrogance born of action. ~ [karamnam] name assigned to someone ~ [karamyog] See~. according to his deeds. "karam nam barnat ~ [karamrat] adj who performs good sumatI."-japu. actions; having craving for action. "hau hau karte karamrat. "-ba van. ~ [karampeq] virtue in the form of a tree. ~ [karamrekh], ~ [karamrekha] n ~ [karamphal] outcome of one's action. cremn:T [karambadh] bound by actions. line drawn by destir,y; its writing; destiny itself. "karambadh tum jiu kahIt hJ."-g5<;l kabir. ~ [karamvIpak] n outcome of action. 2 destruction of actions. 2 a book containing the sermon taught by the ~ [karambIdhata] Skt ~ ~ adj sun to its charioteer Arun describing the maker of rules for action; God, the Creator. outcome of actions. "karamvIpak su gr;'}th "sabhna ka data karambIdhata."-asa cMit vIcar't.."-GPS. 111 1. ~ [karamvir] adj a brave, unrelenting man ~ [karambhag] adj righteous actions, of action whom trials and tribulations cannot virtues. "karambhag s;'}tan s;'}gane kast loh force away from his path. 2 n Guru Gobind udharIo."-gau kabir. Singh. ~ [karambhavni] n feeling for actions, crnw [karma] adj who acts; a man of action. desire for doing. 2 destiny determined by 2 fortunate. "kahu nanak kaun uh karma. jakE action. manI vaSIa harInama."-asa m 5. ~ [karambhiru] shirker; dodger due to ~ [karmau] action. 2 effort, performance, fear of interruption and misfortune. achievement. "jIsu guru saca bhetH bhai, pura tIS karmau."-sor a m 5. ~ [karambhumI] n per Hindus Bharat ISee an assertion from Simriti: ~ [karmakari] adj who is a performer ~~~fi1(1'5~'1'iI({ bfgood actions. "SU.QI p;'}qIt karmakari."-sor 1jfilsq;j ~~ IlRfd ~l\1, I I am 1. Touching the waters of Karamnasha, crossing the Kartoya ~ [karmat] See qot}f3" and ~. river. swimming through Gandika. praising one's self. all mrW3" [karmiit] adj the end of an action; its result in the ruin of religions beliefs and noble deeds. completion.

~ [karamnasa] Skt cpp:f~rnT a rivulet

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successively achieved. "kHat rekh kan [karmi'itak] destroyer of destiny i.e. karmIa."-bdsJt d m.5. 2 performer of actions. knowledge. "gIanu bhaIa tah karamallI nas." 3 believer in destiny. -bhEr rdvrdas. ~ [karmIsth] SktCf;f$;o adjready and eager ~ [karmata] adjengaged in action. "purak kGbhak recak karmata."-bavdn. 2 Skt ~ to perform actions. CifOJ-ft [karmi] due to actions. "karmi sahaju TId destiny's vessel. orawflr [karmatI] See CiRJlH3' and ~'. "nanak upjE."-dnJdu. 2 performer of action. 3 believer in destiny. 4 merciful; forgiver ofsins. sa karmatI sahIbu tuthE jo mIlr."-'I1ar asa. "dhIgU SIdhi dhIgu karmatI."-var sor m 3. CRIl.:f [karamu] See Cfd':If. "jIs no karamu kare kartar."-bhEr m 5. 'l\t1[ay God be merciful.' acHTi'i [brman] Skt Cfil=1fm:r adj capable of performing; adept in working. 2 n salary, C(ij}jCl' [karmuk] St:e (~01.:fq. "karmuk5 udh5." wages. 3 action, activity. "nIhphal sabh -eac;ii 2. 'raised bow." karman."-sar m 5. ~~ [karmedny] Skt Cfi.-iff.'S:4 n organs of ~ [karmabai] daughter of Pandit action: hands, feet, mouth, anus and penis. Parshuram, a resident of village Khajal in qmf [karma] wife of Baba Prithi Chand and southern India. She remained engrossed in mother of Meharban. She persuaded her meditating upon Vishnu. She deserted her husband to ask the babysitter, a Brahmin by caste, to mix poison iin the curd to be served husband only because he was not Vishnu's worshipper. Karmabai devoted her whole life to Guru Hargobind. "dhIk dhIk karmo kin to the spread of devotional knowledge. Her kukarmo, hate bal kya kar rna aI?"-GPS. memorial is still there in Vrindaban. Her temple ~ [karyar] This word has been used in is also located near Jagannath. There is a story place of karval; sword. "an paryo karyar in Bhagatmal that Jagannath himself went to nIkare."-carrtr 51. See~. her to taste the dish ofkhIeri she had prepared. Q'6'aT [kar-ra], C«Rf [kar-ra] adj strong, hard. 2 rude, unaccommodating. "kar-rodharmaraIa." "karmabai kari khichri jIm acvi tum rup murarI."-GPS. -suhi m 5 partal. ~ [karmabahra] adj devoid of good qa'5 [karal], CiRJW [karla] S sound, voice. "kahan kahavan Ihu kiratI karla."-sri m 5. 2 path, action. 2 unfortunate. 3 deprived of the Creator's grace. "nanak karmabahre darI way. "sahIb ka phurmaD hOI uthi karlE qhoa na lahIni." -var asa. pahI."-var sar m 2. 3 Pa entertainment, ~ [karmal] Dg n sun. 2 See ~~W". show. 4 dance. CiffiJ-fTW [karmala] n hand used as a rosary, aal'5'ijC!1 [karlauDa] v levy tax. 2 moan, groan. counting on fingers rather than on rosary. See ~ and gO'C?~fc:r. "mar pai karlaDe." ~ [karmavIs] See ~. "bh;m ragin -asa m 1. banaI mana karmavIs."-cJc;ii 1. ~ [brlap] Skt c~(?Tlf n moaning, groaning; lamentation that pleads for mercy. ~ [karamI] See CifOJ-ft. 2 by the grace of. "jIs no karamI prapat hOVE."-sor 111 5. See ~ [brav] This word has been used to mean CNlf. 3 by virtue of (good) actions. "karamI Dg kadam. i.e. pace" step. "dUI karva kar tIn paVE nisan."-var majh m 1. loa."-BG. 2 E curve. ~ [karmIa] Skt gwaT3' adj some form ~ [karvat], CRJi~ [karvatu] Skt ~ n (in


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lying position) act ofturning with the support ofa hand. "karvatu bhala na karvat teri."-asa kdbir. 'It is better to die than to be shunned by you.' 2 Skt w!c market, bazaar. ~ [karvat], ~ [karvatu], ~ [karvatra] Skt~ saw; an implement for sawing wood. "mano rukh kate karvatr;m ke."-knsdn. 2 In ancient times there was a saw in Kashi and Prayag, under which innumerable persons cut themselves to pieces to achieve salvation. "aradh sarir kataiE SIrI kdrvatu dharaI."-sri d m 1. ~ [karval paces, steps. "dUI kdrva kar tfn loa."-BG. 'Vaman covered all the three worlds in two steps.' 2 adj bitter, acrid, astringent. 3 nlota-asmall earthen pot (used for holding water). Skt crofr pitcher. "kaeE karvE rahE nd pani."-suhi kdbir. "karvE hOISU toti rekhE." -BG. 'Whatever is in the Iota, will come out of its spout.' ~ [karval], ~ [karvai] n bitterness, acridity, astringency. 2 act of getting things done by others. ~ [karvar], ~ [karval] Skt CRfal(? n nail, which is hand's son. 2 sword, which is curved like a nail. "karvarubharatvarkaryo."GPS. "kalayudh karvar."-Sdnama. ii[d'3T [kar-ra], aa;ft [kar-ri] adj cruel, unkind. "kar-ra manmukh gavaru."-srdhgosdtr. 2 difficult, arduous. "guru pira ki eakri maM kar-ri sukhsaru."-Sdva m 4. ~ [kara] See cn?T. "sabh taji manE ki kamkara."-asa m 5. "gvaranI eadkara si." -krrSdn. 'Gopi like a phase of the moon.' a'ijT ~ [kara upan] adj over the hand, clear, undoubted, above suspicion. This term is a synonym ofhastamalak vat. "gurmukha kara uparI\ harI eetla, se palnI mokhduaru." -Sdva m 3. 'There is no doubt about the existence of God.'

[karaIh], mrEt [karai] gets done. "jeha karalh teha hau kari vakhlan."-suhi m 4. 2 (You) get it done. 3 (I) get it done. cretfi:r [karasI], ~ [karasi] will get it done. 2 gets it done. Cil'O'tr[karah] See~. "kahyo kI tere udar me guru ker karahu."-GPS. 2 See 0RfTm'iT. 3 n levelling plank that brings earth from the higher to the lower side. 4 A l.ilj field in which sowing has been completed. 5 field ready for sowing. 6 clean water. 7 P ~If edge. 8 limit. ~ [karahl).a] v groan, moan, lament. See P (1/ 2 process oflevelling soil with the help ofa levelling plank. QQTUO [karahat] moans, laments. "karahdt hE gIrl se gaj lage."-c~Qi 1.2 levels the field. 3A ..:;.,flf n aversion, disgust. ~ [karahna] See ~. ~ [karaha] See osrur. "diragh karahe lin." -GPS. Q6Ttft [karahi] See ~. "karahi earhkE line bare pakaI."-cdntr 32. 2 consecrated food offered to Durga and other gods. Ciid·Jlilid [karahiyat] A ~ If causing aversion; state of disgust. ~ [karakus] See gQ(? CII'dTaIi [karagau] will do, will earn. "jIU mIlE pIara apna te bol karagau."-bIla m 5. ~ [karagur] finger of the hand. "gahI tat karagur."-NP. 'holding father's finger.' ~ [karaei badar] in the territory of Bombay, the wharf near Karachi, the main city ofSindh where ships are anchored. It was founded in 1725 AD. ~ [karacur], ~ [karacor], ~ [karacol] P .JJ;lj n sword. "karacor kardhar eamkae." --CPS. "karacol kIrpan ke lijahu nam sudhar." -Sdnama. ~ [karajh] n mourning cry. See ~t vr. "or khapI khapI mue karajha."-jE't m 4.


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~ [karabat] A


..::..-;l} n feeling ofbeing near;

state of being a close relative.
~ [karabin] T \;/Jl} long pistol having a

broad muzzle, which can have many bullets in its magazine. 2 See E carbine~ qoT}f [karam] See ORIH. "so pae jISU mastakI karam."-dhcma m 5. A (I.) plural of:e«fu-r. ml"'l-!O [karamat] A ...:;.."f) n venerability. 2 grace. 3 miracle. ~ 7MTtiI' [karamlak nyay] See 7i:i'P'!il". ~ [karamat], ~ [karamatI] A ..::.-Ll) plural of karamat; miracles; supernatural powers with the help of which impossible things can be turned into possible happenings. Apart from those referred to in Hindu and Sikh scriptures, miracles do find mention in the scriptures of Jews, Christians and Muslims. See Zabbur Chapter 105 and Koran Surat Bakar Ayat 87 and Surat Araf, Ayat 160. ~ [karamati] adj performer of miracles; person having supernatural powers. cre'H [karama] See ORIH. CJQTliIO [karayan] A dl} plural of karina; imprints, signs, facets. CKJIO [karar] n bank, coast, shore. ("saTta ke gIre karara."-rudr. "kararan te baQ-h manahu niradhI kopkE gajyo."-krIscm. 2 Slee ~. 3 crevice, creek, hole. "mano pahar karar me c6c pasar rahe SISU sarak jEse."-c~(~i 1. 4 A .A} stability. 5 courage. "kIchu palqo karar." -nasihat. 6 promise, commitment. 7 satisfaction, contentment. aaraaei'll [kararkadni] n rivulet that erodes its banks.-sanama. ~ [kararanI] rivulet bound by its banks. -sanama. ~ [karara] adj spicy; in which salt, chillies and spices are opulently put. 2 patient. "gavahI vir karare."-japu. 3 satisfying. "bIn gursabad karare."-gau chat m 3. 4 difficult, full of

dangers and obstades. "agE path karara."-sri m 5 pahIre. 5 fast, sharp. "kharag karara." -val' maru m 3. 6 determined, enthusiastic. "sIkkha di seva karara hOIkE kamavda hE." -bhagtav1i. 7 bank of a river, shore. ~ [kC}rari] feminine of karara. See ~. n determination. 2 situation. "tuk dC}m kC}rari jau kC}raU."-tI1ag kabir. 3 adj strong, hard. "VIC haumE bhit karari."--ma1a m 4.4 difficult, full of obstacles. "hukmi b~,de kar kC}rari."-BG. 5 promise, pledge. "'ham s6 Ih bIdhI karE karari."-gurusobha.. ~ [kC}ral] adj horrible, dreadful. 2 n a minister of Ravan. crerw [kC}rala] PiJI n dance. 2 pageant, play. 3 Skt herb having unending roots. 4 goddess Kali. 5 feminine of~·. ~ [karaVal).I] for getting done. "han kam karaval).I aIa."-suhi chat m 5. ~ [karavan] v gt:t done. 2 destroy, take away. See fc3 vr. "apI upavan apI sadharna. apI karavan dos na lena."-bI1a m 5. 'to create, sustain, destroy and still remain blameless, detached.' a'a"'3' [karar] See~fT1:r. cmr[kan] in hand, within reach. "ndhI sIdhI nay nIdhI basaJ:u j:rsu sada kan."-phunhe m 5. 2 adv having done. "kan anarath darabu SaChIa."-Var jet. SktCfift'l.elephant; which has got a trunk. "ekallI kar kan hE kari, kari sahas kar nahI."-vrfd. ''An elephant having one trunk is said to be one-armed but one who possesses thousands of arms is not an elephant. ' cmmw [kan~ma] Siele 'a".;JF.fW. aftroT [bnM] utter. "gobfd gobfd kanM." -asa m 5.2 Pkt n waist. "bar kanha ~am~er." -GPS. "kehan so kanM."-cac;lI 1. afaOlafd [kankarC}hI] the Creator has. "sagal bhatI kankaralu upaIo."-bavan. See~.

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e«fur [brih] A -:) adj condemned; evil. forehead ofan elephant. "keharI jyo karIkGbh 2 ugly. 3 nauseating, disgusting. See~. vrdare."-sdloh. mftur [kariha], ~ [kariha] the will to do. 2 I afflar [brfg] a small plant, also called Kalinga. do. "gu!). kama!). kariha jiU."-gdU m 4. 3 See It grows numerous ears, which emit abundant ~. frangrance from dusk to dawn. During the day ~ [karibr] elephant's trunk. time, the flowers do not emit odour. Cestrum ClJlClaai~ [karikarbahu] adjwho has long arms Nocturnum. like the trunk of an elephant. crfai:Iw [karIjava] Pu n liver. "kaQh karIjava CldlClaidCl [karikaratak] n sword, that destroys apan lala ko dijryE."-CdrItr 2. an elephant's trunk.-sanama. cmrn [karrIjE] (please) do. ~ [brikhan], ClO'lso' [karichan] v pull, ~ [brI!).i] SkI female elephant. attract. 2 shear, tear. ~ [brfd] adjking of elephants, Gajraj. offitw [karija] adj worth doing. [karfda] See wmt!"'. ~ [karit] See fume. qfuo1 [karIni] See otfuit. 2 army of elephants. ~ [karitha] See Cl 1dClJl6 i . -sanama. ~ [katidr] See ~ [karIpatabu] kar-pat-vrcc-abu. holding ~ [karina] A ,:,;.} n rule, method. 2 order. 3 sign. water in the palm; with water in the palm. "karIpatabu gali man lavasr."-gau m 1. ~ [kariphal] caper fruit, fruit of capparis aphylla. "sudha mrstan pan ke badle 'While holding water in the palm, he indulges in idle talk,' i.e. even at dusk while offering kariphal."-BGK. water to the deities and forefathers, his mind ~ [karib] A~} advnear, close by. 2 approxis not at peace. imately. ~ [karIpai] "karI kartE kar!).i karrpar." crdlst [karibi] adj near, close by. 2 n nearness, closeness. See crala". -oJkar. 'Having created living creatures according to their actions, the Creator has done offib.r [karim] A f) adj merciful, benevolent. 2 generous. 3 elderly. His duty,' i.e. has determined their fate. ~ [kari] elephant. See 3. 2 n arm that ~ [karimbaxa$] an army official of holds the hand. "tum rakhahu dharr kari." emperor Shahjahan who was killed by Bhai -guj m 5. 3 short for~. 4 you should do, I Bidhi Chand in the battle ofHargobindpur. should do. "kacan ke kot datu kari." -sri amI. a-aTIfT [brmia] A It) 0 merciful! 0 benevolent! "karima rahima alah tu gani." S did; past tense of karan. "jakau krrpa bri -trlag namdev. prabhr merE."-sor m 5. ~ [briahu] let us do. "harI! sakat seti ~ [karimar] killer ofan elephant, the lion. sagu na kariahu."-var gau 1 m 4. 2·Please do. -sanama. e«fPw [karla] n sailor, boatman. "tuhi daria tuhi ~ 'dUlH [karimul rahim] (japu) merciful and compassionate, generous and benevolent. karia."-gau kabir. 2 adj who does. "karia ~ [karir], ~ [karil] SkI ~ n bamboo's dhruvbudhr." -savEye m 4 ke. new shoot. 2 pitcher. 3 capparis aphylla, which ~ [karia] adj the Creator. "haria karia." bears caper fruit. -japu. 'destroyer and creator.'

Qfari'9 [karIkGbh] n pitcher-like spot on the




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~ [karili] adj pertaining to the wild caper.

2 (female) doer. "karaD karili."-akaJ.
C!9 [karu] See ORr. "ahIkaru kare su ahIkaru

pae."-var maru 2 m 5. 'As you sow, so shall you reap.' 2 Skt ORr. See ORr 3. "gau bI rahmaD kau karu lavahu."-var asa. ~i1;Jl' [karujra] See ~ts'". ~ [bruD] adj full of grief, troubled. 2 merciful. C!9~tfT'l5 [bruDkrIpalu] compassionate to the miserable. "karuDkrIpal gopal dinbadhu."-kan m 5. ~ [karuDa] n compassion, mercy. 2 in poetics one of the nine aesthetic tastes. See

the month of Kattak, Hindu women observe fast during daytime,. offer water to the moon through the spout of an earthen vessel and end their fast. Widows do not observe this fast. ~ [karujra] Skt SfiTI.lTCT n hawker; now this term is being used for the vegetable vendor, in particular. ~ [karuth], ~ro1 [karuthi] adj cruel, hardhearted. "mano phag khel'E pIsaca bruthi."

[karuDanIdhan], ~<!Tfofq [karuDanIdhi] treasure house of mercy. 2 mainstay of compassion. ~ [karuDapatI] lord of compassion. 6(2C!i§ fQ [bruDabudhI] ocean of kindness. ~ [karuDamaI], ~ [karuDamae], ~~ [bruDamay], ~~ [bruDamE] incarnation of kindness; kindest of all. "bhagatvachal karUI:lamayah." -sahas m 5. "taka dukh harIo karunamE."-maI'u m 9. 6(2 C!'G1d() [karuDayatan], 6(S! C!'MGI [karuDalay] abode of kindness, abode of compassion. "bruDalay hE."-japu. crgi')T [bruna] See C!9(!T. qg~ [karunajalis] ocean of kindness, treasure house of mercy. "suno araj das brunajalis."-GV 10. crgorH [karunamE] See~. "nanak kahIt gaI karunamE."-gau m 9. 'Cl{'SJ'W [bruva], ~l?fT [karua] adj bi1ter, acrid. "lagI sagatI karua mitha."-gau m 4. 2 Sktcfc;{ n earthern vessel, pitcher. See ~~"EL 3 Skt morsel, bite. "layak hE tumre mukh ki karua."-kI'rsan. ~ [bruacJth] Skt On the fourth day of

-GV6. ~ [karup], ~t [karupi] See~. "dUjE bhaI karupi dukh pavahI."-vaQ m 3. ~ [karur] See ~;J, ~ [karura] See ·~r. ~ [karurach] Skt¥6( n one having dreadful eyes; Saturn. 2 .a demon in Ravan's army. 3 a demon who was killed by the goddess. "karurach ghaya."--cJ~li2.4 per Sarvloh, son of Brijnad, the demon. "karurach bhat."

-salah. [karehu] do. "kari ehu brehu."-var brha

'C("ij'cl [karekE] having done. "nadarI brekE

apni."-sri m 1 Jogi Jd<'lr.

n liver. "brak kareje mahi."-sor bhrkhan. 2: This word also stands for mind (heart). ~ [karetu] Skt n aquatic bird which belongs to the family of Sarus crane. ~ [kareda t ] adj who is a doer. "pap bredat sarpar muthe."--maru am 5 Jjuli. 'C("ij''t:!r [breda] adjwho does. 2 while working. iiI"6-a' [brer], ~QT [karera] adj hard, severe. "mana luhar lIye ghan hathan loh karere ko kam savarE."-kI'rsan. 2 See acJ'W. 'C("ij'~ [karerE] does. "dhurI paVItt karerE." -kan m. 'purifies.' ~ [karela] Skt'flR~ n bitter gourd creeper bearing fruit, which looks like a corncob. 2 bitter gourd vegetable. 3 collryium container

~ [kareja] Skt <~~

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shaped like a bitter gourd. ~ [karev] kare-Iv. 2 does. "ape kara!). karev."-sri m 5. ~ [kareva] socially approved widowremarriage. ~ [karera] See edf.ldCi(d'. . . [karaya] adjengaged in, doing. "barjuddh karEya. "-krrscm. ~ [karot] kar-ot. shield to protect the hand. 2 trench. "otan kud karotan phadh."-ramav. 3 Skt skull. rife [karotI] See ~ 3. karot and karotI are both Sanskrit words. rife [karotI ot] n protective head covering made of iron; helmet. "ched karotln otan kotI."-ramav. ~ [karoti] n goddess Kali who holds a skull in her hand. "kamachya karoti."-cac;fi 2. [karocH See ~ and~. 2 according to Guru Pratap Suraj, during his sojourn in Malwa Guru Teg Bahadur reached village Karod after having visited Barhe and Gurne. "cale karoQ grammahf ae."-CPs. 'From Karod, the Guru reached Dhamdhan.' ~ [karotI] does. "jEse pavak kasat bhasma karotI."-sCJhCJS m 5. ri'q [karodh] See ~tr. Qijfq [krodhI] due to anger, angrily. "kam karodhI nagaru bahu bharra."-sohrla. 2 See




'a"6'q [krodhu] Skt


~tr anger, wrath. "kamu karodhu kapatu blkhIa tajI."-asa m 1. ~ [karop] Skt n wrath. [karor] Sktafc n ten million, one crore.



cWat [karori] See ~.
~ [karoli] n mischief, taunt. "kare karoli

cW;r [karor] See m.

DItt." -PPP. See~.

cr6:JT [karora] n supervisor. See~. 2 revenue
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officer ofa territory submitting one crore coins as land revenue. See ~ 2. creff:r [karorI] ten million i.e., unlimited. "karorI hasat teri tahIl kamavahI."-suhi chat m 5. 'a"6':it [karori], ~ [karoria] adj multimillionaire. 2 Emperor Akbar in 1575-76 divided the whole of his kingdom (except Bengal, Bihar and Gujarat) into 182 territories, each with income ofone crore coins. Officers of these territories were known as amII or karori. During those days a ~ [dam] was equivalent to 1/40 of a rupee. According to this scale one crore dam were equal to rupees 2,50,000. 3 treasurer. 4 Dunichand, a devotee of Guru Nanak Dev who abandoned superstition and false belief and turned benevolent. He is also mentioned as Karori Mal in Janamsakhi. During the inhabitation of Kartlrpur, it was he who spent all the money and got erected a residence for the Guru and a dharamsala for the devotees. See ~ 1. ~ tft ~ [karoria di mIsal] one of the twelve Sikh misls. Its leader was a Jatt Karora Singh Barkiwala. Hence it came to be known as mIsal karoria. Sardar Baghel Singh belonged to this misl. Its capital was Chhalandi on the bank ofJamuna. The dynasty ofGurbax Singh Kalsia state was from this misl. To the same belonged the chiefs ofDhanaur ofKarnal district and jagirdars ofLede iFl Ambala district. ~ [karorimall] See ~ 4. crn- [kaD] pace, step. See ~. "karJ aQhai dharatI mag."-BG. 'Vaman having demanded two and a half steps of land.' ~ [kar5ja] See ~. "badri khadar kar5je jal."-GPS. 2 thorny bitter plant. ~ [karJti] n serrated sword. "karJti katara." -cac;fi 2. See ~. ~ [kar5da] Skt ~ n thorny plant with leaves like those of a lemon tree, the fruit of



which is used for making pickle. L Carissa carandas. Cf"d'H" [kar;)l], ~ [kaDla] n hunter. "dhar kar bhes kar;)l ko gai tavan ke dham."-carrtr 298. 2 adj horrible, terrible. ~ [karouli] T J,j short, straight sword; long knife. "kaDli kIni kaq.h pahIlu bIdaryo." -saloh. 2 a state of Rajputana, whose noblemen are ofYadu lineage. ~ [karau] do, perform. "bhagatT karau!Iv lae."-vaQ chat m 5. 2 pace, step. ~ [karak], ~ [karag] Skt ~ n skeleton. "karagi laga has."-varsumm 1. 'A Iliving being in the form of a swan, whose busim:ss was to pick up pearls (virtues) has instead fallen a prey to sensuality.' "karag bIkhu muklu laIE." -ramm4, [karajan] ~ [karajno] (they) do, (they) perform. "seva karajan."-BG. 2 doer, performer. "knpa karajno."-BG. 3 (one) who sustains the poor. ~ [karajua], ~ [karajua] Skt Cfl OcCfl{6("l L Caesalpinia Bondaccella. This thorny plant is very bitter. Its effect is hot and dry. It is useful in curing piles, leprosy, abdominal worms and skin diseases. It removes inflammation, purifies blood. It is generally grown as a hedge around the fields. ctiir [karaq.] Skt ~ n large basket; small basket. 2 honeycomb. 3 sword. 4 swan-like bird. ~ [karata] does, performs. "khatkaram karata."-sopurakhu. 2 See a@ oft l'>flfaT. ri'3' ott >wfar [karate ki agI] Skt q~fa;( oblationary fire regarded as most sacred. "gaga ka udak karate ki agI."-bas{jt m 1. ;~ artificial fire produced with a wooden instrument by invoking ~he sun. It is ordained that only such fire be used in oblations. See l?Rf<!t. cret!"3' [~aradar] S adj doer, performer. See



[karam] See c~f. "kahu nanak take purkarama." -sor m 5. "'so prabhu cItI na avai nanak nahi kar~m."-var maru 1 ill 5. 2 See cpl'. ~ [karamkal] chronological account of events. "karamkal yS bhaI."-VN. [karama] See 0Rl'lY". 2 adj lucky. "kahu nanak ham nie karama."-asa m 5. 3 due to actions. "han japif vade karama."-bIla m 4. ~ [karhna] v boil, get heated, be in distress. "karhE na jhurE na manu rovanhara." -asa m 5. [karha] a villag~~ of police station Pahoa, tehsil Kaithal, distri<:t Kamal. To the south east of this village alt a distance of half a mile, is a gurdwara. Guru Nanak Dev visited this place. Guru Hargobind Sahib also stayed here. The Guru cured a blind leper at this place. Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib also lent dignity to this place with his visit. The ninth Guru provided money for the construction of a well and the setting up of a garden. Guru Gobind Singh also came to this village but he did not stay here. Mounted on his horse, he gave a sermon to the congregation and left the village. All these sanctified places are located in the same complex. The ruler of Kaithal, Bhai Dday Singh, got them renovated. The gurdwara is situated sixteen miles to the west of KurukslH:tar railway station. It receives grants of Rs 425, Rs 55 and Rs 15 annually from 1the states of Patiala, Jind and Nabha respectively. Bhai Dday Singh donated three hundred bighas of land to these gurdwaras. ~ [karhE] See ~OT. ali [kal] Skt CfiC1, vr make a sound; count; throw; go; take; be impatient. 2·· adj fascinating, pleasing. "kahIQ amnfc kal q.halaQ."-saveye m




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782 2 ke. 'Charming utterance of the Guru is like nectar. ' 3 n melody. 4 semen. 5 supernatural power. "niki kiri mahI kal rakhE."-sukhmani. "jIn kal rakhi meri."-suhi ill 5. 6 part, segment. "kali kal mahI Ik kal rakhi." and "tretE rkkalkinidurr."-ramm3. 7 tomorrow. "caraD na chac;lau sarir kal jai."-gau ravrdas. 8 rest, peace. "man kal nrmakhmatr nahr parE."-GPS. 9 art, education. "jrs bhulae apr trs kal nahi jaDia."-var gau 2 m 5. "tu beatu sarab kal pura."-bEra m 4. 10 ignorance which shackles human beings. "gur kE baDr bajar kal chedi."-gau kabir. 11 device, machine. "badhan katE so prabhu jakE kal hathr."-brla ill 5. 12 goddess Kali, Yogini. "kal sanmukh avat bhai jahr bekh brkral."-NP 13 short for »fW(? "jo kal ko rk bar dhIEhE."-c.Jpai. 14 one line of a poetic metre. 15 See cffi? ~ [blaul pen. "kalau masajni kra sadaiE?" -var sri ill 3. 'Where is the need to ask for a pen and ink pot?' a1'51i [kalasl Skt qmr n crest dome on the top of a temple, which is gold-plated. "tE jan kau kalas dipaIau."-savEye m 5 ke. 'You have made your servant sh'ine like a dome.' 2 pitcher. "kanak kalas bhar anE."-salah. 3 a measure, which at present is equivalent to eight seers. 4 a metre, also known as hu11as, I which is a combination of two metres. The last line ofthe preceding stanza should initiate the first line of the following stanza as a requirement of sfghavalokan (back reference). In Dasam Granth, this metre has been created by combining c;Jpai and trrbhagi, as: adr abhE angadh sarup<3, rag r<3g jIh rekh na rup<3, rak bhayo ravat kahO bhupa, kahD samudra sarrta kahD kupa, 'Poet Sainapati in his Gursobha Granth mentions it as lotan chad,


sarrta kahD kupa, samudsarupa, alakhbrbhuta amI tgata, advE abrnasi param prakasi, tej surasi, akrrtkrrta, jrh rup na rekha, alakh abhekha amrt advEkha, sarabmar, sab krlvrkh harDa patIt udharDa, asaraD sarDa ek dar."-gyan. (b) In Guru Granth Sahib bIas metres have been created by combining numerous metres. A few of those are given below. kalas from the combination of c;Jpai and savEye. satrguru sevr parampadu payau, abrnasi abrgatu dhrayau, trs bhete darrdra na capE, kalyas-haru tasu gUD japE.japau gUD brmal sujan jan kere, amranamu jakau phurra, rnr satrgur sevr sabad rasu paya, namu nrrajan urr dharra, harrnam rasrk gobfd gungahaku cahaku tatt samattsare, kavr kaly thakur harrdastane, gur ramdas sar abhar bhare. -savEye ill 4 ke. (c) kalas from the combinaton of nrta and sar: Characteristics ofnrta are four lines, each having twelve matras, the last two being guru. Example: ham ghar sajan ae, saCE melr mIlae, .. sahrj mIlae harr man bhae, pac mrle sukh para. sai vasatu parapat hoi, jrs seti manu lara. 2 ••• -suhi chat ill 1. ~ [kalas-harl a Bhat eulogizer ofthe Guru. "kahu kiratr kalas-har."-savEye ill 2 ke. 2 Skt water pitcher carrier, water man.
2for the purpose of matras rhyme is paya and laya,

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[kalhari], cmfucft I[kallunil adj quarrelsome, termagant, troubles()m(~. 2 heroine who repents after insulting her husband. ~ [kalhas] Skt n swan. 2 supreme god, the Creator. 3 kad~ib tree, Nauclea Cadamba. 'O(1fO(' [kalak] Skt efl~o(" n powder. 2 crushed cannabis. 3 excreta. 4 sin. 5 wax of the ear. 6 hyprocrisy. 7 A ~~ uneasiness, restlessless. 8 grief. CiI'l"Sii3r [kalkatta] Set up at Kalighat on the bank of river Ganga, 86 miles away from the sea, a major ciity of Bengal, and population wise, the largest in India, I it has been the capital of India ~or a long time. In Sammat Sardar Gurbakhsh Singh 1968 (1911 AD) Emperor George V, made I Delhi the capital ofIndia. Sardar Jodh Singh d. 1817 AD In Calcutta there are numerous gurdwaras I as Vadi Sangat, where recitation of the Sardar Sobha Singh d.1858AD Gurbani goes on to the accompaniment of I kirtan. Sardar Lahina Singh d.1869AD Calcutta is 1176 miles away from Lahore. Sardar Bishan Singh d. 1883 AD ~ [kalbl], 'O('l'!i'OrMT [kalkalal n sound of water flowing from a spring etc. 2 noise, -1 clamour. Sardar Jagjit Singh Sardar Ranjit Singh ~ [kalkal] See C!fw~. "khu1?i bhayo kalkal d.l886AD d.1908AD SrI mukh y5 kahE."-GV 10. 2 destroyer of Time, Mahakal (the supreme destoyer, God). Raja Ravishvar Singh b. 1902 AD [kalakI], ern-cit [kalki] Sktcmfcr n Kalki's ~ [kalasul See ~. incarnation. "caubIsv<5 kalki avtara."-kalki. mro [kalah] n clash, quarrel. 2 war, battle. There is a referencle in Vishnupuran that in the horrible age of vice [ghar kaIIyug], Kalki 3 sheath of a sword. ~ [kalahni] termagant, quarrelsome Avtar will appear Jin the house of a Brahman named Vishnuyash at Sambhal, a town in woman. QHijT [kalha] See CifffiJ. 2 female asce:tic. "kalha Muradabad district. Mounted on a white horse, nam syam tan dhara."-GPS. 3 goddess of he will conquer the land around and destroy the evil doers. See 1m. war. i3Fa3 1 [kalhatrIta] O("HCfo [kalkath] n peacock and the Indian al"SijiaFaa' [kalhatrIkal, al"S<J in poetics, the heroine who repents after cuckoo, which have melodious voice. 2 adjone IAccording to 1921 census, the population of Calcutta is insulting her husband. 1d9 13,27,547. ~ [bIhar], al"S<J'd' [blhara], al"S<J [kalsa] See crnFr 2. "phIslE pag kalsa gIrE."-GPS. 2 a village in Bangar where the tenth Guru stayed for a night. "utre kalse gram sujae."-GPs. cnmt [kalsi] small pitcher. ~ [kalsia] Sardar Gurbakhsh Singh Sandhu, landlord ofvillage Kalsia, tehsil Kasur, district Lahore, was baptised as a Sikh in Sammat 1782. Thereafter he joined Karorian di misl and rendered great service to the community. His descendants live in Chhachhrauli, capital ofthe state in Ambala district, but thestatl~ is known as Kalsia. Their genealogy is as below:





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with a sweet voice; melodious. [kClIClkh], ~,. [blkha] See cmcr. Skt afJf3". ~c adj drawn. "SIr UpClrI khClrClg kCllkha." -var maru 1 ill 3. CiI"l'?OJT [kClIga] a flowering plant, which has a red-coloured, crest-shaped flower at its top; coxcomb. 2 xa bald man. CiI"l'?OJT fi:Tur [kalga sIgh] xa bald man. cm:aft [kCllci] T n gem-studded feathered ornament worn on their heads by kings and maharajas of India. 2 comb on the head of a bird. ClMa"Qij [kalgidhClr] Guru Gobind Singh, who used to wear a marvellous crest on his head. "Clb anki as nIras bhCli kalgidhar vas kIya man mahi."-GPS. Lady Login writes that when the English conquered Lahore, her husband Dr Login took charge of the storeroom where precious articles were kept after preparing their list. In those articles was the Kalghi of the tenth Guru. None knows how Maharaja Ranjit Singh had acquired it and where it is at'the moment. I orior [blagg] adv on one side, at one end. qMU/T [kCllgha] adjTime, the killer. "pakarI khare sabh kalgha."-suhi ill 4. ~ [bljug] See ~ and l.!fOT. 0{lG [blat], ~ [kalatu], ~ [kalatr] Skt Cflct?f n wife. "tanu dhanu kalCltu SClbhu dekhu ClbhImana."-bIla a ill 1. "putr kalatr maha bIkhIa mahI gurIsacE laI taraI."-raill a ill 5. 2 buttocks. 3 vagina. 4 See ~. "SaPE hetu kClICltu dhan terE." --bhn kabir. 'accumulated wealth.' ~ '[tfliIT [kaldar rupya] See ~ F.P<:ft. ClMQ~d [kaldhaut] See ~. ~ [kaldhari] See ~. 'ClMita' [kaldh:Jt] Skt n gold. "kaldh:Jt ke bhukhan ag sClje jIh ki ChClbI 56 savIta dab-hi."-krIsan.


2 silver. 3 adj whose dirt has been washed away; spotless. cmo [kalan] Skt n counting. 2 making, creating. 3 morsel. 4 adorning, embellishing. a1?O'W [kalnama] a chapter in Sausakhi and Gurpratap Suray, wherein is a description of actions marking the age of vice. "kalnama gurbakhas sIgh taka dina eh."-GPS. rutt 5,

ch 24.
[kalap] Skt ~ n process, method; action worth performing. 2 part of a Ved, in which are described the actions to be performed during oblations as also the recitation ofVedmantars on different occasions and advantages to be gained therefrom. 3 According to Purans Brahma's day is equivalent to 4,320,000,000 years. In the disputation at Mecca there is a strange assumption about kalap i.e when a leaf of the Kalap tree falls a blap has elapsed and when all the leaves fall, holocaust takes place. 4 Kalap tree. 5 short for 'Clmfi'iT. "atarI blap bhClvaiE joni."-prabha a ill 5. "rove put na kCllpE mai."-asa ill 1. 6 S doubt, suspicion. ~~ [blapsutr] scriptures composed by saints like Ashvlayan and Apstamb detailing methods for performing oblation etc. 2 a book written by Jain Saint Bhadarvahu. ~ [kalpaI).a] See 'Clmfi'iT. "manu drIru bn aSaI).I bESU jagi, ta teri kalpaI).a jai."-raill a ill 3. ~ [kCllaptClru] ~Jf [kClIClpdrum] Kalap tree See~. ~ l)fQilT [kalClpdrum anuja] Lakshmi, the youngest sister of Kalap tree. According to Purans, both of them emerged from the churning of the ocean. "blapdrum ki anuja kamni bIn."-CarItr 109. 'Lakshmi lost her grace. ' ~ [kaIClpdhenu] Kamdhenu, which fulfils the wish that comes to mind. ~ [kalpClna] Skt ~ n creation. 2 remedy,

ISee Lady Login's recollections, page 80.

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effort. 3 scheme, plan. 4 pretext, logic. S feeling. ~ [kalapbIrach] ~ [kalapvrrk~]

[kalpa] bedding sheet. See ~. "ta par blpa ruCIr bIchava."-NP An ignorant scribe has written blpa in place of talpa. ~(!T [kalpaul).a] v cause worry, upset, render fanciful. ~ [kalpE] See qm 5. ~ [kalaph] A ...;.( 11 lunar spot that looks black. 2 scar on the face. 3 dye that is used to colour grey hair; hairdye. See CX'f'ffiF. ~ [blab] A ~ 11 heart. ClMawe [kalbalat] 11 furore, hue and cry, din in which nothing is audible. "blbalat ham ne sunpava."-GPs. 2 cry in distress. ~ [kalbfk] See ~. ~ [blbut] See ~. ~ [kalabh] Skt 11 young one of an elephant. 2 young one of a camel. 3 thorn-apple. ~ [kalbhi] feminine ofkalabh. ~'IDf [kalam] A (pen. "kalam jalau sal).u maSVal).iE."-var srI m 3. 2 branch of a tree, cut for grafting. 3 anything looking like a pen. 4 short for C:l"MW. "kalam khudai paku khara." -maru solhe m 5. 'To remain absolutely pious is a divine order.' S Skt a variety of rice. Cl'IDf1f [kalmakh] Skt ~ 11 spot, blemish. 2 sin, defect. ~ [blamzan] P cJ;)1 11 writer. 2 painter, artist. 3 adj struck off what was already written; material stricken off. ~ [kalamdan] P cJ1.J'- penstand, a small box for keeping pen, inkpot and other writing material. am-rfuy [kalamrrpu] 11 penknife.-scmama. crnHM' [blmal] See ~. ~ [kalmalana] v writhe. 2 fidget and make noise. "kalmalat Ikathi bhat bhir."-GPS.

"kai hajar subhat kaImall2."-GPs. [kalmCllI] rendered impious in the era of vice. "kalmah hoi medni."-var mCJla m 3. cmw [kalma] A j ' 11 Muslim confession of faith. ~~~:M1r;;lIl~ "la Ilah Ill-Iahu muMmadurrasulCJllah." i.e. None but Allah is worthy of worship and Mohammad is His prophet. "tClV turOlk janam kalma ucar."-GPs. 2 meaningful sentence. 3 talk, matter, discourse. ~ [kalmas] Skt 9'i(~ adj black. 2 dappled. 3 name of a country.. See Ci(ffi-fTC3f. ~ [kalmaspadl] Skt 'ti<,lillSlqIC; adj (one) having black feet. 2 11 a Surajvanshi king named Saudas who ruled over Ayodhya. Once his cook (who was a demon in disguse) cooked human flesh and served it to Vashisht. Getting enraged, the sage cursed the king to turn into a demon. The king also took palmful of water to curse the sage in return because he thought himself to be innocent. His queen, Madyanti, forbade him from doing so. The king spilt the water on his feet that he had taken in his hand. As a result, his own feet turned black. cmHTCl' [kalmak] CiR'j}f'1:f [kalmakh] T JL$ 11 Tartar country. 2 ad} Tartar. "mmi jagi IrmClni hab:;>i te kalmak." -mago. C{M}jt [kCllmi] adj wriitten with a pen. 2 grafting of a branch. ~ [kalmurClG] P [,;./;6 ghoga[. In Punjabi, this bird is also known as baggi-Ill i.e. a white kite. The female is black in colour. It lays eggs in nests made upon trees during the summer months. This bird lives on the rural filth. Only when it is in heat, does it cry, otherwise it always keeps mum. "maryo kalmurg kalol jIY me bhae."-52 poets. cmHG [blmot] also known as Khera-Kalmot. This village is situated in police station Nurpur, tehsil Una, district Hoshiarpur. Its residents had

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looted a Sikh congregation that was on its way to Anandpur. The tenth Guru raided the village and punished the offenders. Now a gurdwara stands at this place. The peepal tree under which the Guru sat is still in existence. Gurpalah is three or four miles to the north ofthis place. Khera Kalmot is 13 miles to the east of Garh Shankar railway station. ~ [kalar] n alkaline soil. Skt~. 2 hard and dry land that cannot be cultivated. 3 alkaline. "kalar keri kadh JIU ahImsI kIn qhahI paI."-sri m 1. 4 nitre, saltpetre. "kalar SUI, kIukan bhavjalu laghasI?"-maru solhe m 1. 'Nitre dissolves in water.' Here it stands for hyprocritical actions. aMaa'i!M [kala?kaval] See C<MdCXM. QlIi5'dT [kalra] See ~. "kahe kalra sfcahu?" -basatm 1. ~ [kalan] in the barren land. "kalan kheti bijiE kIU laha pavE?"-asa am 1. QM'i!'3' [kalvatl, ~ [kalvatI], ~ [kalvatu], ~ [kalvatr] Skt saw. See~. 2 with a saw. "kacan VanE pase kalvatI cirIa." -asa farid. CflI5"'i!Td' [kalvar], aM.~!'rd [kalvan], aM'i!ilfl [kalvari], 0ffi'i!Tffi [kalvali] Skt ~ n distiller ofliquor. "rikalvan gavan muqhrnatI."-keda kabir. "kalI kalvali kam mad."-var bIha s mardana. "kalI kalvali maIa mad mitha."-asa m 1. 2 adj noisy. "kalI kalvalI sara nIberi." -ram am 1. 'In the era of vice [kalyug], cases are decided through noisy religious quarrels.' ~ [kalvfk] Skt n male sparrow. "kir kalvfk kak."-NP. 2 water-melon. 'aW [kala] n strife; goddess of war. "tabE kala guru ke nIktai."-GV 6. 2 quarrel, riot. 3 Skt part, portion. 4 sixteenth part. 5 60 th part ofthe 30th portion [as] ofa sign ofthe Zodiac. 6 power, authority. "dhara!).I akasu jaki kala mahI." -b;Jsat m 5. 7 feat, game. "Esi kala na kheqiE

jItu dargahI gaIa hariE."-var asa. 8 basis, support. "bajhu kala dhar gagan dharia."-b;Jsat a m 1. 9 contraption, machine. 10 learning. 11 skill. "sarab kala samrath."-bav;Jn. Ancient poets have divided learning and skills into 64 categories, but a difference of opinion exists. Sixteen are mentioned in Brahamvaivarat. Poet Ban mentions 48; Kalavilash and Mahabharat talk of 64; and 84 are mentioned in Lalit Vistar. Ifwe enumerate them, then they may perhaps go to several hundred. kala should mean learning and skill. See lrnu'C':i{W, irno'C':i{W and fueJrr. qW [kala] P u[( adj large, big. 2 some ignorant people write kala as plural of kala. ~ [kalai] Skt CffiTffi n joint of the hand and the arm; wrist. a"M'cit!' [kalakad] n a sweet made of sugar candy; a special sweetmeat in which sugar is added to condensed milk by heating. ~ [kala!).], ~ [kala!).I] Skt ~ n happiness, well being. 2 benediction, blessing. 3 glory; praise sung in the morning by Bhats etc. "tudhu sace sub-han sada kala!).Ia."-var majh m 1. "bagaburgu sf,Bia nale mIli kalaI).." -var suhi m 1. See '§"d'W. 2 adv through praise, by eulogising . "saca khasamu kalaI).I kamalu vIgsIa."-var majh m 1. «WtI'd' [kaladhar] Skt n the moon, which has sixteen phases. 2 the Creator, the Omnipotent. "akal kaladhar soi." -sIdhgosatI. 'He is immortal and omnipotent.' 3 See tjQ'F<>fQ (b). ~ [kaladhari] adj powerful. 2 See ~. cm"O [kalan] See ~. 2 See CX"1¥. 3 P u[( n crown. "kam ke kalan bIdhI kine hE bIcarke."-aj. awfC'lfQ [kalamdhI] Skt n moon. 2 adj adept in learning and in craft. ~ [kalanaJr] main town ofa tehsil in district Gurdaspur. Akbar was enthroned here and this

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town was very dear to him. In Sammat 1772, Banda Bahadur, with help from Khalsa Dal, conquered Kalanaur and Singhs were appointed faujdars in place ofSuhrab Khan. QWtr [kalap] Skt n sect, community. "pap kalap ap chapjEhE."-GPS. 2 tail of a peacock. "pakh dharyo bhagvan kalapi."-knsan. 3 quiver. 4 belt, girdle. S trade, commerce. awtft [kalapi] Skt ~n peacock. See QWtr. 2 adj wearer of a quiver belt. ~ [kalabattu] P (j?!J{ interwined wire of gold and silver. aws·tf! [kalabaji] (the art of) acrobatic feat. 2 a jump in which the body spins with head down and feet above. ~ [blam], aH'li [kalamu] A (Jt n dialogue comprising many utterances; convl;:rsation, talk. 2 utterance, maxim. 3 See 01?1f. "sabhna IIkhIa vuri kalam."-japu. "karmi vahE kalam."-var sar ill 1. cmrHffiJ [blamullah], ~ [kalamulla] A iJ1(Jt per Muslim faith, the utterance of God, Koran. "kalamullah ki an tIhare.,,_carrtr 38. ~ [kalar], ~ [blari], ~ [kalal], Cffi'l'm) [kalalan], ~ [kalalanI], ac?r'ffift [kalalni], ~ [kalali] Skt liquor distiller. "ek bud bhar tanu manu devau jo madu deI kalali re."-ram kabir. 'kalali' means the disposition to be selfsufficient. 2 earthen vessel in which liquordistiller carries out fermentation. "kaIa kalalanI lahanI melau." -ram kabir. ~ [kalavat] artist, singer, musician. 2 scholar. 3 moon. 4 powerful, mighty. a1?~ [kalavatni] female musician. 2 prostitute. 3 female scholar. ~ [kalava] P HiD' n embrace, hug. 2 skein, a ball of thread. ~ [kalavan], ~ [kalavat] See ~. [bII] Skt n sin. 2 strife, dispute. "he kalImul krodha."-sahas m 5.3 the fourth era.

"hOVE parvaI,la karallI dhIBaI,la kalI lakhaI,l vicarI .... je ko satu kare so chijE tap ghdrI tapu nd hoi. je ko nau lae badnavi kalI ke lakhaI,l ei."-ram amI. See ~raT. 4 warrior, hero. S This word has also been used for the people of kalIyug, the era of evil. "blI hoi kutemuhi."-var sar mI. 6 This word has also been used for Kalki Avtar. "p:m saman bahE kalI ban."-kdlki. 7 Skt Cf~ part in the day to dawn, tomorrow. "kheIClI,lu aju kI kalI."-sri a mI. ~ [kaIIura] See ac~. ~ [kalI-avtar] Kalki Avtar, who will end the era of vice [kallCyug]. See ~ 2. ~ [kalIaI,l] See qR;)})f'() 2. 2 See ~. ~ [bIIaJ)may], ~ [kalIaI,lmE] blissful, beneficial. "kalIaI,lmE pargat bhae." -brha cMt m 5. ~ [bIIan] See oRilJl1re. kalyan that (scale) has five notes. It has many variants; its pure form is give here. In arohi maddham (4 th note) and nI~ad (7th note) are forbidden. gadhar (3 rd note) is primary and dhEvat (6 th note) is secondary. maddhdm (4 th note) is sharp and the rest are all pure notes. Its time of singing is the first quarter of night. arohi- ~a, ra, ga, pa, dha, ~a. avrohi·· 1;)a, na, dha, pd, mi, ga, ra, ~a. In Guru Granth Sahib, Kalian is at the twenty-ninth place . 2 a town in Bombay presidency: which was once the capital of Chalukya Rajputs. ~ [kaII~t] Sktf~E(,:" adj grieved, distressed. 2 difficult, hard, tough. aFMCJ'd'J [bIIhari] adj termagant, quarrelsome (woman). 2 SkI' n a herb also known as blIkari. Aconitum Napellum. Its effect is hot and dry. H cures diseases of blood, piles, phlegm, cough alld oolic pain. It heals wounds, aborts pregnancy and kills fleas.

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afMaMR [kaIIbles] strifes of the era of evil.
"mItane sabhI kaIIkales."-ram ill 5.

afisar [kaIIka] Skt n sixteenth phase of the
moon. 2 pod; flower bud, lily. "dutI kaIIka radanmanfdu."-GPs. 'Like White lily is the glamour of teeth. ' ~ [kaIIkal] era of vice [kaIIyug]. (a)surtai adhre me drIrhtai pahan me nasIka canan madhy n:m rahi hat me, dharm rahyo pothIn vagai rahi vrIk;;an me badh prapa piitan me pani rahyo ghat me, yahI kalIkal ne bIhal kio sab jag, "nayak" sukavI ktsi bani hE kuthat me, raj rahi pathan rajai rahi ~itkal raja bhayo nai aru rai rahi bhat me. (b)mirzade pirzade asal amirzade sahIb fakirzade go~e tan go rahe, rayzade rauzade ~ahzade sahuzade kul ke aSIlzade tajpan kho rahe, "thakur" kahIt kaIIkal ke kahIr bic pahIr pahIr piche bhare bhram bho rahe, dan kIrpan samE syan gurugyan samE sabh zade mItkt haramzade ho rahe. (c) kur bhaye kiJvar majur bhaye maldar sur bhaye gupat a~ur bhaye jabre, data bhaye krIpan adata kahE data ham dhani bhaye nIdhan nIdhan bhaye gabre .saCIn ki batan patyat kou jag majh raj darbaran bulEye10g labre, bhanat "prabin" ab chin bhai hfmat, so blIyug adal badal gare sagre. 2 evil time; painful period. See 3. 1 l M1 [kaIIkali] See ~. afMa [kalfg] Skt ~ n a dust-coloured bird, whose neck is long and head is red. "bolat bpot bhrfg khajan kalfg kal."-NP. 2 water melon. 3 the territory which lies between the western Ghats and Godavari. To its north is



lIn Mahabharat, Bhisham has accused the king of being
the cause of yug s as: "raja kalasy karrya."

Orissa. 4 fdr jS (Holarrhena antidy- senterica). 5 sarih tree (alhizziallebbek). afi;farr [kalfga] See cxf<far. afi;fmr [blfjar] a town in Bundelkhand. It is known for the ancient fort built by Chandel king Kiratbrahm, and Nilkanth temple known as Kottirath. "des kalfjar ke nIkat SEn bICacchan rai."-carItr 240. "bge si kalfjar, sabhan mukh radan si, nanak ki kiratI satokh sigh ganIye."-NP. See ~;:Rf. crfi;mar [kaIIjug] See ~ and gar. "kaIIjug udharIa gurudev."-asa ill 5.2 See ~ 2. ami [kalIJ).a] blissful."dharam phoktaI).o sabhE IkkevlakalII).a bIna."-kalki. afHo [kaIIt] Skt adj accumulated, gathered. 2 afflic1l~d with. "kaIIt krodh."-pards. 3 decorated, embellished. "astaran bar mndul kaiit kar."-GPS. 4 wellknown. 5 fascinating, captivating. 6 See ~. ~ [biittar], ~ [kalItr] See ~. afifu' [kalfd], ~ ~ [blfdkanya], ~tft [blfdi], ~ [kalfdra], ~ [kalfdri] Skt ~ n bahera tree (beleric myrobalan). 2 sun. 3 a mountain that is the source ofriver Yamuna (Jamna). That is why Yamuna is also known as Kalindi and Kalind Kanya. "blIdra ke srighG te nIksyo ahI ko phan kop bharyo hE." -krIsan. ~ [kaIIpatar], ~ [kalIpataru] See "IJd"3'g and ~. "ek nam kaIIpatar tare." -gdU k;:Jbir. "k;:l1Ipataru rogbIdar sasartap nIvar." -s;:Jveye ill 2 ke. afM!!ldl'i!d [bIIbhagvat] Skt afM!!l'dl'i!d a heretic of the era of vice [kaIIyug]; hyprocritical worshipper. "kalIbhagvat bad cHama." -prabha beni. 'pretends to worship for a long time.' ~ [blImal] Skt n sin, fault. "kaIImal garan manahI sadharan."-dev ill 5. ~ [kalImul] basis of the era of evil

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[kaIIyug]. 2 root of strife. "he kalImul krodha!"-sahas m 5. ~ [bIIyug] the fourth era/aeon. See aft? 3 and~. 2 a priest of Jaganl1ath, who was a great hyprocrite and evil doer. Under the influence of Guru Nanak Dev, he turned into a noble and philanthropic person. afM'daft [kaIIyugi] adj pertaining to the era of evil. 2 riotous. Qlift [kali] kalIyug - the era of vices. See aft? "nahI dokh bIapahI kalI."-keda m 5. 2 quicklime. 3 earthen top of a hubble··bubble. 4 gusset of a shirt. 5 verse, line. "bli madh car jagan banaI."-rupdip. 6 bud. "ali kali hi 56 bIdhyo. "-brhari. 7 artistic, mighty. "kI sarbablihE. "-japu. 8A ~ metal extracted from a mine named kala; bangle; stannum. ~ [kalikal] era of vice [kaIIyug]. "kalikal ke mIte kalesa."-suhi m 5. See aft?' 3 and

Skt ~ n dirt, filth. 2 soot. 3 stigma, blot. 4 sin. 5 anger. ~ [kalucarE] sayeth poet Kalh. "kalucarE jasu japau lahDe rasan."-saVEye m 2 ke. ~ [blu] See aft? "ab kalu aIO re! Iku namu bovahu."-basJt m 5. ql:f [kalukh] See cilC21f. "khot blukhan dindayal."-NP ~ [kalukhat] Skt~:r adj sinning, guilty. 2 stigmatised. 3 n sin, fault, filth. "sadhkE sagI kalukhat harE."-s ukhmani. at}(')iHfo [blunasam] Ganga, which, according to the Hindu faith, is believed to be the destroyer of sins.-sanama. ~ [blub] A ",:",:l11 plural ofkalab (heart) ~ [kalur] See a;~;r. "kasatvar kullu kalur."

em [kale] advwhich subsumes the underworld;
underneath. "pfdhi ubh kale sasara."-dhana namdev. The world is llike a Persian wheel whose earthen vessells go into water, then come out and thus this process continues. ~ [kales] Skt ~H n grief. 2 dispute. 3 anxiety, worry. 4 anger; 5 In Sanskrit texts, scholars have mentioned five types of kale:;;. (a) ignorance, lack of understanding, misunderstanding. (b) pride and arrogance of material wealth. (c) love and fondness for material things. (d) animosity, enmity. (e) insistence ~n performing undesirable deeds and fearing the consequence of death [kalesar], m~~f [ble:;;var] a mountain in Bibhaur, district Hoshiatpur. " nam kalesar brahme dharyo."-GPS and GV 10. [kaleja] See ~t1I". "karak kaleje mahI." -var mala m 1. Dg :D(~. ~ Jbled] Skt Ofc~ See c:rfue' vr n dampness. 2 sweat, perspiraltiol1" 3 distress, pain. 4 puke, vomit.



affitJr [kalica] See ~. aHlt!' [kalid] P J/ n key. al'fu:!r [kalida] n water-melon. "kharbuja J kalida
sajal bIkariE."-BGK.

cnfu.r [blim] {conversationalist, speaker,
orator. "kI sarba kalipE."-japu. 'He speaks on everything.' 2 A (-it country, a region of the earth. See E clime. "jahar kalim haftaz." -ramav. 'evident from the seven foreign lands.' See ~ fuoR;fu.f. ~ [bliyah] A --:! n meat cooked on a round thick iron plate. 2 meat roasted after mmcmg. ~ [blil] A meagre, inadequate, insufficient. ~ [bliv] Skt Cfi:,cflq n impotent person, eunuch. "talan pur kaliv su nacah:r."-NP. 2 cowardly, timid. ~ [blu] See aft? and~. ~ [kalukh], ~ [kalukha], ~ [blukhai]




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at:1'd ' fe

a-z;f~ [kalJdar], a-z;f-eg [kaIJdaru] P .1ft or 2 sweat. .lfi adj indifferent, carefree. 2 a particular ~ [kalevar[ SkI n body, physique. 2 frame. class of mendicants. See ~. "au kalJdar ~ [kaleva] breakfast, light meal. kesva."-bhErnamdev. "manu mandaru tanuves d [kalE] See 0fffiT. 2 SkI destroyer. 3 epoch, kalJdaru."-brla m 1. 'For me mind is the time. "nep na avai jamkJkar jamkalE."-var temple, and body a carefree attire.' 3 These maru 1 m 3. 'Messenger of the god of death days a person who makes monkeys dance is and the time of dying will not get close. ' also known as a kalJdar. [kalEr] n peacock's tail, tuft of feathers. "jog to janlio tum udhav, ~ [kalEri] adj plumed. 2 n peacock. asan sadh samadhI lagane, [kaloh] a village in tehsil Hamirpur, district purak recak kGbhak ki gatI, Kangra, where the tenth Guru stayed. En lagavat thik thIkane, ~ [kalota] See ~. pE jasudhasut ke jou btak, ~ [kalol] SkI ~. n wave, ripple. "maha ky5kar tu rId atar ane. kalol bujhahI man ke."-dhana m 5. 2 state mani munfdar su jane kaha kachu ofbliss, mind's longing. bJd;;r bhed kalJdar jane-das. ~ [kal5ji] n black cumin; nigella indica. Its a-z;flrcr [kal5bak] SkI n a type of green leafy vegetable that grows upon the surface of water effect is hot and dry. It is used as condiment in the preparation of mango pickle and several like a creeper. 2 lotus. "cJdan dhup kadJb other medicines. • kalabak dipak dip taM darsae."-krrsan. 'The ~ [kalJk] SkI ~ n fault, shortcoming. flowers of sandalwood, frankincense, kadab 2 ignominy, defamation. 3 blemish, stain. and 10,tus shone like magical lamps.' 4 black spot on the moon's surface. 5 material ~ [kalam] See m?H. "hathI kalam agJm." such as calcined tin, used in the preparation of -phvnl1e m 5. medicines etc. "dhatu me tamk hi kalak Qare ~ [kalhl See arsJr. amk baran met kanak prakas hE."-BGK. ~ [kalhaI:\] a scholar, Kashmiri Brahmin by ~ [kalakar] adjwho brings into being power, caste, who in the twelfth century wrote the knowledge and craft. "kalJkar rupe."-japv. chronicle of Kashmir named "Rajtarangini" in 2 enemy of evil. Sanskrit. It is written in stanzas, and gives an ~ [kalJki] adj stigmatised, blemished. account of Kashmir from the 7lh century. 2 Kalki Avtar. "parsuram ram kIsan ho kIlak ClI13idire [kalharaI], ~ [kalharay] a chieftain kalJki atI ahakare."-BG. of Raikot (district Ludhiana) who was raja of ClIlfar [kaIJg] ~. 2 SkI a branch of river Tihara territory -near Jagraon. He was a Brahmputar, which flows in Assam. Kalang devotee of Guru Gobind Singh. The Guru river. reached Raikot from Machhivara disguised as ClI1'fcrrr. [kaIJga] See ~ and ~. plural of a Muslim pir. He gave him all the resources at offi'a'. "janam janam ke hare kaIJga."-brla m 5. his disposal. He sent his shepherd Nuru to 2 a plume-like flower. Sirhind who broughtthe news ofthe martyrdom ~ [kalaj] SkI ~ n tobacco. 2 creature of the Guru's younger sons. The Guru killed with a poisoned arrow. bestowed a sword to Kalharay and bade him

~ [kaledan] Skt ~ n wetness, dampness.

m emu

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to keep it with reverence. Kalhe: obeyed him to the full but his grandson donned the sword during hunting. After getting injmed with it, he died the same day by falling from a horse. People of Kalha's community now live in Raikot. Two articles ofthe Guru are with them: one is a jug for containing sacred water and the other is a rehal, a foldi~g book-stand. See

mur [kaly] Skt n early morning, dawn.
2 tomorrow. 3 yesterday. 4 liquor. 5 tavern, pub. 6 a Bhatt singer ofthe Guru's glory. "kabI kaly sujas gavau guru nanak." -savEye mIke. C?lMOI1Acl l § [kalyas-haru] a Bhatt singing the Guru's glory. "kalyas-haru tasu gut). japE." -scweye m 4 ke. ~ [kalypal] See CifMTM'. ~ [kalyalJ.] Skt n well being, welfare. 2 heaven. 3 name of a rag. See CX'ful?-f'7i' 2. mur~ [kalyalJ.raI] In Guni Nanak Chandroday, it is the name ofBaba Kalu. See

[kalyalJ.i] n Durga; Goddess, whom the Hindus regard as the bringer of bliss . 2 short for Mata Kot Kalyani. See QT>-RlTlif. tm:iJTO [blyan] See CfM"JIT~. 2: See ~. benediction; blessing. "IU sun harakh uthyo mardana. ucryo srI nanak kalyana. pIta pItamah par pun parke. barnan narn kare jag guru ke. subh gun sag kin parsasa. nIpjyo vedikul avtasa."-NP ~ [kalyana] a disciple of Guru Aljan Dev, who was a spiritual and devout person.. During the settlement of Amritsar, he went to the hills to collect funds and timber etc. At Mandi he was in great trouble. Due to the nonobservance of fast on the occasion of the celebration of Krishan's birthday and for not doing worship in the temple, he was arrested on the orders of the raja ofMandi. Taking him


to be an atheist, the raja wished to impose heavy punishment upon him, but on listening to the sermon of this spiritual personage, he bacame a totally changed man. So he fell upon Kayana's feet and sought forgiveness. The raja accompanied by Bhai Kalyana reached Amritsar for the Guru's audience and became his disciple. 2 a de:voted disciple ofGuru Arjan Dev. He belonged to the Bindrau subcaste. He also served Guru Hargobind and took part in the crusades. See ~~~ l:fT. ~tffi [kalyucr£l Poet Kaly sayeth. "guru ramdas kalyucn:.'''-savEye m 4 ke. mrlra'r [k~lyora] See O~Q. "kam ju nE kOrIk kalyora kEdh6 kare hE. "--krrsan. 'as if cupid has assumed innumerablle forms. ' chra" [kallar] See ern-d. cCMaaM [kailarkaJI]lotlls in barren land, that is, getting best from the worst. 2 a noble fellow taking birth in an ignoble family. "kallarbl bhagat prahIlad."-BG. cfw [kallo] adj alone, all alone. 2 P j( n part of the face that lies between the cheek and the neck; jaw. we [kav] Skt ~ vr compose verse, narrate, draw pictures. 2 See emf. ~ [kavka] See qfuc~. ~ [kavac] Skt n that which obstructs air; armour, coat of mail. 2: protective mantar. "ram kavac das ka sanahu. "-g.'5d m 5. 3 kettledrum. ~ ~ [kavac sanah] wearing an armour or coat of mail. ~ [kavacni] army wearing armour. -sanama. C1iihl i SCl [kavcatclkl, ~ ~ [kavcatkarl destroyer of armour; sword, arrow, spear and gun.-sanama. am [kavacil adj wearer of armour. ~ [kavacul See~ir. ~ [kavgi] cowrie. "'kIs-hU na kavgi pun te

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kab hi lld kayohi dehge."-kalki.
~ [kavaQQi] a rural sport. The players are


divided into two groups, with a line drawn on the ground. A player from one side goes to the other side of the line continuously uttering, "Kavadi, Kavadi." He touches someone on the rival side and comes back to his side without taking a breath and getting caught. If he is caught then he loses. The only tact required is to touch an opponent without taking a breath and not be caught on that side. CNC!' [kava!).], ~ [kava!).u] pran who. "tIn kaval:nJ khalavE kavanu cugavE?"-sodaru. ~ [kavtak] See "kalahI kavtak kar bhari."-kalki. ~ [kavta] See~. 2 poet. "kavte bhi jasi." -var maru 2 m 5. ~ [kavan], ~ [kavanu] See~. "kavan gun pranpatI mIlau meri mai?"-gau m 5. "kavanu sujan jo sauda jorE?"-gau m 5. ~ [bvar] See ~. "par nari ke het btak . kavran ko ghayo."--CdTItr 21.2 morsel. See ~. 3 Skt salt. 4 s~ur juice. 5 curl, tress. ~ [kavra] adj bitter. "pac bIadhI tIagE kavre."-gauam 1. ~ [bvri] cowrie. 2 bitter. 3 Skt plait, brai'd. ~ [kaval] Skt n morsel. "bharyo kaval br anan payo."-GPS. 2 lotus. "gur ke caran kaval rId dhare."-sor m 5. "kaval khne mukh kdv~l sudhare."-GPS. 'put morsels into the lotuslike open mouth. ' ~ [kavalnEn] See ~ . "kavalnEn madhurbhm."-savEye m 4 ke. ~ [kavalpargas] See~. "kaval pargas bhae sadh sage."-guj m 5. ~ [kavlay] See~. CWW [kavla] Lakshmi. See CitH'W. "bvla caran saran hE jake."-gau kabir. ~ [kavlas] Kailash mountain. See af'awJ:r. "kavlas mE dhyan chutyo har ka."-cJ(ii 1. See


[kavlasan] Brahma. See ~. Cl'ilMiHc..rfa" [bvlaspatI] Lord of Kailash mountain, Shiv. See 1..RH~. Cl~M'ljGl [bvlasray], ~ [kavlasri] Vishnu, the protector of lotus, from whose navel emerged this flower. "man mE kavlasri jo gyana."-arhJta. Cl~M'oi'a [kavlakat], ~ [kavlapatI] See ~ and~. "harIjas su!).ahI tIsu kavla kata."-var sor m 4. ~ [kavalu] morsel. See ~. "kalE kavalu nnajan janE."-maru solhe m 1. 'One who knows Him, devours death,' i.e. a spiritual person conquers death. 'ClW [kava] A L:;; n plural ofkuvatt. strength, might. 2 See~. . ~ [kavau] See~. 2 spoken word, mandate. "kita pasau eko kavau."-japu. See ~ vr. 3 See ~. "de lEsahI jfd kavau."-var asa. 'body as garment.' ~ [kavaI] A '1 n dress, costume of a rich man. "gUrI diba!).I kavaI pEnaio."-sri m 5 pEpar. "galahu kavaI khol pahInai."-BG.


~ [kavaId] A ~I} plural ofkaIdah. rule.

2 drill. "karE kavaId vIdya sag."-GPs.

[kavai] See ~. "kaha su lal kavai." -asa am 1. ~ [kavaci] adjwho wears an armour. "bhayo re!).uka te kavaci kuthari."-paras. ~ [bvat] Skt n that lets air in and out; door. ~ [bvad], ~ [bvada] A A} adj shameless, immodest, devoid of self-respect. "dargahi hon khuar kavade."-BG. 2 guide, leader. "dIl mahI SOCI bICarI kavade! bhIsat dojak kInI pai?"-asa kabir. 'Leaders of the Muslims! ponder within.' See~. ~ [bvadI] See Y>fTfeafu. "dhru prahrlad kavadI tIlocan."-NP.


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[kdvayad] See ~. [kdvali] See ~. ~ [kavav] See ~. "ek kavav!' te sabh hoa."-maru m 5. See ~ vr. ~ [kavar] See~. 2 door. See Ol~. ~ [kavI] See ~ vr one who composes, creates or narrates is a poet. Scholars have described four types of poets: "path curav!' bharya, arth curaVE put, bhav curaVE mit so, sute kahE avdhut. arth hE mul bhali tuk qar su achar patr hE dekhkE jijE, ch;:}d hE phul navo ras so phal dan ke ban s6 sicbo kijE, "dan" kahE y3 prabinan s6 suthri kavIta sunkI' ras pijE, kiratI ke bIrva kavI hE In ko kdb-hu kumlan na dijE. kaha guru karan dadhicI balI benu kaha sake saIIvahan ke aj-hu b gae hE, kahii pnthu parath pururava puhamIpatI haric;:}d puran ;) bhoj vIdtae hE, kahE "matIram" kou kavIn ko nfdo mat kaVIn pratap sab desan me chae hE, qhuq dekho tin 10k ami hE kavIn mukh kete mue mue raja kavIn jrvae hE. 2 n Valmiki. 3 Shukar. 4 Brahma.. :5 Pandit. 6 in Bengal a physician is also called a kavi. 'i5l'fucr [kavIkl, ~ [kavIka] Skt rein, bridle. "mukhbal asu kaVIka jIv mani."-NP. 'like a bridle for an intractable horse.' See


authored by the: well-known Hindi scholar Keshav Das. "pragat p;:}cmi ko bhayo kavIpnya avtar, sorE SE atthanvE' phagun SUdI budhvar." ~ [kavIraj:l supreme poet. 2 Valmiki. 3 Shukracharya. 4 Vyas. 5 Bhai Gurdas. 6 Bhai Nandlal. 7' Bhai Santokh Singh. 8 Vedraj, a supreme physician. See ~ 6. [kavi] See a:fu. 2 blue lotus, water lily. "c;:}drama sIvEya ko kavikE pahICaniE."-dkal. "kaulu ttl hE kavia tu hE."-sri m 1. 3 A tJ J strong, mighty, powerful. ~ [bvial).] Ski poets have. "sujas kdly kavian bakhal).HJ. "-sdvEye m 5 ke. ~ [kavisar], C~Q [kavisvar] master poet.



cR [kave] Skt 'Cfi'2t: of the poet. "git nad kaVIt
kave sunI."-tukha bardhmaha. 'having heard music and poetry. ' wfq [kav;:}dh] See o~h:r. ~ [kavy] See~;r. food given or oblation performed after the invocation of ancestors. 2 food from which balls or cakes are prepared for the ancestors. 3 world of ancestors. 4 admirer. ~ [kaval] A Ji j singer; one who sings in the congregation of sufis. Its root is ~(1i. or.r [karl n layer. of gmvel. 2 attraction. "kap badhan biidhIO sis mar."-basJt a m 3. 3 restraint. "ma:[a moh nIt karu."-var ram 1 m 3.4 sound producl~d by gunfire. 5 See CG?iT. ~ [ka+aiE] be boiled:: be cooked; be pained or troubled "ta mere manu, kaItu karaiE?"-g3<;l m4. ~ [karak] n sound produced by lightning or gun fire. a;;rcr<!T [karakl).a] v crackle, give out a loud sound. 2 thunder. "SIn karkIO kal. "-bhEr m 5. ~C!'" [karkaul).a] v crackle, break. "jfdu nImani kdqhiE haqa ku karkaI."-S farid.


~ [kavIt] See~. "pothi gitkavIt kIchu

kade na karanI dhana."-sri d m 1.
~ [kavIta] Skt n verse; compostion in verse.

[kavItt] See 0lfil'3' and~. ~ [kavItra] See ~. ~ [kavItva] Skt composing of verse, poem. 2 prudence, cleverness. 3 poetic quality. ~ti(T [bvIprIya] a book on poetics

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[kdrkha] See ~. car or kirtdn bdhI kdrE. ~ [kdrcha] ~ [brchi] See CiRfii:T ~. jo prdsad ko bat hE mdn me dhare Iobh, "kdrchia phIranI, sau nd jdDnI sUJ1ia."-var kISI thora kISI dggIa sada rdhE tIS sog." -tanama guj2 m 5. Q;fi") [kdrdn], ~ [kdrna] v fasten tightly, pavan tan pavan kar than ghnt mEda Ie khad saman, shackle. 2 See csr;ror. "ta kaItu kdriE?"-var gau 1 m 4. 3 Skt ~ vr become unconscious kdr karah japu path su thanE, in grief or due to ecstasy. "sdtIguru jIni gurprasad ardas bakhanE."-GPs. dhIaIa se kdrIn sdvahi."l-var sri m 4. 'They See~and~. are always engrossed in ecstasy.' 4 M ~ C:{;JI'ijT [karaha] See acru. "tapat karaha bujhI gaIa."-maru m 5. Here it means a mind adv far away, on the other bank. ~ [kdrmUr] onom crackling sound. "koIdar troubled by perversions and distresses. kdrmUrE."-paras. 'The tusk of the boar that ~ [kdrahi] small cauldron. 2 pudding carries the earth crackles.' prepared from flour, sugar and clarified butter. "dhuro pataIo lai brahi."-BG. 3 sweet ca;:r [kdrva] adj bitter. car [kdra] n bangle, bracelet. 2 hard layer of pudding offered to the deities. gravel. 3 bangle-type hook. 4 adj hard, stiff. ~ [karahia] adj one who prepares pudding from flour, sugar and clarified burter. ~ [kdraSdDU], QSTR?l [kdrasdn] MOffiTRO n seat made of deerskin. 2 Skt C{CTFfO seat made ~ [brabr] onom crackling sound of grass. "kaIa kdrasdnu mdnu jagoti." produced by gunfire etc. -sIdhgosatI. See ~. ~ [karaka] n explosion. 2 xa fasting. "SIgh karake se rahf' due tie dIn khahI."-PPP. ~ [kdrah] Skt ~ n cauldron. 2 dish prepared in a cauldron; pudding offlour, sugar 3 scorching heat without rainfall. ~ [karabin] See ~. and clarified butter; hdIva. ~ [kdrahprdsad] n the supreme Sikh ~ Q [karamaDakpur] a village on the bank of Jamna, where the ninth Guru stayed offering made to the Almighty and then distributed among the congregation. It is also on his way back from Thanesar and Banibadarpur. It was here that Guru Teg known as pacamnt and mdhaprdsad. The method of preparation and distribution Bahadur removed Maluk Das Vaishnav's of kdrahprdsad mentioned in rdhItnamas is misconception about the eating of meat. "kare as below: su manak pur ke rahu. gamne satIguru "brah kdrdn ki bIdhI sun IijEbeparvahu."-GPS. tin bhag ko SdmSdr kijE, Qfu" [kafI] tightly. 2 after being rocked, with anxiety. "maIa mohI kare kdfI pacIa."-bher Iepdn agE bdhukdr dijE, majdn br bhajdn dhovijE, m5. kdr Sdnan pdvItr hVE bdhE, af;p,rr [kafIa] adj shackled, fettered. "IIkhI vahIguru bIn dVdr nd kdhE. IIkhI pafIa teta karIa."-varasa. 'Deep study leads to the unfettering of shackles, but the kdr tI ar c:>ki pdr dhdrE, more they read without pondering, the more l"se kdfI TId sdvahi." 'Passion does not turn them into ashes.' do they get egotistic.' 2 distressed, aggrieved.

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n a special type of iron bridle to control intractablle horses. 2 rein, bridle. afiro [kdrrn] See C{;Rj'. q;ft [kdri] n rafter; a wooden piece put aslant on a beam. 2 hook ofa fastening chain. 3 hook attached to the sword's sheath. "kdria dr Cdpras VIsala."-GPS. 4 adj hard, stiff. ~ [kdrial], ~ [kdrialu] See ~. "kdpalu mukhe gun gIanu dnrala ram.':-vdQ m 4 ghoria. ~ [kdrU] See q;r 3. ~ [brua] adjbitter. "mithe kdU kaura kdhE, kdrue kdU mitha."-gdu d m 1. ~ [kdruca] SktwJ n tiny bundle. "mJ:ih kdfUce ghah de chac;l ghore ralii."-cJQi 3. 'took tiny bundles of grass in their mouths to prove themselves as cows.' 'Cl1f01' [karhna] v boil. 2 be aggreived, be distressed. 3 ponder over again and again, practise. "pritI parhE kar pritI karhE rasritln cit suno SUI cakhE."-krIS;:Jn. ~'t [brhi] adj cooked boiled. 2 n salted gramflour dish, or a sweet dish, prepared from fine wheat-flour [mEda]. W [ka] part of. "namk ka prabhu SOl jls ka sabhkoI."-asa m 5. 2 pron what. '''kdhu jan, ka nahi ghar take?"-g;:Ju k;:Jbir. 3 someone. "ka VIrli jaI vuthi."-gdU m 5. 4 which. "dusar nahi thau ka pahI jaiE?"-jet chJt m 5. 5 adj a little, in some measure. "tIna bhukh na ka rahi"-g;:Ju val' 2 m 5. "lobhi ka vesahu na kijE je ka parvasaI."-s;:Jva ill 3. W [ka], ~ [kau], ~ [kau] n crow. "jTO SUJ1E ghan kau."-sri m 3. ~ ~~~ [kau uc;laul).a] v make the crow flyaway; an omen solemnly professed by women; keeping in mind the relative gone abroad, to beckon the crow perched on the house to fly simply by a word ofmouth, without

~ [kdpal] ~ [kdpala]

any gesture to shoo it away; if the crow flies away, it is persumed thatthe relative will return soon. On the contrary, if it does not flyaway, it is evident that his return may be delayed.

[kauke] a village in police station and tehsil Jagraon, district Ludhiana. It is situated four miles away to the west ofJagraon railway station. A gurdwara of Guru Hargobind is situated haifa mile way from the village. The Guru came here from Sidhvan. The main hall ofthis gurdwara is elegantly built. Thirteen ghumaons ofland was donated by the village to this gurdwara. A fair is held on every Baisakhi day. ~ [kau] adj a little, in some measure. "ciri ai . c;lhIl na kau."-var ram 1 ill 1. 2 pron any. 'W€f [kao] See ~~. "jlu SUJ1E ghan kao."-vdQ m 1 ;:Jlahl)i. ~ [kaaba] Sc~e cPa". [kaT], qffu [kaI] adv why. "kaI pap kamaiE?"-asa c11Jt m 5. "kaI patola parti?"-s f;:Jrid. "tu kaI garbahI bavli?"-b;:JsJt r;:JvIdas. 2 for whom, why. "kes muc;lae kaI?"-s k;:Jbir. 3 pron to whom. "jagjivanu jugatI na mIlE kaI."-b;:JsJt mi. 4 Skt Cfil1T n body, physique. ~ [kalau] See O[TlirtI. "kalau dhup dip naibeda."-dh;:Jna pipa. ~ [kalya], cml1fT []calya] Skt CI'Gf n body, physique. "ttl karya mE ruldi dekhi jlo dhar upan charo."--g;:Ju ill 1. "jab lagu kal grasi nahI kala."-bJler k;:Jbir. wftmrr'ffiffir [kala sarir] physique, mortal body. "kala sarin: VleI sabhuklchu pala."-majh;:J m3. ~ [kalakalap] Skt ~ n rejuvenation; a Vedic strategy to once again rejuvenate the body. "kalakalap kijE."-ram




wftmrr eft lffi'lIfo [kala ki aganI] n heat of the

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body that keeps life going. It is generated by established, fixed. "karmu darmu sada the flow ofblood in the veins. 2 egotism. "kara patrsahi."-gcw ravidas. ki aganr braham parjarE."-bhcr kabir. 'Bodily ~ [karrJ Cl'fug [karru] Skt~ adjcowardly, vanity should bum in the intense fire ofspiritual timid, unenterprising. "manmukhu karru knowledge. ' karupu hE."-var v~}(;i m 3. ~ [karabhogi] adj given to enjoying Cl.pead l [karrta] cowardice, timidity, lack of bodily pleasures. 2 he who leads a full life. "ja enterprising spirit. jatu jogi ta karabhogi."-asa m 1. C(Tfug [karru] See qrfua-. ~ [kararat] adjvain (one who loves his ~ [karl] See qt'li{(? body.) "kararat bahu rup raeahi."-gau kabir. 'Cl"tt [kaiJ pron any. "un na kai bata."-ram m qrfuR" [kars], ~ [kars] n dispute, riot. "rah 5. "va kau bradhr na kai."-jet m 5. 2 adj jadi 1£ ka:IS mol."-PPP some, a little. "brnsat bar na lage kai."-prabha ~ [kark] See ~. am 1. 3 n algae. "mrte na bhram ki kai." ~ [karee] adv why, for what purpose. -dhana m 9. 'ignorance as a form of algae.' "karee bharam bhula?"-maru m 1. flaw. ~ [kartJ, ~ [kartu] Skt~ advwhy, Cl'Tt [kaeJ, qi"E: [kae51 adv why, for what for what purpose. "agode je eetie ta kartu mrle purpose. "kae an an rueiE."-sar m 5 partal. sajar?"-asa am 1. a-rR' [kas] pron to whom. 2 n short for »fTClTl1. wrea- [karth], ~ [karthuJ Skt ~ adj "asat kas khat dharar:lI kry."-kalki. 'During the war, the surface of the earth flew to the situated in the body. 2 n soul. 3 conscience. See o('Peatl:g. 4 a caste. See ~. 5 one sky. As a result, six worlds remained below born from a low caste mother and a Kshatri and eight worlds appeared above.' 3 Cfil1IL vr father. It is mentioned in 35 th slok ofAushnas shine, manifest. 4 n glitter, light. 5 moss, grass. Simriti that a Kayasth (~) gets his 6 Skt CfiR1 asthma. "madaganr kas."-saloh. restlessness from the crow (crrq), cruelty from 7 Skt Cfi"Ttf whetstone, grindstone. 8 T J,; Yamraj (tiIl-RJTR) and sawing from the carpenter respect, refrain. 9 fragment. 10 slice. ('P"El'tffu) to form an acronym: <X"1Jl'FEf. 11 P J( part Had it been so! 12 God willing. o('fb~tl:g [karthueetuJ conscience; a quality in 13 grief, distress. the human body to be conscientious and iil'1'Rfl [kasauJ to whom. "rhu dukhu kasau dexterous. "ghari ghari ka lekha mage kahau re."-asa kabir. karthueetu nau."-maru kabir. It is this which ~ [kaskaJ See ~. CliHClla [kaskar], C(IHo(idl [kaskari], C(TFf"Ofd" is also known as Chitargupt. [kasgar J, ~ [kasgariJ P a town in the ~ [kardaJ A ~rfu-eu rule, principle. east of Turkistan. "kaskar ko sahrk janryat." 2 convention, practice. Cl.peo'd [karnatJ See ~. -cantr 5.2 resident of Kasgar. "kaboj kaskari ClTfuQ [karnu] A dl1 n plural of kaynat slave ke."-kalki. girls, female servants. "bibi kaula sru karn 'C('TH"G [kasat] Skt Ofl'l'l: n wood. "suke kasat tera."-bher namdev. 'Your relationship with harra."-sodaru. 2 See~. "pret-pfjar mahr kasatu bhara."-ram am 1. Lakshmi is that of maidservants.' wfuJ.r [karm], criElj [karmu] A ('; adj 'Cl'HGCj;:o1 [kasatkudni], ~ [kasatprrs-


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taI:U] gun, which has a wooden butt-s;mama. ~ [kasar], i5I'FfTi[ [kasaru] Skt n pond. 2 pajiri l , a preparation comprising flour, fried C1IHesHi [kasatbesta] See itFfi" qtHGT. [kasta] See Ci!T1f. in clarified butter, mixed with sugar. "bhatu pahItI afU lapsi karkara kasaru."-asa kdbir. ~ [kasatu] See QTRC. C{Tf.Ia" [ka:;;at] P ~( agriculture. 3 Skt fcp:ror food prepared by mixing broken rice and sesame seeds. C1 i f.ldCl l d [ka:;;atkarl P Je( n agriculturist. orrfi:r [kasI] See O(TFIT. Wf.I3'O [ka:;;tan] P v sow. ~ [kaste] adv why, for what purpose. "Esi ~ [kasw] from whom. budhI kaste hoi?"-NP qrfi:rq [kasIk] See ofTFflcx. C{l'ffi!" [kasad] See ~. ~ [kasIka] SkI' wfF.raT n Kashipuri. 2 a commentary by Vaman and J ayaditt on Panini 's ~ [kasni] P ~fY n a plant with flowers of grammar; an annotation for the clarification sky-blue colour. Its seeds are used in numerous medicines. Its effect is cold and wet.Cichorium of meanings. "kahu praknya kaSIka sarab Intybus. It controls bile and purifies blood. It matthE."-gyan. 3 adjwhich gives light. quenches thirst and relieves temperature C1 l fRCl i d [kasIkar] See ;~. 2 See crFIORf. caused by prickly heat. 2 adj having sky-blue C1 l fRCilH [kasIkis] Shiv, lord of the residents of colour. Kashi and the ruler of Kashi. "jIDYO qq:rt.ft [kaspi] See ~. kasIkisa."-gyan. WAH [kasam] See wfm.r. ~ [kasId] A ...;PI; adj who intends. 2 n ~ [kasambeg] Kasimbeg, son of Lallabeg, messenger. 3 envoy. a commander of Shah Jahan, who was killed ~ [kasIpi] Skt (XTT:fjrnJT n the earth,which is with a spear by Bhai Lakkhu, a soldier ofGuru owned by Kashyap. "je karE patr kasIpi Hargobind in the battle ofGurusar. sarab."-ddtt. 'ifthe whole earth is put forth as ~ [ka:;;mir] adj of or relating to Kashmir. paper.' 2 Dg garur, a bird, the offspring of 2 n saffron. 3 Persian writers have written Kashyap. ka:;;mir in place ofka:;;mir. See cMJ:m [kasIm] A (I; adj he who divides or cmfdT [kasra] a subcaste of Bahujai Khatris. distributes. 2 It happens to be the name of "dipak dipa kasra guruduare hukmibada." numerous Muslims. See ~ t!T ~ futf -BG O'tf. C(THT [kasa] P ,......,( n bowl, mug. "kan kasa 'CI"fi::rHitcr [kasImbegl See ~. darsan ki bhukh."-trlag m 1. "hathi kase laki WJft [kasi], ~:ft [kasi] Skt ~ n Varanasi, phumaD. "-var majh ill 1. Benaras, principal centre of education and ~ [kasa] n vessel made of bronze. 2 flat pilgrimage of Hindus in U.P. Shivpuri. Kasi is plate made of bronze. 3 in Rajputana, a plate situated on the left bank of Ganga. According with meals ready to be served is known as a to the census of 1921 AD, its population was khasa. 1,98,447. "na kasi matI UpjE na kasi matI jaI." l<[c\ ~ fotR:~ q;GW tjra.i'V~ CI"'JMft [kasai] See ~. 2 adj with the instinct of a butcher. "kalIkati raje kasai."-var majh ~ fotR:~ 18116' '1Wffil1 ~ m 1. mP'-~ ~ tTfct f~q] <fR~ ~ ~ [kasagar] brazier, bronze-worker, tinker. ~;fJ ~ ~ ~l 'fiTBT{ ~.-vrrhdabhIdhan.



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·-gujm 3.

For long Kashi has been famous in India. Hindus of all sects have tried to enhance its repu~ation. Aurangzeb renamed it as Mohammadabad. He got demolished the famous Vishveshvar Nath temple and built a large mosque in its place, which stands there even today. This city has the following gurdwaras in it: (a) Vadi Sangat in MohallaAsbhairo. It is at this place that Guru Teg Bahadur stayed for seven months and thirteen days in Sammat 1722. The cave in which the Guru practised solitary meditation is still there. On his way back from Patna to Punjab, Guru Gobind Singh also stayed here. A robe of Guru Teg Bahadur and his shoes, alongwith those of Guru Gobind Singh, are kept with great reverence and are shown to the public on the Sankranti day. Fairs are held onPoh Sudi 7, Assu Vadi 10 and on Baisakhi. Maharaja Narender Singh of Patiala got constructed a Shishmahal in Sammat 1911 with considerable amount and also started a daily community kitchen costing rupees two per day. The gurdwara has some income from the rent of houses and some from Ledhupura village. The priest ofthe gurdwara is Bhai Ishar Singh Nihang, Due to his efforts, the gurdwaraproperty the people had grabbed was restored by the court orders. (b) There is a gurdwara named Guru ka Bagh in Laksa Mahal. Guru Nanak Dev stayed here and gave a sermon to Gopa1 Pande. (c) In Jagat Ganj, there is Choti Sangat gurdwara. Guru Tegh Bahadur stayed here for some time. It is in a dilapidated state. (d) Across Ganga, at a distance of three kohs from Kashi, there is Guru ka Bagh on 16 bighas of land in Chhota Mirzapur. While he

was staying at Vadi Sangat, Guru Gobind Singh once visited this place. This place is to the north ofAhrora railway station at a distance ofthree miles. In Kashi there are about forty such places belonging to Udasi and Nirmala saints where Guru Granth Sahib is kept and recited. 2 bronze. 3 a musical instrument made of bronze. "kasi phuti p~q.Ita! dhunI kaha s;:>mai?"-brla k<Jbir. 4 adj miraculous, marvellous. See crH 3. "kasI kns;:>n c;:>rav;:>t gau mIlI h;:>nj;:>n sobha pai."-m<Jla m 4. ~ [kasik] Skt wfF.rq adj of or relating to Kashi. "to. br;:>hm;:>nu mE kasik julha."-ram
~ [kasipur] See~. 2 a town in Karond

state in C.P. "ph;:>t;:>k si kdas k;:>maug;:>q.h kasipur." -<Jkal. ~ [ka$iram] a poet, whose composition is included in a play authored by Hridyaram, as:p;:>r$uramovac ;:>tr ch;:>q.va I dou k;:>r jurva I, d;:>somkh mukh dyaI ;:>pnokE chItkayO hE, micm q.;:>raI bar bar s;:>traI, aj hVEg;:>yO sIpahi moso tilhi ko tu jayo hE, k;:>hE ka$iram t;:>b ram s6 p;:>r$uram sIkkh bamdev ju ke nike kE sunayo hE, jilki sJhE khat ch;:>tr dhari k;:>hI kahI jat tilhi pE mE d;:>s;:>n tInuka p;:>krayo hE. ramcadrovac pharto k;:>pol bol bol;:>thi bamh;:>n ke q.arto ukhar darh j;:>mi jo b;:>d;:>n mE, jit birkhet p;:>thEdet j;:>mlok tohI leto s;:>bh ch;:>tnn ko bEr ek chIn mE, kaha k;:>r6·h;:>tya pran;:>b jo tIhare h;:>t subh;:>t k;:>haI r;:>n thaq.he hot r;:>n mE, y;:>hE jan nato ho b;:>cyo hE ek bamh;:>n ke ka$iram s;:>m;:>jh sdmdjh kdr mdn mE. See footnote to UQ1-fl7i i'i'CCf.

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Cl'll3 [kasu] from whom, to whom. "ta kahi£ kasu?"-prabha am 1. 2 short for ~R "aradh uradh mukhI lagau kasu."-bher a k<CJbir. The immanent creature (aradh) is one with the transcendent Creator (uradh), Jin the sky. ~ [kasera] See ~. ~ [ka$t] Skt Wl'!" n wood. a'I'lf [ka$ta], ~ [ka$tha] Skt n limit, boundary. 2 direction. 3 time equivalent to 18 twinklings of an eye. According to Sushrat Sanhita, time taken by fifteen twinklings of an eye, and according to Vishnu Puran, time taken by eighteen twinklings of an eye, is equivalent to one ka$tha. 4 daughter of Daksh, who was Kashyap's wife. 5 situation, circumstance. ~ [ka$yapi] See orrfi:rtit. crru [kah] what. "kah bhayo dou locan mudkE beth rahyo?"-akal. 2 to whom. 3 P ~( grass. 4 A ~li obedience. 5 elderliness. 6 strength, power. aiu [kah] to whom. 2 n grass, reed. ~ [kahaSI] Skt CX'If grass. "kukahI kahaSI phule."-tukha bar<Jhmaha. i.e. 'th~: hair has turned grey. ' crru3" [kahto] ~dv why, for what purpose. ~ [kah;~m] n Brahma's day. 2 Kriishan. Ol'dhFH'l.if [kahansfgh] See ~" ~ [kahru] adj wrathful. "kupyo mahru kahru rup dhare."-VN. '6I"U'li5' [kahal] n perturbance, anxiety. "CIt me atI kahal hoi."-GPS. 2 haste, hurry. 3 Skt large drum. 4 cock, rooster. 5 A 1 )t( adj lazy. ~ [kahli] n haste, hurry. 2 P J,~' laziness. 3 Skt young woman. 0(ItJT [kaha] n S attack, aggression i.e. riot. "nahi kISE nalI kaha he."-maru solhe ill 3.2 worth telling, worthy of narration. "avar na duja kaha he."-marusolhem 1.3 deficiency, shortage, loss. "tIn SIrI cuka kaha he."-maru solhe m 3. See~.

[kahaha] sound oflamentation. "hul paVE kahaha."-s farM. ~ [kahI] prof! what. "kahI kabir ab leahi£ kahI."-bher. 2 from whom. "magau kahI rak sabh dekhau."-lJIla kahir. 3 advwhy. "sImrat kahI na ram?"-s m 9. "harI gun kahI na gavai?"-tIlag m 9. . 'O(Tftn? [kahIl] cffiJrffi [kahIli] See C('T()'(? and ~. [kahi] adv why, for what purpose. "bahan navahu kahi?"-sor mi. aic:ft' [kam] n grass, reed. 2 See w:fh:r. an alkali meant to prodUl~e the e:ffect of iron. 3 adv in any way. "CIt kathor na bhIj£ kam."-BG. ~ [kahidan] P ~I~~( v decrease. 2 reduce. ~ [kahul pron to somebody. "bh£ kahu leau det nahI."-s m 9. 2 adv anywhere. "mera manu a.nat na kahu jaI."-suhi m 5 gUJ)vati. 3 what. "kahu flClnak kahu parvaha jau sukhsagar m£ paIa."-sar m 5. 4 P h( a medicine, specially used to cure bad cold. Its effect is cold and wet. Lactuca Stiva. This medicine controls bile and purifies blood. 'Olrfr [kahe], ~r [kahekau], ~ [kaheku] adv why, for what pupose. "so kahe na kare pratIpal?"-gau kdbir."eko kahie nanka, duja kaheku?"-var mala m 1. ~ [kaho] what is. "takoacraj kaho?"-dh<Jna k<Jbir. C{IO(" [kak] See O(1fI. ~ [kakau] to whom. 2 whose. "kakau durau kasIu balbaca."-bIla m 5. QTCilit [kakI:ti] n female crow. 2 See ~. 0l'Old'M1GlhOll'Gl [kaktaliynayay] See (')lllTjf. ~ [kakpak;;J,iX'rorti'l::f [kakpakkhJ, ~5 [kakpacch] n hair given the shape of crowfeathers; tresses. 2: bobbed hair. "bahu besyan ke sut tIh thae. kakpakkh jIn sis baI1~."-NP. ~ [kakpali] n cuckoo. It is believed that a crow by incubating a cuckoo's eggs hatches the young ones.


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~ [kake] whose.


~ [kakbaII] Skt n In Hindu faith, food

offered to a crow, during rituals such as ~ [kako] See ~. 2 See q+&. shradhs, etc. ~ [kako] whom. 2 whose. "kako tanu dhanu alOl§jtf;;, [kakbhasuq.], ~fu' [kakbhasuq.I] Skt sapah kaki."-sar m 9. ~ Bhushundi, a Brahman, who turned ~ [kakol] raven. into a crow due to a curse from saint Lomash. ~ [kak$a] Skt ~iffi n desire, ambition. He led a long life and used to tell narratives to Wl:f [kakh] Skt em n hay, straw, grass. "hira the sages. "kakbhusuq.I te adI nkhisvar." lalu amolaku hE bhari bInu gahaku mika -NP. "bahu bIhag hE angan jahfva kakbhasuq. kakha."-jet m 4. 'mere straw without a buyer'. vnajE tahfva."-NP. 2 See cxicf. 3 P t,( elevated house. ~ [kakam] P ~~ n an Indian antelope and cxicf [kakh] Skt ~ n armpit. "kakh kItabahI its skin that is very soft and warm, and is used gunigahera."-NP. 2 mother's womb. "janukar by rich people for their garments. "atlas jari jae na kakh te ae nahI sasar."-CarItr 125. 'as kakam. "-salah. if not born from the mother's womb. ' ~ [kakri] Skt ~ n melon. QT1:IT [kakha] See C{Tl:f. oriatit [kakri] n gravel. ai1:fr [kakha], ~ [kakhIa] See qW. crraw [kakla] ~ [kakra] n unripe -ao [ber]; ~ [kakhi]~[kakhi]Skt~adjdesirous, jujube plum. 2 hailstone of the size of a -ao wishing for. "kakhi eke daras tIharo." [ber]. 3 Durga; a goddess with a melodious -sukhm;mi. "nam ke j;m kakhi."-sar m 5. VOIce. ~i [kakhEghauEl a sermon with characters 'a"'aT [kaka] whose. "kahahu kou hE kaka?" of the Of - row. "kakhEghaUE kal bhaIa."-asa -dhana kabir. 2 n boy. 3 son. 4 and S pati m 3. father's younger brother; paternal uncle. crrai [kag] See ~ and ~. 5 kakoli medicine. 6 shrub, berry. 7 Cape ~ [kagau] from a crow. "kagau hOI TId ujla." gooseberry; physalis peruviana. -var maru 1 m 3. ~ [kaka] See CfTClT 1. crrar ~~(!T [kag uq.aUJ).a] See ~: ~~(!T. ~ [kakIJ).i] Skt n collection of twenty "kag uq.avat bhuja pIrani."-suhi kabir. cowries; damri, a quarter pice. 2 adj woman 'Shooing away the crow, in wait for the wearing cowries. 3 n Shitla Devi. husband, has caused pain in her arm.' Q!cft [kaki] n little girl. 2 daughter. 3 Dg and S ~ [kag"ahu] from the crow. "kagahu has paternal, aunt. 4 Skt female crow. 5 See (XT kareI."-var SrI m 1. and orr; whose. "kaki maikako bap."-gaum 5. QTOTA' [kagajl A ~( n paper. No written Qioit [kaki] whose. See q+&. document is available to tell when paper was ~ [kakul Skt n indicating diffe'rent meanings made in India and who invented it. But one by emphasising vowels. "CfiTi'g: fBrrt fclcf>1iI ~: thing is certain that paper has been in vogue in m~: -amarka~. See ~~. 2 satire, India since the ancient times. The fact is very sarcasm. well supported in an article by Niyarkhus, a ~ [kakum] See Cf'i5Of. commander ofAlexander. Before its invention, ~ [kakul] P n tress. 2 lock of hair. birch bark, filigree, tarpatars, wood, stone, ~ [kakuktI] See crrcg and ~~. metal sheets, fragments of teeth and skin etc



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were used as writing material. English scholars are ofthe view that around 95 BC, the Chinese invented the art of papermaking from cotton and wool. When in 704 AD, the Arabs conquered Samarkand, they learnt the art ofpaper making from the Chinese prisoners. From Arabia to Greece, from Greece to Italy, from Italy to Spain, from Spain to Germany, from Germany to France and from France, it reached England in the early fourteenth century. Initially, paper was manually prepared. First paper-making machine was made by Louis Robert in France. Such machines wme made in England and America in 1804 and 1820 AD respectively. Now in India good quality paper is also made with machines. a'cIItft [kagji1 adj made of paper. 2 thin as a sheet of paper. "kagji nebu" and "kagji axrot", etc. 3 See~. ~ [kagjia] adjwho makes and sells paper. 2 n clerk, petition writer. "kagjie ras ko atI hi su mano gantikar jorddYO hE."-knsclO. CiI'I"aJ3' [kagat], ~ [kagad] See~. "basudh kagdd bdnraj kalma."-asa ch;jt ill 5. ~c [kagddkutt] one who pounds jute etc and makes paper from it. One who pounds small bits of junk and makes paper from the same. ~ [kagadI] due to papers. "tIn harIcad pnthmipatI raj£ kagadI kim na pai."- prabha am 1. 'whose glory is not confined to paper', i.e. his full praise cannot be recorded. 2 on paper. "kagad I kalam na lIkhaI).haru." - japu. ~ [kagadu] See ~ and~. "kagadu luI).u rah£ ghnt sag£."-ram m 1. Clidl§jtf$ [kagbhasOq], 6( ' dlgpj"fii3 [kagbhusOqI]

[kagalu] n paper. "kagar nav laghahI kat sagaru?"- me>la m 5. "duya kagdlu cItI nd jaI).da."- sri m 5 pEpai. InGurbani these words mean paper, but in varying contexts they carry other meanings as well: "janam janam ke kate kagar."-;- asa rav.idas. Here it means account books, while it stands for an almanac in "kdqhI kagdlu dase rah."- var asa. ~ [kagar] a village in police station Dialpura, nazamat Phul ofNabha state. It is situated to the west of Dina at a distance of one and a half koso Years back, it was the capital of Raijodh. Guru Hargobind came here because of the affection showered by his devotee, Raijodh. Guru Gobind Singh also visited this place. He wrote Zafarnama at this place. "kI te>$rif dar kasbah kagar kunad."--ze>far. A dagger given by Guru Hargobind to Raijodh is now with the family ofBagh,~1 Singh. Kangar is to the north of Rampura Phul railway station at a distance of 16 miles. See
tJGOc'iTHT FfTfua".


[kagardi], ClTimrtr-dT [kagardag] terms used in musicology. They are the notes of mndag. They are marked by alliteration as "kagardi kupyo kapI katak."-ramav. See


cc+asr [kagra] a hill district of Punjab and its
principal town. Once it used to be the capital ofKatoch Rajputs. Now the main town of the district is Dharamsala. ~ [kagres] kiing of Kangra. "tab£ kopIya kagresa k;:>toca."-VN. Cl"CitJ:r [kage$] 'O(TCl"-i'lH. See ~fu". Cl'tT [kac] Skt n glass. vr att shine. "kac bIhajhan kacan chaqan."-bIla m 5. 2 wax. 3 shellac, sealing wax. 4 adj unripe. "kacgagria abh m;:>jhria."-asa m 5. 5 adj clay-built, temporary. "kac kota rachatI toya."-sahas m 5. ccitr [kac] See Cl"tr 1. 2 anal circle. 3 border of

[kagar], 0(l"d'RlT [kagra], ~ [kagaru], ~

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waist-cloth that is first passed between the legs and then hooked. Skt ~. Ol'i3Olaflf [kacbramI] adj cheat, hyprocrite. "kackaramI na jat sahi."-sar ill 5 partal. 'A cheat cannot withstand the lure of wealth.' qitfi'j [kacan] Skt ~ n gold. 2 adj golden. 0('ltIWiJ [kacmac] solanum rubrum, cape goose berry. 0l'tJT [kaca] adj unripe or unbaked. "kaCE karVE rahE na pani."-suhi kabir. Here earthen pitcher is the body and .water is the breath of life. 2 faithless. "mukatI bhed kIa jal)E kaca?" -gauaill 1. "kahIde kace sUl)de kace."-an.'Jdu. 3 an ignorant person, not steadfast in knowledge and action. "kace guru te mukat na hua."-o.'Jkar. 4 hypocrite, untrustworthy. "jInI manI horu mukhI horu SI ka<;lhe kaCIa." -asa farid. 5 mortal; not everlasting. "kaca dhanu sacahI murakh gavar."-dhana ill 5. 6 Dg cowardly, chicken-hearted, timid. 'O(T;:ft [kaci] unripe, unbaked. See 0l'tJT. Qitft [kaci] Skt ~ Skt n waist-string, girdle; especially a girdle made of metal, with small bells attached, popular with women. 2 one of the sacred seven puris (cities) of the Hindus, situated in Chengalpat district of Madras. In ancienttimes, it was the capital ofCholas and Palhavs. Now it is known as Kanjivaram (Conjeeveram) Bhai Gurdas has mentioned this place as Kanti. See 'lll'Bt. Olie9()alij~ [kacinagri] temporary town, i.e. mortal body. ~ [kacipi<;li] adj having immature body; who has not matured his body through celibacy. "kaci pi<;li sabadu na CInE udaru bharE jEse <;IhorE."-maru a ill 1. lll"V [kacu] See 'O(1'i3" glass. "acu kacu <;Ihanpahi." -mala a ill 1. 'Glass melts in the flame offire.' ~ [kacuri] Skt CflV\~Fc1crT n slough; snake's cast-off skin. "tajI jahuge jIu kacuri bhuyag."

-skabir. 0l1V [kacu] T knife. 'O(TS [kach] n measurement. 2 scheme, plan. 3 underwear for the waist. 4 juggler's dress. "tau nE kach kach anuhara."-raghu. 5 act of wearing a dress. "nat jyo kach bes."-GPS. 0('1"S"()' [kachanJ n vegetable-grower's wife. "kachan ek taha mIIgai."-datt. 2 See~. 0('Tiifi'jT [kachna] v measure. 2 plan. 3 wear a dress. "anIk svag kache bhekhdhari."-kan m 5.4 dress like ajuggler. 5 embellish, decorate. "nIj nIj bahan kachan kare."-GPs. "ma<;llik bol bolahI kache."-illala namdev. 'speak in sophisticated idiom.' ~ [kachni] n small underwear for the waist. "katI kamniy pE karat kal kelI Esi kachni kala nIdhI kala si kanh pyare ki."-gval. lll"iiRI" [kachar], ~ [kachar] Skt ~ n land along the river bank or seashore. 2 foothill. .~ [kacha] desire, ambition. See~. "kacha IhE sada ur atar."-saloh "mar jIm yak ache jivan ko bhach kache."-GPS. 'O(Ifs [kachI] See ~. 2 duly tailored dress. "kan sajogu banai kachI."-ram ill 5. Here dress means the body. 3 planned. 'O(Ifs ~ [kachI kuchI] duly tailored. 2 duly embellished. "kachI kuchI tanu dina."-sor kabir. m [kachi] measured, planned. See ~. 2 n vegetable grower; cultivator from a low caste; gardener. "kachi ne pe<;l te tut gIrae."-caQi 1. 'Ol'f [kachu] adj (one) who measures a field. 2 See~2. 0('Ti} [kache] See~. 2 embellished; wearing gorgeous dress. Ol"'t [kachE] See ~. 2 Dg what is the matter? 'O(lH [kaj] Skt n wooden hammer with which nails are driven. 2 Skt work. "kaj hamare pure sdtIgur."-ram m 5. 3 See ~. cover. "tdU mukh kajI ldjo."-sar In 5. 'with modesty

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covered the face.' 4 Dg ~radh; offering of 5 deduction as "tcmkhah VICD p~j rupaye mahina food to Brahmins in remembrance of the dead kat"· ancestors. "jajI kajI viahI suhavE."--var mala ~ [katkut] planned cutting. 2 act of m 1. 'Meat is befitting for such occasions as harvesting and threshing. oblation, ~radh and marriage.' 5 S feast. 6 T ~ [katan], ~:')T [katna] Skt ~ v cut. "at1 tikhan moh ki phas, kCltanhar jagatguru." )\i wild goose. 7 button hole of a shirt or a -gaum5. coat. ~ [kajan] wife of a Muslim qazi. "kaji aru ~ [kata] Skt ~~ n thorn. kajan man jam:."-GPS. crk [katI] having cut. "katI jevri jan lie QItRf[kajar], ~ [kajal], ~ [kajalu] Sktcfm? chaqai."-prabha m 5. n collyrium, antimony, ink. "kajarkoth mahI ~ ~ [katI kutJ:] having harvested. "katI bhai na kari."-asa m 5. "kajal har t;jbol kutI kE qari."-asa kabir. sabhEklchu sajla."-phunhe m 5. "kajalu haru 'CiI'1it [kati], qrz [kate], O(rZ [katE] has cut, may tarnal rasu."-var manz2 m 5. cut, have cut, cuts. See 0(TCc'iT. "nakahu kati ~ [kaja] A ~~t; After putting the bridle into kanahu kati."-asa kabir. "kahu nanak gur b;jdhan kate."--sar m 5. "satIgur SIkh ke the mouth of a horse, tying it tightly with the saddle so that the horse cannot eat grain and b;jdhan kate."-sukhmani. graze grass. "jabahI sabad ne man samjhayo. ~ [kato] See faiR?c.rdT. kaja bran bajI sam bhayo. "-NP. After feeding O[TO [kath] Skt 0r'1'! "kath ki putri bha karE spices to the horse, it is subjected to currying bapuri?"-gau m 5. to improve its digestion. O[TO eft ~ [kath ki rotfl See O(TQ eft. QTft::r [kajI] See artr. 2 in between work. 3 during ~ [kathgarh] See ~. 2 There are so ~radh. 4 useful. "terE kajI na grIh raj mal." many villages with this name. 3 xa pyre. -ramm5. ~ [kathmarna] trap someone in a clamp, [kajilA tft; ajudge (in Muslim law) "kaji used as an instrument oftorture; wooden trap. hOlkE bahe nlaI."-Var ram 1 m 1. "kaji mula In olden times, this harsh punishment was karahI salam."-bhu namdev. 2 of work. meted out by revenue officials to peasants for "kimatI apne kaji."-gau m 1. collecting land revenue. ~ [kaji] Skt ~ n sort of sour beverage ~ [kathmaqapl, c~ [kathm;jqul See prepared by mixing ~ [rail. It is digestive ~. Wi5'" [katha] adj as hard as wood. 2 made of and is useful in removing liver's heat. Wtf [kaju] work. See qr;:r. "t1tu b1garas1 kaju." wood. 3 not grafted. "katha ;'lb, katha ber." See -bhcrm 5. ~. a-rR [kaje] See qrw. 2 See ~."parde sabh aior [katha] n bank, coast, shore. 2 See cfor. kaje."-ram m 5. 'covered.' aif6G1''ijI;:j [kathlyavarl See~. ~ [kajE] for some work. 2 useful. "jo jamhI ~ [kathi] n saddle, which is made of wood tu apune kajE."-gclU m 5. and mounted with skin or silk. 2 wood, fuel, ~ [kajhlal See f5$IHiftJ8. firewood. "kathi dhoI jalavahI."-asa kabir. (fIG [kat] n act of cutting. 2 cutting, as of a "tanu bhIa kathi."--gcn) kabir. 'Bodily vanity has taken the place of fuel.' 3 skeleton. 4 Skt garment etc. 3 wound, hurt. 4 Skt depth.



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position, place. "kathi bhfl1 bhfl1 bhfn taIJie." ~ [kaQhaku] adjwho proposes; who invents. ·-ram m 5. 'Beads are positioned differently in "matri kadh;:Jku ahI pay dhovade pivsa."·-var a rosary.' maru 2 m 5. 'who with marvellous dexterity ~ [kathia] a Raj put subcaste. See~. ponders over the eternal truth.' ~ [ka~hiavar] territory of Rajputs of ~ [kaQhna] v take out, pull out. 2 embroider. Kathia subcaste; Surashatar. This area lies in 3 propose something new. 4 separate, reserve. western part of Gujarat from the Bay ofKachh ~ [kaQha] n insect with a big head called to the Bay of Khambhat in the Bombay Qhakkmabra, because it is found in the Qhak presidency. It is 220 miles long and 165 miles (forest). 2 one, who by diving, takes out sunken wide. Its total area is 20,882 square miles and article from a well. 3 amount borrowed from according to the census of 1921, its population another. is 2,542,535. aiw [kaQha] n bank, coast, shore. "maha tarag QTO't ~ [kathi darv~za) a gate in Srinagar, te kaQhE laga."-prdbha am 5. the capital of Kashmir. In olden times, it was ~ [kaQhI] See ~. 2 n decoction. "kaQhI made of fine wood. Guru Hargobind entered kuthar pIt bat hata."-toQi m 5. See g(5l"O. the city through this gate. "jaM huto kathi 3 adv on the bank, on the coast. "bIkh Qubda darvaja, kIyo pravei;> garib nIvaja."-GPs. kaQhI kaQhijE."-kcdI d m 4. 4 having taken ~ [kathivaQ] a division prevalent in the out. "kaQhI kharagu gurgIan k;:Jrara."-kdlI d olden times. It was the same for every horse. m4. If one hundred horse riders conquered a ~ [kaQhIal, aTilT [kaQhiJ, WmnIT<J territory, then without any regard for the rank, [kaQhiahI), ~ [kaQhiE] specially told. See it was equally divided according to the number ~4. 2 mentioned. "sevakseikaQhIa."-vdQ of saddles (horses). chat m 5.3 stated. "cahu jugi kaIIkali kaQhi." qrg [kathu] See woo -var sor m 3. 'The era of vice is regarded as w5' [kathE), or-5- [kathE] adv on the bank, on the most blemished one.' 4 is mentioned, is the shore. 2 aside, to one side. "kathE rahIgaIO stated. "sabh kIchu taka kadhiE."-asa m 5. ram. "-s kabir. "nanak asaku kaQhiE sad-hi rahE samaI."-var ~ [kaQ] Skt 'fi11l6 n bough. 2 trunk of a tree. asa m 2. 3 bamboo or sugarcane, between two joints. ~ [kaQhe] See aiw. 2 were mentioned. "ram, 4 reed. 5 section of a book. 6 chapter of a ham satIguru lale kadhe."--gau m 4. book as "ramaIIJ de satt kaQ". 7 group, cluster. ~ [kaIJ] n shortage, deficiency. 2 curve, slant. 8 water. 9 column. 10 occasion, chance. 3 reign. 4 obligation. 5 Skt one-eyed; blind of l! stone. 12 cluster of nerves. 13 adj bad, one eye. dull. Ci{T("!T [kaIJa] See ~ 5. 2 crow. Crows came to qiit [kaQi] n horoscope, which has twelve be known as ~ [kaIJa], because Indar's son parts. "gaIJI gaIJI jotIku kaQi kini."-ram am Jayant made the shape of a crow and with its 1. 2 branch ofVed. Skt Cfil-rr6cFl "veda ki kaQia beak pecked at Sita's foot which made her mE kaha tha."-JSBM. bleed. As a result, Ram Chandar pricked one Wil [kaQh] new proposal; deep-seated of his eyes with an arrow. In Sanskrit books, it utterance. See~. 2 See qrfu-. is also mentioned that a crow has one eye-

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ball, which rotates in both the eyes. But having caught a crow, we have actually ascertained the truth and found this concept as totally baseless. 3 Accepting righteousness and good behaviour as two eyes, Namdev holds that a person who lacks one ofthe two is one-eyed. "hfdu ana turku kal).a."-gSc;f namdev. The Hindus having abandoned both righteouness and good behaviour, are rendered blind, while the Muslims, having got woridlywise, have renounced righteousness and become oneeyed. Namdev said so, keeping in view the situation prevalent then. This context may also be confirmed from makke di gosat: "adhe kal)e dojki dojak parni jaI, kal)e da chaq sag til adhe nal na paI, nanak kalI VICC nIrmali gursIkkhi parvan, aganIt laghe ummatI sacc nam pardhan. lt is mentioned in slok 348 of Atri Simriti that a person having knowledge of Ved and Simriti has sight in both the eyes. Anyone, who lacks knowledge of one is one-eyed, and one deprived of both is blind. ~ [kal)I] n See ~ and Cf'O. "kal)I kaqhan te cukIpari."-asa m 5. "sIru dijE kal)I na kijE."-sava m 1. ~ [kal)u] See ~. QI3' [kat] A e~ adj which cuts. 2 See ar3t. knife. "kat nIkar hve bIdar;:ld katan lagyo." -GV 10.3 See~. aio [kat] Skt n husband. 2 moon. 3 saffron. 4 spring season. 5 adj beautiful, fascinating. 6 end of comfort. at3'<!' [katal)] See ~. 2 n cuttings of cloth, resulting from the planning of a garment. "kat;:ll) katre kat;:lrl)i."-BG. ar3(jT [katna] SktiJ:50 n spinning. "lnrdha V;:lstr k;:lryo jo kat."-GPs. ~ [katni] n small basket used fiJr keeping the spinning material and the spun yarn; one

who assists in spinning. "katni tularu sut jI pahi."-GPS. 'small basket, cotton and spun yarn.' ~ [katp;:lkhal)] Skt ~ n magnet, loadstone. See m®r3m. ~ [katab] See isrf'3"l:l". Wffil" [kat;:lr] n a long cutting of cloth. 2 small thin piece of a broken earthen vessel children set to whirl with force on the surface of water which then Hoats there for a while. 3 Skt adj cowardly, timid. "sur te katar kur te cat;:lr." -cJc;fi 1. 41 T /Q" mule. 'Cil""3Q3T [katarta], q r 2Rl1il [katr;:ly] Skt cr31if n cowardice, timidity. "kat;:lrta kutvar buhan:." -krIs,m. ~ [katal] A (J~ adj murderer, killer. 2 a Rajput subcaste. ~ [kata] n Skt wife. 2 beautiful woman. ~ [katam;:lJ!I] Sec ~. qifu- [katI] Skt n beauty, loveliness. 2 wish. 3 brightness, lustre. ~ [katIb] A -?G' scribe, writer. C\T3t [katiJ Skt etM n scissors, shears. "se SIr kati munianI."--asa a Tn 1. 2 knife. "k;:llI kati raje kasai."-var majh m 1. ~ [katiJ See qTB. 2 kati has also been used in place ofkaci. "kasi katI puri duara."--maru so111e m 1. See czit:iT 2. 3 an ancient city of Nepal, known as Kantipur. Now it is called Kathmandu. 0fl3T 3br 'SI3'b1 [kati tis batisJ thirty or thirty-two scissors i.e. teeth and molars, which cut like scissors. "j£se kati tis batis he VICI rakhE r;:Jsnil mas ratu keri."--g;)(J m 4_ O(ldJiIGjC'l [katyayan] adj born in sage Kat's subcaste; Kat. 2 n a sage from the pedigree ofVishvamitar, who formulated, house holdcum-marital maxims and general axioms. 3 son of Gobhil, who authored Grihyasangrah and Karmpradip. 4 Varruch Katyayan who

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explicated Panini 's aphorisms and wrote essays ~ [kad;}bri] SkI n cuckoo. 2 Sarasvati, to make up for their shortage. He lived in 4 th goddess of learning. 3 liquor prepared from century Be. Kadamb flower. According to Harivansh. a'dOll'G!?ll [katyay~mi] wife ofYagyavalkya, who Balram invented it. 4 a book authored by Van belonged to Kat subcaste. 2 The terrible form Bhatt having a mention of Kadambari, the Ourga adopted in order to kill Mahikhasur, was heroine. She was the daughter of Hans for the first time worshipped by Katyayan, Gandharav. See ~ 6. hence Ourga came to be known as Katyayani. Cl"'t¥firn't [kadabIni] SkI n huge dark cloud 3 adj(female) belonging to Kat subcaste. floating like a flight of swans or herons in the a-rer [kath] See cmr. 2 See ci'Er. 3 See 'fEf. 4 mention, sky. 2 Sarasvati; goddess of learning. iterate. "akath kath kath."-kan m 4. ~ [kadrvey] SkI progeny ofKadru; snake. WEfT [ka tha] See ofcr, of'EfT. "cuna J supari See~. katha."-BG.2 story. "suni na jai sacu ;}mntu ~ [kadh], O(i'q [kadh] SkI wall 2 shoulder. katha."-asa m 5. "phate nakan tute kadhan. "-guj kabir. 3 S qrfu [kathI] narration. "gurumukhI akatho husband. kathI."-sri a m 1. 2 adj worth narrating, ~ [kan] near. "m;}tu dio han kan."-prabha worth mentioning. 3 having narrated, having m 4. 2 reed. "disahI dadhe kan jIU."-S kdbir. said. 'look like burnt reeds.' 3 reeds of weaver's warp. "duar upan jhIlkavahI kan."-gS<;i kdbir. ~ [kathuri] See ~ and ~. "kathuri ko gahaku aIO."-sar m 5. 4 Krishan. "gavahI gopia gavahI kan."-var asa. 5 See arc:, 0(Tfu- and afo. 6 arrow. "prem ~ [kadar] A .J)li omnipotent, all powerful. "so karta kadar karim."-var asa. 2 Numerous ke kan lage tan bhitan."-maru m 1. 7 P (;.I( poets have used kadar in place ofkatarto mean mine. 8 T (;.II; blood. a coward. ~ [kana] See O(TOT 4. ~ [kadra] A ~;li n tight dress, stringed 0l"C'iCW' [kankata] See O((')'O(CT. dress, long coat for men. Ol'(')g8H [kankubaj] SkI ~~ Kanauj city ~ [kadro] P J.J.t( v short for fu-~-B-, "kankubajisvar ko jInyo." -carItr 217. within him. 2 territory around Kanauj; Farrukhabad Ol't!iftldOl [kadacItakj Skt advrarely happening, district. 3 Kanaujia Brahman. In Ramayan the seldom. following reason is given for this name: arfua" [kadIr] See ~. Rajrikhi Kushnabh had one hundred ~1fuQ lj'::f~ [kadIr mutlIkj P Jk:Jli adj daughters from Ghritachi, the fairy. When the girls came ofage, god Varun, attracted by their omnipotent, all powerful. 'Ol"t!1' [kadil A J'li In Arabic J [zj is also beauty proposed to marry them, but the girls declined the proposal on the ground that they pronounced as ) [dj "kadi kuru bolI malu khaI."-dhana m 1. "vakhatu na paIo kadia." could not accept it without permission from their father. Enraged, Varun made them hunch-jdPU. Oll€lfoiiiS [kadivIq.j See ~ ~. backs. Kushnabh married those girls to king Brahm Outt. After marriage, their hunch ~ [kadab] Skt adjofKadamb tree. 2 n young one of a swan. 3 sugarcane. disappeared. These hunchbacked girls give the

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subcaste and the territory the name Kanyakubaj. Wi') 'Qij7)T [kan dhdrna] v listen attentively; lend a rapt ear. "kahIo na kanu dharE."-dev m 9. iX'OO [kandn] through ears. "gur updes sunIO ndhI kandn."-sar m 9.2 Skt n jungle, forest. ~ [kandne$] king of the forest. 2 deity of the jungle. 3 forest official. 4 dense forest, head of all forests. "basE kananesa."-datt. ~ l.pro ~ '3'0 Cll-flO [kan praman b tan kdman] sen drawing the bow so far that the right hand touches the ear i.e. 'fully-stretched' bow. Wi')ijT [kama], ~ [kanra] a rag, which according to singers has 18 variants-ddrbari, nayki, mudra, ka$Iki, vage$ri (vagi$Vdri), mt, kaphi, kolahdl, magdl, $yam, tak, nagdhvdnI, dQana, $ahana, suha, sughdr, hUSEni and jayjayatI. For information of the readers the form of ddrbari kanra is being put forth. It is $ardV sampurd:Q., rag of that asavdri i.e. there are six notes in arohi and seven notes in avrohi. In arohi, gadhar is weak, rI$dbh is the primary note and pacdm is secondary. nI$db claims proximity with pacam and rI$abh; gadhar, dhEVdt and nI$ad are flat, the remaining ones are pure notes. It is sung during the second quarter of the night. arohi - na $a I'd rna pa dha na $d. avrohi - $ddha na Pd ga md ra $a. In Guru Granth Sahib kamra is twenty eighth in order. ii(T7)T [kana] See cxrc:r. 2 Skt"CfiTU5 reed. Gk Kanna and Kanni. 3 one who avoids others due to some weakness of his own. "dVdrdn hdSdt ap hdhI kane."-gau kabir. 4 A e~ patient, contented. q'h'im [kanaphusi] ~ee ~. ~ [kanI] See ~ and ~. "jIh SImrdnI

nahi tuhI kanI. "--ram a kabir. 'C(lO't [kani] one-eyed female. 2 arrow. "je kdr Ik kani kdbI chorr."--GPs. See CX'('jT 2. 3 caustic remark, which pricks like an arrow. 4 through the ears. "han ke sat sundhu jdSU kani."-dhana m 4. 5 in the ears . "kani kt:iQdl gdii mohan ki mala."-gau a m 1. QTQ [kanu] reed. "jIuc;lav dadha kanu."-sri a m 1. 2 ear. See am "Q"0'?iT.. C(TQCit [kanugo] P ,:,._1;1'; petty revenue officer; one who verities the work done by a patvari, his junior. 2 See J:fTffi'l-e- ;3"~. ~ [kanunl A c'"{li n law. 2 rules and regulations governing the affairs of a state. 3 a stringed instrument, invented by Pyarsena singer descended from Tansen. Cl"Qi'\'t [kanuni] ad} who knows law. 2 legally. 3 stringed musical instrument. ~ t!T h [kanuvar.l da chabh] a large pond situated near Kanuvan village (district Gurdaspur). Numerous springs of water originate from this pond. Due to vegetation and dense forest, Sikhs in times of crisis used to assemble here and it used to serve as a wild fortress for the Khalsa. This extensive pond is closely related to the Sikh history. ~ [kane] See C(T(':iT. 2 pron to whom. "kdh6 Jr kane?"-rama v. Cl"Q [kanhl Krishan. See .~ 11. Cl"Q ft:fur [kanh sIgh] son ofBawa Binod Singh Tehan. See m:!T~~. 2 disciple ofGuru Gobind Singh. Once while he was plastering, due to his negligence a splash of plaster fell on the dress of the Guru.. Th(~ Guru ordered the Sikhs to slap him. Accordingly a number of Sikhs gave him slaps. The Guru asked them why so many people slapped him when he had asked them to slap him only once? The Sikhs replied that the Guru's orders should be obeyed by everyone. The Guru then asked each of them

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to offer his daughter to him. Now all of them kept mum. Ajab Singh ofKandhar offered his daughter. The Guru married herto Kanh Singh. His son Vasakha Singh was a man of great faith and valour. O('<;jfqGt' [kanhtnya] wife ofKrishan, Yamuna. "nil' b<lhE n<lhI kanhtnya." -krIS<ln. 2 women like Rukmani. 3 Radhika, Radha. 0(T<;j1f [kanh<lr] Krishan, Kanh. 'iit"<;jW [kanhra] kanra rag. See 0(T(');3T. 2 a musical instrument - kanun; "nad n<lphiri kanhre dDd<lbIu b<lje <lnek."-c<lrItr 108. ~ [kanha] ~lJ[ Kanh. 2 a well known devotee from Lahore. When Guru Arjan Dev was getting Guru Granth compiled, Kanha, Shah Hussain, Chhajju and Pilu, all the four holy men reached Amritsar and requested for the inclusion oftheir hymns. The Guru asked them to recite their hymns, Kanha recited, thus: "ohi re mE ohi re, jabu bed purana gaVE khoj<lt khoj m koi re, jako nar<ld sar<ld seVE seVE devi deva re, br<lhma VIsnu m<lhes <lradhE brde jaki seva re, k<lhI kanha m<lm <lS S<lrup <lpr;'}p<lr <l1<lkh <lbheva re." Pilu said: "<lsa nalB se bh<lle jo j<lmdIa hi mue, cIkk<lr pay n<l c;l.obIa na alud bh<le'." Chhajju recited: "kag<ld s~di putt<lli t<lU na tnya nIhar, y5hi mar lIjavsi j<ltha b<lloc<ln dhar." Shah Hussain said: "sajjl)B! bol<ln di jaI nahl. ;'}d<lr bah<lr Ikka sal, kIS nil akh su:r;ai', Ikko d IIb<lr s<lbh gh<ltI r<lVIa duja n<lhi bdal k<lhE husm ph<lkir nIma:r;a S<ltIguru t6b<l1I jai" Finding their hymns not in consonance with

his doctrine ofGurmat, the Guru did not include them in Guru Granth. Enraged Kanha cursed the Guru saying that he would die after lots of sufferings at the hands of his enemies. Disappointed all the four returned to Lahore. On his way back home, Kanha died due to a fall from his horse-driven carriage. ~ [kanyku<lr] Kanh (Krishan). 2 the Creator, the Supreme One. "kanyku<lr nIhbl;'}k."-s;wEye m 4 ke, O(iC'iOilg8H [kanykub<lj] See ";'JO(lA'(')""g-oS"""H. qrtf [kap] n a cutting, carving. 2 gum-like adhesive with which birds like nightingales are ensnared. ~ [kap<lhI] with whom. 2 cuts. C{Il.fG [kap<lt] Skt adj fraudulent, deceitful. ocitfor [kapna] Skt cfuo n trembling, shivering, vibrating. ocitro1' [kap<lni] n trembling, shivering, vibration. "ket<lk an kapni c<lc;l.hi."-CdrItr405, 'i5[1'l.fO [ka p<lr] See W-fflT. "b<lhu bhoj<ln kap<lr s;'\git." -sukl1m;:mi. ~ [kap<lrdi] See ~. "kap<lrdi ke k;'}th GCJrhE hE."~CdrItr 213. 'will mount on Shiv's head.' ~ [kap<lru], 0(TlS" [kap<lr] See 0(llN. "kap<lru t<lnI n<l suhavE."-g<lU cl1Jt m 3. "kapar chode C<lm<lr lie."-asa m 1. qTtf3t [kapriJ, ~ [kapria] Skt crtff'coc" adj (one) wearing tatters. "jogi bhogi kapri kIa bh<lV<lhI dIs;,\t<ln?"-asa <lm 1. "kaI k<lm;'}q<llu kapria re, <lths<lthI kaI phIrahi."-guj trIloc<ln. 2 In Rajputana and Bangar, Hindu bards are known by this name. 3 In Punjab, a caste of degenerate Brahmins, who improvise cups and plates from leaves and sweep temples for their living. ~ [kap<lru] See 0(l.S". "dhngu dhngu kap<lru ;'\gI C<lraIa."-bIla m 3. qt1.fT [kapa] See~. cut. 2 n a type of adhesive

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with which birds like nightingale are ensnared. ~ [kapalrk], C(I1..fTffi [kapali] Skt adj who holds a skull. 2 n Shaiv sect which bear skull for begging and consume liquor and meat. 3 Shiv, Mahadev. QTfl.r [kapr] adv having cut. "baelhan sagal kapI."-var guj 2, ill 5. 2 Skt some woman. 3 Skt ~ at some place. ~'ijFf [kapuras], ~Ol:f [kapurakh] Skt ~Sf11 n a low person. 2 useless, good for nothing. 3 cowardly, timid. 4 impotent. "jru kapurakh pucan: nari."-gelU ill 5. ~ [kat] A ..J(; n a mountain situated between the Black and the Caspian seas. In English it is known as Caucasus. 2 an imaginary mountain which in Sanskrit is known as Lokalok. According to Purans it encircles the whole world like a rampart. 3 a letter of the Arabic script. ~ [kaphar] A j( adj infidel, atheist. 2 thankless; ungrateful. 3 a race which originated from Kaferiya in Africa. 6( i iilfdlj'(') [ka£rrstan] See crf~J131(). ~ [kaphla] A.J,;(; n caravan. ~ [kafrr] See~. 6(flildHd i (') [kaphrrsatan] Skt cm.rn- I Chitral, a territory lying between Afghanistan and Hindukush. It is sixty miles away from Kabul. Its population is 6,00,000. When Pathans embraced Islam, its inhabitants were opposed to it. Even now most of its inhabitants are idol worshippers. 2 a territory inhabited by the people of the Kafir race that originated from Kaferiya in Africa. ~ [kaphrla] See ~. ~ [kafi] A L;( adj frugal, thrifty. 2 n the Creator. 3 a ragini, which is heptatonic. It uses gaelhar (full tone and flat) and nI~ael is flat and all the remaining notes are full tone.
lIt is also known as ujjanak.

paeam is primary and ~araj is secondary. Its time ofsinging is the fourth quarter ofthe day. Some scholars call it elhamar. ascending- ~el rel ga mel pa elha na ~a. descending- ~Cl na elhCl pCl mCl ga ra ~a. In Guru Granth., kaphi does not exist separately but it has been used in combination with asa, trlag, suhi and maru. 4 L;G means a follower; that line of a stanza which acts as a refrain, after which are added other lines during singing and which is repeated time and again at the cadence. No specific category is assigned to this verse. Sufi hermits sing lovable verse known as orit [kafi] with the whole party repeating the leader's utterance. See a kafi of Miana Bakhash: mIthri p:m mar mem bhave, karl mClst avaz sunave, kEse git pClpiha gave, jhrill jhrm megh mCllare.... Here three lines are ofsixteen matras each. Last refrain (kafi) is of twelve matras. (b) In Punjab Bulhe Shah is also very famous for his Kafis These are in the form of eJpCli and ha've sixteen matras as in : uth jag ghurarc mar nahi,to es jClhano javegi, phIr kCielClm nCi ethe pavegi, Ih jobcln rup lutavegi, tU rClhrl).a VIce sasar nClhimuh ai bat na rahf eli hE, uh ~Jh Clsatho vakkh nahi, brn ~Jh to eluja kakkh nah~ par elekhCiJ) vali akkh nahi, rh jan pCli clukh sahfeli h£.(c) Some people have mentioned tat5k metre as essential for ka£i but this is not correct as it has no specific metre, rather it is a way of singing. 5 a plant found in Arabia and Eygpt etc which bears fruit like solonum nigrum.

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These fruits are roasted and pulverised. This pulverised powder is boiled and used as tea; coffee. ~ [kaphial; o(i.lillGf(J [kafiyah] n endalliteration. ...j'J See »f01:[TFf. ~ [kaphur] See ~. QT8" [kab] See ~. 2 T ",:",'J n flat plate of brass, platter. Wa" [kilb] crow. "jaI pahucahI khasam kau jau biCI na khahi kilb."-s kabir. The crow, here, stands for bad company. 2 kilbkhan also means interruption. Ol%lafe [kaban:tadI] O("-~-»rfe". "kavan).adI bakhankE m;:}d baral). pad dehu."-sanama. 'At first say 0(" then H and followed by t to make
~ [kilbri] SkI chic? n "kabri pat;:}bar ke badIe uQhaiE."-BGK. "sakat kari kilbri."-s kabir. 'ot""81? [kabaI] See arfac;) and ~. ~ [kabIi] See orwIT. qimft [kilbli] n blanket. "krIsan OQhE kilbli." -mala namdev. ClI i s(\}1Gid [kabliyat] A ...::.;?:'J n ability, capability. 'O('I1lT [kaba] A / the most sacred place of the Muslims in Mecca city of Arabia, which was first ofall built by Adam. During the deluge of Noah, it crumbled and thereafter Ibrahim built it. Even after that, it crumbled and came up several times. Once Mohammad also laid its foundation. See~. Many idols were worshipped in it but Mohammad removed them. As it stands now, it was built by the emperor of Rome, Sultan Murad IV in 1040 AD. Its entrance is on the eastern side. This side is 33 yards in length. The western side is 31 yards, the northern 22 yards and the southern side 20 yards in length. Its height is

wk.' ot"8'dt [kabri],

35 feet. Its masonry work is of brown stone with lime, its plinth is two feet high and ceiling is flat. Its door is thrown open during special festivals only when pilgrims arrive, otherwise it remains closed. To the south-west corner of the building, a black stone [s;:}ge asvad] is inlaid at a height of 5 feet. Pilgrims kiss this stone. In the southern corner is another stone known as "ruknuiyaman". Pilgrims touch this stone with their right hand. Close to the door near the wall, there is deep place with a border of marble, where three persons can stand. The story goes that it is the same place where Ibrahim, along with Ismail, prayed to God. Around Kaba, there is an open space for circumambulation bordered by a beautiful boundry wall. Kaba remams covered with a black silken cover. Verses from Koran are written on it. 1 "gag banaras hfdua mussalmal).a macca kaba."-BG. "kaba ghat hi bhitari."-asa kabir. See~, ~<ft:r, HW

"kai kotI kabI kabI bIcarahr."-sukhmani. 2 in Kaba, towards Kaba. See CifI'aT. "nIvajE jhuke hE mana kabI kaji."-carItr 405. 'as if kazis are bowing to Kaba.' wfatr [kabIjJ A J'!'J adj who is the possessor. 2 n the material that impairs the movement of excreta in the intestines. ~ [kabIl] A J (j adj able, capable, competent. ~ [kabul] SkI cprr a rivulet mentioned in Rig Ved. After traversing Afghanistan, it joins river Sind near Atak. In the Persian language this rivulet is known as Kabul. Between this rivulet and Logar is situated Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan. It is at a distance of 181 miles from Peshawar. It is located 5780 feet above

Ol"fu [kabI] See

lAs a practice, this covering used to be imported from
Egypt but the king ofHajjaz has got it made from India.

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u u


z ....


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the sea-level. The king of Kabul is known as Amir. 1 While preaching his sermon, Guru Nanak Dev reached this city in Sammat 1576 and brought many people to the righteous path. "jahf kabul ko nagar suhava. tIs mah~E pravIse dukhbcln dava."~NP During the times of Guru Arjan Dev, Guru Hargobind and Guru Har Rai, Sikhism flourished in Kabul. At present there are numerous gurdwaras. ~ [kabuli] adj of or relating to Kabul. 'Wg'l'fta'or [kabulibeg] a commander of Shah lahan's army whom Guru Hargobind killed with a sword in the battle of Gurusar Mehraj. ~1? [kabulimall] a subedar of Lahore appointed by Ahmed Shah Abdali in 1762 AD. In 1765 AD Khalsa Dal captured Lahore from him. ~ [kabul T ..f.(; adjunder control, dependent. 2 n authority, command. ai'S'H [kaboj] adj of or relating to Kamboj territory. See mttr. crH [kam] Skt on-fwork. "utam uca sabad kam." ·-bCiSJt m 3. 2 Skt orrH (COf vr wish, desire) Kamdev, Eros. "kam krodh kCin 5dh."-d11Cina m 5. 3 desire, wish. "mukatIdayak kam." -japu. 4 concept, idea. "tIagahu man ke sogal kam. "-bCiS5t m 5. 5 Pradyuman, son of Krishan, who being incarnation ofKam, is given this name. "kampal anujan-ni adI bhaniji£ jacar kahIkE pun naIk pad dijiE satru sabad ko take 5t ucariE ho! sakal tupak ke nam sum5tr vicari£." -SCinama. Kam (Pradyuman) is fostered by Balram, his younger brother is Anuj, Krishan's wife is
IThe present Amir (Amanullah) has assumed the title of

Yamuna, grass is its produce, its grazer is the deer, its king being the lion, its enemy is the gun. 6 semen. "'til us nil dekhke us ka kam gIrIa."-JSBB. 7 adj attractive, heart-stealing. "kamnEn sOdar badan."--5211011. 8 useful. "avarI kaj terE kItE na karn."-asa m 5. 9 P (( n purpose, motive. 10 palate. Ci[T}f l?fl7iT [kam ana] v be useful. 2 lay down life for one's master. "kamsut ajsut ko ayo."-G3rItr 102. 'Dashrath's charioteer was killed in the battle. ' ~ [kam$astra] a systematic study of men and women, with regard to theirselves, virtues, sexual compatibility, types of sexual intercourse and rejuvenation oftheir bodies etc. Katyayan, Nandishvar and Vatasyayan are said to be authorities on the subject. 2 Kokshastar, a treatise on sex. ~ [kamhar] ad} lustful, lascivious. "mEgal jIu phasasI kamhar."--bCisJt 21 m 1. ~ [karnak] Skt '~1J:fC<' adj lustful with lust. "karnak matr kasire ke kaman."- VN. 'A sexual mantar is totally worthless.' ~ [kamkara] art of love; sexual desire. 2 art of love. See ~'. 3 wife of Kam-Rati. 4 per Tantarshastar, recitation of mantars for the fulfilment of one '5 desire. ~ [kamkari] Skt c~ n work done for the fulfilment of desire. "kamkari sabh tIagIkE hau S21ralfI paraugi."-sar m 5 pCirtal. ~ [kamkar] adj worker. "mE ap ka h6 kamkar."-sCi1011. WHCiIT [kamki] See (~it. 2 wife of Kam-Rati. ~ [kamkel], ~fu- [kamkelI] n sexual play, love-making, coitus. 2 adjdebauch, lewd. ~ [kamkadla] a harlot, who was adept in the teaching of music. Madhvanal, the musicologist, fell in love with her. For details, See CCiTItr 91 of Dasam Granth. ct"Hl:f.iJT [kamClkhya] See C(T)-fTS{t.

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~ffi' [kamgaheli] adj engrossed in sex.

"sunI sunI kamgahelie!"-sri m 3.
~ [kamgami] adj man of graceful gait.

2 self-willed. 3 woman ofgraceful gait. "gJrja kamgami."-caQi 2. <mfaTl"a' [kamgar] P .Jt( adj successful, intent on realising his purpose. a"lffa.ru [kamgnh] vagina, vulva. ~ [kamcari] adj self-willed; he who is intent on realising his wish. 2 n garur, a bird: vehicle of Vishnu. Cil"'J-A3'H7)T [kamcolna] lust-enhancing dress. 2 erotic dress. "kamcolna bhaIa hE purana."
-asa kdbir.
~ [kamacchIa] See ~.

[kamjham] See ~. ~ [kama!).] n singing praise of some deity for the fulfilment of desire; recitation of mantars. "kama!). tu!).e Jsia."-BG. 2 charm, spell. "gu!). kama!). kama!).I karE tau pure kau pavE."-tIlag m 1. 'ifa desirous woman recites a mantar of virtues. ' 3 SktCfiTPfuT according to Tantar Shastar adoption of magic spells for thrashing, wooing and taming etc. ~ [kama!).I] Skt cMHo9' n beautiful woman. "kama!).I kamI na avai khoti avgu!).Iar."-sri a
m 1.


[kama!).Iari] adj(a female) who performs magic spells. See qr}-f(!'. "bhuqikama!).I kama!).Ian".-bIla m 1. "kam!).Iari kama!). pae bahur;}gi galI taga." --':'VdQ m 1 dlah1)i. ~ [kam!).i] See ~. "SU!).I SU!).I meri kam!).i pan-utara hOI."-dhana m 1. ~ [kama!).u] See~. ~ [kamat] ..:Vu n physique, height. Q1l-/3g [kamtaru] See~. WHe' [kamad] adj who creates desire. 2 n the Creator. 'WJreT [kamda] adj who arouses desire. 2 n a

~[kama!).Ian], ~

goddess who was Ahiravan's favoured deity in the underworld. "dharyo dhyan ur kamad devi. "-tulsi. ~ [kamdar] an official. "kahu kamdar hOI baqo bIvhar hOI."-GPs. ~ [kamdari] n an official. ~ [kamdut] stimulus that arouses emotion. 2 spring season. ~ [kamdev] Rati's husband; God of love. SeeL Cupid. ~ [kamdhen], ~ [kamdhenu], ~ [kamdhm] per Purans a heavenly cow, that rose from the sea-churning. She is so known because she fulfils all desires. "anIk basudha anIk kamdhen."-sar d m 5. "kamdhenu sohi darbare."-maru solhe m 5. "kamdhEn baSI jake."-maru ravidas. In Kalika Puran there is a story that the daughter of Surbhi gave birth to Rohini, a daughter by Kashyap. In turn, Rohini gave birth to Kamdhenu from the semen of Sursen Vasu. Excited by her beauty a sensual demon adopted the form ofa bull and had intercourse with her with the result that a large sized bull was born who became Shiv's vehicle. 2 a cow named Kapila which provided the desired objects. It was handed over by Vishnu to Brahma who gave it to Bhrigu and he in turn entrusted it to the sage Jamdagni. When Kartiviry killed Jamdagni, it went back to Brahmlok. See <jU-f ~. ~ [kamna] Skt n wish, desire. 2 effort to change a wish into action. ~ [kamnarthi] Skt ~ adj lustful; desirous. 2 n Kamdev, incarnation of the god of sexual desire. Cil""Hfo [kamanI], qrH?ft [kamni] See ~ and ~. "kamanI cahE sudar bhog."-bdsatd m 1. CfTl-I1.f'"li5' [kampaI] Balbhadar. Balram who


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brought up Pardyuman in his lap. Pardyuman of Madhvanal. "kacuki kama kasi banaI." is described as the god of sexual desire. -carItr 91. 5 wish, desire. "kama brfd puri kari."-GPS. "japI puran kama." -bIha ch:'Jt ~ l)fQROi'il ~ ~ ~ [kampal cmujanni jacar naIk satru]-sallama. Balram the m5. rearer of Kam (Pardyuman); his younger ~ [kamaku$l Skt n Kam's goad, penis. brother, Krishan; his wife, Yamuna; grass ~ [kamak$i], qr}fll::fJIT [kamakhyal having beautiful eyes. 2 a temple for the worship of grown by her; the stag grazing the grass; its lord, the lion; and the lion's enemy, the gun. Sati's vagina, two miles west of Gauhati at ~[kambaxa$] J"',( adjgranterofwishes. Nilachal in Kamrup on the bank of Brahmputar 2 younger son ofAurangzeb, who was born in river. See FJ3T. 1667 AD and died in 1708 AD. ~ [kamatur] adj afflicted with erotic ~[kambaD] See~. 2 symbol indicative desire. 2 unhappy (sad) because of sexual of number five, because Kam has five arrows. desire. qtHfay [kamnpu] enemy of Kam-Shiv. QTl-fTO't [kamani] earned; put into practice. "IhE CifTl-RI't [kamri] blanket. "pis an piSI OqhI kamani ritI." --dhal1a m 5. kamri." -suhi m 5. QTHTH?i' [kamam;:ml 11 earn, practise, follow. ~ [kamru] short for ~. "kamaman ka matha."--maru m 5. 'is slow to follow (practice).' ~tr [kamrup] a district in Assam on the border of eastern Bangal and Bhutan, and its Ci(I}RJ3' [kamaratl adj afflicted by sexual desire. adjoining areas. The seat of goddess 2 troubled by sexual urge. Kamakhya is at this place. In ancient times, ~ [kamarthi] Skt 'fil1'~ adj having sexual this place was famous for magical practices desire. "kamarthi, suarthi vaki pEj savari." and rituals etc. Its chief town is Gauhati. 2 a -bIla sadlma. 2 who wishes the fulfilment of place ofpilgrimage in the land ofKamrup, the his desires. importance of which has been described in QTHTfu [kaman] ,enemy of Kam-Shiv. Kalika Puran. ~ [kamanj] enemy of Kam-Shiv; his sons, Ganesh and Kartiikey. ~ [kamrupi] adj who looks like Kam; very handsome. 2 one who can change his cmH [kamI] See WHt. "kamaDI dekhI kamI form according to his wish. lobhaIa." --pra.bha a m 1. 2 because of the sexual desire. "kann karodhI nagaru bahu iSl1lffi' [kamal] A J~ adj complete, faultless, excellent. 2 capable, worthy. bhana."--sohIla. 3 useful, in use. "naru marE ~ [kamlal See ~. naru kamI na avE. "--g5c;l kabir. ~ [kamli] blanket, shawl. wfHol [kammi] Skt beautiful woman. 2 wife, consort. "tajI kam kam:[ni moh tajE. "-var majh ~ [kamri] worker, servant. 2 a tribe of cobblers in Rajputana who in the garb of m4. Sadhus make their living by singing hymns, also ~ [kamInimohna] See ~. ~ [kamIl] See ~). named Kamri. a""W [kama] adj worker. 2 breadwinner. qrHt [kami] deficiency, shortage. "kahu nanak 3 Kamini, a beautiful woman. "ta samnahikam nahi tInI kami."-asa m 5.2 in work, on duty. ki kama."-carItr 296.4 Kamkandla, beloved "han tIS ki kami."-var maru 2 ill 5. 'The

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Creator helps in his works.' 3 desire. "tIagr sdgdl kami."-sar m 5 partal. 4 Skt ~ having desire. 5 affected by sexual longing. "kuCII kdthor bpdtI kami."-kan m 5. 6 A 1.5'( armed warrior; warrior with armour on. "kami adI ucarkl:: drI pdd ;'jt su dehu."-sanama. enemy of the armoured warrior, the gun. 7 S employee, official. CfT}j [kamu] See CifTH. "utam kamu japiE harInamu."-asa cl1{'}t m 4.2 sex, lust. "kamu krodhu dh;'jkaru tajae."-maru sollle m 5. ~ [kamuk] See ~. 2 n male sparrow. qT'l:foft [kamuki] Skt CXTJiC<T. adj desirous. 2 n black female buck. "kahu muag hVEkE bhali bhat mohe. kahu kamuki jayo dhare rup sohe."

~ [kamodki] See ~.

Skt adj who fulfils desire. 2 what is desired. CfT"l-r.I' QIDf [kamy karam] n something done for fulfilling desire. a-rtif [kay] Skt n body, physique. 2 principal amount, capital. 3 group, gathering. ~ [kayau] body only. 2 in the body only. "kayau deva kayau deval."-dl1ana pipa. 'Wlil"F'El" [kayasth], 'Wl:ifEf [kayath] See ~. ~ [kayada] See ~. qTljfO [kayan] A J,( present, existent. 2 T J~ spouse's brother, brother-in-law. 3 See qrfug. ~ [kaydnat] A ..:..lr,( n plural of kayan, ul1lverse. a-rmf [kayam] See qrfu}f.. Q'Tl:ifij" [kayar] See arfEa...' ~ [kaydl] A J£~ adj who utters; speaker. 2 he who agrees to. 3 kayal has been used for vyakul. "bahu kayal mam CIt hova."-GPS O(IGI~~ij [kayvyuh] n an act in Yoga by which deeds of many births (lives) can be accomplished merely by imagining them, thus


saving one from rebirths. 2 having many forms through Yogic power. 0('TtijT [kaya] cxrW [kayal, Ww [kaya] See qrGj". "kaya lahdl)I apu mad."-var brha mardana. 'Body is clay for the distillery and pride is its wine.' ~ [kayIk] Skt adj pertaining to the body; corporeal. O(TO [kar] n work, action. P .1'( "jo tudhu bhaVE sai bhdli kar. "-japu. 2 adj doer, as in caramkar (cobbler), suvaral)kar (goldsmith), ~ [lohar] (ironsmith) etc; in such cases it is suffixed to the base word. It is used in the same manner in Persian as in ~ [minakar] (gold embroiderer) 3 n a deed worthdoing. "jItne jiaj;'jtu prabhu kine tItne SUI kar IIkhavE." -mala m 4.4 part ofearnings used for religious purposes; 1/IOth of income kept for noble deeds. "kar bhet gur ki SIkh lavahI."-GPS. 5 line. "dekE cauka kaq.hi kar."l-var asa. 6 per Tantar texts, a magical line drawn for protection. "cauguad hamarE ramkar dukh IdgE nd bhai."-brla m 5. 7 soot. "tIn ;'jtarI kar karitha."-gau m 4. See ~ mflor. 8 short for ~. "nd kam hE na krodh hE na lobh hE na kar he"-akal. 9 A ji depth of a river or a well; silt in a well or a tank. "khante kar su vahIr nikarhl"-GPS. 10 P A' war. "xasdm ra cu koro kunad vabt kar."-jafar. 11 T .J~ ice. 12 A black colour. 'O(TQ"J1 [karas] See ~. "je kardS ko laI vIsekhE."-GPS. ~ [karSapdl)] See ~. 'O(TQO(' [kardk] Skt adj doer. This word is particularly used as a suffix to other words, such as sukhkardk, dukhkarak. 2 n in grammar, declensions of a noun or a pronoun which denote (express) its relationship with the

Sage Atri writes that if the Iine is not drawn. the demons take away the essence of grains.

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verb. They (cases) are ofsix types: nominative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative and locative. Except the 6 th , all others are in order. l Example: (a) karta: gurmukh sIgh path karda hE. guru de sIkh ne ardas kiti. (b) karam: SIkkh nu prasad ehakaIa. (c) karal).: kalam nallIkho. (d) sampardan : mere lai ghora lIao. (e) apadan : grathi to pothi It: ao. (t) sabadh: babe kalu da putr jagatdeudhar hIt aIa. (g) locative: gurdvare VICe kirtan huda hE. ~ [karakdipak] See t!ttror (b). "a'Ti3" ~ [kar karitha] n black soot and hardness, ink and hardness. "manmukh hiara atI kathor hE, tInI atan kar karitha."-gclU m 4. 2 adj black; pitch-dark. ~ [karkun] P n servant, worker, manager. ~ [karkuni] n service. "han: namE ki ham kau satIguru karkuni dai."-varvac;1 m 4. qTQl:f [karakh], 'i:i{l'Ql:fT [karkha] n soot; black ink. ~ [karxana] P ,.;l,;,,'( n workshop; a place where work is done. ~ [karkhapal).], ~q [karakhIk] Skt "fiTlS1fqur and CfiTfifcp n an old coin made of gold or silver (weighing 16 mashas, a masha being equivalent to 5 rattis). 2 Bhai Santokh Singh has used karkhIk for rupaya. "maktab aI ek karkluk din kalu, kaehuk mIthai bat patia lIkhai hE."- NP ~ [kargah] P D~'( factory, workshop. 2 spinning shuttle. "kahIt kabir kargah tori." -asa. 3 weaver's weaving comb. ~ [kargar] P .h'( adj useful. 2 effective. C(ldilJt.l1d [karguzar] P ,,1;0'( adj who does or


'In the sixth declension, the inflection is relationaL so it is not a case. See ~~ (t).

completes ajob. ~m [kareobi] P ~~A( n floral patterns embroidered with golden thread. "tI1a kareobi lage lal hira." -saloh. 'C("IO'H [karaj] Skt (~Jf n work. "karaj sagle sadhe."-sor m 5. 2 result; consequence. C(idtlfH'fQ [karajsIddhI] c ~ [karajsidh] n success, achievell:1ent. "nam hamare karajsidh."-g5c;1 m 5. ~ [karzar] P ,,1),,'( n battle, war. 'C(Td"ij' [karaju] Se e Q"rotI. "karaju tera hOVE pura."-ranl -In 5. ~ [karal).] Skt n reason. "jInI karCll).I guru vIsarIa."-var vac;1 m 3. 2 adv for. "rotia karal).I purahI tal."-var asa. 3 n mode of work; provisions. "karat). kdrte vasI hE."-var majh m 2. "ape kdrta kdrdl). kdrae."-majh am 3. Scholars have categorised modes into two types, first nImI tt, that is, as a weaver ofcloth, weaving frame, shuttle etc; the second is upadan, that is, material like thread of cloth, clay of pitcher. C( 'daf.la1a [kardl).~Clrir] Skt n state of the body's transcendence, eternal bliss, when the senses lose their functions but only the ego stays to assert itselffrom which the soul gets a feeling of relief. Vedantists regard ignorance as transcendence or bliss. C(ldC!c(dC! [kardl).karcn).], 'C(Tdc!Ci(d~€1 [karal).kart).eu] See 'O(O<fO[T'd"~. 2 doer of every thing. "karal).karalQ. karim." -ram m 5. Ci(ldC!dl'i [karCll).tCln] See Ci('d<:':8a1d. W~ [kar;')l).mala] It is a mode of expression, a way of describing how action results from cause, and their interaction. As a mode it is also termed hetumala or "gupha". Example: "Sul).Ia manIa manI kita bhau at;')rgatI tirath mall nau." -japu.

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'Hearing is a cause for agreeing, agreeing for engagement into thinking, thinking is a reason for assertion.' "seva te man namr hUE, namr rIde vas nam. nam SImar kar gyan hVE, gyan mok~ ko dham." orraf.!' [karaDI] due to, because of. See ~. ~ [karaDIare] adjwarrior-like. See~. "utthe karaDIare rakhas h;:Jrh;:JraI."--cJQi 3. 2 those causing disturbance. ~ [kar;:JDu] See ~. ~ [karDe] adv due to. ~ [karDey] adj worthy of getting done. ~ [kart;:Jk] See ~. ~ [kartakIani] See O('ljfafo(l')jTol. O(laa&G1 [kar;:Jtkey] See O('ljfa&Gl. ~IJI' [karatviray] See HiJfj8 1Q. ~ [kar;:JtIk] Ski ~ n month of Kattak; fuilmoon in the month of Kattak. O(iaf::sfC(1)fI'f'fl' [kartIkIani] n wife of Kartikay; power of lord Kartrik. O(lafaalJl' [kartIkey] Ski son of Shiv. See 'I:S'?i?). It is written in Brahmvaivarat that during sexual intercourse with Parvati, Shiv's semen fell on the earth, the earth put it in the fire, the fire deposited it in the bushes of the elephant-grass (reeds). From this was born his six headed son, whom the moon's wife breastfed. Thus he came to be known by this name. He was born to kill Tarkasur. He is warrior among gods. Kartikey has been called Tarkari as well. O(lafaaGlfU3' [kartIkeypIt] Shiv. CirT'd"~"J:r [kartus] F cartouche, I Pg orrd"~F.f. E cartridge. n pipe made of paper or metal which contains explosive powder and is fired from a gun. ~ [kardarJ P n servant, worker. 2 xa wooden spade or implement for collecting garbage. See 1:fTm'T ~ <1'#
IFreneh Generals brought this word to Punjab..

[karan] See ~. "maIa kar;:Jn bIdIa becahu."-prCJbha kCJbir. 'sells education for money.' 2 mode of work. "karan b;:Jpura kIa karE j;:JU ram na k;:JrE sahaI."-s kabir. 'Man is just a tool for action, what can he do?' 'iiP"d"i'i'~ [kar;:Jnkaran] See 0(Q~(f. "karankar;:Jn hi ha."-asa ill 5. ~ [karanI] See orraf.!'. ~ [kame] See ~. "b;:JlI b;:JII jau ramaia karne."-dhana rCJvidas. orrd'8"'d' [karbar] P Al( n business, exchange. O(iaalJl [karbari] ~dj worker, servant: 2 n manager, organiser. ~ [karm;:JDa] v agree to get some work done. orraw [karma] See cM'I?w. "karma haran kaj sadhan karat tum."-krIsan. "lagyo nIses;:JhI karma tan ek."-parCJs. 'The moon has its black spot.' ~ [karmadI] short for karmuk; bow etc. "karmad I krur kJC tutt hE." -paras. CiRJlfor [karmuk], ~ [karma] Ski ~ n which is capable of killing an enemy; bow and arrow, especially one made of bamboo. "~ri satIguru kar karmuk thue darici bic."-GPS. "bISIkkh karma kase."-cJQi 2. 'pulled arrow in the bow.' ~ [karay 1 See CX'<l'R. O(laa~lel [kararavai] P Jly.I( n effort, plan. 2 readiness for work. ~ [karval, ~ [karvan] P UIJ.I( n group of travellers. E caravan. ~ [karvI] See~. 2 blue lotus-the night queen. ~ [karvi] adj bitter. 2 Skl"i.f\RCfr green gourd. 3 fennel. 4 Ski Cf)Cfi pitcher. "kaIa kaci karvi." -s kCJbir. See 0<g">fT. ~ [karvel] See ~. 'O(TdT [kara] n disturbance. See ~. "kara karyo hamhu sag bhara."-GPS. 2 adj black. "tISU

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hClICltI pClICltI mukh kara."-suhi m 4.. 3 Skt n bondage, imprisonment. 4 pain, misery. "kara tujhE nCl vIapCli."-bav;m. 5 female messenger or go-between. ~ [karagClr], ~<J [karagnh] Skt n prison. ~ [karavas] Skt n imprisonment, living in confinement. 2 gaol, prison. [kan] See~. 2 n action, tradition, method. "jIna karI nCl ai."·-SOiva m 5. 3 effective, efficacious. "gur ki matI jiCl ai kan."-gCluCI m 1. ~ [kanka] Skt n couplet with a few words but suggesting profound meanings. 2 explanation of a mantar in verse. 3 wife of an actor in a play. ~ [karfQClv] See ~. mt!"'" [karfdal P e-'.J( n servant, official, employee. ~ [kari] n an act. "SCltIguru phurmaIa kari ehu kClrehu."-var bIha in 3. 2 treatment. "vEd kI ja.!).E kari?"-maru m 1. "satClhu Iha batavClhu kari?"-sor m 5. 3 goddess Kali. "s;'ighar dCli rCln kari."-c;}c;li 2. 4 Kali Nag which was taken out of river Jamuna by Krishan. "pran QClSE jClb kari." -krxsan. 5 line. "kari kClQhi ba thiE?" -var sri m 1. 6 adj black, pitch-dark. "kajClrkoth mah:r bhai na kari."-asa m 5. 7 SktCfilft;:r~ adjdoer. '''klJkr~t pranasankari."-hCljare 10. "atari sabad raVIa gu.!).kari. "-ram CI m 1. 8 doer of a deed; chief, head. "satu satokhu nagar mahI kari. "-maru solhe m 1. 9 P J.J( effective, efficacious. 10 deep, profound. "t;m sr:m jari bhayO jakham kari." -salah. 11 A J.J~ reader. 12 Koran's meticulous reader. CRitara' [karig;:;r] P L( n artisan; craftsman. Olleldlel [karigari] P Jh( n artisanship craftsmanship. ~ [karu] Skt n craftsman; manual worker.

2 See



[karunyJ Skt 'F~:r n gratefulness. ~ [karu], (:fIif [karii] A U'.J~ Korah, son of Izhar ofIsraeil who was a wealthy man in Egypt but was the head of misers. This has been described in Koran also. See ~1J03"29, ayat 38 and sura,t 28 ayat 76-82. He was cousin of Moses. It is WI' itt-en in Talmud, the holy book of Jews, that the keys of Karu's treasure weighed 300 mule loads. Intoxicated by his wealth, he did not carry out the orders of Moses nor paid any religious offering. Due to a curse from Moses, Karu got buried under the earth, allong with his treasures. I Bhai Santokh Singh and many other historians have wrongly described Karun as king of RonH';. "rum valaIt jaha mahana. pat~ah karll tIh thana ... tIn ko sukh dene ke heta. pur pravI~e vedikulketa. karii ker durClg jClhf bhari. tI s ke bEthe ja I agari." .. --NP uttClrarCldh d 16. Nasihatnama (word ofadvice) has been written in the context of Karun. "sun sri nanak gIra ucari. den nasihat sabh sukh karL" -tIi;}g m 1
'Croesus, the king ofLidia (Asia minor), who ruled between 560- 546 BC is also known as Karu. He was a very rich man, and due to his influence many wise persons came to him, one of them being Solon, who was a great sage. Croesus asked him. "Who is happy in the world?" Solon replied, "He who spends his last days in happiness". When the emperor of Persia conquered and captured Croesus and he was going to be killed, he remembered the advice of Solon and thrice uttered his name. On being asked the reason, he narrated the whole story and the emperor of Persia set him free.

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kicE neknami jo devE khudaI. jo disE zImi par so hosi fanaI.. cali gaj jore na rakhIo iman. dekho re karii! ju hate pare$an." -NP uttararadh a 16. When Guru Nanak was travelling abroad, king Salim Khan I was on the throne. ~ [karura] A uvli n bottle. 2 urine; so named because it is carried to the physician in a bottle. ~ [kare] in work. 2 black. "kare ubhe jat."-s kabir. 'Thieves wearing black clothes got up. ' Wearing black clothes, a thief is not visible at night. ~ [karE] in work. 2 in service. "gun karE laia."-var sor m 4. a-ra- [karol adj black. 2 See Ci/"W. ~ [karor] relating to one crore (ten million) 2 belonging to Kotlehar. See wBt l:PO. "su karor raya."-VN. qrij!ir [karaQ], qrij!~ [karaQav] Skt cfiT<:1J5"Q n aquatic bird of the swan species; longnecked duck. "has karaQav min khag nana." -salah. ~ [karha] n ~ decoction. 2 worry, mental tension (pain) "karha sada rahE man mahi." -GPS. ~ [kall n time. "han SImrat katE so kaI." -bIla m 5. See~. 2 death. "kal kE phasI sakat saru sadhIa."-asa m 5.3 Yam, the god of death. 4 starvation, famine. "kal gavaIa kartE apI."-mala m 5. 5 Shiv, the universal destroyer; he, who destroys the whole world. "kal knpalu hIyE na cItaryo."-SdVE'ye 33. 6 shOli for kalas; ink. "kal matI lagi."--sri beni. 7 adj black, pitch-dark. "nfdak ke mukh hoe kal."-bIla m 5. 8 n time of birth; birth. "kal bIkal sabadI bhae nas."-bIla am 1. 'The cycle ofbilih and death became irrelevant due to the Guru's teachings. 9 tomorrow. "jo UpjIO

so bInas hE paro ajuke kal."-sm 9. day before or yesterday or after tomorrow, today or tomorrow or yesterday; sooner or later. 10 iron. 11 planet Saturn. 12 Shiv. 13 cuckoo. 14 grammatical tense: present-I study; pastI studied, future-I will study. OI'l'Sfe€l [kalf di] See "OI"ffi-et. 'OI"m1 [kalas] n black colour, smut. 2 dirt; impurity. 3 blemish. ~ [kalsenl, ~ [kalsEl).] a Surajvanshi king. From the text of Vachitar Natak it appears that these kings were chiefs ofVedi, and Sodhi dynasties. "kalsEl). pnthme bhayo bhupa.... kalketu dusar bhua bhayo. krurbaras tisar jag thayo... kaldhvaj caturath nnp SOhE... kalketu 3ru kalray bhan. jIn te bhaye putr ghar angan."-VN a 2. ~ [kalak] n black soot, smut. "nm ki kalak bical dekh."-carItr 94.2 blemish, sin. 3 black spot; stain. 4 adjlord oftime (death). OIIl'SOIiild [kalkavar], OIIl'SOI~M [kalkaval] Universal Time that subsumes all micro times. See~. Wl'S'OIT [kalka] See ~. 2 ink. 0I1l'S0I10I1l'S [kalkakall, ~ [kalkal] death of all (supreme destoyer) "kal ka kal nIrajanu jacna."-savE'ye m 4 ke. "nama kal kale." -japu. ~G [kalkutl, ~3' [kalkutl See ~l-@'G. 2 one that incinerates even death; poison, because it is a symbol of death. ~ [kalketu] See ~. OIIl'Scffc')l)fT [kalkama], WMOf?iJlT [kalkanya] n Jara, daughter of the god of death; old age. "maha sudri kaIa kalk;'jnIa graste." -sahas m 5. 2 See ~. ~tr"i'i" [kalknpan] n one whose sword spells death; the supreme destoyer. "kalknpan! bIna bInti na tau tum ko prabhu nEk njhEhO."-VN. OI'l'SFC3:Gt' [kalknya] n wheel of time, time's

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movement. "kalknya Esi tab bhai."-VN. ~ [kalatI'] See i5fl?:I. "sut pIto sagal kalatr ~ [kalk$ep] Skt n passing time, spending mata."-sl'i no 1. time; letting moments trickle. ~t!id1ft [kaltI'EdaI'sil See fi16('M€dlil "knpa ~ [kalakh] See ~. "namhin kalakh sidhu kaltn:darsi."-hajare 10. mukhI maIa."-asa m 4. "kal;~kh dag IdgaL" ClIMe'~' [kaldara] dleath's jaw, See ~ and -saveye m 3. 2 stigma. Wi'it. ~ [kaldgy] n astrologer, who knows about ~ [kaldEt] death in a demon's guise. "kaldEt time. 2 wise man who grasps the challenge saghare jdmpun gae."-basat m 4. 6l"'l'rgH [kaldhu:j]' 6(T~)IFr [kaldhvdj] See~. posed by time. 3 cock, rooster. ~ [kalgI'ds], 6('Md]R3[kalgrasat] adj in the ~ [kaldm] adj which causes death. "jdgupjavdnI palanI kaldJl1I.'''-NP. grip of time/death. 2 swallowed by time. (death) "kalgras sasaI'."-sal' m .5. "kalgrasat Cl'MQA' [kalnuja] younger sister of Kal, Yamuna.-sanama. sabh 10k SIane uthI paQIt pE cale nIrasa." -SOl' kabir. 3 entangled in the confusion ofgood 0(T(ii)tfi..r [kalnemIl, 0(1(",~ [kalnemu] maternal uncle ofRavan who wanted to stop Hanuman and bad times. from bringing the reviviing herb. Hanuman CX"'l?tf [kalaj] n Yudhishtar-the elldest among the Pandav brothers. Being the son of the god of killed him. 2 a demon who was son of Hirnaykashipu. He had one hundred hands death, he gets this name. "kallaj dhaI'maj and as many faces (heads). He captured $alyanpu."-sanama. See qrfu-;::r. Pa bllack wild heaven andexpeliled gods. He was killed by cock. Vishnu, later wbom as Kans. "rdkdtbij kalnemu a"'Mtllfc'i [kaljaman], ~ [kaljamun], ~ bIdaI'e."-gau a m 1. [kaljaman] Skt son of the sage Gargay, from the womb of Gopali, the fairy. He was a 0('l"(ii)t.f'T [kalpaI] with the passage of time. 2 by the divine dictum; per the Creator's order. dark-coloured Greek king l and was fast "kal paI bI'dhma bdPU dhaI'a."-c.Jpai. friend of Jarasandh. To help Jarasandh, Kalyaman invaded Mathura to kill Krishan, ~ [kalpIta] the sun, father of the god of death.-sanama. but the latter fled before him. Kalyaman chased him for a long distance. Krishan got 0('I'(II)l.ft [kalpi] a major town of a tehsil of district Jalaun in V.P. Its crystallised sugar has been into a cave in which the royal sage rated very high by the ancient poets. "sahIr Muchkund was asleep. Krishan put his kalpi mahI basat te."--carrtr 3. "maya yahI cloak on him and hid himself. Thinking him kalpi ki mI$ri ko kuja."-devrdas. to be Krishan, Kalyaman kicked Muchkund. On this, Muchkund's eyes opened and Q11i5'Y~ [kalpurakh] n messenger of the god of death. "kalpurakh ka maI'dE man."-bhel' Kalyaman was reduced to ashes. See lj''tfCif"i:. kabil'. 2 short for dkalpuI'dkh; god. "kalpuI'dkh "jdI'asadhI kaljdmun saghaI'e."-gau a m 1. ki kari baQai. "-paras. "jag darayad kaljaman."-kl'rsan. 'CfI'l?t:{lf"<!" [kalpram,w] measure of time, thus C(T'MRTH' [kaljal] n noose of time (death) "kaljal described in Vishnupuran. jam johI na sakE."-vaq chat m 3. The time taken to utter a monosyllable is 6('Mea 'al [kaljhaI'al)i] See -a-<J~l nIme$; it is one wink of the eye. 'Doctor Spooner writes of him as a king of Persia.

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15 nIme$eS make one ka$tha. 30 ka$thas make one kala. 20 ka1as make one muhurat. 60 muhurats make one day and night. 15 days and nights make one pak$ or moon's phase. 2 pak$es make one month. 2 months make one rItu. 6 months make one ayan. 2 ayans make one year. Amarkosh writes: 18 nIme$eS make one ka$tha. 30 ka$thas make one kala. 30 ka1as make one k$al).. 12 k$al).S make one muhurat. 30 muhurats make one day and night (ahoratr)l. 15 ahoratrs make one pak$. 2 pak~es make one month. 2 months make one rIto (season). 3 rItus make one ayan. 2 ayans make one year. According to Jyotish Prabhakar: 15 nIme$eS make one VIsa. 15 VIsas make one casa. 3 casas make one pal. 60 pals make one ghari. 8 gharis make one pEhar: 8 pEhars or 60 ghari make one day and night. Nowadays, time is divided like this: 60 seconds make one minute. 60 minutes make one hour. 3 hours make one pEhar (watch). 8 pEhars (24 hours) make one day and
'Hindus and Sikhs consider day and night as time between - one sunrise and the next. Muslims take them as extending from one evening to the next evening, whereas the Christians imagine them from one mid night to the next midnight.

night.2 See CXC?l..f and 1!JdT. ~ [ka1phas] noose of death. "ka1phas jab gar mE me1i."-maru m 9. ~[kaIab] A"')I; n mould. 2 body, physique, mortal frame. ClIl')faClIl') [kaIbIkaI] birth and death. See ~ 8
~ [kaIbud], ~ [kalbut]

P .J( ( n mould, frame, figure. "kalbut ki hastani man baura re."-gau kabir. For trapping an elephant the figure of a female elephant is made and installed in a deep pit covered with grass. On seeing it, the male elephant is attracted towards it and falls into the pit. 2 body. ~ [kaIbhas] Skt Ci(l');j§lIA n light before sunrise. "kI kh;:i kaIbhas;:i."-datt. 'Datt is respledent like the morning light.' ~ [ka1maki], CXTIDfTl:IT [kalmakhi], arIDfTST [kalmachal, ~ [kalmachi] adjresident of Kalmas. "ka1makhi chubhe chatradhari."
2The present day scholars thus formulate day, night and year. The earth rotates round its axis and also revolves round the sun. The time taken by it to complete one rotation about its axis is called day and night. Thus time is divided into 24 hours and each hour into sixty minutes and each minute is further divided into as many seconds. Earth completes one revolution around the sun exactly in 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds. So the full year should be of this much duration. But this being an incomplete number, a year is taken to be of365 days and every 4 th year is thought to have 366 days. The excess in minutes and seconds can thus be accounted for. At no place is there the same time all over the world. When there is day in countries of the east, there is night in those of the west. Similarly, when there is day in the western countries, it is night in their eastern counterparts. In the polar regions of north and south, day and night last for many months, the reason being that at these places, the sun shines for a longer period and at other times it remains set for as much duration.

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-kdlki. See C:('ffi-fTCif. [kalmukha] adj whose face has been blackened with soot. "tau kalmukha uth1 jahi."-sar m 5. ~ [kalyaman], O(IMl1I~(,) [kalyavan] See

See O('MO. "kalar bhit gniE."-bIla m 5. 2 nitre, which is drawn from the saline land. "kalar ladas1 sar lagh]).au, labh na puji sath." -var maru 1 m 1. 'Nitre dissolves in water.' C1iM~l're [kalra1] See ~. ~ [kalratn] Skt n night of death. 2 dark night. 3 calamitous night. 4 night oflighted lamps (Diwali) Kattak Badi 30.5 Kali goddess; Kalika. 0(TMijT{jf [kalray] See ~. 'CI"M'fa" [kalan] in saline lanel. "kalan bijas1 durmat1 Esi."-mala am 1. 'Seed does not sprout in saline land.' Sowing seed there means putting charity in an undeserving box. WM3T [kalra], 0(T'I');ft [kalri] adjblack; dark, pitchdark. Cf"MT [kala] adj dark., black. 2 blemished, accused. 3 n thief, who puts on black clothes at night. "kaIIa kale v;'}n."-var suhi m 1. 4 See ~. 5 a person from the hills who became a devotee of Guru Arjan Dev, and turned very pious. 6 Dg lunatic, obstinate. 'C(TMT mfc!' [kala hara]).] licentious young man. "tu SU]).1 harl).a kaIIa! ki VariE rata?"-asa chat m1. 'C(TMT 1fTO [kala xan] ruler of Peshawar who, on the orders of emperor Shah lahan, went to capture the sixth Guru and met with his death at the hands of the latter. See (J1~n:R'~. 2 a Pathan, heading one hundred and twenty five soldiers who, during the battle ofBhangani, did not want to desert the tenth Guru as did his disloyal companions. See '§"~. Cl"'M"ORf [kalagar] Dg n opium, black poison. ~ [kalatar] Skt n some other time. 2 time

a"'ffif [kalar]

preceding after biirth. 3 adj which happens at other time. C1IWOH'eiH ~ [kalanujais astr] Yamuna, the younger sister of Kal (go"d of death), her master Varun, and his weapon, the noose. ~ [kalapa]).i] the sea whose water looks. black. The sea nearAndamanand Nicobar islands looks very clark, hence the name. 2 Indian criminals, who, when sentenced to exile from their native country, were sent to these islands. For this reason, exile is aJ:so called Kalapani. C1'WS'dl [kalabag] n a small cantonment in district Hazara, situated on the road between Ebtabad and MUlTi. 2 a Itown in Isakhel tehsil ofdistrict Mianvali, situated on the right bank of river Sindh. Large quantity of yellow alum is extracted at this place, for use in many medicines. ~ [kalayudh] sword, the weapon of the ~od ofdeath I(double edged sword) "karikaratak kastnpu kalayudh karvar; karacol knpan ke lijahu nam sudhar."'.-:sanama. 2 weapon of Yam (death), noose.-sanama. ~ [kalalekh] vilifYing writing; a writing in which the blame is put on others. "je tu akallatiph kale lIkh na lekh."-s farid. 'Don't write against others, when you, yoursellfoverflow with vices.' 2 evil deeds which may bring bad luck. 'C(Tfi;r [kaII] because of d,eath. "sabh badhi jam kalI."-vaq chat m 3. "jab lagu kal1 grasi nahi ka1a."-bhE'T kabir. ~ [kaIIk] n dark colour, soot, black ink. 2 Skt adjtemporal, rdatl~d to time. See crn'to 2. ~ [kal1ka] Skt n black colour, soot. 2 darkcoloured goddess; goddess Kali. 3 dark clouds full of rain. 4 a small song bird. 5 power of the god ofdeath to destroy the whole world; power to destroy. ~ [kaIIkh] n soot, black ink. 2 black spot, blemish.

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~ [kalrj] E College. n institute of higher

learning (education). ~ [kalfj;:Jr] See Cil"ffi;:ro and ~. ~ [kalrtr], ~ [kalrtri] See ~. ~ [kalfd] adj related to the Kalind mountain. c(lfM€iH [kalrdas] the great Sanskrit poet who was born at Singigoda Panchthupi in district Murshidabad in Bengal region. It is difficult to ascertain his time; many scholars have described him as having been born in the 5th century AD or as some believe his birth, even before that. Poetry of Kalidas is very captivating. It is not wrong to call him the greatest poet of India. Shakuntla, Kumarsambhav, Naloday, Malvikaganimitar, Raghuvansh, Meghdut, Vikrammovarshiya are his celebrated compositions. Those who have read these can appreciate the exceptional brilliance of his mind. In Dasam Granth, Kalidas has been described as the incarnation of Brahma. "Ih br;:Jhm vednIdhan d;:Js-;:Jst ~;astr;:J pr;:Jman. k;:Jr kaii das;:Jvtar. r;:Jghukavy kin sudhar."-braham. 2 There have been several other Sanskrit poets too with this name. ~€l [kalfdi], ~t;"qr [kalfdr;:Jka], qrffit;"T [kalfdri] river Yamuna (Jamna) starting from the Kalind mountain. 2 daughter ofKalind (the sun). In ancient writings (Purans) Jamuna has been shown as the sun's daughter. "kalfdri t;:Jt k;:Jre vIlasa."-VN. "kalfdri t;:Jt S;:JtIgUru bqhe s;:Jr;:Jb sunar."-NP. ~ l')f'(i'N 3QH [kalfdri ;:Jnuj t;:Jnuj] Dharamraj (god of death), younger brother of Yamuna, his son Yudhishtar. -sanama. ~ [kaIIb] See ~. ~ [kaIIma] ~ n darkness, black ink dark colour, soot. 2 hair dye. "g;:Ji VE t;:Jrun db t;:Jruni n;:J neh k;:JrE t;:Jrni bEt;:Jrni ;)t;:Jrni ;:Jgam g;)n, r;:Jhi hE I1d baki ;:Jb naj;:Jr jubaki baki.

r;:JsI kS;:Jbha me bEth rasna to cahe m;)n. bite dIn ji ke;:Jb ;:Jv;:JdhI I1djike r;:Jhi ujre bhaye hE kes ujre bi~a ke bh;)n kal ki bali pE mukhk;}j ki bli pE SaSI;}~U avli pE ab lipE kaIIma ko bn?" 3 black spot, blemish. ~ [kali] n black goddess, KaJika. "c;}di d;:Jyo VI dar, srol). pan kali k;:Jryo."-caQi 1.2 a river rising from the Himalayan mountain. 3 name of a cannon of the tenth Guru. 4 a serpent which was taken out of Jamuna river by Krishan; Kaliy. "kali I1dthI kIa v;:Jc;la bh;:JIa." -asa ill 1. 5 tomorrow. "m;:Jt jal).;:Jhu aj kI kali." -dhana ill 4. 6 adj black, with black spot. "kali kOII tu kIt gunI kali."-suhi farid. 7 blemished, polluted. "kali hoia dehuri."-sava ill 1. "c;:Jhu jugi kalI kali kac;lhi."-var sor ill 3. 8 short for qrffio [kalin] like s;:Jmkali instead of s;:Jmkalin. See ~ 2. 9 Dg opium, cannabis. 10 age when the hair is black (young age) "kali jInhi n;:J raVIa dh;:Juli raVE kor."-s farid. ~ lkalia] adj killer, murderer. "S;}t kalia dh;:JratI bIdar;:Ju."-gsQ ill 5. 'I destroy the saint's killer from this earth.' ~ [kalica] See ~. ~ ~ [kali d;:Jh] spot in the Jamuna where Krishan tamed the black serpent. C1IMl€iH [kalidas] See Cl'FM€'H. 'CI'ffit:rra" [kalidhar] deep current; pure and deep water that looks dark. "buc;le kalidhar." -skabir. ~ [kalin] T n carpet, soft bedding of cotton. 2 Skt qrffio adj temporal as s;:Jmkalin l (contemporary). C1IMli'ltllnrr [kalinathia], ~ [kalinag], ~ [kalinath] Krishan, the nose-chainer ofKalia,


'Per Sanskrit rules, this is a wrong term; grammatically its correct version should be samkalIk, but carried away by tradition, scholars keep using it wrongly.

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chipe ragrez je nhavEya paptal ke, the black serpent; a huge serpent residing in patvE P2Jtoli leori kunbi madari brfd Yamuna whom Krishan chained by the nose. nnttak malech puj khate jiv palke, See ~- 4. cuhre carnar curhere J khatik Qurn ~ [kalipo~] adj wearer of black robes. Qurnre halalkhor bhil bUQhe balke, 2 n an order of ascetics who wear black robes kesarinIhal kalucad ke dulare bIna (as a sign of eternal mourning). "kalipos tare kJn sare nie bic kalukal ke. kaladra."-BG. ~ [kalu] See arl? "kalu na CapE hangul). ~ [kalunath] an ascetic ofvillage Nathana in Ferozepur, who on becoming a disciple of gaI."-oakar.2 See~. 3 yesterday; the day that has passed. "chInu chInu kan gaIo kalu Guru Hargobind, got worthy of salvation. This place is popular in the Malwa region. See foaror. tEse jatu aju hE.-jeja m 9. ~ [kalukh] See Ci!C2l:f, C{l'C?l'T and ·~Fo. 2 See~· 4. ~ [kalu] See ~ "8lCfT. 2 a disciple of Guru ~ [kalub] P ,...-}( n body. 2 A ....-,&. plural is kalab (h~lart).· 3 A ",:,,& turnco·at; he who Nanak Dev who served him at Kartarpur. 3 a resident of Sultanpur ofBamni subcaste who is not firm on what he says. "kalubI akal manI was a devoted disciple of Guru A~jan Dev. 4 a gor na rnani."-var maJa m 1. 'A person does load carrier (bearer) who was a l.n"B" [pir] of not bother to remember the cremation ground', water carriers (jhIUr). His headquarters is at e.g. has forgotten his death. Pachnangal (district Hoshiarpur) where water ~ "8lCfT [kalu baba] 1 born in year 1497 Sammat carriers come to worship him from far off from the womb of mother Banarasi in the places. The congregation is held on the family of Bedi (Vedi) Shivnarayan (alias Baisakhi day. 5 See ~. Shivram) and died in Sammat 1579. He was ~ [kalukhatJ, ~cft [kalukhi] adj with a father of Guru Nanak,. the 'universal teacher. black spot; culprit, marked by a blemish. Bhai Santokh Singh has described Talwandi "kalukhat moh adhIar."-asa chat m 4. ')IU as the place: of his death. See oTi'icP:fq'H (l3d'dQ kajar bhan madIr rakhIo, jo pEse kalukhi a 6 page 57. re."-dev m 5. ~ ))fCflI5' [kalubI akal] who has frivolous. ~ [kalucad] This is another name ofBaba mind; having perverse mind. See ~ 3. Kalu. See ~ "8lCfT. ~'R1ir' [kalesaga] Bhai Santokh Singh has ~ j} ~ [kalucad ke dulare] the darling written that Nand Chand, a resident ofDaroli, son ofKalu- Guru Nanak. who managed Guru Gobind Singh's finances, "gJriye ahir raigujar luhar nau sneaked away from Anandpur after stealing kujre kahar jahf phute ak bhal ke, the sacred book of the Udasi saints. Then he bal).ie labal).e dhobi dhivar kasere kachi came and stayed with Dhirmal, who took him dhanak taboli koli teli mad cal ke, for a spy of the Guru. He got him killed and baQhi bhathIare bari dhunie malah mali his dead body was cremated at Kale Sanga. kotI jhUQ jhivar kulal J kalal ke, "kale saBa phukyo jeLI. mntak bhayo Irn kesari nIhal kalucad ke dulare bIna dharam gavai."-GPS. See~. tare bn sare nic bic kalukal ke. 'In history he has been variously described as Kalyan kayath sunar suji khati ban yare brfd Rai, Kalu Chand and Kalu Rai as well.

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~l:fT [kalekha] n black colour; soot. "take

mukhI lagE kalekha."-sar m 5. ~ [kalexan] See ~. ~l:f [kalekha] blackness, soot. See ~l:fT. "tIlak kaQhE Isnan karI atarI kalekha."-var maru 2 m 5. ~ [kalosi] a devotee of Guru Arjan Dev from the Kakka subcaste. He was a great warrior. The Guru bestowed upon him the .honour of being a warrior and learned man (noble man), hence deserving of salvation. ~ [kalak] See~. 2 adjwith a black spot; blemished. "jampurI badhIkhare kalak." -pr<Jbha <J m 5. ~ [kalag], ~ [kalaga] n blemish. "ta kau kachu nahi kalaga."-g<Ju m 5. 2 adj connected with the territory of Kaling. 3 See

~ [kalajar] a mount of Bundelkhand on

which is situated the temple of Neelkanth Mahadev. At its foothills is the city of Kalinjar. Mahmud Gazanavi attacked this temple in the year 1022 AD. See ~. ~ [kalh] Skt ~ n yesterday. 2 tomorrow. ~ [kav] See ~. 2 n crow. "pIchE p<JtalI sadIhu kav."-var majh m 1. ~ [kavI).i] n female crow. ~ [kavar], ~ [kav<Jr] Skt q-!ffl a flexible rod of bamboo etc on each side of which are slung pans like a weighing balance, and used for carrying water or other articles. "khir khaQ parsad k<Jrae. bahut sukavar sag calae."-GV6. ~ [kavru] See ~. ~ ~ [kavru kumari] daughter ofKamrup; goddess Kamakhya. "kavru 'kumare adhamudhare."-<Jkal. ~ [kava] See ~ FPfJa' 2. ~ [kaveri] a famous river of south India which originates in the western ghats and falls into the Bay of Bengal. According to Sikand

Puran, she was the daughter of sage Kaver, which flows as a river. It is called Ardhganga. 2 prostitute. 3 turmeric. ~ [kavy] n a poetic composition. 2 aesthetically- pleasing sentence. I Scholars have divided poetry into two types: gady (prose) and pady (verse), holding that ifthis prose or verse is not aesthetic and does not cast a spell, it is not kavay. Those proficient in prose and verse have described its two more types e.g. $ravy and drI$Y. e.g.one pleasing to the ear is $ravy and the one pleasing to the eye is drI$y i.e. stage play. 3Shukar, who is proficient in poetry. 4 See -a-w. ~C!" [kavyguI).] madhury (sweetness or charm), oj (brilliance) and prasad (offering). For generating these three qualities in poetry, there are three techniques, namely, sweetness, manliness and maturity. C(1Ci!J1€P1 [1<.avydo$] Poets should always avoid faults described in literary treatises so that their poetry does not get spoilt or corrupted. Though there is a need for a separate book to interpret this subject yet for the benefit ofthe readers, we illustrate in brief a few faults: 1 $abad-hin is to distort the true form of the verse in order to maintain the flow of its rhyme. "kanak J manak pun IO$ta janiye... kdi jugg janE kaldppa vItayo." -GV 10. "$ri nanak agad amar, ramdas arjan." -GPs. "sur sat kupe nahI pes jae .. nakhatt guru raVI lakkh late .. ta madh ek sudhasar sEhar, IEhardar apar hamese.-PP



vyag v;:Jr salaknt gUl).rup,

bhavadIk r;:Js ritI yut 'kav'lY' uk'lt kaVIbhup."

-bava ramdas.

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Likewise many poets have written suder as s0 dr, sarav as srav, topkhana as tupkhana, dhobi as dhubi, babar as babbar, pratap as partap, nagar as nagr etc so as to render the verse defective. Words in a couplet should be arranged in a manner as if a narrative poem were: being written. Excellent poets are those who without deforming the words maintain the flow of the rhyme in a couplet. 2 bral).katu is to use words and 'sentences which sound discordant to the ears e.g. "bhar kE QhIQQ Qakaral).lehi". 3 asamarath is to use words which may suggest derogatory or impolite meaning. "ras maddh mohan ju han s6 khelhi" It can be read like this also: "ras maddh mohan jutian s6 khelhi". 4 nuarthak are meaningless words used only to complete a metre. "puri uri ras bhari kari kac)I'i sag." 5 aZ'lil is the use of obscene words: "ap s5 mIlap kaho kEse hoy maharaj, cobdar cutia na jandet bhitrE." -bhagvant kaVI. 6 bII~t, or difficult couplets are like a puzzle and not easy to understand. "nIs-an nuakh ghanajsut harkhyo."l 7 pagu or yatIbhag is to use more or fewer charact~rs or matras before a pause in the metre, or to distort harmony by employing forbidden gal). (foot) like jagal). in a couplet. S punal'uktI is the repetition of the same ..word in the same sense. "jii nar ko nahI gayan hE, so nal' pasu saman." 9 adh is to use words against norms or conventions e.g. "nasIka kamal jEsi nEn hE nagal'e se." 10 badhu is to join antonyms e.g.

"j3.ya 806 mIl tat bakhani."2 11 mntclk is to use such words as-carry no significance other than uf rhyme and alliteration. "anan luanan sohto tanan bhanan jan." 12 aparth is to create a composition that does not carry any marvellous meaning. "jal barSE ghcm gagan te sur harE adhar... netran se jan pekhte sunat kan se bat." 13 nagan is poetry without metaphorical brilliance. 14 rasvIIudd h is to write by joining opposed sentiments e.g. to combine the gorgeous and the heroic with the ludicrous and the terrible. 15 de~;vIruddh is a description going against the lanel to which it pertains. "gInsl'fgan par kamlan ~obha, maruthal rajhas man lobha." 16 kalvIruddh is an anachronism. "hnTIrItu me phule kamal kokIldhunI cahu or". Bhai Santokh Singh has, in all humility, in the third c'hapter ,of Nanak Prakash, thus described poetic defects. "adh ju badlur pagu nagan mntak, punaruktI aparath ki samajh na avai, VEr de~ kal gan agall navo hi ras vIvIdhalakar hil ko bhed nahI pavai, kou gun hE na rna bhanat maddh jano man gunian hasyog al;pati javai, ek gun yame so vIdIt ,~rut sat suno ! satIgunJ kiratI so nIrmal bhavai. OII~:ilfidl [kavaylfg] This is to underline the meaning with a logical example or application. "arath samrath yUktI kar hoy, kavylIg ko lacchan soy."-garabgajani. Example: "thapIa na jaI kita na hOI ape aIH nuaj;m sOI."-japu.
';:rw [jaya] means mother or consort and 3'3" [tat] stands

''Lotus blossomed on seeing the sun.'

for father or son.

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To underline the truth that the divine can alpan ki gmti kahu kas?-GPS. neither be created nor changed, there is in the ~ [kara], ~ [karha] n decoction; extract second line the contention that He Himself is prepared after boiling.! 2 worry; anxiety. "ta everything. bhau keha kara?"-majh m 5. "kara ChOcj.I acft "$ri guru pag surtaru saras ham sote."-bhEr m 1. "tISu kI karIa?"-var hE sab m;'}gal khanI, ram 2 m 5. darId vIghan na vyapai f« [h] adj how much, how. 2 part a word basahf rIde gatIdan."-NP. meant to link parts ofa sentence so as to make "satIguru paras paras kE the context clear. "us ne akhIa kI mE Ih k;'}m k;'}can karE manur malil:ta."-BG. ap hi kar lavaga." 3 or. "sadhu mIlE sIdhI guru mIl paltyo janam mam paiE h Ihu jog h bhog."-gau kabir. "ghat $akatI kit jIm bhrfg." mahI jiu h piu."-s kabir. 4 question marker; -aliikar sagar sudha. what. "jIsu atan lobhu kI karam kamavE?" a 'oe:rt i aa 1tl'f3" [kavyarthapattI] type of poetic -sor a m 1. "suru kI sanmukh ran te cj.arpE?" expression in which appear non-stated -gau kabir. 5 pron whom. "bInu gursabdE meanings, e.g. if so and so happens then this janam kI lekhahI?"-asa m 1. 'is in no is in no way impossible, or whosoever has done reckoning?' that, for him how can this be impossible? fcf [kf] Skt ~ part what. "joge m kf jage m kf?"-guj jEdev. "kf kari bIkar?"-sar parta1 m Example: "kavla caran saran hE jake, 5. ~ [hu], ~ [hukar], ~ [kwkE] adv kahu jan, ka nahi ghan take?-gau kabir. ajamalu pfgla lubhatu how. "kIU varni kIV jana?"-japu. "kIUkarI Ihu manu mariE."-var ram 1 m 3. "nIksIO kGcaru gae han kE pas Ese durmatI nIstare kIUkE jaI?"-s kabir. 2 for what (why). tu kIU na tarahI ravIdas?"-keda. "samjhat nahI kIU gavar."-jEja m 9. "mrIg min bhrfg pat;'}g kGcar ek dokh bInas. ~ [hur] See ~. pac dokh asadh ja mahI taki ketak as." fc& [kID] See ~. -asa ravIdas. ~ [kIa] did. "bapure kaha pahanye ayas nahI manE? fa>,tg [kIahu] adv how. 2 of. "mansa kIahu tIn 10k par hukam tav nahI pheran thanE." dIbaI).ahu koi naSI bhajI nIklE."-var vac;l m 4. 'from the gathering of men'. 3 from. -GPs. "acar care car acar bhae jab fcp,rr [hal did (favour) "manmukh luI). haram kIa na jaI).Ia."-var majh m 1. 2 of. "tIS kIa kya ganti mr bapuran ki tab."-GPS. "jo pahan IE :Jr cj.ub;,}te, gUI).a ka at na paIa."-ram a ill 3. 3 adv tumre vacn;m te su tarate, somehow. "atul na jai kIa mIna."-maru solhe Ih sagar kaya taran duhela? I According to Ayurveda (Indian system of medicine) four tolas of medicine should be boiled in 64 tolas of water. tarahG bhavjal bhun suhela."-NP After evaporation, when water is reduced to 16 tolas, it "brav pacj.av hath kar nIsthur should be taken off the fire. Likewise, the quantity can s;'}ghar kar VInse balras, Im bacj.Ian ki da$a bhai jab be increased or decreased.

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m 5. 'The immeasurable Creator can not be measured by any means.' 4 pron what. "kra sev bmavau kra kahr rijhavau?"-suhi m 5. 5 part interrogative. fu»!tFr [kI as] See Ci{tjl'T)1. famr"m [krabn] adv because, how. "krakarI kahrajar?"-asa am 3. ~ [kIani] P adj who is related to the Kay [kay] dynasty of Iran as "kamane kayani". fu>,m [kIam] See qljfl}f. ~[kIamat],fu>m..s-erfuo [kramat da dIn] See atifT}-I3". ~ [kIar] ~ [kIara] Skt ~ n garden, field, raised boundary ofa field to store water, cut with a spade to allow the flow of water while irrigating. "manu tanu m:rmal karat kIaro, han SICE sudha sajon."-jet m 5.2 See


river Tungbhadra, sixty miles north ofBalari; about two miles to th,e south west of this is Pampa tank; and to the south west ofPampasar (Pampa tank) is Anjana mountain, where Hanuman iis said to have been born. This is the place where Ramchandar killed Bali. fClR<:iiSld [kisatvar] See ~. fClR"3" [kIsat] A J..~ n part, instalment. 2 justice, equity. 3 part of debt which is paid in (instalments). 4 P..::;.~ crop, cultivation, farming. fClF.r3o [kI$tan] P J':f v sow. Its other form is



'R'Tfu'a" [kIara sahIb] in Nankiana

(Nankana) Sahib, the place where Guru Nanak revived the field laid waste by the cattle. See

~ [kIara], ~ [kIariJ Skt fCPTz n

cervical joint, neck, nape ofthe neck. 2 Skt a type of tent or umbrella. "lahn:te dharIonu chatru SIrI asmanI kIara chIkIonU."-var ram 3. 'A majestic canopy was set.' 3 P f.lV pain, misery. 4 sadness, grief. fco:r [kIs] pron who, whom. 2 push and pull, struggle. "us di mere nal k[s hE." 3 also used for ki~ (monkey). "cape kIs~." and "jrDYo krsa."-ramav. fcufcr [kIsak] See ~. fcurfcitr [krskfdh] Skt ~l:-T n territory adjoining Mysore 2 a mountain in the territory ofKishkindh. See fc'l(Hfc(Q'. FOlRFcfQ' [krskfdha] ancient capital of Kishkindh, where Bali and Sugriv, the monkey kings, ruled. It is a small town on the bank of

n boat. 2 boat-shaped begging bowl kept by mendicants. 3 boarshaped tray or plate uSled for offering presents to the bridegroom. ftma' [krsthE] adv where, at which place. "krsthE rovahr roj."-majh barahmaha. fcrno [kIsan] See ~J'IO, FClRi'lJe [kIsancad] See f<3l'iC'ltle. FClRi'le'R [krsandas] a trader of Malerkotla who made offerings to Banda Bahadur and saved his town from plunder. FClMal'S!!!' [kIsanballabha] See f<3l'iC'lal'S!!JI. f'Cl"RoT [kIsna] See 1~i'l ofcrrr. 2 a disciple of Guru Arjan Dev who rendered great service during the construction of Amritsar. 3 a Brahmin of Jhiingan subcaste who became a disciple of Guru Arjan Dev. The Guru appointed him a preacher. 4 a devotee of Jhanjhu subcaste who, on becoming a disciple of Guru Hargobincl, turned a warrior and an enlightened being. FClRi'l'diji'l [krsanarjun] See f<3H(')'dtj('). fcmQ [kIsanu] See nprri. 2 This word has been used for Vishnu also. "krsanu sada avtari rudha."-va<;l m 3. ~ [kIsbat] A . J earn; make profit. ~ [kIsam] A ( n type. 2 variety, method.

fcn:raT [kr~ti] P


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~ [kIsmat] A~ n share. 2 luck, fate.

3 country, province. territory. fu'afi.n:r [kI$mI$] P / n dried resin. fclMfaGII [kIsnya] adj dyed in saffron. 2 saffroncoloured; saffron. "jIt jIt dn$tI pasanye tItalu kIsnya cir."-carrtr 30. forJ:rm;r [kI$lay] Skt n which moves very little; which shakes slowly in the wind; a tender shoot. ~ [kI$Var] P .J -p( n country; a foreign land. fol'J:rJ:r [kIsas] P v~ act of sentencing a person to death for committing a murder. fcmro [kIsan] See fuoJ::rrc: and ~. 'fcm'ta' [kISar] n short for ke$agra."khulhe kIsar, janu jatadhar."-VN. 'Buns of hair got undone.' fuwa"ef [kIsarth] for what, why. "kIsarath ko Ih ja ham gheri?"-krrsan. fQJj [kISU] pran who, whom. "kISU hau sevi, kISU aradhi?"-dev m 5. fulrcr [kIsuk] Skt iffi;roit n bearer of water; in which water flows; stream, river. "maru mih na trIptIa agi lahE na bhukh. raja raj na tnptIa san bhare kIsuk."-var majh m 1. 'Desert land is not content with rain, fire is not content with fuel, king is not content with kingdom and sea is not content (filled) with rivers.' 2 pran for anyone. 3 by one only. 4 See ~. fcn.ra" [kf$uk] Skt n kf (what is) $uk (parrot) what is in front of a parrot's beak? Kesu; flower oftl(?T}l [plas], which looks like the beak of a parrot. 2 q.hakk or palah, a tree (Butea frondosa) 3 its leaf. ~ [kIsukha] got what happiness? attained what comfort? "ghar asaq.a chaq.kE gole de ghar jaI kIsukha?"-BG. forFrt!"aT [kIsodri] having a slim waist. See ~. "sumod me kIsodri s6 gaq.ho laptayo hE."-NP fcrita' [kI$Or] Skt n a boy of 11 to 15 years of

age (teenager). 2 son, male child. 3 colt. 4 sun. ~ n story; tale, legend. ~ [kI$ta] dried fruit of zardalu, used for cleaning silver or for removing sour taste in spices. fc;rn' [kIh] pran whom. 2 adv somehow, in some way. "rup rag aru rekh bhekh kou kdhI na sakat kIh."-japu. 3 P ,.f because. 4 pran who. fuurat [kIharil adj what type. "OI pal ghari kIhari?"-keda ill 5. 2 pran which. fqfu [kIhI] pran to whom. 2 which. "kIhI bIdhI lakhau gusai."-sor m 9. fqg [kIhu] adj Some, very little. "kIhu calE na caldIa naII?"-sor m 3. "sabh kIhu tere vasI hE."-var brha m 4. 2 adv in some way. "bIn satIguru kIhu na dekhIa jaI."-majh am 3. ~ [kfkl)i] See ~. ~ [kfkanIarI] some ignorant writer has erroneously used this word in Shastarnammala for kakyanarI. horse's enemy- the tiger. flfuo9' [kfkni] Skt fi'lfch'C2'\£·fil>l<1lor\1-~ n waist band which produces little noise; waist band with bell-beads. "kfkni sabad jhanatkar khel pahI jiu."-savEye m4ke. ~ [kIkar] See fcmfu. ~ [kIkar] Skt ~ n slave, servant; one who can do menial jobs. 2 a tribe of demons. ~ [kIkarl)i] army of slaves; employing many menials.-sanama. fcmfu [kIkan] Skt fil>'5~Cj1{I(1 n a tree (Acacia Arabica) "kIkarI bIjE jatu."-s farid. ~ [kfkri] n maid, female attendant. "subh bacan bol gun amol kfkri bIkar."-sar m 5 partal. 'Habits (nature) will become like a maid servant.' 2 kf-kari? what can we do? ~ [kfkaril adj one who wears waist band with bellbeads. See manT. "kfkri kalka." -paras.

fliw [kIssa] A

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fcrcrrfcrcft [kIka kIki] S ~ ;~. See ~ fuoIT. ~ [kIkaI).], ~ [kIkaI).] horse. See cffiJ:ro.
[kIkaI).i] cavalry.-s.:mama. ~ [kIkan], ~ [kfkan]horse. See cffiJ:ro. "muc;lahI tUc;lahI, ruc;lahI en plan kIkan dhasi vasudha mahf."-cJQi 1. fuwirft [kIkani] See ~. ;~ horse rider. fufcrlrQ [kIkIonu] has done what. 2 what did he do? "dunIai akh£ kIkI<mu."-var ram 3. fcfuit [kfkI).i] See ~. fcifuo [kfkn] Slct n horse. :~ moth. 3 cuckoo. ~ [kIkur] adv how, because. m~ [kfkuri] Slct n a stringed instrument. "kfkuri anup vajE."-ram m 5. ~ [kIku], ~ [kfku] adv how. "tIS di kimatI kIku hOI?"-bIla m 3. ~ [kIkE] adj resident of Kekay land. ~ character. "kIkE kalmakhi."-paras. See~. ~ [kIkkar] See~. fcicra' [kIkkur] adv because, how. ~ [kfkyanl See ~). fciaT [kfg] short for f'c:fa'Rit. fciaRft [kfgri] See 'fo{'-mft. ~ [kfguraJ See ~. ~ [kfguriJ See ~2 and 3. "ghatI ghatI vaj£ kfguri."-sri am 1. Veena embodying reflective resonance. ~ [kfgura] See ~. fClilfCltfl [kIekIei] gnashing of teeth in anger. See mf€r3". "krIpa kfeat gUrI kinr." -gau m 4. fcftro [kfeanl Slct n a small quantity. ~ [kIepIeanaJ v gnash jaws, grind teeth in anger. 2 get soil,ed with mud. "kIepIeaI jodha mac;lahf."-cantr 1. 'Soiled in blood mixed with mud, warriors fight in the battle field.' ~ [kfebegJ See ~r. ~[kIear],futraor [kIearak], futl'og [kIearakul,

fcxtrg [kIearu],S'lct~~advhow long, till when. "kIearu jhdtI laghaiE ehaparu tUtE mehu?"-s {arid. "kIearaku banh£ dhiru?" and "kae£ bh~ic;l£ rakhi£ kIearu tiii nir."
-s (arid. ~ [kfeall, fthrr50i [kfealakl Slct fCl:>61JiiIflCfl n earthworm; long worm seen during the rainy season. fcife3' [kfcItJ Skt ~~Q adj very little, a bit. fu'fffir [kIen], fc~ [kIeIrul See fcxtrg. fcrsr [kIeh], 'FClw [kIehu], 'fClw [kIehuJ adj little. "ham murakh kIehu na jaI).ha."-asa chJt m 4. 2 pran anything. 3 something. "jo kIehu karI).a so karI rahIa."'-varasa m 1. fClt:rfu [kIja][] please: do; let us do. "lakh bahe kIa kIjaI?"-saveye m 4. fClt:ra' [kIjab] A ._/ n lie, falsehood, untruth. fClt:miit [kIjabgoi P 1,-:,') adj who tells lies; who indulges in falsehood. ~ [kfjalkl Slct w~ n stamen of the lotus flower. 2 pollen of the lotus flower. 3 ovary of lotus. fcmtJT [kIjeha] adv like what, how. "mukh kIjeha tau dhat).i?"-var maru 2 m 5. [kIjh],'~ [kIjhUl adj something. "kIjhu na bujh£ k][jhu na SUjhE."-S farid. fc:fcy [kII).] See 1~. 2 See ~. ~ [kIl).ka], fcil'ioJr [kII).aga] n particle, straw, mote. fcr3' [kIt] adv which way, where. 2 n fame, reputation. "jIh baraI). jat nahI kIt :"nat."-ddtt.


mE [kfeat]



fcr30r [kItakl adv how much, how.
fCldfCld [kItkIt] adv where. 2 adj gratitude
from one whose task is accomplished. "kIt kIt kin sabh kaj ko sudhar din."-GPs. ~ [kItku] adv for what, for whom. "malu dhanu kItku sajIahi?"--sri m 1. 2 where, which way. fCl30r [kItna], ~ [kItnol adj how much.

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"rClhIn nClhI, gClhu kI tno!"-geJU m 5. 'Man has seVIo se kItu ae sasar?"-sri a m 5. 3 pron to leave the world (die), but how strong is its which. "kItU bIdhI purkha! jClnClmu gClvaIa?" grip!' -srdh gosatr. "paiE kItU bhCltI?"-sri m 4 ~ [kItClV] Skt adj evil, bad. 2 mad. 3 cheat. val)jara. 'how to get it?' 4 n thorn-apple. 5 gambler. It is written in ~ [kftu] Skt ~ part but. 2 but also. Nirukt that a gambler asks another gambler, ~ [kftu] See fc,fg. "What do you have?" or "What is your stake?" fu3" [kIte] adv somewhere. 2 adj how many. For this reason he is called kItClV. 3 pron some, any. ~ [kItra], fu3;ft [kitriJ, ~ [kItre], ~ [kIte] Skt fuJ:;ff3" adjhow many. "kIte nama [kItro] adj how much, to what extent, how atunCljaI).Ia."-ramm 1. fcE" [kItE] adv somewhere, anywhere. "kItE many. ~ [kIta] did, performed. "jClm kal VClSI desI nCl aIa SUI).iE."-ram am 1. 2 somehow; kIta."-var suhi m 3. "sClbh pun tInI kIta." in some way. "horu kItE bhClgCltI nCl hOVCli bInu -gClU var 2 m 5. 2 n work, task, profession. sCltIgur ke updes."-sri m 1. 3 adj how much. 4 A ~; n piece, part, fiE [kIto] how much. 2 part or. "kIto cit thare division. 5 component of a metre, part of a bhClYO bhClrClm bhari."-GV 10. Seefqif. 3 did, verse. performed. "nanClk sClkha jiCl sag I kI to." ~ [kItab] A '"';-'C! n manuscript, book, -gatha. fci3" [kI tt], fc:ffi:f [kI ttI], fu'f'3<;f [kI ttI ya], m3tof scripture. 2 letter, epistle. ~[kItabClt] A.:-;C! n written document. [kIttiya] Sktoiff3' n fame. reputation. "dev dEt fcara'~[kItabmukkCldClS]A l/,.J;..... C! holy kItt bujjh hI:."-paras. "jInE kIttIya jIttIya fJj '. book; religious book regarded as ordained by tama."-VN 'who won fame in fierce battle.' the Creator like Guru Granth Sahib, Ved, Bible, foI'ag [kIthClhu] adv from where, from which Koran etc. place. "kIthClhu upjE kClhI rClhe."-var basJt. fu3t'al [kItabi] adjrelated to a book. 2 chapter fua'r [kItha], ~ [kIthau], fora" [kIthe], fcm from a book. 3 book-like. 4 written as in [kItthe] adv from where, from which place. "kItabi boli." (bookish language). 2 at some place. "rClhClI).U kIthau nahI."-s fufu" [kItI] n deed, fame. "nam kItI sasar farid. "kIthe tEQe mapIa?"-s farid. kIrClI). rClVI. "-sClvEye m 3 ke. ~ [kfdbeg] The original word is kGdbeg. fuoT [kIti] See oItft. 2 adj how many. "kIti See cit: 7 and 8; an employee of emperor jobCln pritI bInu."-s farid. 3 pron any. "upaI Jahangir who along with Vazir Khan many lld kIti paIajae."-majh am 3. times came to see Guru Hargobind. Bhai fcr3T [kIfi] adj how many. "kI ti I tu dClriaI Santokh Singh has given his name as vaJ1ClnI vClhfdIa."-asa m 5. Kinchbeg. fc«?r [kIda], fu'e+ [kIda] adv how, in what way. ~ [kItiaku] adj how, how much, how many. "kItIaku Qh5g gujha thiE na hIt."-var ~ [kIdar] See fu»rrij- and ~. "her kIdar guj 2 m 5. 'Try any means, love cannot be su bhClYO hClrana."-NP 'was astonished to see concealed. ' the field.' fug [kItU] adv where. "jahI nIrase kItU?" ~ [kIdara] according to Bhai Santokh Singh, a Sikh, resident of village Madar, who -var asa. 2 why; for what. "satIguru jInI nCl


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had swollen lymph glands, which got cured with a touch from Guru Arjan Dev. "madrI utre guru prabhu I dasan lae turag. "SrI arjan ji IS thaI ae, sIkkh kIdara mIlyo subhae, huh hajira gar mahI tahi, det vIkhad mItat so nahi." -GPS rasI 5 a 52. See HtI 4 for reference 2 Guru Arjan Dev's disciple of Jhanjhi subcaste who rendered service during the construction of Amritsar. 3 a devotional singer in the court ofGuru Arjan Dev. 4 See~. ~ [kIdari] a famous generous disciple of Guru Arjan Dev. 2 a resident of Dalla who was disciple of Guru Amardev. 3 See~. fufuu [kIdIh] when, which day. ~ [kIduk] Skt ~ n ball. ~ [kIdu] pron which. "kIdu thavahu ham ae?"-gau m 1. 2 from whom. 3 adv how, in what way. "labh kIdu hoi."--bher ill 3. ~ [kIdur] distant, how far. futRr [kIdhar] advin which direction, in which side. fqq' [kIdM], fu'ii' [kIdh5] part or. "kIdM devkanya kIdh6 basvi hE."-ramav. 2 for example, as a matter of fact.. 3 In Dasam Granth at countless places kIdh6 means that time. "hOI Ikatr kIdh5 brIjbalClk."-krIsan. fuo[kIn]pron plural ofm. "kIn bIdhI mIliE kIn bIdhI bIchurE."-majh am 3. :2 advwhy not. "uth kIn japahI muran:?"--s kabir. 3 or. "surag vEkDth kIn darab lijE."-GV1O. 'Heaven, paradise, acquisition ofwea][th.' 4 See fufo. ~ [kInka] See~. n a minute particle i.e., for a moment. "harInamu dIravahu Ik kInka."-var Sal' m 4. faoif [kInkhe] See l)'. fcirnr [kInar] Skt~ n a male of abominable

shape, with the body of a man and head of a horse. He is the offspring ofsage Pulstay. Such beings dance when Gandharavs sing in the court ofKuber . They dance in heaven as well. They are also called kI -puru~. "kInar gadhrab gan karr gan." --cJc;1i 1. fcio'at [kInril n wife of Kinner; horse-faced dancing woman . 2 Veena, a double-stringed musical instrument. "kahu kInri kInri IE bajavE."-ramciidnka. 3 fc:itmfT a singlestringed musical insltrument ofthe ascetics. See

fcrcrlttr [kInah] whom. 2 whose. 'fcro'3' [kInat], fcw[i[3" [kInayat] See


Guru Hargobind Sahib.

"harahu irkha karahu kInayat."-NP ~ [kInar] See CXi%. ~ [kInara] P vl;-( n bank, shore. 2 side. 3 border. fufo [kIl1I] who. 2 how, why. "kIm kahiE kIU dekhiE bhai, karta Eku akathu."-sor a m 5. fcffi; [kim] See fcxfo. 2 adv how many, to what extent. "khevat kInI gae."-asa farid. 'How many rulers have come and gone!' fufoftrltr [kIm bJ:dhJ:] by which method, how, which way. "kInI b:[dlu aval).u javal).u tuta." -majh am 5. ~ [kIne] adj how many. 2 pron who. ~ [kIneha], m~fu->1fT [kInehIa], ~tit [kInehi] adv how, lJike what, of what type. "eh kInehi cakri jItu bhau khasam na jaL"-var asa m 2. "jIna na VIsrE narnu se kInehIa?"-asa m5. fcffi' [kInE] pron somo:one. "kInE yulE cakhI q.ithi."-g,:w m 3. fcry'6lf [kIpurakh], MY""§"H [kIpurus] Skt~ n an abominable person. See~. 2 a part of Jambu island, belie:ved to be between the Himalayas and Hemkillt. "kIpurakh khaq. parvese jai."-NP. ;3 Nepal has also been mentioned as Kinpurush in ancient texts.

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4 animals like apes, monkeys etc. born from placenta who bear a lot of resemblance with human beings. ~ [kfpuru:;;e:;;] lord of Kinpurush gods; Kuber. f'currlil"3' [kIfayat] A .::..:lif n sufficiency. 2 frugality, closeness. ~ [kfbdati] See ~. ~ [kIbla] A ~ adv in front of; facing. 2 n a place of worsh;p to face for prayerKaaba, the famous place of worship of Muslims in Mecca. "man kan maka, kIbla kan dehi. bolanharu paramgur ehI."-bher kCJbir. 'Make up your mind and face God.' Mecca is within the self and God, the lord of all beings, is there for worship. It is the supreme Lord who is muezzin as also an imam, who leads the prayer assembly. ~ [kIbla-alam] A (ll;~ icon that is the focus of worship by all, the Creator. See fu"aw. 2 This epithet is also llsed for kings by the needy ones who look upto them with expectation. fum5tFr [kIblas] See fu;rn-. 'fcfw [kfba] part or. "ek jotI eka mIli, kfba hOI? mahoI."-gCJu kCJQir. 'When the hum:m soul merges with the Divine, can there be any alternative? No, not at all. ' ~ [kIbolahI] through foul words, through depraved utterance. "tut£ nehu kIbolahI sahi." -oJkar. 2 says what? fcm [kIm] adv how, in what way. fcfH3" [kfmat] See oftH3". 2 the name of a hill chief who is mentioned in Vichitar Natak ego "hfmat kfmat sahIt rIsae." fmfre' [kImac] See ~. ftp.rra' [kImar] A .JLJ n gamble. ~ [kImarbaz] P ;~A) adj gambler. - fcm.r [kImI] See fuH. . fawa" [kIyur] armband (wrist band). See~.

"bhuj siJdar kar sajat kIyura."-NP
~ [kIr] Sec ~.

n vocation, profession. "koi dalali kIras kamae."-BG. 2 Skt ~ farming. "jam cuhct kIras nItI kurakda."-var gCJu 1 m 4; 3 cultivation. "na ko kIras kareI."-var ram 1 m2. ~ [kIrSaD] n farmer; one who cultivates land; cultivator, ploughman. FaaR'C!1 [kIrSaDi], ~ [kIrsaDu], fc«n::rro [kIrsan], FadA'(')l [knsani] n ploughing, cultivation. 2 cultivation. See~. "kIrSaDi kIrSaDU kare."-gdu m 4. "jEse kusaDu bOVE kIrsani."-asa m 5. 'As the farmer sows the seed.' "kIrsani jIu rakhe rakhvala."-ram CJ m 5. ~ [kIr:;;ma] See ~. ~ [kIrak] See ~. 2 sand or minute particles ofstone which, when they get between the teeth, produce grinding sound. "ate VIC kIrak hE." fa"a1:f [kIrakh] Skt fqm n farming. "jEse kIrakhahI baras megh."-mali m 5. "jIu kIrkhE han aIo pasua."-gCJu m 5. fcracrr [kukha] n process of ploughing; making of furrows with a plough; ploughing. 2 deweeding; removing unwanted grass (weeds) "bIkhE bIkardusatkukha kare."-srim 1. 'like deweeding, removing perverse thoughts.' 3 drawing a line or making a furrow. "lekha dharamraI ki baki japI han han nam kIrkhE." -sri ch5t m 4. 'Recitation of the Creator's name strikes down the account of ill deeds from the dossier maintained by Dharamraj.' fuml:r [kuakhI] See foRJer. fa"atr [kIrac] n small broken piece of bone or glass. "pari kuac kuch taha nIhare."-GPs. 2 straight sword. "Ilmaniru halabbi magrabI kIrac junabbi jati."--GPS. fora<!" [kIraD] n fine ray of light. 2 sun. FC(d<!Qd [kuaDdhar] bearer ofthe ray oflight;

~ [kIras]

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the sun. 2 moon. "dutIy dxvakar kIdh5 kIral).dhar."-CdrItr 266fCldC!Qd 'Q'ij" 'Q'ij" [kIral).dhar dhar dhar] bearer of rays, the sun or the moon; their bearer, the sky; and the arrow flying through the sky. -Sdnama. fuOC!r [kIrl).a] Skt vr ctt means pierce, destroy, throw, separate etc; and kIrl).a is its derivative verb, "kalar keri kadh jIu ahI nISI kIn <;lhahIpaI." -sri m 1. ~ [kIral).I], ~ [kIrl).i] adj which has rays oflight. 2 n moon. "sahajI bhaI SaCIO kIral).I a~nt kal bal).I."-saveye m 2 ke. 'From the divine verses of moon-like Guru Nanak, you have attained peace of mind.' 3 sun. "sarvar kamal kIral).I akasi."-mala d m 1. 4 with rays. 5 in rays. "kiratI raVI kIraI~I pragat sasara." -sdveye m 3 ke. 'Your greatness is shining in the rays of the sun.' 6 river, because its water drips down from the mountains. "sat samiJd jaki he kIrl).i." -bJno. fcrno [kIrat] Skt n profession, work, job. "dharamkIrat kar satan sev£."--GPS. 2 deed, misdeed. "SIrI SIn kIratvIhal).ia."'-marum 5 Jjuli. 3 adj done, performed. 4 See fu"afg. fClddH'Han [kIratsajogi] as a result of previous deeds; moved by the inevitable alone. "kIrat sajogi detraju calaIa."-bl1er d m 3. fClddOldW [kIratkarama] SkI' ~. adj who has performed deeds. "til SUI).I kIratkarama." -tukl1a baral1mal1a. fcrno fcrno [kIrat kIrat] See fu"afg fu"afg. 1«a3'ar [kIrtagg] See fcJoar.;r. ~ [kIratghal).] See ~ruro·. ~ [kIrtan] See oi'looo. ~[kIrtanI] due to deeds. "kIrt;:mI juria." -sul1i m 5 partal. ~ [k:rrtam] Skt fftpr adj artificial. 2 imaginary. "kIrtam namu kathe tere jIhva." -maru soll1e m 5. 3 composed, created. "bIn


kartar na kIrtam mano,," -l1ajare 10. n written according to the deeds done. "knatrekh kan karmIa."-bdsJt a m5. ~ [kIrta], ~J'd'Tfu' [kIrtaI] n deeds. "sadh sevo sada karo kIrtae."'-bIla m 5. ~ [kIrtas] A vu,j n paper. "kut kut sal). kIrtas banaIa."-BG. fClddlda [kutarath], fu;~ [kIrtarath] Skt ~f adj whose purpose has been fulfilled; successful in mission. "jap han kIrtarath." -ram d m 1. "hIrde namu sada kIrtarathu." -bIla dm 1. fu"afo [kHatI] Skt fqf~r n deed, misdeed. "kIratI karam ke bichure."-baral1mal1a majh 2 labour, hard work. "jIu go<;lahu tIU tum sukh pavahukIratI nametIajaI."-bdsJtm 1. 'Fruit ofthis labour will not go in vain. ' 3 fame, glory. "kIratI S;';JjOgI sati uth:[hoi."-gdU m 5. 'burnt herself in her husband's pyre just for the sake ofglory. , fCldfdfCldfa [kn<:,tIkuatI] Skt fc!a' ~. See fOld3 i dS. "prabhu kIrat:[ kIratI kari."-sar m 5 partal. fcl«r3t [kIrti] adj hardworking, industrious. ~ [kIratu] See fCliJ::r. "nab nath khasam hath kuatu dhake de."--var sor ill 2. 2 See ~. 3 good deed, practice. 4 performed i.e. having done a good! deed; having done a favour. "mau piu kIrato gavarnx."-lIar majh m 1. fCldeal'd [kIradgar] P .,'l,./ the Creator, the Transcendental One. fcra-e'ra' [k:rrdar] P .JlJf n deed. 2 practice, exercise. "kaIakIrdar."-marusolhem5. 'Put body to good d{~eds.' 3 See ~. fa"d"O [bran] See fua<y. r. fcreor [kIrna] See ~ [knpache] See f~. ~ [kIrpa:t;l}, fu;iJl.I?) [k:rrpan] SkI ~ n miser. "kIrpan 10bh pIar."-sri am5. "kIrpan
~ [kIrCltrekh]


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tan m<:ln kIlbIkh bh<:lre."-toc;fi m 5. "kupa kij£ sa matI dije


2 Creator's kindness.

fcretr' [kIrpa] Skt ~ n kindness, compassion.
chat m 5.
~ [kIrpai] adj kind; compassionate.

foreil'o [kupenJ,

~o [kuprn] adj house

"mohan din kupai."-·maru m 5. "tau mIlIo jau kIrpai. "-··kan m 5. "bhagat vachalu kIrpae."-bIla m 5. fui:Itrn [kupas] Skt~~ adj seat of kindness; where kindness resides; "prabhu krIpa kari kupas." -kan m 4. ~ [kIrpadhl, ~ [kIrpadhI] Skt ~ , fc3"tfl<ffq treasury of kindness; last word in kindness; ocean of kindness. "ho ho guru kupadhI."--kan m 5. ~ [kupan] See ~. 2 adj abode of kindness. 3 kind. "harT ho ho kIrpan." --kan m 4 partal. ~ [kIrpamd] river of kindness. "dij£ sadhu sagatI kupanad."-sar m 5. 'oh! river of kindness. ' ~ [kIrpam] See foRn-ro. 2 with a sword. 3 from kindness with mercy. "mIliE gur kupanI."--asa m 5.
~[kupamdhJ, ~[kIrpamdhI]

Skt ~ , treasure of kindness, ocean of

compassion. "kIrpanIdhI pr<:lbhu din daIala."-bIla m 5. ~ [kupani] See f'c.r..r<5T. 2 adj kind and compassionate (female). "jan par ap kupanI." -saloh ~ [kupar] See ~. ~ [kIrparial adj kind, generous, compassionate. "sei hoe bhagat jInI kuparia."-gau a m 5. ~ [kIrpall, ~ [kIrpalu] adj kind, generous. "kIrpalu sada d;:nalu. "-bIla chJt m 1. ~ [kupavat] adj kind, benign. "pUrI rahe kIrpavat."--sar m 5. fuotib:r [kupis] adj krIpa-i;; lord of kindness. "harT ho ho kIrpis." -kan ill 4 partal.

(source) of kindness. 2 kind. "prabhu bhae hE kupen."-kan m 5. "tInI paIo jIsu kupEn." --dhana m 5. fu"a1.fiJTOT [kIrpagna] adj whose kindness prevails, lord of compassion. 2 image of kindness; embodiment of compassion; kindness-incarnate. 3 kind. 4 n compassion, kindness. "so bujhE jIskupagna."-maru solhe m5. fu"a1.f'3" [kIrp3t] Skt fcg:l.fT3": with kindness. "kupat haria matI tatgIana."-sahas m 5. foRraEt [kubati] adjwith worry, worried. 2 sad, melancholy. See ~ 2,3, and 4. "mukh tIna de kubati bat na pUChE kOI."-mago. fuoH [kuam] P ( / Skt fl1i n insect; worm. 2 germ, microbe which, unlike bacteria, cannot be seen. 3 microscopic cells or seedlings in blood or semen, which are a source of procreation. I "rakat kIram mahI nahI s5gharIa."-maru solhe m 5. 4 low, inane mean. faRJHtit [kIramci] A <5;-) red dye made from microbes. ~ [kumaID-a] adj house of insects; who has maggots in his body; gangrenous; suffering from leprosy. 2 on small insects. "karahu daIa kIrmaII:la."-maru solhe m 5. ~ [kumala] See mJJ-lTW 2. fcRJw [kula] Skt ~ n lizard, chameleon. fa'a1;ft [kuH] house lizard. See ~. ~ [kuva] n insect, microbe. ~ [kIra] P 1/ pron to whom, for whom. ~ [kIra] A LJI) be near, be close. 2 conglomeration of many planets in a zodiac. 3 See

~ ~

[kuaIa] See fuarw. [kuakhi] pulled, dragged, removed,

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erased. "jIu surajI rEI:u kIfakhi."-var sri m 4. ~ [kIrat] Skt n a tribe of uncivilIised menbhil, nI$ad. 2 territory of Bhutan, Sikkim; Kiratdesh. 3 concoction of four drugs (charaita). 4 A .,:.,1) reading, studying. fCi(d'd'dtJi'ilGi [knatarjuniy][ Bharvi's composition that narrates the story ofwar between Arjun and Shiv. This story is described in detail in the 3rd chapter ofMahabharat. See~. ~ [kIran] See fcrot. ~ 'f.I'IU [kIran $ah] son of Zaman Shah, chiefof Kabul, who was made ruler of Lahore for some time. He was severely defeated by the Sikhs on the bank of Ravi. fa'a101 [kIrani] See ~. fcRrn [kIfam] A (I) plural ofkarirn. fa'alliJT [knaya] A ....') n fare. faa'ra [kIrar], fuwi[kIrarl Skt f~~ and gtiRf n shopkeeper, businessman. 2 slave of wealth. "nal kIfara dosti kUrE kuri paI."-sava m 1. 3 timid, cowardly. fufa" [kIn] adv See ~. "dhInIsI kIf I <;lhahIpaI."-sri ill 1. 'fafu>,rr [kIna] Skt fcg:r;rr n deed, function. 2 conduct. 3 ritual or performance like $raddh. "pf<;l patalI meri kesau krrra."-asa ill 1. 4 See fcrw. ~ [kIrIaCar] n conduct; performance of religious ceremonies. "kIrIaCar kdrahI khatkarma."-guj ill 5. fafum..Ir [kIrI$rnal See ~rr. fcRit>w [knia] See fo!fu»fT. ~ [kIrian] silken thread used for stitching wounds. "taha tahI knian kE ghav sina." -gurusobha. ~ [knicak] See c:;furor. ~ [knicakmar] n destructive attack; I assault like the one Bhimsen launched on
'The saying is "nadIfsahi katlam." (massacre by Nadar Shah).

Kichak. "ve$ya ek jIyat nahI bad. Esi mar knicak maci."-caTItr 168. See ofttJor. ~ [knit] SkI n crown. 2 See ~ 14. faH' [kII] Ski part having decided, decidedly. 2 n truth. 3, falsehood. 4 reason. 5 repentence. ~ [kIlak] P ~ n reed, pen. 2 Skt nail. "ab b kharo karir taru kIlak lagyo pag jeh." -GPS. 3 also used for kIlkari. "mar kIlak bahu rua uthai."--BG'. ~ [kIlkatil n cry, shriek. ~ [kIlka] a couplet which is also called asta and totak. As bhuj~igprayat is doublethe form of $~)khnari in the same way kIlka is that of tIlka . lt comprises four lines, each line with four sagal)S, liS 115 liS 115. Example: pakr!:' nIt pap parat ghane, jan dekhan ke tar $uddh bane, jag chor bhaja gatI dharman ki, su jaM tahI papknya pracuri.-kalki. fCi(MCI'd [kIlkar L fuc?'"C("r.aT [kIlkari] n act of persistent shrieking. 'fa"Mfiifu'3' ~JT1i2 [kIlklcIt hay] See ~. "hot jaha Ik val' hi tras has ras rO$. tii s6 'kIlkfCIt' kahIt hay sclbhE nndo$."-jagadvrnod. fCi(MfCi(M' [kIlk:cla] Skt n peel of laughter, expressive of joy; joyful shriek. 2 Dg fisherman. Skt~m'FT. '''jay6 kIlkIla machriE du par."-cantr 266 'fcsrMGT [krltal] Pa n long basket in cowtail form carried by the hillmen on their back. ~ [kIllnkh] sin. See ~. "kIlbIkh kate nImakh aradhJ:a."'-sor m 5. ~ [krlmaspad] See ~. ~[kIlmak],fm?Jf./Tl:f[kIlmakh] Tartar. See 'ct'ffi-I'CI'. "kiiboj kIlrnak kathIn pal me kat<;lare." -cantr 217. ~ [kI1VIkhl Skt i~'Ff n sin. 2 guilt. "kIlvIkh utaraJ:u sudh hoI."-brla a ill 5. 3 disease.

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~. 2 used in place of kIya also. "har kop kIva."-rudr. knpalu kIlal."-GPS. fot;ft [kIri] Ml n announcement; shout made to warn; in Pothohar it is called kEf. "kIp pavadi fOll'S'l'SH [kIlalaj] grown from ~ [kHal] muhaIonU."-sor a m 3. "kIri pavadi-i khara (water); lotus. "kIlalaj pUj, dIvakar ke bIn jayo akulae."-NP. na apI muhaI."-s farid. ~ [kIlokhri] See fum:Rft. cit [ki] See fu. "bagoyad ki man ph:>j ko :?aham." -krrsan. 2 did. "ki pratIpal."-bher namdev. ~ [kIlol] See ~. [kIll] small nail. 3 pron what. "aIgaIo ki na aIo."-suhi chat fi;mo [kIllat] A ~ n feeling of being meagre m 1. 'When the Creator has come to mind, in number and quantity; shortage, lack. what is left behind?' i.e. 'Nothing remains fctw [kIlla] n stake, nail, peg. 2 measure of behind.' 4 adv why, for whom. "ki vISarahI? dukh bahuta lagE."-asa m 1. "jcmmat ki na muo land equivalent to one acre. abhaga."-maru solhe m 3. "gahIo kina ada?" fctl.fl" [kIIli] small peg, spike. m [kIv] adv how, in which way, by what -pl1Unlle m 5. means. "kIV kar akha kIV salahi?"-japu. cfl' [ki] P short for fu--et. [kI-i'], that it. ~[kIvdati]Skt~ n hearsay; rumour. ~ [kiu], ofttr [kio], oftnr [kIa], ~ [kiau] did. "badhap han ek, nanak kiu."-maru m 5. "kio fOl'ilfdlll' [kIvrIya] Pu n doorfiap, door. sigaru mIlaDkE tai."-bIla am 4. "gururamdas 2 window; opening. 3 See ~ 2. ~ [kIvria] See rOl~rdGl'. 2 doorkeeper, ghan kiau pragasa."-saveye m 5 ke. cftnrfu [kiahI] is/are done. "te kiahI parvaD." guard, sentinel. fctW [kIva] See fchfr. -varsar m 2. ~ [kIvar] See ~. "darsanu dijE kholI ~ [kialo], oft»rr [kia] has done. "kat hamaro kialo khasmana."-asa m 5. "kia khelu baq kIvar."-bIla kabir. ~ [kivari] n small window, an opening. melu tamasa."-saveye m 4 ke. 2 small flaps of the door. 3 adj watchman at cfuft [ki-i] did. "ham har ki guru ki-i hE basithi." the door; officer on duty at the entrance of a -nat parta1 m 4. palace. "kam kIvari dukh sukh darvani. "-bher a'tl1' [kie] did. "kai kotI kie dhanv;'H." -sukhmani. 2 adv by doing. "sunatI kie turaku kabir. 'Passion is the officer incharge of the je hoega?"-asa kabir. fort and pain and pleasure are two watchmen at the entrance.' 4 n kind of tax prevalent in cflR' [kis] pron who, to whom. "tab chal chIdr lagat kahu kis?"-sukhmani. 2 did, began Rajputana, collected from each house. (journey) "pun kasi ko kis pIana."-GV 10. ~ [kIvar], ~ [kIvara] See mrz and~. 3 Skt ofur n monkey. "mahabali ravan das sis. ~ [kIvari] See ~. fat' [kIve], ~ [kIvE] adv how, in what way. prakram garab haryo mIl kis."-GPS. 4 ka "malu haumE dhoti kIVE na utrr."-sri m 3. (sky) i:? (lord), the sun. 5 bird. ~ [kIvEhE] have to do. "tryodas baras gae afb:rrd" [kisar] Skt fc:hrg n needle-like thorns on the ears of barley, paddy and wheat. "saDu phI! Ehe:. jahu hamE kachu kaj kIVEhE."-ramav. kisara cIthIa kaDu laIa tanu jharI."-var majh '0 Bharat! you go, I have some work to do.' m 1. It means organs like fingers etc. 2 how (in which way) is it?

fqw [kIla] A ,.$ n fort, castle. fu'wl;r [kIlal] water. See Ciflwc? "kin sc:man

foci [kIva] See



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[kijaltu] is done. "kahe kijatu hE manIbhavan?"--mal'u kabir. crn:r [kih] what. cftw [kija] did, provided. "sam sahIb sukh kij cftuj [kihEi] advwhere. "bule bEt). kihEi kare ghaI hE."-maru soll1e IT! 5. jihEi?"-ramav. (He) said, 'Where is he who cftft [kijE] ple:ase do . 2 is done. has given wounds.' 2 In the hill dialect, it means cftG [kit] Skt n insect. "kit hasatI sagal puran." why. -g5c;f m 5. :I~ insigniificant, petty. 3 adj hard, cftcr [kik] did, made. "nam bIna nakte nak rigid. 4 This word has also been used for Kaitabh, the demon. "sahasbahu madhu kit kik."-prabha m 4.2 See 'R1~. citcm' [kika~] Skt n member of a low caste; mahIkhasa."-gao a m 1. 'Sahasarbahu, caqal. Madhu, Kaitabh and Mahikhasur.' See ~. cil'arG [kikat] Skt n Bihar state; where a caste 5 See fuo1.f. by the name ofkikat lived in ancient times that cftca' [kitak] SkI' n insect. 2 adj hard, rigid. is why is this name for Bihar. 2 horse. cftGif [kitaj] n silk, produced by a kit (insect). 3 poverty, indigence. 4 an old name ofMagadh cftG ~ [kilt pakhal)i] adj worm in the stone, worm to Ibe found in stone. "acftdan deI region. 5 advpenniless, penurious. ~ [kikar] See fa'a'fu. prabhu mera vIc:r pathar kitpakhat).i he." -maru solhe m 4. ~[kikur], ~ [kikfi] advhow, in what way. "tuhaqe nal kikfi nIbhEgi."--JSBM. cftG3 [kitabhJI See ~~. "tate madhu kitabh tan CiITe' [kic] n mud, sludge, slime. "bIapat dhara."-VN. oftit [kiti] n ant. ("Ik bIhag Ik kiti rita." mohkic."-asa chat m 5. cmret [kicai] should keep. "ltIn SagI sagu TId -NP. 2 humility, gentleness. "kiti parbat kicai nanak jIna apt).a suau."-var guj 2 m 5. khaIa."-iilsa kabil'. See ~. 3 adj humble, gentle. "ki.ti hOI kE khaI."-s kabir. ~ [kicak] Skt n hollow bamboo. 2 son of king Kekay and brother-in-law of king Virat oft? [kitu] S(~e liftC'. who was killed by Shim for molesting Dropadi. cft3' [kit] has made, has done. "koi vIrla apan kit.,,_nat m 5 parta1 "man apne kau mE Matiy Hindi poets have written his name as hansakha kit."--tot;li m 5. ~ and ~. See f~q, for~~ and cftaT [kita] dione, "kita paiE apl)a."-var asa. ~. cfItr.r [kicar] n mud, sludge, slime. "kicar hath 2 created. "]kita kaha karE manI man?"-sri m 1. "kite kall merE SamanE, karal)haru tnl)u na buqai."-sava m 1. Here it means an evil janE."-sor In 5. 3 create. "kita 10riE kam su act. han pahI akhiL"-var sri m 4. oflBft:r [kicarI] in the mud, in the slime. "kicap ett3r ~fT [kita kart:ra] work performed. ata gUIPana."- s kabil'. cftft:ra' [kicIt] put (apart) "bhram te kiCIt bhfn." 2 already done; creation, created. "kita kartIa -bavan. as da sabhu gaIa."-·val' gau 1 m 4. cite' [kice] oiffi' [kicE] make. Se,e~. "haruas cftfu' [kitI] n reputation, fame. 2 Skt fc!3t (tfc1) kicE jiu."-majh m 4. attempt, effort. "jap na tap na karam kitI." cflt:ret [kijai] See ofttreT. -basiit m 5.3 did, performed. cftHg [kijahu] do. ~ [kitianu] he did it. "bhirahu moklai what is? short for kI-ast. Skt

ettIJ [kist] P.::.l' fuHfIJ·


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kiticmu."-var ram 2 m 5. 'from adversity changed to prosperity. ' ~ [kitu] See otl3". "tek nanak sacu kitu." -sri m 5. ett3'lft [kitoi], ofuTIJ [kitosu], ofuTIJ [kitosu] has made. "mmo jog kitoi."-mDdav.I)i m 5. cfuTo [kiton], oit3o [kitonu] has made. "kiton apl)a p~th nnala."-BG "jeha kitonu teha hoa."-sri m 3. oft3l.r [kitom], cft31J [kitomu] I did. 2 has put. "idhal).u kitomu ghal).a."-var jet. ~ [kidns] Skt ~ and ~e=r adv as it looks; of what kind, of what sort. ofto [kin] has done, had done. "manukh ko janam lin SImran nahI nImakh kin."-jeja m 9. 2 why, for what. "mucu mucu garabh gae kin bacIa?"-g;w kabir. 'There were so many miscarriages; why has this escaped?' 3 why not. "kin sUl)ehi gorie!-sri m 1. 4 P l;)'! n enmity. 5 battle, war. 6 guile. 7 See off. cttofi:r [kinasI] has done. "jo kIchu kinaSI prabhurajaI."-bds;Jt dm 1. 2 why not. "prabhu sarl)agatI kinasI hog?"'-bdS;Jt d m 1. etI7m [kinah] See cftor 2. oo(')daf.f [kinahko$] P Jf! adj one who tries to take revenge. oilol:fru' [kinkhap], oitocfra" [kinkhab] See CilHCfTll. cftor [kina] did, performed. "so pae jo kIchu kina he."-maru solhe m 1. 2 P ,:f enmity, rivalry. See ofIo 4. 4 The word ofIo also carries the same meaning. ~ [kinaram], ~ [kinaramie] See

cfu.rfd" [kimatI] See ofu..s. "kimatI kOI na jal)E
duja."-maru solhe m 5.2 See ofu..s 3. "anIk dokh aru bahut sajai. taki kimatI kahal).u na jai."-maru m 5. 3 adj who knows the worth; who judges the value. "sabh kimatI mIh kimatI pai."-soddru. cftl.St [kimti] P (ft valuable, precious. See

ofu.r3". cfb.rr [kima] A J n minced meat. ofu..rtt [kimae] ;ppreciator, one who values
merit. "nahI kimatI kimae."-bher m 5. ~ [kimahu] from the price. See ofu.r. "sukh kimahu bahre."-var maru 2 m 5. ottf1.n:;rr [kimIyal, ettHt»rr [kimia] G kt n alchemy; chemia. 1 Earlier people engaged themselves in converting copper into gold and lime into silver. Though they did not succeed, yet due to their research, there originated the science of chemistry. This has enabled many countries to accumulate large quantities ofgold and silver. ofu.ft>wara' [kimiagar] P ./kt alchemist; person engaged in practising alchemy. cibjl:f3' [kimukhat] P d n granular leather made from the skin of a donkey or a horse and dyed in green, mounted especially on the sheaths of the swords. etta [kir] Skt ~ adj indigent, penniless. 2 parsimonious, miserly. 3 greedy. 4 Skt n parrot. "kir s6 pritI kari ganIka. "-gurusobha. 5 Kashmir. 6 adj of Kashmir. Dg n oarsman, fisherman. ~ [kiral)] Skt oilt' adj scattered, dispersed. 2 extended. ~ [kirl)a] Skt ~"F.l<! n wail; cry at a high pitch; lamentation. cfuJ3" [kirat] a poet of Bhatt lineage who sang
IAn ancient name of Egypt. The Egyptians were the first to enter the field of chemistry. Thus was named this scicncc.

citoT [kini] has done, has performed. "han
gatIkini."-gdu m 3.2 See ~. n plural of~oo, value. "tIS di kimna pai."-srim3. "kimna saka paI sukh mItihu bahare."-jet var. ~ [kimat] A.::..l n price. 2 value. 3 estimate, guess.

cftH [kim] A


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eulogies ofthe Gurus. "kaVI kirat jo s~t caran 4 ke. 2 See oiRJfu". ctRJao' [kirtan] Skt cfufo n discourse, speech. 2 In Sikh religion, singing the praise of the Creator in musical measures is tenned as kirtan "kirtan namu sImrat rahau. "-brla ill 5. cihJd(')RfuM' [kirtansohIla] See #f<:R;rr and oodfaHftll")'. 2 ending; completion. ~ [kirtanI] in praise ofthe Creator. "han han krrtanI Ih manu rata."-sor;:) m 5. cilado1nrr [kirtania] adj who sings the praise of the Creator. "bhal0 bhal0 re kirtania."-ram m5. oita'd"Q [kirtanu] See cfur::ro. "harrkirtanu sUQo."-g'w m 5. cfuJaya' [kiratpur] This town is situated in the hilly area on the bank of Sutlej river in district Hoshiarpur, tehsil Una, polic1e station Anandpur. It was founded by Guru Hargobind through Baba Gurditta in Sammat 1683. The land for this was purchased from Raja Tara Chand of Kehlur. Guru Nanak Dev had blessed the foundation ofthis town, when the Guru visited this place and stayed at Charan Kamal, and met Baba Buddhan Shah in thle forest. Kiratpur is at a distance: of 14 miles from Ropar l and 31 miles from Garh Shankar railway station. The following gurdwaras are in this holy town: (1) Shish Mahal dwelling places for the Gurus situated in the middle ofthe residential area. Guru Hargobind came here in Sammat 1691 and lived here till the end ofhis life. Guru Hal' Rai and Guru Harkrishan were born here. To the north of these palac<es, are baths used by the Gurus then. The gurdwara is dilapidated due to lack of permanent income. (2) Harimandir Sahib. Related to Guru
mUfI lagahI."-s;:)vcye m

INow there is a railway station at Ropar also.

Hargobind, this gurdwara is also a dwelling house situated in the residential area of Kiratpur. It has five ghumaons ofland attached to it. (3) Khuh Guru ka. This well was got dug by Guru Hargobind. (4) Charan Kamal. Related to Guru Nanak Dev, this gurdwara is situated near Kiratpur to the north-west. The Guru came here during his travels to the hills. He obliged Sain Buddhan Shah with a sermon. See -g~. An elegant gurdwara is raised there. It has annual income of rupees six hundn:d firom the attached estate. The priest its an Udasi Sikh. (5) Chubacha Sahib. A gurdwara related to Guru Hal' Rai, situated within the city. At this place, crushed grain was soaked in a large spacious brick trough for the horses and the Guru himselfserved it with his own hands and this gurdwara is a menlOrial to that event. Its building is ordinary and it does not have any income. (6) Takhat Sahib, situated in the residential area, is built iin memory of the anointing of Hal' Rai and Harkrishan as Gurus. The gurdwara is in dilapidated condition. There is no priest. (7) Til' Manji Sahib, related to Guru Hargobind, is to the south ofKiratpur and at a distance of about half a mile. The Guru used to shoot arrows from this place. A small structure ex.ists:: it has neither a priest nor any income. (8) Damdama Sahib. A gurdwara related to Guru Hal' Rai is 'in the centre of Kiratpur near Harimandir. The Guru used to hold congregation at this place. Two shops adjoining the gurdwara are rented at Rs 25 a y,ear. (9) Dehra Baba Gurditta is a magnificent

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building, haIfa mile away from Kiratpurto the south. Baba Gurditta was cremated at this place. Dehra owns five hundred ghumaons of land. A fair is held at the time ofHola. (10) Patalpuri, related to Guru Hargobind and Guru Har Rai, is situated on the bank of Sutlej at a distance oftwo furlongs to the southwest. The ashes of Guru Harkrishan were brought from Delhi and installed at this place. Only small structures remain there to commemorate Guru Hargobind and Guru Harkrishan, but the shrine, with a golden dome relating to Guru Har Rai, is very large and high. Sixty rupees a year are paid by the Patiala state; there is enough income from the offerings. (11) Buddhan Shah Ji da Takia, a hermitage related to Baba Buddhan Shah, is close to the shrine ofBaba Gurditta, at a distance of half a mile from Kiratpur to the south. This place was visited by Guru Nanak Dev and Baba Gurditta. The hermitage has been built of baked bricks, within which lies the grave of Baba Buddhan Shah. To the north, away from it is the cremation ground of the hermit's, goats, dogs and the lion. The priest, Sain Alia Ditta belonging to "Charnauli", looks after it with devotion. (12) Viman Garh is situated in Kiratpur where the severed head of Guru Teg Bahadur was kept for some time and from here it was taken to Anandpur in a bier by Guru Gobind Singh with the congregation reciting hymns in praise ofthe Almighty. ofurFd" [kiratI] Skt cFlM n greatness, reputation, glory, praise. "jE ghar kuatI akhiE."-sahIla. ofurFd" R31; [kiratI satabh] Skt ~Rf«1Pl1 n pillar erected to keep alive the memory ofsome one. cnaFaf.l l M9 [kiratI$ali] Skt Cf0fWlITTf~r;:r, adj praiseworthy, honourable.

cilaFaR'fuw [kiratI sohIla] a compositIOn
containing five hymns recited by Sikhs at the time of going to bed. Its name is 'Sohila' but, many people call it 'Kirtan Sohila'. It is also called' Arti Sohila' oitaf::md" [kiratImat], ~ [kiratIman] adj having good reputation, honourable, praiseworthy. 2 n the eldest son of Vasudev who was killed by Kans immediately after his birth. "putr bhayo vasudev ke kiratImat tIh nam."-krrsan. cikJ3t [kirh] See ofurFd". ~ [kirtia] a mace-bearer in the service of Guru Gobind Singh. 2 adjwho lauds of his mentor. cita'o [kiran] See ~. etrer [kira] n insect, worm. 2 low, mean. "jan nanak kira."-gau m 3. "sultan khan kare khInI kire."-maru so111e m 5.3 A (;}I) black stone. See ~ and ~. "tum makhtul saped sapial ham bapure jas kira." -asa raVIdas. ~ [kirat] A bl) measure equal to two rattis; four grains. See tra'JT3". 2 See fuQror. citaT [kiri] ant, small insect. 2 unimportant, inferior. "niki kiri mahI bl rakhr." -sukhmani. 3 humility, gentleness. "kiri jito sagla bhavan."-ram m 5. otldFClalf [kirekuam] penniless and low, poor and petty. See furo>-r and cfur. "ham kire bram satIgur sarJ:lai."-sodaru. cftli5' [kil] Skt n stake, nail. 2 flame of fire. "sohat jya barvam! kila."-NP 3 elbow. 4 according to Tantar Shastar an incantation that prevents the effect of its counterpart. "kil patal argala maha tam sahas nam satta jE. "-salah. 5 weapon. 6 pillar, column. 7 A artistic piece, poetic utteral1;ce. 8 P Jf adj bent, oblique. 9 penniless. ~ [kilak] Skt n stake, nail. 2 See cfu? 4.


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~ [kih).a],



ofu.:>or [kilna] v dig a nail after uttering a mantar. See oth? 4. Those who

~ [kmn:] Skt cgHrar girl upto the age offive

practise Tantar Shastar (black magic) believe that this practice prevents pain and suffering and controls evil spirits and ghosts. 'Ciilw [kila] n stake, nail. See cfu5. ~ [kilal] Skt n water, which extinguishes flames of fire, so called for its capability of extinguishing fire. 2 nectar. 3 one which is tied to a stake; the animal. etlwffi:r [kiiaIClj] n born from waterO!lW"l? [kilal]; lotus. ~ [kilIka], csil"ffi [kili] n nail; small peg. 2 axle of a handmill that stays in the hole in a piece of wood fixed in the centre of rotating grindstone. ":;;riguru pClg hE kilIka mCln dana QhIg kin."-NP. 'Grain stuck to the axle, escapes from getting ground.' q'h~(FlI5" [kilokaI] A JlrjJ! n conversation, dialogue. cfur [kir] a Khatri caste that originated from the Sarin subcaste. "mula kir bClkhal).iE."-BG. cfSr [kira], ofuft [kiri] n male and female ants. 2 termite. "It snal).e bhuI SClVCll). kira IClfIO mas."-sfarid. 3 adjinferior, inane. "kira thapr der patsahi."-mar majh m 1. 'iiit! [kirh] n milk of a cow or a buffalo milked for the first time after calving. A sweet dish called bClhuli is prepared from this milk. cg [ku] suffix ku is used in Punjabi in the sense of 'approximately a little' as in "s::>ku rupClye da mal khridla hE." 2 Skt vr make sound, resound, echo. 3 part low. 4 damned. This prefix imparts derogatory sense to a word as in kuputr (evil son), kukaram (act) etc. 5 n earth, land. ~[kuat] force,strength. "duhtlhathkarkuClt prClharyo."-carItr 56. ~ [kmr], ~»Rr [kCm] Skt r,gwo boy upto the age of five years. 2 prince, son of a king. "kan kUClr nlhkaI;'lk."-savEye m 4 ke.

years. 2 princess, daughter of a king. [kuau] n call, cry, shout for help. 2 S advwhere, when. "jlna nEl). nidravle tIna mIICll). kuau."-s farid. 3 See~. ~ [kuah] n sllander; ill [ku] speaking ~ [ahvan]. ~ [kuar] n pi:tcher. "SUIne ka cCluka k;'lcCln kuar."-bas~~t mI. 2: See~. 3 month ofAssu. See ~. 4 adj' unmarried. "kuar k;'lnla jEse kClrClt sigara."--suhi kabir. 5 ghi kuar. L Aloe Perfoliata; also called bmar by many. Its latent effect is warm, dry and it provides relieffrom rheumatic and joint pains. ~ [kuara] adj unmarried. "guru ke sut hE jugClI kuare."'-GPS. See gI-ITO. ~ [kuan], s"fTB1, [kuari] girl upto the age five. 2 girl, maiden. "gachClhu putri raj kuan." -basiH a 1111 1. "rajkuan puradrie."-ram namdev. 3 unmarried girl. "ja kuari ta cau."-s farId. 4 maid servant. "jClcE ghClrI IClchmi kuari."-mala namdev. S morsel, bite. "khftha kal kuari kala."-japu. "considering the body as a morse:1 of death.' ~ [kualwJ, i~l[kualro] adj belonging to a low [ku] house [aIClY]; of a house of ill repute; from a low family. "khClri kualro kUrupI kuIClkhCll).i."-majh am 3. ~ [ku;'lQ] Skt n bow. cgfue' [kun] See CJl?f'Q. "muchI muchI kun rulara."-asa am 1. See~. cgfufu [kurrI] See -g.~. ~ [kUIru] See ~11l'Q. son of a raja, son of a richman. "babal'Val).i phngCli kunu na roti khaI."-asa a m I. [kulla] See mw'. "khftha jaIl kUlIa bhCli."-s keJIbir. Here khnha, means the body. ~ [kui] pran any. "5n p::>l). thn nd kui."-var majh m 1. CJR" [kus] Skt ~fH, n kind of spear grass. 2 water.



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3 Kushu, son of Ram. See ~ 6. 4 according to Purans one of the seven islands. "pahuce dip huto kus namu."-NP. 5 a demon killed by Krishan in Dwarika. 6 ploughshare. 7 P kill, put to death; its origin is from ku:;;tan, and used as suffix, it denotes a killer as in mardamku:;; (killer of human beings). 8 P ~ female genital organ, vagina. gl1G [kusat] leprosy. See ~. ~ [kusalJ.] See gF.l'3O. CJJ13' [kusat] P J killed, murdered. 2 Skt • n deceit, treachery, guile. 3 See~. ~ [ku:;;taga] P l:JW murdered. cgR33T [kusat-ta] n falsehood. "kusat-ta ko bhale sut bhedyo."-paras. 2 See g3H3T. 9Rffi'i [ku:;;tan] P ~ v kill, put to death. gR3O't [kustani] P ~ deserving to be killed. "grban hrvan haram kustani."-trlJg ill 5. CJH3T [ku:;;ta] P d killed. See WJ3O. 2 n oxide of metals for medical use; calcined metal. rgFtftr [kusatI] Skt ~ n illusion. 2 state of being unreal; falsehood. 3 adv damned with deceit, guile etc. "Ihu sarir kul'i kusatI bharIa gal tai."-gau cMt ill 3. ~ [kusti] adj false. 2 evil doing; immoral act. "bhath kusti gau."-s kabir. 3 P ~ n fight between wrestlers; wrestling bout. ~ [kusatu] Skt g-~ n evil. "muhahu kul' kusatu tIni qhahIa."-var sri ill 4. 2 mean nature. "kul' kusatu trIsna agnI bujhae." -dhana ill 3.3 sloth, absence ofzeal. 4 wealth accumulated through sinful means. i!F.td'etJ [ku:;;tadah] P ~p adjwho kills. C!"f.t'1lH [ku:;;dhvail See 'fft3T. cgm;r [kusna] See cgR3'O. "kusa katia var var." -sri ill 1. ~ [ku:;;nabh] See 6(i(')gaH. ~ [kuspati] n ring of grass worn on the finger next to the little one. Among Hindus, it is regarded auspicious during rites for gods and

forefathers. "gIan janeu dhIan kuspati."



[ku:;;pur] a town founded by Kush, son of Ram Chandar. See 6(1Jo. 2 old name of Sultanpur in Avadh (Audh). 9RH [kusam] Skt ~. n flower. "pOqar kes kusam te dhaule."-sri beni. Here it means white flower. 2 It has also been used for kusObh: "kusam rag sag rac rahIa."-dev m 5. "dunia rag na avr nel'r jIu kusam patu ghIu pak hara."-maru solhe ill 5. 'Worldly attachment and pleasure have no effect as flower, silk, ghee (fat), piece of leather made from white deer skin, never get defiled.' ~ [kusambIcItra] a metre, also called kusumvIcItra, characterised by four lines, each line arranged as III, ISS, III, ISS. Example: tIn banbasi raghubar jane, dukh sukh sagi sukh dukh mane, baIkal lrke ab ban jrhE', raghupatI sage banphal khrhE'. -ramav. gFIl-ItiI' [kusamay], gF!W [kusama] n bad time, evil age. 2 time of adversity. gm.rrdt [kusmahi] in bloom. "urajh parIO kusmahi."-sar ill 5. 'like a black bee got entangled in the world. ' ~ [kusmajaII] See ~. ~ [kusmaq] See ~. ~ [kusmayudh] See ~. ~ [kusmavaII] See ~. ~ [kusmIt] See ~. "kusmIt ban ki prabha v IlokE'."-GPS. 'are witnessing the splendour ofthe garden in blossom.' cgJreTtt [kusrai], gFJ'"OT3' [kusrat] See cg~. "tumre tan hr kusrai."-krrscm. cgm;r [kusal] Skt cgJ:l?? n welfare, happiness. "In brdhr kusal hot mere bhai. "-gau m 5. "mit ke kartab kusal samana."-gau ill 5. 2 blessing.

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"kusa1 kusa1 karte jag blnsE."-gclV kabir. 3 adj wise, clever. 4 erudite. ~ ihr [kusa1 khem] n welfare and ease, pleasure and happiness. "kusa1 khem sabh bhara."-sor m 5. "kusa1 khem prabhu apI basae."-gau m 5. ~ [kusalta], ~ [kus1at] n state of wellbeing; feeling of being content; happiness. 2 wisdom, cleverness. "kahe ki kus1at hath dip kue parE?"-s kabir. gw [kusa] Skt ~ n dabh, a kind of spear grass regarded holy by Brahmans; they use it during worship and spread it underneath a dying person. "thaI lIpaI kusa blchvai."-NP. 2 See~. "kusa katia var var."-sri m 1. '1 may be butchered.' 3 P Lif adj used as suffix in the sense of opener or giver as in dI1kuf;'a. gwfu [kusaI] See. ~~. 2 P .:_Lif adj which opens. ~ [kuf;'alf;'] P J;!Lif n freedom, liberty, generosity. CJJf'Jic'l [kusasan] Skt 'fj,!1IIl:1'""1JO{ asan (seat) made ofa kind ofkuf;' (spear grass). Spreading of it is regarded as sacred in the Hindu religious scriptures. 2 maladministration. ~ftr [kuf;'agrabuddhI] adj having sharp intellect like the tip of slPear grass, i.e. very intelligent, perspicacious. .~ [ku$ad] P opened. 2 ~Jlft,f open. "dono ca$amku$ad nI$asatahI samuhe."-NP. 'with both eyes open.' ~ [ku$adah] See ~ 2. ~ [ku$adgi] P ~vJ n fn~edom, opposite of openness. 2 absence of restriction. ~ [ku$adan] P l:JJvJ v open. 2 set free. ~ [ku$ada] See ~ 2. 9WH3' [kusamat] See ~. "kahu kusamat kar khu$1et."-GPS. ~~ [ku$ayadahkar] P ~(~.A1:~ adj helpful in starting work or in managing it;

who generously removes hurdles hindering work. ~ [kusali] Sec~ ljlirm-. 2 ~ adj ill-natured, mean-minded. '''go garib ko hatE kusali."-NP ~ [kUSlk] Skt ~rfuc':f n a king who was father of Gadhi and grandfather of Vishvamitm'; Kausik subcaste has originated from him. gRt [kusi] adj descending from Kush. According to Vachitar Natak, Vedis are descendants of Kush and Sodhis of Lav. See~. "lavi sarab jite kusi sarab hare."--VN. 2 who has kU$ (speargrass); wearing kU$. 3 ploughshare, which tears the land.. 4 Vishvamitar, the sage, who belonged to the dynasty of Kusak. ~ [kusid] Skt n interest; its pronunciation as kU$id is also corn~ct. 9lJlT [kusudh] adjimpious, malevolent. "hrrda kusudh laga moh kur."-sar m 4. "kala kusudh haumE malu lai. "--maru solhe m 3. 2 incorrect, wrong. 91JtlT [kusudha] a.dj impure, contaminated. 2 bent, curved. '''sis l1IVaIE kla thiE ja rIdE kusudhe jaln?"-var asa. cpJg" [kusudhu] See g1JLIr. cgJJlJQ [kusupur] Kushpur. See ~. C!lf9" [kusubhJI Skt n agnI$Ikh (flame offire); a plant bearing golden sa:ff1owers. 2 its flower. 3 long-necked earthern pitcher. 4 Skt cpf~ small bag jin a poisonous creature wherein poison remains stored; venom bag. ~ [kusubhrag] colour obtained from safflowers. 2 transient colour; in Gurbani, the pleasure drawn from worldly things is compared to the colour ofa safflower.-gatha. CJ~ [kusObhra], gJj'~~ [kusubhro], gJj'~ [kusubha] See~' and gff~. 2 having the colour of a safflower. 3 Dg opium juice got through dripping whIch trickles like the colour of safflower. Sel~ cuj.~ 2.

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[kusObhil adj dyed in the colour of water (ku~), lotus. "sag parag kusesay hera." -NP. 2 blue lotus. 3 crane. safflower. 2 colourful like a safflower. gfu; [kusdl adjevil mountain; mountain without 91JH [kusuml Skt n flower. 2 menses. water and trees. "cetak se cItr caru cJpakha cgJJl-IF.Rl' [kusum~ar 1n one who has ~ar (arrows) kusd si."-c;)rI tr 12. ofkusum (flowers); Kamdev. ~ [kusumcapl n one who has a bow of ~ [kusolu:m], ~ [kusolu:U] adj unshapely, ugly. 2 graceless, disgraceful. "kUrupI kusohDi flowers; Kamdev. parhan choQi bhatar."-var sri m 3. 91JH ~ [kusumvIcItral See ~. ~ [kusumajalIl n palmful flowers. "dev ~ [kusag], ~ [kusagatI] n association with immoral persons; deceitful company. kusumajalI arpE."-saloh. 2 a Maithil "kusagatI bahahI sada dukh pavahI."-maru Brahaman named Udyan (Udyanacharya) who in his times was an unparalleled scholar of solhe m 3. logic. A treatise entitled 'Kusumanjal' was ~ [kusagi] adjwho has got into bad company; associated with ignoble persons. "sagI kusagi written by him in which he refuted Buddhism bEste."-s kabir. 2 bad companion. and proved the existence of God by citing forceful evidences. This book is rated very high ~ [kusapJ, ~ [kusapadl n ill luck, misfortune. 2 damned property; wealth piled among the community of scholars. through cruelty and evil means. ~ [kusumayudhl n one who has flowers as his weapons; Kamdev who wears arrows iSH!iJ'reM [kusabhaIle] in the colour ofsafflower. made of flowers. "tu urajh pano kusabhaIle."-g5Q m 5. ~[kusumavalI] n row of flowers; bunch iS1! [ku~tl See dlrM3g~. of flowers; string of flowers. ~ [ku~ti] See wit. ~ [kusumIt] adj in bloom, blossoming. 9J'1: (ku~th] See dlrM3iS~. 2 a medicine named kuth; costus speciousus; its latent effect is g1J [kusul See egA" 3 and ~ 6. 9JJ3' [kusut] n entangled cotton yarn. 2 mal- warm and dry. It gives relief from defects in blood, increases semen and lessens phlegm. administration; mismanagement. It should be used as directed by an expert ~ [kusudhal See ~'. physician. Taking its overdose is harmful ~[kusur] Kushpur, a town in Lahore district, which is a tehsil headquarters and is ajunction because it is a poisonous material. It is exported on N. W.R. It is mentioned in Vichitar Natak from Kashmir to many countrie~ and is highly that this town was founded by Kush, son of priced. Ram : "tahi tInE badhe dUI purva. ek kusur 'iSl'it [ku$thi] Skt ~ adj who suffers from dutiy lahurva." Khalsa Dal captured this town leprosy; leper. in Sammat 1817 (1760 AD) and killed its ruler CJlJ [ku~t], ~ [ku$tanl, CJ"F.ft:tr [ku$tadah] See Asman Khan. In 1807 AD Maharaja Ranjit gFI3", 9F.f3O and ~. Singh, with Akali Phula Singh's help, killed its cgflpft [kusntil See W'Ifu. ruler Kutabuddin and annexed the territory of iSU [kuhl adj a few, some. 2 See ~. 3 Skt part where, at what place. 4 Dg n Kuber. Kasur into the Sikh kingdom. 2 A.J~ fault, CJijOl' [kuhak] Skt n deceit, trick. 2 crowing of a guilt, crime. cock. 3 thug. 4 Skt~; cooing; a melodious ~ [ku$e$ayl n one which sleeps ($ay) on

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note. "kuhkanI kokla taral juani."--v<JQ chJt CJfu [kuhI] adv after killing, after butchering. m 1. 5 See CJQa. "kuhI bakra rfnI khaIa."-varasa. ~ [kuhkat] chirps, coos, See ~ 2.. "kuhkat cgftn;r [kuhII] Ski guf/is" adj having betel-leaf in kapat"-kan m 5. 'gives hypocritical cries.' the mouth; having lips reddened with betel. i,jJdaSiC! [kuhakbaD] See ~we. 2 See CJ(TI'l'. ~ [kuhkIara] See of(Jmn-sr. ~ [kuhII~m] adj (woman) wearing . -~ [kuhDa] See cg'f.!3('). "jia kuhat na sagE collyrium on eyelids and gesturing with her praDi."-g<JU m 5. 2 ku-hanan. heinous killing, eyes. "laDi kuh:Iilan avai parvelI pIari."-BG. merciless butchering, sldughtering in accordance 'A fickle but lame woman with collyrium in with the Muslim law. her eyes belonging to someone else is always ~ [kuhathra], ~ [kuhatha] adj damned attractive and appealing to a licentious person.' place. 2 a spot which when touched by hand, i!"dt [kuhi] Skt cgfi:r n black-eyed bird of prey causes disgust; a filthy part of the body. of the hawk species, called ~ahin kuhL Its "vasado kuhathrE thaI."-jct val'. "kuhathi jai height is equal to that of a hyena. It has all sItIa."-val' asa. 'in a filthy place.' the qualities found in a falcon; it is a female; (Jual wfu [kuhathi jaIl damned place, See its male is called ~ [kohiIa]; its colour is reddish black, but occasionally black as well. ~. It is not native to Punjab, but migrates from "i,jJUO [kuhan], cgB?iT [kuhna] See ~. 2 P ~ other countriies at the beginning of winter. A or .;( adj old, dilapidated. 3 Dg depraved, roguish. 4 jealous. trained kuhi hunts well; it renders great help in the hunting of walter fowls particularly. It ~ [kuhar] Skt n hole. 2 pit. 3 glottis; passage starts hovering over the lake on which the in the throat, through which vocal cords water fowls are Boating. Fearing it, they do produce sound. "kIlkat kuhar kar."-ramav. not fly and the hunter shoots them with his 4 sound of birds like crows etc. 5 See ~. gun. It goes on hovering over them. The ~ [kuhra] See ~. gmft [kuhri] n bird of prey. See ~. frightened ducks return to sit again on the lake water where the hunter gets a big game. If gm;r [kuhal] A n black sulphite ofantimony, its offspring is reared, it accompanies the collyrium. 2 adj skilful in gesturing with the hunter for many years Like the hawk. Falco eyes. 3 See ~. Peregrinator. "siha baja carga kuhia ina ~ [kuhram] a town in the Kaushal region, khavale ghahu."-var majh m 1. See ~l.1GIT. where Kaushalya was born. Some people think 2 xa sickle, a serrated blade with a handle that Ghuram in Patiala state is the same for cutting grass. Kuhram, but it is not so. See WR? "kuhram jaha sunIye sahra; tahI kosal raj nnpes bara; i!"dt ~ ~ [kuhi cia ~J[kar] n sport of hunting with a kuhi (f<alcon). 2: xa act of cutting grass upji tfh dham suta kusIa; jfh jit Iai sasIasu with a sickle. kala."-ramav. ~ [kuhir] SkI 'W~ n mist, fog. "jEse kuhir ~ [kuhar] n pit for drawing water; a well nIvar karE hUI sur UdE mukh ty6 pragtai." without brick-lining. ~ [kuhara], ~ [kuhari], ~ [kuhara], -NP. ~ [kuhIla] See cgjj' and ~. ~ [kuhariJ n axe, small axe. See ~.


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See gtita". 2 log of wood on which a pulley is placed for drawing water from a deep well with a leather bag. ~ [kuhuk] Sid n melodious sound of singing birds; chirping sound. 2 See guor. 9~aa'C! [kuhukbaI).l a kind of arrow with a hole in the tip. As the arrow goes with speed, it produces a whistling sound. "teg tir tuphag tabraru 1 kuhukabaI). anat."-cJqi 2. Many people believe that this arrow is made of bamboo pieces and it produces sound while in flight. ~ [kuhukIaral See~. "mor kuhukIara sabad mukh paIa."-g,m m 4. ~ [kuhul Skt n new moon night. 2 sound of a peacock or cuckoo. 3 In Purans, river Kubul is named as Kuhu. ~ [kuhuk] See ~. ~ [kuhuk;'ith] n cuckoo that coos from the throat. 2 adjhaving a melodious throat like that ofa cuckoo. i8''fr3' [kuhet] n ill-will, want of affection. 2 hypocritical love; love with a painful ending. ~ [kuhelal n See ~. ~ [kuheril See gtita". ~ [kukahl n elephant grass; tall grass that grows by the bank of a river, and is used for making baskets. "kukahkahaSI phule."-tukha barahmaha. 'Elephant grass and seed grass have grown.' i.e. the hair has turned grey. 2 rice maturing in winter. ~ [kukatl Skt ~ n cock. cgait [kuktil Skt ~ hen. cgaoFr [kuknasl, ~ [kuknus], 9O!Q11 [kuknus] G ~ phoenix. Greek poets have held that a phoenix sings a lot and by singing dipak ragthe melody of fire - it burns itself to ashes. During the rainy season, from its ash is produced an egg from which a phoenix is
'tabar-aru, tabar-ate.

~ [kuhir]

hatched; it is genderless but it reproduces itself only in the above-mentioned way. '9"Q'9 [kukabhl See ~. rj"QH [kGkaml Skt 't6~'tlOj n saffron; a dye from Kashmir. "kGkam tIlak bhal me kino."--GPS. 2 short for kumkuma. "ban cale tei kGkam manahu."-krrsan. See~. i8'creH [kukaraml n deceitful action, act of meanness, evil deed. See H3"~. ~ [kukarmil adj who does evil deeds; vicious. ~ [kukral swollen hair, root-cell in the eye lids; granulated cell. See gcffi. ~ [kukril hen. 2 curved dagger shaped like the nail of a lion kept by the Napalese; it is kept tied to the waist. 3 roll of cotton yarn. "bIkherat hE kukri bIstare."--GPs. See cga;ft. i8'crit [kukre] trachoma. Skt -ii~ granular lid. cJlP?JJI.7, On the inner side of eye lids, small hair root cells get swollen and cause irritation like particles of sand resulting in severe pain. Eyes get red, water keeps flowing. Expert doctors should be consulted for the treatment of this ailment. The common remedy is that forty tolas ofkI$ta (a kind of peach), bark of chebulic myrobulan (harar) three tolas, essence of Indian barbery (ras5t) five tolas, and turmeric three tolas should each be soaked, in half a seer of water separately for twelve h(:mrs. After mixing all these, the liquid should be filtered and the residue discarded and boiled in a utensil. One tola of opium may be put in it. When the syrup becomes dense, it should be kept in a phial with its lid closed. Putting this medicine into the eyes with a needle cures trachoma. Ash ofzinc and copper mixed with antimony can be usefully put in the eyes. Before sleep, they should be washed with rose water and

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kept protected from dust and sunlight. [kukri] cock, hen. "Msa seti CItu ulasahI kukar di oQari.-var gau 2 m 5. 2 cob of maize. 3 fruit of akk (calotropis procera). ~ [kukijE] call, cry. 2 calls, cries. "guru kaQhi bah kukij£."-kali a m 4. 'cri(~s with arm raised upward.' ~ [kukubh] See ~. 2 a mountain in Orissa. cj~ [kukum] See cjcm. cjegw [kukuma] See ~. cia; [kukk] a branch of Jatts of Gill subcaste. Kukks are settled in twenty-two villages in Hoshiarpur area. ciQ;f [kukkar], ciq;ft [kukkri] See ~- ~. ciw [kukka] belonging to Kuk subcaste. See ciar. ci9G' [kukkut] See ~. ci~ [kukko] a Vadhan Khatri, who became a disciple of Guru Hargobind. He turned a great warrior and benefactor" His son, Ananta, was also virtuous like his father. ~ [kukna] See ~. CJfc!a" [kuknt] n misdeed. "kuknt karam je jag me karhi."- VN. "kukn t pranasankari" -hajare 10. (Jft!w [kuknya] n immoral act, bad deed. "kuknya tIh nam su jodh gan;'}." -paras. ~ [kuk1?I], -g'cr [kukkh] n abdomen. 2 womb. 3 cavern, cave. c!cr ~ ~ [kukkh hari hODi] be pregnant. CJfl:r [kukhI] See cgfur. ~ [kukhyatI] n disrepute, notoriety. (Jorf3' [kugatI] n bad condition, sad plight. 2 evil conduct. (Jfar>,rro't [kugIani] adj having perverted knowledge; who has negative thinking; one without true awareness ofreality, but claiming to be omniscient. "sath kathor kucil kugIani."sav£ye sri mukhvak m 5.
~ [kukar], ~

cjolt [kGgi] n saffron coloured ant which is very small. It destroys fields of wheat and barley. Ustilago Tritici. cjqr [kGgu] safflower, See cjcm. "karDi kugu je ralE ghat ;'}tan puja. hoI."- guj m 1. 2 a red coloured powder prepared by mixing turmeric and amla (phyllauntnus emblica), with which the Vaishnav males decorate their foreheads, and the ladies put its line in the parting oftheir hair. craf'q [kUg~ldh], c¢fl::r [kug;'}dhI] n foul smell, stink, unpleasant odour. "adhIk kugadh nnpatI jab ayo."-cantr 236. ~ [kugyani] See (~. 'CJ6' [kuc] Skt n breast, teat. 2 See citr. cjtr[kGc] Seecjtfo. 2 Skt~slough ofa snake. "sapu kOc ChOQE bIkh nahi chaQ£."-asa
namdev. cgtI'ii [kUCdj] Skt:~ n immoral act, bad deed. 2 improper way of doing work. (Jtl'W [kucaja] Skt ~ adj immoral, vile. 2 not knowing the proper method of doing work. CJtrtft [kucaji], sr,f,:ft [kucajji] Skt ~ adj a loose woman. Guru l\lanak Dev has taught virtue to loose women in his hymn entitled 'kucaji' written illl suhi rag. "m;'}j1u kucaji ;'}mavaD dosre." godhan ke grah paDi phEkat. kabi uthaI na gobar phos, bn phurav<3t thariya me dhar suhaD sekat nah aphsos, nice bEthi laghi kaT uce "das" khari pInr lare paros, nhavaD bEthi cher d;'}dEye ap kucajji berhe dos. -bava ramdas ji. cj'en [kGcan] Ski ~ n hesitation; contraction. i!w [kucar] Skt~: elephant. gtlaIl:R(')',o [kGcar ~snan] n act-ion ~ot pra"'Cf!sed in life. As an elephant throwsdust'on his head

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after a bath, likewise is, a preacher's going putting on soiled dress. See ~~. against his own advice. "namk mhphal jat ~ [kucilta] n impurity, lack of cleanliness tIh jIu kucar Isnanu."-s ill 9. 2 fruitless of clothes. See ~ and ~. actions. ~ [kucel], ~ [kucEl], gBw [kucEla] adj ~ [kucarca] futile discussion, discussion (female) wearing condemned clothes; who sans substance, wrong argumentation. "chaQI wears dirty dress. kucarca an na janahI."-gcw kabir. ~tf [kucc] Skt ~ n weaver's brush. rgtreW [kucarja] Skt gWT n immorality, loose gs [kuch] some. See C\§. conduct. ~ [kuchdf] Skt gfu-Fl:R? lap. "kdr pIar pIU ~ [kucri] n female elephant. 2 snake's kuchdf lita."-BG slough. "kucri jyo ahrraj tdjE."-krrsan. ¢ [kuchafI] in the lap. ct~ [kucria] elephant. See cfBO. "tdlE kucria ~ [kuchIt] Skt gqfJ=r3' adj maligned. SIr kdnIk chatria."-asa ill 5. 2 snake's "manmukh kucil kuchIt bIkraIa."-gau a ill 1. slough. 3 adj who keeps an elephant. 2 barren, unproductive (land); land that does ~ [kucdl] Skt gmT adj speaking ill of others. not produce grains and grass. 3 not deserving. "Ik kucdl kucil bIkhIipte."-asa a ill 3. 2 See ~ [kuchot] adj untouchable, whose contact is believed to defile. See ~. ~.3See~and~. ~ ~ [kucdl kucil] mal igned and dirty. See ~'f: [kucch] some. See C\§. gee? and ~. "hdill kucdl kucil dtI dbhImani ~s;r [kucchdf], ~~ [kucchdfI] See ~ and ¢. mIh sdbde mEl utari."-raill a ill 3. ~ [kuCdIna] V crush, trample, grind, tread, ~m [kucchI], ~6ft [kucchi] See ~Cf. gA' [kuj] Skt n born [jd] from the earth [ku]; stamp. Mars, a planet. "SdmdS sdni mukh SdSI kuj ~ [kuc1a] Skt ~ and CflI'CIi91I'C n a tree sdnyo."-GPs. 'Beard is black like the colour found at many places in India especially in of Saturn, face is like the moon but is one with Bengal and Madras. Its poisonous fruit is so Mars,' i.e. the face is luminous like the moon named and is used in medicines. L Strychnos but not white; it is reddish like Mars. Nuxvomica. The latent effect of it is warm 2 Tuesday. "kuj dIn me $ri SdtIgUru joti jotI and dry; it purifies blood and cures piles. Its mIIas."·-GPS. 3 tree, that grows from the fruit is used for killing dogs and rats. earth. 4 Narkasur; Bhaumasur: According to ~ [kucar], ~ [kucari], ~ [kucal], ~ a legend in Purans, the earth, having mated [kucaIi] n reprehensible conduct, licentiousness, with Varah the god, gave birth to Narkasur, depravity. "brh£kucar."-kalki. 2 adj immoral, from which emerged the name Kuj. See~. depraved. "gdhI rnaryo PItSdtru kucari." ctH [kuj] Skt n a place in the forest, which is -GPS. ctfu3' [kucIt] Skt~~ adjcoiled, curly. "dIka covered by shrubs and creepers on all the four kuc f t. "---aha varsaillr It. sides but is cleared within; glade; arbour. 2 path forged by elephants etc through a dense gfin;r [kuCIl] See ~ and ~. "kuCII kathor forest. 3 See cftr 2. "kUjdhI tyag bhujag kapat kami."-kan ill 5. sIdharyo."-krIsan. 4 P corner, bank. eftit [kuci] See cftr 2. 2 armour. 3 See cfm. :; narrow street. ~ [kucH] Skt ~ adj wearing dirty clothes;


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[kujja] See ~w. CJ5" [kujh] ad) some; any, something, a little. horse, in which the rider keeps essential i3G [kut] Skt ~¥, vr bend, cheat, clip, heat up, . provisions. "hayan kGjke bhat gan lae."-GPS. rub, slander. 2 n mountain, direction. 3 hammer, ci~it [kGjakuti] a cottage in a glade. Skt sledge. 4 house. 5 fort, castle. 6 tree. cf~ See cj;::r and ~. 7 pinnacle-shaped pitcher, earthen pitcher. cf~ [kGjagli] See cj;::r 2. "kGjaglin me khel 8 a plant naml~d ku;;~h (kuth), found in macayo."-knscm. Kashmir. See W~ 2. ~'ijT [kGjpura] village of Wazir Khan, cfc [kGt] direction, side. "can kGt dah dIS governor of Sirhind, in Kamal. Banda Bahadur bhrame."-ma)l1.baral1mal1a. 2 pond. "hanjan razed it in 1768 AD. amntkGt sar nike."--ram m 4. cf;::r ~ [kGj bIhari] See et~. 9GtT [kutaj] n an ascetic named Agast who was cf~ [kGjmed], cj;:::ri{q [kGjmedh] n an oblation born from a pitcher. 2 Dronacharya was also to worship gods in which an elephant is born fr.om a pitcher. 3 a tree also called kura whose seeds are Idarj3. A decoction ofkutaj bark sacrificed. "hayad I kGjmed rajsu bIna na bhdrmal).;:)."-gyan. cures dysentery. L Ho larrhena Antidysenterica. cf'ffif [kGjar I Skt n one who lives in a glade in' 9Git [kutl).i], ~o't [kutni] Skt ~ a procuress, the kGj (thick forest); elephant. "ekal mati kGjar female panderer who acts as a go-between. citi."-mali namdev. "cor;:) jara rac;l.ia kumia di bal).u."-var sul1i m 1. cf'ffif l)fFfO [kGjar asan] Dg n elephant's food, C3zs i eMI [kutbaqhla] ad} engaged in the work peepal tree. of cutting and skinning. "meri jatI ~[kujrat]A ":;"I~ "kujratkamal."-aka1269. kutbaqhla."-mala rav:rdas. 'The job of my cjtrnTfu [kGjran] n elephant's enemy, lion. 'carnal" caste is cllltting and skinning of ~ ~ [kujran nadani] a gun that makes animals.' sound similar to that of its enemy, the lion. 'C3'GM" [kutal] See j~). -sanama. ~ [kutvar] See ~~. 2 guard of a police ~ [kGjri] n female elephant. 2 army of post. elephants.-sanama. 3 ad) who keeps ~ [kutvari] n duty of police officer of a elephants. station house. See ~3<~. "duta c;lanau Ih cf;::r ~ [kOj vIhari] ad) wandering on foot kutvari meri."--ram kabir. 2 job of a fort's on the paths of a forest. 2 n Krishan Dev. guard. 9W [kuja] Skt n Sita, who was born from ku cfcr [kuta] See cj'~. 2 pond. See cjc 2. "sdhdj (the earth). 2 P , advwhere, at what place. katha ke amnt kuta."-gau m 5.3 See cjz. "kuja amad kuja rdphti."--tI15g namdev. ~ [kutI] adv by crushing. 2 Skt n twist, cgtIT3" [kujat], cg;::rrfu [kujatI] n condemned caste; arrogance, curve. 3 cottage, hut. low caste. 2 ad) belonging to a low caste. See ~ [kutIl] Skt ad) bent, curved. 2 deceitful, ~. treacherous . 3 tangled. "kutIl gath jab khol£ cftit [kuji] Skt t"t:RiCflI n key. "kuji jInI kau dev."-bIlakabir. 'knot of illiteracy. , dItia."-var sal' m 2. 'key to spiritual Poets have described the following things knowledge.' as crooked: lock of hair, snake, lion's nail,

cfi1c{ [kGjak], cj'i'!O(T [kGjka] P /kept on the edge. See cj;::r 4. a bag tied to the saddle of the


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boar's tusk, parrot's beak, moon in the second tic<! [kuttaD] See ctZ(!T. 2 n procurer, panderer. phase ofthe bright halfof a month, and a bow. tiG<!T [kuttDa] v beat, thrash. See rgc vr. ~ [kutIlta] n bend, curve. 2 guile, deceit. tiGit [kutt-Di] n a procuress female panderer. See cgco9". "bethat uthat kutIlta ealahI. "-gdU kdbir. "harI kati kutIlta."-sar ill 5. ti~ [kutmIt-hav] n in poetics, a female ~ [kup] thatched hut of leaves and grass. In desire to express feelings ofthe mind, through Sanskrit kutI and kuti both are correct. a gesture of anger when actually she is happy. ~ [kupeak] Skt n an ascetic who is revered ti~ [kutti] n cuttings, fragments of paper etc. in his own hut; a sanyasi who does not forsake go [kuth] See W! 2. the sacred thread and tuft of hair and does rio [kuth] Skt ~ vr surround, blunt. 2 adj religious service like offering evening prayer blunt; without a sharp edge. 3 dull-minded, etc and for begging does not go to other's door obtuse. except of his own relatives. Kutichak is ~ [kuthDaJ v kill, butcher. cremated and his last rites are performed as ~ [kuthrIya] n See ~. 2 prison cell. usual. "ek kuthrIya bie ray ko rakhIo."-CdrItr 6. ~ [kutiear] treacherous, deceitful. 2 Skt n gar [kutha] S adj butchered, killed. ascetic who dwells in a cottage; one living in a 2 slaughtered in the Muslim way. "abhakhIa hut. 3 pig, which lives in water and eats the ka kutha bakra khaDa."-var asa. See ~ 2. roots of darnel and lotus. ~ [kuthau], ~[kuthaIJ, ~[kuthahar] iJ"iRr [kutir] Sktn very small cottage in which n evil place, ill-reputed place. 2 discomforting another person cannot stay. place. gll" [kutub] See ~. ~ [kuthar] Skt n axe. "kaQhI kuthar cj-z- [kute] adj deceptive, tricky. "krIa kute khasamI SIr katIa.';-brla ill 5. 2 tree. 3 big room, storehouse, house for provisions. 4 Skt nIrahar."-sor ill 5 pd[tal. ~ [kutev] n bad habit, depravity. "ta trIy ki W!Tfu medicine for curing leprosy. "kaQhI kutev nahI jai."-CdrItr 313. "kathIn kutev na kuthar pIt bat hata."-to<;li ill 5. 'Kushthar mItat. "-BGK. decoction removes all the three types of ~ [kutatar] See ~~. miasma, vitiated air and phlegmpsora, syphlis ClioG [kutanat] Skt n fragrant grass. 2 a shrub, and sycosis. ' which is called kevatmotha. 3 boatman, sailor. ~ [kutharI], ~ [kuthari] n small axe. 4 water carrier. "kati kutIlta kutharI."-sar ill 5.2 See ~. "In akhlIn ki karE kuthari."-GPS. 'As metals ~ [kutab] Skt ~Kf n offspring, children. 2 family, household. "kutab jatan kan).a."-var are melted in a goldsmith's crucible, so should all evils be destroyed.' 3 incharge ofprovision jEt. 9i'aT [kutabi] adj having a family. 2 belonging house; storekeeper. 4 adj who has an axe. ~ [kutharu] See cgQT"a". 2 Skt monkey. to a family, of the family. tic; [kuttJ n beating, thrashing. See ctZ(!T. 2 a 3 tree. 4 armourer. 5 treasure. metal, which is very brittle, prepared by beating ~ [kuthali] Skt cg-FEl"'"ffi n earthern platter; earthen crucible in which a goldsmith melts several metals. "bhanIa bhaQa kut da." metals like gold, silver etc. -illdgO.

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cifcs'3' [kuthIt] adj blunt. "jahf kuthIt hVE man
~ [kuthJr] n bad place, ill-reputed place.

2 improper time. Skt ~ vr protect, preserve. 2 n that which protects water; pit. 3 reservoir. "jEse abh kO<;l. brI rakhIO parat sfdhu galI jaha." -asa m 5. 4 pit for keeping fire, pit dug as described in the Shastars (holy manuscripts) for oblation to the god of fire. See ~"fI. 5 eighty-six deep pits of hell made especially to punish evil-doers. See e<il§l'dl~3 "R'Cfu 9 ch 37. 6 (according to Hindu Shastars) son J born to a woman from her paramour while her husband is alive. See ~ fRfljfo a 4 ~ 23. 7 also used for kut (direction). "tfh catur kO<;l. jItyo dubar."-gyan. "so cahu kO<;l.i ja!)iE."-var majh m 2. 8 in Punjabi also used for Persian kudo ci~ [kO<;l.ria] See ci"fIffi»rr. rt"fIllj [kO<;l.al] Skt n circumference. "re nar garabh kO<;l.al jab achat."-sri beni. "garabh kO<;l.al mahI uradhdhIani. "-maru solhe m 1. 2 a circular shaped ornament worn in the ears; ear-ring. "kani ku<;l.al gaii mahan ki mala." -gauam 1. ci~ [kO<;l.lani] Skt ci~. n according to Tantar Shastar and Yog, a nerve so named because it is at the root of Sulkhmana nerve serving as entrance making a spiral of three and a half rounds and lying quietly like a snake. It can be activated by practising Yog and it begins to rise towards the ultimate stage of realisation through Sukhmana (the spinal chord). As it moves upward, the Yogi feels bliss; the highest spiritual stage for a Yogi is to stay the Kundalini in Dasamdwar and not let it come down. It has also been named as

ci"fI [ku<;l.]

bhujagma (serpent power) 2 jalebi, a kind of sweet meat. 3> according to the tenets of Sikhism, Kundalini is the name for the knot of ignorance; confused state of mind. "kO<;l.lani surjhi sat sagatI."-SavE,ye m 4. ci~ [kfjc;lalakar] ad} round, coil-shaped. ci~ [kOI~lIni] See ci~. ci~ [kO<;l.IIya] See it"fIffi»rr. ~ [kO<;l.Ili] adf who has worn ear-rings. 2 cicumference, circle. 3 horoscope in which houses [kO<;l.al] of planets are made by lines; snake. 5 jalebi (a sweetmeat). ~ [ku(Hia] who wears earrings. See ci"fI1? "kan ku<;l.lia bastra o<;l.hlia."-asa m 5. ci~ [kO<;l.lia] adj who wears earrings. 2 n snake. 3 hook, fishhook.. "jIu min kO<;l.1ia kathI paI."-bas.H a m 1. 4 a matrIk stanza, characterised by six lines, first two lines forming a couplet, followed by four -a-w [rola] lines, each having twenty-four matras, first pause at the eleventh and the second at the next thirteenth. According to its style, traditionally called sfghavalokan myay, the last part of the second line of the couplet initiates the roJa and the last line of the roJa initiates the couplet. Due to circular repetition of phrases, the metre is named as 'kO<;l.1ia'. This metre belongs to kala~ category. Example: "onam sri satIguru cara!), adI purakh ade~, ek anek lJIbak saSI, ghat ghat ka parve~,­ ghat ghat ka parv'e~, ~e~ pahI kahIt na aVE, netI net I kahI net, bed badijan gaVE, adI maddh aru at, hute hut hE pun honam, adI purakh ade~, cara!) SrI satguru onam"

lIt is named kDQ because it destroys a dynasty. vr ~m­
[kUQIJ means to burn.

(b) Dasam Granth has a kO<;l.1ia offour lines. The first two lines form a couplet and the next two lines make a rola as in: "dinan ki raccha namIt, kar hE ap upay,

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param purakh pavan sada, ap pragat hE ay,- ~ [kul).ap] Skt n corpse, dead body. ap pragat hE ay, din raccha ke karal). CJa1>w [kul).ia] n with which water (ka) is brought avtari avtar, dhara ke bhar utaral).."-k;;,lki. (al).ia); cupped hands. 2 pitcher-like vessel (c) In sf ghavalokan myay, if phrases with a handle. "mdibarr kyo pivie kUl).ia na occurring in the ku<;l;;,lia are in yamak format, let?"-GPS. the metre gets more fascinating. In yamak the cj'-o [kut] Skt n which digs the earth (ku); spade. words remain the same but the meaning differs 2 cock. "bhUnsar bhai dhunr kut kai."-NP as: 3 lance, spear. 4 louse. 5 water. 6 lotus. 7 adj "hala I sev;;,n jrn kari kalnrmatral). din, horrible, frightening. sukh sapatr ko khoy kE, bh'le at atr din,- CJ'3'R3' [kutsat] See ~. din duni ko man, tan nrj tan ko khoyo, g3'R3T [kutsata], cg3W [kutsa] Skt ~ n slander. brkh beli ko bij, apne hathan boyo, 2 insult, disrespect. harr vrrje1;l kulkan tyag karte mukh kala, ~ [kutsrt] adjdamned, condemned. "bhu sahE nIradar nrty, phIrE dar dar bad-hala". kutsrt karam."-;;,kal. 2 insulted, dishonoured. ~ [kutka] T ,.iJ n thick but short stick; club. cj'~ [ku<;llikrrt] spiral-shaped, spiralled, curl-shaped. "bhramat ku<;llikrr ta."-rama v. See~. cj'ar [ku<;la] direction, side. See cj~. "care ku<;la CJ3tI' [kutap] Skt n sun. 2 fire. 3 Brahman. 4 guest. 5 cow. 6 nephew; sister's son. <;lhu<;lhia."-asa ;;, m 1. 2 See ct~. 3 chain for 7 grandson; daughter's son. 8 musical fastening the door. 4 goad. "namk hasti ku<;le instrument. 9 speargrass. 10 afternoon. bahra."-var guj m 3. 5 ring in which some thing can be fastened. CJOlf [kut'lb] A ~ n pole; north and south poles. 2 small peg around which the millstone cj''lft [ku<;li] fishhook. 2 small chain to fasten revolves. 3 chief, head, president. 4 A the flaps of a door. 3 in the direction. "cahu ku<;licahujugjate."-bIha cMtm 4.4 Dghorse; ~ pluraloffcEra'. the name derives from curving the front feet ~ [kutabxan] subedar ofJallandhar during like a coil while trotting gracefully. the reign of Shah Jahan, who was a cousin of ~ [kuQ.:J1] adj not having a proportionate Painde Khan. He presented Painde Khan shape; misshaped, clumsy. 2 n bad plan, wrong before the emperor and with his army attacked method. Guru Hargobind Sahib. The sword ofthe Guru redeemed him in the battle of Kartarpur. CJW [ku<;lhab], CJ~OT [ku<;lhag] n improper method, bad behaviour. 2 adj ill-managed, ~ [kutabxana] library. i3dael(') [kutabdin] See ~&. clumsy, ill-mannered. CJC!W [kul).ka] See ~. 2 equal to a mote; a ~w [kutabnuma] P ()~ compass, the needle of which points to the north because of very small quantity ofsweet pudding distributed magnetic force. It is very helpful to the sailors. in the Sikh shrines. 3 ka+ah prasad is also called kUl).ka. "khavE kUl).ka va<;lkE."-mago. mariner's compass. ~ [kul).akkha] adj looking sideways through ~ [kutabminar] See ~9§\!1(') ~. the corner ofthe eye, looking in a slanting way. ~ [kutba] See~. "oh kutba mera pa+ange vrc doho jahana."-jagnama. 2 squint-eyed. 'wine. ~ [kutbiJ A a sect of the Muslims.


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2 adj related to Kutab. Clldytfl(') [kutabuddin] d .....l1......b~adjthe Pole Star . of religion; what sustains religion. 2 a cruel subedar of Jalandhar, who perpetrated unbearable atrocities upon the Sikhs at one time. While he was hunting 0111 the banks of Beas river, Bagh Singh captured him all of a sudden and burnt him alive. 3 ruler of Kusur. See gJJO 1. 4 See 't?§€l(') ~. ~dy€l(') »tl:l"Q [kutubuddin Ebak] ~'c[...Jl~ Thus goes the life history of this glorious person. Some wealthy person bought him in childhood and taught him Arabic and Persian. After the death of this wealthy man, he was sold to a tradesman. The tradesman offered hiim to Shahabuddin Mohammad Gauri. Shahabuddin was so kind to him that after the conquest of India, he appointed him as his governor in 1192 (1250 Sammat). In 1206 he occupied the throne and became emperor and laid the foundation of the Slave dynasty. He died at Lahore in 1210, after he fell from a horse while playing polo. The construction ofKutubrninar, which is 240 feet high, and an incomplete mosque named as Kavvatulislam I near Delhi, was initiated by Kutubuddin. Material from twenty-seven Hindu temples was used to build the mosque in 1196. A slave of Kutubuddin and his son-in-law, emperor Shamasuddin Altimish, completed Kutubminar but the mosque is still incomplete. ~ [kutar] A)i diameter. ~ [kutarak] SkI ~ n frivollous argument, worthless reasoning. 2 evil thought, bad idea. ~ [kutarna] SkI ~ n cutting, chopping. ~ [kutra] n mince; material crushed into pieces. 2 n an insect which destroys crops by


nibbling them. 3 puppy. Skt~. "dekhat kutra h:gai b I 1ai. "-asa kabir. See LffUC'lT 113". 4 adj who is a bad swimmer. See ~ ~. ~ ~ [kutare kadhe] helped the bad swimmers reach the bank. "jan nanak kutare kaQhe."~gaum 4. 2 cj'F:fl1i [kutal] Skt n sharp pointed spear; hair. "kutal1alIt ,llak ahICh:ma."-NP. 2 barley stalks which are sharp-pointed. 3 plough, which has pin like a small sharp spear. 4 cock, having sharp nails. ~ [kutvar] See i~~. 2 See ~. ~ [kuta] n dog. "atan 10bh bhaukE jIu kuta." -maru soll1e m 3. ~ [kutaru] adj not a good swimmer; bad at sWllnmmg. 93l [kuti] bitch, female dog. ~'5f [kuti] dogs, worthless persons. 2 vile persons. "ratan vIgar vIgoe kuti"-asa m 1. ci'3t[kuti] daughterofShursen, king ofMathura, Krishan's paternal aunt. King Pandu's queen and mother ofYudhishthir, Bhimsen, Arjun. Her name was Pritha. Kuntibhoj, who was issueless, adopted Shursen's daughter to bring her up; for this reason she was called Kunti. "kuti ko dekhat hi kavi ~yam bhanE tIn paIn sis jhukayo."-knscm. ~ [kut(a] bitch, female dog. cjal' 'IJ3' [ki)ti sut] Yudhishtir, Bhim and Arjun. ci3b3a' lJd' )){j~ [kCJtisut sut an]-scmama. Kunti's son Arjun; his charioteer, Krishandev; his enemy, the arrow. cj3luf3' [kutipatI] Raja Pandu; Pandav's father. ~ [kutuha1] Skt n surprise, astonishment, wonder. 2 unusual happening, wonderful phenomena. 3 ardent curosity to see and hear something. 4 game of pleasure. ~ [kutura] pup, cur, whelp. SkI ~Q.
2[gnorant and partisan scholars interpret the word as ~ [kutureJ.

'Several writers have written its name as "katbul Islam".

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[kutemuha] adjwho has the mouth of a dog; dog-mouthed i.e. who eats what cannot be eaten; who eats dirt and carrion. "kalr hoi kutemuhi khaju hoa murdar." -var sar m 1. 'The people ofkalryug are dogmouthed,andeatcorpses.' Corpse means other person's right; bribe etc. CJ3' [kuto] adv where, from where, for what reason. "tan nrj rup kuto tum lahe."-GPS. g"~ [kutta], ct3t [kutti] See cg3T ~. ~ [kutr] adv where, at what place. ~ [kuthra] ku (damned) thua (earth); dirty place. 2 adjmuddy, dirty. ~ [kuthau], ~ [kuthar], ~ [kuthan] ku (damned) thar (place). 2 adv untimely; improper place. "ek dan tudh kuthar lara." -asa pati m 3. "thau kuthar na ja:r:mi sada crtavahr vrkar."-var sar m 3.3 base heart. cit! [kDd] Skt n jasmine plant, bearing white flowers, which the poets compare with teeth. "pit basan kDd dasan."-savEye m 4 ke. See ~. 2 lotus. 3 one out of the nine treasures. 4 in Gurpratap Suray, kDQ has been used for kukad (ox's hump). "brrkhabh brlad bali tan pin. jrn ki kDd,1 tUg dutr kin."-GPS. 5 P .;;fadj blunt. 6 stupid. 7 wise, intelligent. 8 brave. ~ [kudara] damned mercy; mercy which is harmful; act ofcausing suffering to the world by having mercy upon a mosquito, snake, rat, rabid dog, robber, thief, immoral person. 2 brutality. "ku dara kasarl)r"-var sri m 1. ~ [kudas] A v"';; adj sacred, holy. ~ [kudl)a] Skt ~tfo n jumping, leaping, springing up. ~ [kooal)] n pure gold; gold without impurities. 2 thin leafofpure'gold in which artisans embed gems.

~ [kutemuha], ~

Some ignorant scribe has changed the text, but the original is: "jIn ki kakud tUg".

cieofdlfi:f[kDdangur] mountain ofgold; Sumer. cj'trc'll:f'a' [kGdanpur], ct~fu [kGdanpurr], ~ [kDdanpuri] '!i,fUs"1:i{ capital ofVidarbh state (Bairar), at a distance of forty miles to the east of Ambravati. Its raja Bhishmak was father of Krishan's queen Rukmani. "kGdanpuri nagar nryrayo."-cantr 320. It is said that Kondavir in Bairar is the same ancient city ofKundanpur. cj't:c'IT [kDdni] that which has a butt; a gun. -sanama. cgt!H [kudam] jump, leap. "kudam karE gaQar jruchel."-ramm5. "kudamkarepasupakhia drsE nahi kal."-sri m 5. 2 P ($ reward for deeds done. cit!'a' [kGdar] A .J.;;fn dwarf. 2 fat donkey. 3 old fort. ~ [kudrat], g~ [kudratr] A .:;..,;$ n power, strength. "kudrat kaul) hamari?"-bas~t a m 1. 2 illusion; the Almighty's creative power. "duyi kudratr sajiE karr asal)u drtho cau."-var asa. "kudratr patali akasi."-var asa. ~ [kudrati] adj all powerful, almighty. 2 naturally; by nature."srnakhatu kudrati," -var majh m 1. 3 concerned with nature, natural. "varhrE dargah gc:ru ki kudrati nuru." -var ram 3. ~ [kudratu], ~ [kudrrt] See ~. ci~ [kDdalta] See ~ tT ~ 18. ci~ [kDdra] n thatched hut. 2 heap of grass. 3 stack of wheatchaff. 4 butt of a rifle. cit!" [kDda] pommel, the protuberant part at the front of·a saddle. "capkE ghor-rE kode pakarahr."-var gau 2 m 5. An inexperienced rider clutches at the pommel for fear of falling down but a horseman rides with free hands. Grasping a pommel while playing polo, is no good horsemanship. 2 T JI~ P ~.;;f back part ofa rifle which is made of wood. EStock.

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3 stock for holding the feet of criminals. See
qro l-fI'O'C'iT.

g-tTfu [kudaI] n improper method; ruse. ~ [kudan] false grant; charity which is not beneficial to the world. ~ [kudam] P ('..<1' pron which, who. 2 what thing. ~ [kudami] P iJf..<1' who are you? ' ~ [kudal] Skt cgt'<'5' n imp lement to dig earth; implement with a sharp point, shovel. 2 spade, hoe. gfu [kudI] adv having jumped. "kudI kudI c,m: rasatq lI paI."-g<Juk<Jbir. citft [kOdi] n ironing of washed clothes. 2 sarcastically : an act of straightening by beating and threshing. ~ [-kudum] A (,J arrival. ~ [kOdClQ] bow. See lX€';;r. "mthur kud~Q bhujd~Q ke SClk~dh dhClr,"-(]'PS. ~ [kudn:;>tI] n vile look, evil eye. 2 look filled with anger. 3 adj habit of looking at the ground with downcast eyes" ~ [kudhaka] blow on the neck; giving an insulting push. 2 horrible stumble. "nCltaru kudhaka dIvai he."-brl.a k<Jbir. ~ [kudhatu] Skt n iron; in Sikhism iron is called sudhatu. cgtlTO [kudhan] impure naod stuff; food stuff procured by deceitfulearning. ~ [kudhItt] n bad habit, addiction, condemned practice. "chaQQ kuphClkkClr kur kudhItta."-BG. gtit [kudhi] adj having an evil (ku) mind (dhi) "dise kudhi sumCltI ka bodhClk."-GPS. C30 [kun] pron who. "tu kun re."-dh<Jna namdev. 2 P do. "dClI' gos kun kClrtar." -trlJg m 1. "dII me nCl jara kun vahClm." -krrs<Jn. 'Do not be deluded.' 3 A be; Arabic and Persian scholars have written that

C3~ [kudau],

Allah said 'kun' and the world came into being. See ~ l~p:r:iI~. -iJOR" [kumsJ, ~~7:iFl" [kOms] result. See ~. "kunsa kini tin IPrabina."-GPs. ~ [kunka] See g"C!W. ~ [kunakkha], wM [kunClkkhi] See <gicrr. ~'ij" [kuIll.).apurl Dg golden city, town of gold; Lanka. 2 See ii'-ec~. ~ [kunad] P :iY does. See CiRIt!"O. C21oj'gCl'o [kunfClkan] A ,~~d"' Allah ordered "kun."'Let it be'. pClS, 'it got created'. The world got created by Aillah's edict. This phrase has been Ulsed in 'mClkke di gOSCltI'. CK~o [kunf:ckun] A ~Jf'd begin to be; something that comes into being on such order, i.e. world is: created by the order of God. 90H [kunClm] P. (. I do, May I do, I will do. lts root is kardCln. CK"or [kOna] Ml earthen pitcher, pitcher of medium size, earthen pot. "kOne hethI jCllaie balCl!). S~dE tha:r."-s f<Jrid. "kOne kOIIIah."-s f<Jrid. 'condition or state of coals tightly contained in a Ipitcher. ' cgorfa' [kunan], [kunari] damned lady. 2 adulteress. "mdi kan:ll).i kulClkh!).i kunan." -var sri m 3. ~ [kunalli] 'i3'-FEfr~f n earthen platter for kneading flour. cgfo [kum] S earthen pot plastered with mud at the bottom from outside. See ~('jT. gf7l1:[kunfd], ~rf~[kunfda] P ~d adjdoer, maker. "karn ko kunfda he kI khubi ko dIMda




2 may you do. 3 you will do. ~o't [kOni] See ~!('jT. small earthen pot. S gfo. ~ [kunir] impure water, dirty water, water harmful for health. CKQ [kunu] S vertigo, dizziness. 9l.I' [kup] SkI ~L vr be angry, burst out; shine.

CK7ft [kuni] P I' you do.


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2 lord of the earth [ku], raja. 3 See g"tr. rage; irascible. S1./3" [kupat] See cgfts. ;gtfto [kupin] SkI cloth lengthy enough for cgt.ST [kupata] without honour. "jhakh maran lowering into a well to draw water. It is also dusat kupate ram."-brha ch~t m 4. used as a loincloth and waistband. "satu b5dhI 'iJ1.Ifo [kupatI] n insult, dishonour. 2 damned kupin."-ram a m 1. husband, adulterer; on~ who loves some woman cgy~ [kuputr], ~3' [kuput] n worthless son, other than his wife. 3 husband of the earth dishonourable son. 2 son of the earth [ku], the [kuJ, raja. planet Mars. ~ [kupath] n path ofevil, damned way, wrong ~l:ft [kup5khi] SkI ~ n damned bird, crow. 2 raven, vulture. path. 2 See ~cr. ~ [kupatth] SkI gtfEfJf n lack of self-control, citr [kupp] n which shines from a distance, See lack of precautionary measure. 2 unfit. ~ vr. dome-shaped heapofhay etc which is covered with thatch, making sharp point at the ~ [kuparvar:t] n something unacceptable; an inappropriate example, which refutes rather top. "rakhe vahu kupp b5dhvaI."-GPs. 2 SkI than proves a statement. 2 adj which is not 'flffi which protects hay. Hay is protected in a worth accepting; unacceptable. "ja patI lekhe kupp (stack). na paVE ta sabhe kuparvar:t."-asa m 1. ciw [kuppa] big oilcan. See ~. ~ [kupaI] n ill-gotten wealth; wealth c!w g-~or [kuppa rurhna],g"1..fT 'I2~('iT [kuppa obtained through dishonest means. "kauqigani lurhna] death of a renowned person or kupaI."-carrtr 149. emperor. In olden times, it was considered improper to say, "The king is dead". In stead it 9lI"O [kupath] bad recital. 2 incorrect recital. was said that an oil can had got overturned. ~ [kupar:tI] having unworthy hands; who has neither done service nor given charity with "kuppa rurhyo sabhan sunpayo."-GPS. his hands. 'Everybody heard that emperor Jahangir had died.' ~ [kupatr] n dirty vessel, unclean vessel. 2 unworthy, undeserving. 3 earthen [ku] vessel. citft [kuppi] See ~. gt.rr,: [kupad] having impious feet, who has ;gtdr [kupyo] enraged. "kupyo jem pana." -gyan. 'like boiling water.' never used his feet for going to a religiolls congregation. ~ [kupyog], gy-&or [kuprayog] misuse; use gtI'c'i [kupan] bad [ku] drinking [pan]; taking of something at the wrong time. 2 grammaliquor etc. tically incorrect joining of phrases. "kupyog si 9lf'Q [kupar] See ~. praknt."-carrtr 180. 'The diction ofthe play ~ [kupal] who nourishes the earth [ku], a is jarring to the ears. ' raja. CJl:f~ [kupravar:t] See ~. ~ [kUpIt] SkI adjwrathful, angry, enraged. ;g~ [kuphakar], <g~ [kuphakar], <g~ [kuphakri] n damned ascetic; hyprocritical 2 condemned father. saint; pretended austerity; hyprocrisy. 2 evil ~ [kupIya], ~ [kupia] SkI cggtf. n an oil can; funnel mouthed can made by burning deeds, vile actions. "laga kItu kuphakre."-sri leather etc. "ek bas ko kupIya kasi sudhar mS. kE."-carrtr 133. 2 adj who tends to fly into a <gif6' [kuphar] A / n concealing of truth.

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2 atheism. "mulla bhakhE, kaphra! kyokuphar alavai."-NP ~ [kuphargo], ~"f [kuphargoa], S<;;ddl Ft [kuphargOI] adj speaking in terms ofatheism. See gGd" and ~. ~ [kuphraD], ~) [kuphrari] A (;)1/ n ingratitude, disloyalty, ungratefulness. "kuphargoI kuphraDE paIa dajhsi."-vaTmajh m 1. ~ [kuphal] n condemned firuit, harmful result. 2A ~ a lock. ~[kuphar], ~[kuphari]A .Il~r plural of ~. "kehra suta kuphar kuphari."--BG. 'Who is the infidel and ungratefiJl person sleeping there?' ~ [kupherJ n inauspicious planetary movement, adverse time, misfortune. '!'8N [kubaj] Skt 'J'fR adj hunchback. "nam bIna jEse kubaj kurup."--g~ukdbjT. ~ [kubja] Skt ~ adj female hunchback. 2 n a maidservant of Kans who was expert in preparing oily paste and applying it as massage. When Krishan went to Mathura, he demanded a fragrant paste from h,er. She lovingly massaged Krishan with the paste made for Kans. Krishan was pleased and putting his thumb on her foot and keeping his hand beneath her chin, gave such a jerk that her hunch was gone. She is known as Anekvakra as also Trivakra. See cgfat:r-. 3 Manthara, maidservant of Kaikeyi, on whose instigation Kaikeyi demanded from king Dashrath the throne for Bharat and exile for Ram. ~ [kubliya] See ~ffinfr W. ~ [kubaD] n bad habit, addiction, ill talk. ~ [kubaDI], ~ [kubaDi] n harsh word, impolite remark. "sabadu na cinE laVE kubaDI. "-sIdhgosatI. "speaks harsh words'. 2 mediocre poem, devoid of spiritual content. 3 composition going against the rules ofpoetry.

9fu;:rr [kulnja] See (~JT. "kubIja udhri ;}gusat
dhar."-basat a m 5. "ltarile ganIka bInu rup kubIja. "--g~m namdev. 9ftk[kubfd] Sktgi7fe- n a weaver, who knows how much land will be sufficient to stretch the warp. ~ [kubudh] adj idiotic; ofbase understanding. i?f'§"fu [kubudIu] n perverted intelligence, wicked mind. "kubudhI dumDi kudaIa kaSaIDI."--var sri ill 1. 2 adj mean-minded. ~a-Q [kuber] n whose body is despicable!; treasurer of the gods having three feet and eight teeth, the son of Vishrva born to Trinvindu's da'lghter I1vila, His city was Alka. He was king of demigods [yak$] and Kinnars, and Kuber was a stepbrother of Ravan. cgirn [kubo1] n vile utterance, abusive language, acrimonious remark. ci-ar [kubba] See Wrtlr. 2 A dome; a building with a dome. ci-a [kubbi~] See ZItJ"WFIrfua'. ~ [kubnt] adj whose character is to blame; licentious. ';'kubntankrIpan."-paTas. 'With a sword, he chops th(: licentious.' 2 VrIt (circumference) of ku the earth. ~[kubn:tIJ n abominable livelihood. 2 bad condition, miserable plight. Cf9 [kObh] Skt n pitcher. "kObhe badha jalu rahE jal bIn kObh na hOI. "-var asa. 2 pitcher·-like part risen on the forehead of an elephant. "kat kat pre g9jan kGbhsathal." -paras. 3 weight e:qual to sixty-four seers. 4 eleventh sign of the Zodiac, with stars shaped lik~~ a pitcher; Aquarius. 5 according to Yoga, a style of breathing exercise in which breath is held. "recak purak kObh karE."-prabha a TIl 1. See et~. 6 according to Bhav~shyat Puran, a demon who was


IHis body is despised due to leprosy as welL

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killed by Durga. "kObh dkObh se jit sdbhE jdg."-VN. 7 son of Kumbhkaran. 8 harlot's husband. 9 a kind of gum used as incense. 10 a religious festival. There is a legend in Sakandpuran that when gods and demons jointly churned the ocean of Khir (rice pudding), fourteen valuable jewels emerged among which are counted Dhanantar and a pitcher of nectar. Dhanantar gave the pitcher of nectar to Indar who entrusted it to the custody of Jayant and told him to take it to the paradise. When Jayant set out carrying Kumbh with him, the guide of the demons Shukar ordered that the pitcher be snatched. So bitter fighting ensued for twelve days between the gods and the demons. In the tussle to possess the pitcher, its nectar fell at four places (Haridwar, Prayag, Nasik, Ujain) Thus the festival ofKumbh is held at these four places. Twelve days of gods are equal to twelve years of human beings. For this reason Kumbh festival is celebrated at all places after twelve years. (a) If Jupiter is in the sign ofAquarius and the sun in that of Aries, Kumbh is celebrated at Haridwar on the bank of Ganga. (b) On the day of the new moon when Jupiter is in the sign of Aries, and the moon and the sun in that of Capricorn, Kumbh is celebrated at Prayag. (c) On the day of the new moon with the entrance ofJupiter, the moon and the sun into the sign of Cancer, Kumbh festival is held on the bank of Godavari (Nasik). (d) When the sun, moon and Jupiter enter into the sign ofAquarius on the day ofthe new moon, Kumbh is celebrated at Ujain. See cfrn-. "kObhr j:l kedar nhaiE."-ram namdev. ~ [kubh-drr] that which breaks the forehead of the elephant, a spear.-s~mama.

2 lion, which tears apart the head of the elephant. 3 brick or stone, that breaks the pitcher. cj5"lJ3' [kObhsut] born from the pitcher, Agast Muni. 2 Vashishth. 3 Dronacharya. cj~ [kObh-ha] that which tears the head of the elephant, a small spear.-sdnama. 2 See

[kObhak] or cf~ [kObhaku] Skt ~ n like the pitcher is filled with water, filling the lungs with air by inhaling is called kObhdk in Yoga; stopping of the vital air by catching the nose with the finger next to the little one and the thumb; staying the vital air. "jab kubhdk bharrpurr !il)a, tah baje anhad bil)a."-ram kdbir. 2 potter who makes pitchers. ~ [kObhkamalu] pitcher shaped like heart; heart shaped like pitcher; pitcher-shaped lotus of the heart. "kObh kamal jalr bhdrra."-sor kdbir. 'filled with (the water of) sensuality.' cj~ [kObhkardl)], cf~ [kObhkal)], cf~ [kObhkan] a demon with ears like a pitcher, who was younger brother of Ravan. He was son of Visrva born to Keksi, daughter of Sumali the demon. He pleased Brahma enormously by practising austerity. When the time for getting blessings arrived, the gods made Sarasvati (goddess of learning) sit on his tongue and made him beg that he remain in sleep for most of the time and wake up to eat only for one day after six months. Ram Chandar killed him in a battle. "bali kObh kana tau nahr jagya."-ramav. "hane bal) tal)a, jhrl)yo kObhkal)a."-ramav. cj~ [kubhkan-ardan], cf~o [kObhkan-arr] who crushed Kumbhkaran; enemy ofKumbhkan; Ram. 2 the arrow, which killed Kumbhkan.-sdnama. cj~ [kObhkar] Skt n maker of pots, a potter.


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People of this caste claim to have descended It grows close to water; bugs run away from from Brahma, and are called Prajapati. It has its smell; drinking decoction of its leaves nd been mentioned in the 32 chapter ofAushnasi mixed with coconut water, cures dysentery; Simriti that Kumbhkar is the son of a Brahman given with rose water and candy, it removes born to a Vaishya girl. cough. Taking its ash cures the disease ~ [kObhkari] wife of a potter. 2 red caused by guinea worms. "arjun kObhrka arsemc. rabha. "-CPS. ~ [kObhaj] n born from a pitcher; Agast ~~ [kubhrdur] n pearl [dar] which comes out from the head of the elephant [kObhrn]. Muni. 2 See ~~. ~~ [kObhnasni] that pierces the heads "manr mal mukta kObhrdur."-saloh. of elephants, a small spear.-sanama. ~f301 [kubhrni] an army of elephants. ~~ [kObhnesni] the earth, its lord, a king; -sanama. his army; the king's army.-sanama. 2 army of ~~ [kObhi] Skt n elephant. 2 crocodile. 3 water melon. 4 hell, which is also called kObhipak. a king, the owner of elephants.-scmama. 5 small pitcher. 6 a fe:stival which is called ~~ [kObhparav] See~!J 10. Aradhkumbhi; union of planets occurs every ~!Jfla'r [kObhprta] father of a pitcher; potter's twelve years; a festivall that happens after six wheelan which a pitcher is formed. "kObhprta years, is called "aradhki:Jbh". This is also called sam dhar tabE."-GV 6. 'The earth started rotating like a potter's whed.' atrkObhi. See ~'~ 10. ~!ffi [kObhal] n pit of a weaver in which he ~eftoRt [kObhinasi] daughter of demon Sumali who was the real sister of Keksi, mother of suspends his legs while weaving on his warp. "cir bunE kObhaI tIs pahe."-GPS. Ravan. Kumbhinasi gave birth to Lavnasur, son ~5' [kubha] See "W§"1? 2 [ku] (bad) [bha] ofdemon M!adhlll, whose capital was Mathura. (reputation). 3 [bha] shadow ofku (land). He was killed by Shatrughan. ~~ [kObhipak] See ~~ 4. According to ~ [kubha<;l] See ~. Purans, in this hell meat eaters are thrown into ~ [kubhatrJ, ~ [kubhati] adj of a bad type, ill-shaped. "mera karam kutrIta janam the boiling oil. kubhati."-gau ravldas. 2 adv in a bad way, ~m [kubhir] Skt n crocodile. ~3' [kubhe] in the pitcher. "kubhe baddha jalu badly. rahE."-var asa. ~[kubhar],~[kubhar] See~. "kObhar -«~ [kObheu] ku-bhav. produced from the kE ghan ha<;li achE."-toQi namdev. earth; an em1hern pitcher. "jru parkaSH mati ~ftJ [kObhr] See ~~ and ~it. 2 Oltl the occasion kubheu."-prabha namdev. of the Kumbh festival. "kObhr j:> kedar naiE." [kubhes] kiJbh-i~, elephant; who has a -ram namdev. ' ... have a dip during the Kumbh festivals and at Kedarnath.' See~!J 10.3 <tfuo9" pitcher on its head. See ~!J. See FTFI7l. an army of elephants. "sma catv r~ganr raci ~ [kumahal], ~<.JC3 [kumahaIu] n inappropriate place; untimely situation. "mahalu park rath jE kObh."-c.§Qi 1. kumahalu na jaI).nr murakh apne suae."-var ~ftJcf [kubhrk] See ~fuw 2. sor m 3. See: }f(n;l. -«~ [kubhrka] Skt n prostitute, dancing n help. 2 partisanship, girl. 2 a small prickly tree. L Pistia Stratiotes. ~ [kumak] T



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favour. "jab hi kumak apnI gayo." -carItr 297. "ayo kumak surpatI bises."-saloh ~ [kumkama], ~ [kumkuma] T j n small water pot with narrow mouth. 2 rose water sprinkler. "ko kumkuma dehI chnrkai."-GPS. 3 round object of shellac, used during Holi to shower dry colours filled in it. It is so thin and frail that with very light collision it bursts and dry colours scatter around. ~ [kumat], ~ [kumatri], cgH8 [kumatI] base intellect, perverse advice. "man re kaun kumatI tr lini?"-sor m 9. 2 mind like ku (earth); dumb mind. wf3t [kumati] See wrfu". 2 adj mentally retarded. 3 wicked, depraved. 9Ht!' [kumad], ~ [kumadni], wreT [kumdi]

[kumrau], cg~ [kumrav] a Khatri subcaste. ~ [kumri] A n type of dove, that is small in size and chirps sweetly. rgmMlC!T [kumlaul).a] v lose lustre, wither. "baQan jaI kumlaI."-var guj 1 m 3. "has gaIa ka I a kumlani."-suhi kabir. ~ [kumlahgarh] See ~. ~ [kumlana] See ~. ~it [kumlo).i] adj withered, faded. "han bajhahu dhan kumlrl).i."-gau m 4. C!W [kumma] Skt ~ n tortoise, turtle. ~ [kumau] cgwrff [kumayu] See mMr. 2 Skt ~ a territory in U.P with an are:a of 600 square miles. To its north is Tibet, to the east Nepal, to the south Bareilly and Rampur state, to the west Tehri state. Its old name is 'Panchkoot.' ~ [kumar] Skt n child upto the age of five. 2 son. 3 Kartikey; Shiv's son, Kharanan. 4 Brahma's sons Sanak, Sanandan, Sanatan, and Sanatkumar, all ofwhom always remain bachelor.



5 parrot. 6 Sindh river. 7 twelfth incarnation of Jainism. 8 Mars planet. 9 fire. 10 horsekeeper. 11 adj unmarried. 12 See ~. ~ [kumarsabhav] composition written by Kalidas, in which the birth ofKartikey, Shiv's son, is narrated. See ~. ~ [kumarg] wicked path, perverse way. 2 earth's [ku] path; orbit upon which the earth revolves. ~[kumarlalIt], cgH'dMfM3' [kumarlalIta] a metre, characterised by four lines, each line arranged as 151, SIS, I, S. Example: kISU na dan dehfge. su sadhu lut lehfge. -kalki. 2 In its second form, every line is arranged as 151,115,5. Example: VIraCI gun dekhr, gIra gun na lekhr. -ram cadrika. rglf"ij'T [kumara] See ~ 11. ~ [kumari] feminine ofkumar; ulllnarried girl. See cgw-o- 1. 2 Parvati, Durga. 3 virgin. 4 daughter. ~ [kumIar] See et~. cgfH>wfu [kumIan] potter (nominative case). "jIU caku kumIan bhavaIa."-asa chat m 4. ~ [kumIhar] See <t~ and ~. ~ [kumIt], cgf}-rg [kumItu] ~ [kumItr] wicked friend, base friend, cunning friend. "ahamat anarat kumIt hIt."-kan ill 5. "kumItra seyi kaQhiahI Ik vIkh na calahI sathI."-gau var 2 m 5. "dunia kiya vaQIaia nanak sabh kumIt."-var gau 2 m 5.2 who measures the earth. 3 the sun, earth's friend. rim [kumi] Skt ~ n female tortoise. "kumi jal mehI tan tISU bahan."--asa dhana. ~ [kumud] Skt <t,lj,i;: n Vishnu, who provides pleasure to the earth. 2 water lily, lotus. It

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blooms at night. 3 moon. 4 king. g1iIF.f [kuya:;;] inf:3my, notoriety. ~ [kumudni] n water lily. See ~ 2. "cad ~m [Kuras] Skt unpleasantness. 2 discord. kumudnidurahunIv sasI."-maru m 1. 2 pond 3 A v} n disc, round ball. 4 JAI) sun. full of water lilies. S face of the True One. "nur arasahu kurasahu ~ [kumudbadhu] friend of water lilies, jhatiE. "--var ram 3. 'Splendour of the sun rains the moon; lotuses bloom on seeing the moon. from the sky.' C!l.:f~ [kumudvati] daughter of serpent SQJf })f6F.f [Kuras ara~] See gOFf 4 and 5. Kumud who was married to Kush, son of Ram ~ [kuraszar] P .Jjif} n gold disc; sun. Chandar. 2 pond full of water lilies. ~[kursi]A t.ffn chair. 2 plinth. "hanmadIr ~ [kumudmi] See ~. kI kursi bhai."-GPS. 3 generation, lineage. ~ [kumut] adjbastard; illegitimate child born "kursi apar bakursi tai. bhogahf patsahi sukh from illegal (Inion. "kumut ;) kujatI bare jag pai."-NP. mE." -krIsan. C!aH1(')F.fl(') [kursina$in] P c:J?t.f.! successor, ~ [kumur] adj one who has a base origin. honourable courtier. "nahI sukh mur kumur kubhag·e."-NP. csam()ll-IT [kursinama] P ..At.f'! n genealogy. 2 completely stupid, idiotic. . C!~ [kurahll A ~:/ n ball. 2 geography. ~ [kumur], ~ [kumura] condemned fool, 3 sphere. king of fools; knowing everything about self ~ [kurak] T J} ad} confiscating. 2 seizing. inspite of being a fool. "bIapIa durmatI 3 See ~rr. kubudhI kumura."-var ram 2 m 5. ~ [kurkat] n cock. "Ikatu patan bhan urkat ~ [kumet] See ~. kurtat." -asa kabir. See ~~. ~ [kumer] See~. "amk dharam amk ~ [kurakI:ta] v nibble, gnaw. This word is kumer."--sar am 5. used because of such sound produced during nibbling. "jam cuha kIras nIt kurakda."-var W [kumeru] See Jj'ifg 3. 2 See ~. crH3" [kumEt] T a horse with deep red gau 1 m 4. colour; dark-brown horse. ~ [kurki] T J) n attachment of property. ~ [kumod] See ~. See~. ~ [kumaq.al] earth's atmosphere. See m-hm". ~ [kurakhat] See c«J1;f3'. ~ [kumat], ~ [kumatr] n worthless magical ~ [kurkhet] See ~~. ~ [kurta], CS'd'31r I[kurti] P;f n shirt, blouse. spell; wicked advice. ~ [kumatn] adj wicked advisor, base coun- C!'d?i"R' [kurnas], ~r~ ,[kurnIs] P J~f n sellor. "mIthI galaJ:1.I kumatria."-scwa m 5. salutation, gre~:ting. "tin kurnIse kar SIr ~ [kumad] See wfB'. 2 adj very dull; very nyayo."-car.rlr 82.. gmr [kurab] A ...... j be n.ear. 2 In Punjabi it mean. ./ also means status or rank as in "ki tera kurab ~ [kumhar], ~ [kumhIar] See ct~. "bahu bIdhI bhaq.e gharE kumhara."-bhE'r m ghatda hE?" 3. "mItI musalman kI perE pai kumhiar." ~ [kurbat] A ..:..-;} n nearness, closeness. -var asa. ~ [kurba!).], :CI~ [kurba!).u], ~0'a"T7i 9liI' [kuy] any. "d!taram Karam par calE na kuy [kurban] A (;,,~) an act that denotes closeness. "sada sada jayiE kurba!).u . "-bIla m 5. 2 what hE."-kalki. 2 adv when, where.



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weighing 4 to 5 seers to its nest. It is slightly smaller in size than a crane. It has very sharp and heavy claws. Its tail has whitish feathers. It lays eggs in Punjab also but lives mostly in Turkistan. It hunts waterfowl and hare. In Turkistan Kural is trained to hunt fox and deer. It sits on the head of a deer and pulls out its eyes. It is also called s~g."-krIsdn. Karkoosh, J j,} . ~ [kurbn).il I sacrifice myself. "tIn hau ~ [kurla] xa n rinsing of the mouth. It is an kurbn).i."-var sar ill 4. act of taking water in the mouth, shaking it with in the cheeks, stirring it in the mouth and ~ [kuram] See~. 2 n Skt~. n a western river, which starts from Safedkoh, crosses the then throwing it out. Because ofthe sound thus border ofAfghanistan and flows in the area of produced, arises the onomatopoeic noun. The Bannu to merge with the Sindh ocean. In Khalsa normally utter feminine words as Rigved it has been called Kramu. 3 a city on masculine. the bank Kurum, which is named as Khurma i21dl'S'Q(!' [kurlauDa] v groan, moan like a crane. in Janamsakhi. 4 See ~ and cgoH'3'. "bajhu pIare kOI na sare eklari kurlae." ~ [kurma] See cbw. 2 A (J) n plural of -gdU cMt ill 1. "amber kuja kurlia."-suhi ill 1 kuram. chiefs, leaders, headmen. "laye s~g kUCdjI. 'Humming sound went on in the brain dEtan he kurma." -c.§(li 1. "pun SEn bhali sajkE because of senility.' arIa bahu kurman IE bar juddh macayo."- ~ [kurli] See gow. sdlah. i21d;J'Q(!' [kurauna] See ~. ~ [kurmat] n family in which one's son or CKQTU [kurah] n evil path; immoral course, daughter is married; matrimonial relationship. misdirected way. 2 community of such kin. "bahu horanI te aru ~ [kurahi] adj who has gone astray, who byahan te kurmatan te atI sou khare."-krISdn. goes on the wrong path. 'There was more fun and frolic than on festivals ~ [kuraD], ~ [kuraDu], ~ [kuran] A like Holi and matrimonial gatherings.' dT) n scripture, book. 2 Mohammedans holy ~ [kurra] n whip, lash. "kurran mar adhIk scripture in Arabic, which according to the text tIhmari."-CdrItr95. 2A "Iv} garden covered ofKoran, was received by Hazrat Mohammad with white flowers. "kurre bIkhE ek mugal ki from God. To be respectful to Koran, bal."-CdrItr 287. 3 garden, orchard. reverential and noble words like [majid] and ~ [kurrana] v murmur, mumble with anger. [$arif] are used. Jalalludin Sayati mentions 55 2 be irritated. "kanak dekh kurra t." -pardS. "let such appellations. det apan kurrane."-VN. Koran has 3,23,741 characters, 79,436 ~ [kurri] Skt n bird of prey. 2 female of verses, 6,666 stanzas and 114 sections. Seven stages ofthese sections have been prescribed sheep. 3 crane. for reading in a month. They begin with letters ~ [kural] a dark-eyed hunting bird, which feeds mostly on fish. It can carry a fish such as alIf, lam, mim etc which are defined is sacrificed. ~ [kurbani] P j~} sacrifice; what is sacrificed.· See ~. CJ68TQ [kurbanu] See ~. i21da 'hdl [kurban~ti] I sacrifice myself. "tIsu jan kE hau kurban~ti."-nat ill 4 pdrtal. ~ [kurbe] adj who is near or close. 2 near and dear ones, relatives. "IE kurbe apne sabh

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by scholars according to their own understanding, but some say that only God knows the meaning of these letters. It is also written in Koran that the meaning of many verses is not known to anybody except God, See ~ ~ fuJ..RJT, verse 6. Koran continued to reveal itself to Mohammad Sahib for twenty-three years, either through angel Gabriel, or in dream, or through a voice from heaven. It is also written in Koran that the verses are entered in the daily diary of God called bh mahIfuz. See '~" verse 4. "vakhat na paIo kadia jI lIkhanI lekhu kuraI).."-japu. "pafahI kateb kuraI).a."-sri m 1. "bed puran kuran duhu mIl bhiit anek VIcar vicani."-33 saVEye. ~ [kurali] a town in tehsil Ropar, district Ambala. Two gurdwaras are situated here: (1) gurdwara of Guru Hargobind Sahib (2) gurdwara of Guru Tegbahadur ~ [kurfd] Dg n poverty, bankruptcy. ~ [kuri], ~ [kuria] See g;ft. 2 n footpath, trail. "choQ dubIdha kI kuria."-suhi m 5 partal. 3 river bank, shore. "kuri.e kurie vEdIa!" -var maru 2 m 5. 'hey, you who are going on the bank!' ~ [kuritI] n evil practice, bad custom. egg [kuru] son ofChandarvanshi raja Sanwaran in the lineage ofBharat, who took birth from the womb of queen Tapti. He was said to be a pious man. His name lends fame to Kuru's lineage (Kaurav) and Kurukshetar. See ~ and ~. 2 a person ofthe lineage of Kuru. 3 order to do; do . "pathna kuru". 4 cooked rice. ~ [kuruketr] a territory known after the name of Kuru king, which falls to the north of Ghaggar river and the south of Sarasvati. Its area is twelve yojans, and 365 pilgrimagecentres are mentioned as existing within this area. The mention of Kurukshetar is also to be found in Rigved. H is written in the Shaly part of Mahabharat in the 53 rd chapter that royal sage Kuru was engaged in ploughing at this place, because of which it has come to be nam(:d Kurukshetar. The kings themselves used to plough the land to smooth it for oblations. The battle between the Kauravs and Pandavs was fought at this very place. Many other battles of the subcontinent have been fought here. Now Kurukshetar is a station of E.!. Railways and its area falls in the districts of Ambala and KamaL The residents of Kurukshetar also hold that when Vishnu killed clemons, Madhu and Kaitabh, their marrow got scattered all over the water. Vishnu was sitting in a crosslegged posture covering an area of 48 kohs due to which this marow could not fall at this place. That is why it is regarded as a very sacred land. See EI"i~ffif for gurdwaras of Kurukshetar. 99Cf [kurukh] n a worthless tree, castor. 2 calotropis procera. 3 ominous face. ~ [kurukhet], ~~ [kurukhetr] See~. C3'2l:fS- [kurukhaq] "ge kurukhaQ huto jIh th::>r;:\."-NP. Scholars have accepted northern part of Himalayas as Uttarkuru and southern part as Dakshinkuru. s~ [kuruchetr] See (wi~. ~ [kuruta] adj unseasonal. "kuruta bij bijE nahI jammE."-·maru solhe m 5.2 See~. C39H [kurum] See g;:f}f and l:!"o}/T. 2 verb phrase. C3'2'ij'Tfu [kurunn], cg2',;J"TH [kururaj), cg'2Q'lJl [kururay] King ofKauravs" Duryodhan. "taM bhim kururaj s5 juddh macyo."-janmejay. ~[kuruv;:\~] lineage of king KumAccording to Purans, the genealogical tree of Kuruvansh

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is as under: atn cadrarna budh ayu nahus yadu l Vn$DI devratr adhrak sur vasudev balrarn





I .
puro dU$yat bharat hastIn kuru 2 satanu bhi$arn








kn$an pradyurncm etc





From the two widow-queens ofVichitarviraya, Ambika and Ambalika, Vyas Rishi procreated two sons. From abIka From abaIIka

dhn tra$tra



durayodhan etc yudhI$t1ur etc 100 sons five brothers. Pandu had five sons: Yudhishtar, Bhimsain andAljun were born to Rani Kunti; Nakul and Sehdev were born to Rani Madri, but only the lineage ofArjun continued further. arjun



From this came the name of the dynasty: "yadov",

'From tnis came the name of the dynasty: "br.w", JFrom this came thc name of the dynasty: "pacjov-v5s",

janmejay ~ [kurupJ deformed, ugly. C3~fu [kurupI] female with an ugly face, "pahIli kurupI kujatI kulakhni,"-asa kabir. CKfu:r [kuresJ A J:! j n a famous Arabic lineage; grandfather of Mohammad was the headman ofthis family. ~ [kuresiJ adj of Kuraish descent. "kadhari kuresi jam:."-akal. ~ [kurelnaJ v scratch the earth; scrape the ground. ~ [kurE$] See ~. ~ [kurakj, ~ [kuragJ Skt ~ n deer, stag. "kur5k nadE nehu."-bTla am 5. "turag kurag se kud;:Jt. "-akal. ~ [kur5gnpu] lion. "jah:i' kur5gankenpu SI k;:JtI."-krIsan. C3~i;J' [kurj<;l] Skt 'E,l:u-g n disease of the enlargement of testicles. "jur sit gularn kura<;l." -saloh See nf~fu. 2 Skt ~ a type of stone, which, after mixing its powder and shellac in oil, is used to remove rust from weapons. It is used as grindstone to sharpen weapons. 3 SktFC a herb also called b;:Jhuph;:Jli (baleria priontis) is good for revitalising semen. ~ [kul] Skt n race, lineage. "kulah samuh sagal udh;:JrDa."-gallw. 2 inhabited land. 3 house, home. 4 whole, entire, all. See c!C? "apI tarIa kul jagat taraIa."-var guj 1 m 3. ~ [kul-aku$J n ancestral fear, fear from the forefathers. cgm:r [kulasJ See ~. ~ [kul;:JhJ plural of kul. See cp;5'. 2 P brf n cap. "kulha dede bavle lrde va<;le nIlaj."-var mala m 1. "taj kulah SIfI ch;:Jtr banavu."-gau CJ m 1. 3 crown. 9lihJg:dl [kulh;:Jtrata], i3l'StJ3Ji' [kulhatya] n killer

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liquor coming out of a flask or a bottle. C!~ [kul2Jk:;;dl).L ~C'51:f<! [kulakhaJJ] n ill mannered, ill-omened. 3See~. ~ [kuldkhl).a], ~rit [kulakhl).i], ~ ~ [kulak] Skt n a tree, also called makartendua. [kulakhni] adj iH-mannered, ill-omened. "PIr L strychnos Nuxvomica. 2 snakewood tree. ka hukdm na janai bhai! sa kulakhJJi. "-sor a m 3 green coloured snake. 4 earthen lamp. 5 a 3. "pahIli kurupI kujatI kuldkhni."-asa kabir. metre: In Dasam Granth there is a form of ~3" [kulkhetl See ~r~q. "mohdn aye hE this metre, which is four-lined, each line being kulkhet." -knsal1. organised as 511, 151 ~ [kulkhetI] at the Kurukshetar pilgrimage. Example: "je oh grahdIl karE kulkhetI." -g5c;i ravIdas. dhadhkat :rd, cad~at chad. ~ [kulgrtatil, ~!£ [kulghnd] adj killer of thathkat p:m, bhabhkat m:m.-datt. the family; family-killer. (b) Its second form is where every line has ~ [kulca] P , / fermented and swollen bread. eight matras, the last two being guru; this form ~ [kuljan] ;ncestors. "kuljan madhe mIlyo is also called chakat. saragpan re."--dhcma trIlocall. 'Vishnu Example: entered the family', meaning, Krishandev took dOdabhI baje, sabh sur gaje birth in Chandarvansh. sis nIvaye. sabh sukh pae.-cJc;ii 2. ~ [kulta] Skt n promiscuous woman, operating from generation to generation. "jo bdhu logan (c) Its third form is where every line has eight matras. The end is not restricted to laghu s5 tlya rakh21t ratI ki cah. kulta talu bakhanlU je kavin ke nah."-padmakar. guru. This form is called prasIddh. ~ [kuldip], CJ'g.tfh.lo; [kuldipak] adj light of Example: gahI bahu banyat. narakah:r cjlanyat. the family that brightens its prospects; worthy son. Per astrollogy the name of a conjunction as durkrama. chut jag dharma.-kalki. papan bharj,:m. punyan bhar jan. of stars in the horoscope; a person having marjan k~r jan. karat amar jan. J Shukar or Budh at the moment of his birth and -cakradharcarItr carucJdrIka. having Brahspati in one ofthe fourth or seventh or tenth and having Mangal in the tenth, is 6 When there is one verb in three couplets, that regarded as the light begotten in a family.2 is, the description, already begun, is completed in three couplets, the metre is called kulak. ~ [kuldev] the fami ly god. ~ [kulka] a metre in Dasam Granth; it being ~m [kuldrohi] adj family-destroyer; enemy a form of :;;a~;Ivadna; each line is organised as of the family. ~ [kuldhCl:ram] n family-religion; faith III, ISS. adopted by the fami Iy. Example: C!mmr [kulpat:r] n headman of a lineage. sarsIj rupa, sabh bhat bhupa. atI chain sobham, munIg,:mlobha.--kalki. 2 The hermit who provides food and education to ten thousand disciples. ~ [kulkul] P onom sound of water or ~ [kulpCl:rbat] n famous mountains ofthe 'They burn evils and fill the followers with virtues.. purifY

of the family. "kCli baJJ kulhatrClta kou calae." -paras. ~ [kulha] adj family-killing. 2 See ~.


them and make them immortal.

2S ee Mdl(')Jf~C(I.

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earth, which are prominent in their own range. Their number is described as seven in the Purans: Mahendar, Malay, Sahay, Shuktiman, Riksh, Vindhya and Paripatar. Many people include Gandhmadan in stead ofRiksh in this number. cg~ [kulpaIClk] adj one who feeds his family. 2 n crow. 3 cock. 4 pigeon. 5 Kaisth. CJ1'51:fR [kulpuj], ~ [kulpujClY] family-god. 2 god of the family. ~ [kuIClph] A n lock. "kOji kulClph pral). kCln rakhe."-gClu kabir. cg~ [kulpha] P j} n vegetable of green leaves, which is slightly sour. Its grows in Chet and Vaisakh. Potulaca oleracca. It is cool wet in effect. Kulfa tranquillizes heat of the blood, removes inflammation ofthe liver, ends burning sensation in the urine and quenches thirst. ~ [kulfi] A n small smoking pipe of a hubble-bubble. 2 mould for making ice. 3 iced jelly mould, prepared from milk and sugar; Ice cream. ~ [kulbClh] A ,.! n plough, implement for tillling land. 2 land for which one plough is enough. ~ [kulbCldhu] Skt ~ n well-bred wife; bride from a good family. ~ [kulbahu] adj whose family is his arm; family members are whose arms. ~ [kulmurg] See ~ . cgwu [kulah] See ~. 2 cg-~ ill-begotten profit, bad gain. "dh;'idre kulah chItI nCl aVE hekro."-gau var 2 ill 5. ~ [kulahClI] Skt ~ n noise heard from afar; uproar. ~[kulac], ~[kuli'ic] T njump, hop. "mar kulik tClji tClb sy5dCln. "-GPS. "kulacCln dEkClr yuddh KClrE."-krIsan. ~ [kulacClI] See ~ . ~ [kulacar] family-practice, family-conduct,





n enmity, hostility. "tIsUVIhu vat kulat mCln ;'idClr gCll).ti tat pClrai."-BG. 2 S indecent behaviour. CJli5T mm [kula dhClrClm] See ~. ~ [kulaba] A _ # iron bangle; bangle made -by bending som~ material; from this is derived the name of a hand pump on a canal. 2 a rail terminus at Bombay. ~ [kulabh] See cgw<J 2. CJWlif3' [kulaYClt] a town between Ghamrauda and Baghaur. While going to Nander the tenth Guru stayed here for twelve days. "nClgClr kulaYClt sOdClr thaI... dVCldClS dIVClS bClSYO tClhf Qera."-GPs. ~ [kulal] Skt n potter. See P J ~ [kulali] potter's wife. ~ [kuII] in the family. "jIh kulI putu nCl pan bIcari."-gau kdbir. See~. crfi;m' [kuII~] Ski n Indar's thunderbolt which razes hills. 2 electric shock. 3 axe. 4 jewel, gem. ~ [kuII~dhClrl, ~ [kuII~paI).I] n Indar, the holder ofthe thunderbolt. cgfifar [kulfg] Ski 'Em~1T a type of mouse. 2 male sparrow. 3 in cClntr 52, some scribe has written kulfg in place ofkCllfg. See cffi;far. 4 See gc;S'or. 5 fake lfg sign. 6 adj having a false identity mark. cgID [kuli] See CJC? "kete nagkuli mClhI ae." -gau ill 1. 2 T labourer. 3 slave. 4 See g"m. ~ [kulin] adj blue-blooded; ofnoble descent. sz;fur [kulir] Ski n crab. [kuI5g] P fi n stork. 2 curlew. "nClbh te bCllnri IClkh chutpCln jClnu kuk kul;'igCln ke gCln mE."-cac!i 1. c!1? [kull] A adv whole, entire, all, total. c!w [kulla] a person of Jhanjhu subcaste, who was a devotee of Guru Arjan Dev. 2 cap. See ~ 2. 3 place between thigh and abdomen;

~[kulat] A


II .




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its Arabic root is kuliah. The kidney is close to guru gobfd narfd hE tegbahadur nad, this place, therefore, in common parlance it jIn te jivat hE sakal bhutal kavI budhbrfd. has, acquired this name. nadi satdru til' tahf ~ubh anadpur nam, ~ [kulli] thatched hut; hut made ofstraw. 2 A guru gobfd narfd ke rajat subhag sudham. adj entire, all. gaga jamna bic me bari gram kou nam, ~[[kullu] SktCJC!jOa town, which is in district taha su keNI kuvre~ ko bas karE ko dham. Kangra at the bank of Vipasha (Vias), It is 75 Bhai Santok.h Singh writes in GPSrutt 2 a: miles from Pathankot. The truits of Kullu are 51:considered very delicious. ke~avdas huto kaVI jOyI, ~ [kuvkhat] n improper time, late in the bhayo budelkhaQ me SOL day. 2 See ffi-fflJ:f3'. tIS ko putI' kuvar hE namu, ~ [kuvat] A .:;.,j n strength, power, energy. so bhi rachat gIJra abhIramu. ~ [kuvar], et~ [kOvar] See ~. 2 a poet in turak kar;m navrag CIt cahyo, the court of Guru Gobind Singh. See~. guni adh:ck hfdun me lahyo. ~ [kuvm;;] a poet in the court ofGuru Gobind jabE kuvar sudh IS bIdhI pai, tyag de~ ghar gayo palai. Singh, who, apart from his other compositions, translated Daronparav of Mahabharat into dur dur dur dul' nIt calkar, .Hindi. Kuvresh writes: pahucyo an 2madpur hItkar. sambat satrah SE adink bavan bite Jr, ~ [kuvalay] Skt n bangle-like ornament of tame kavI kuvre~ yah kIyo grath ko QJr. the earth; Ilotus; suggestive of both the blue and white variety. "panphullIt kuvalay vahuj bedikul bhaye nanak guru anup, badan."-.iVP., 2 round shape ofthe earth, like a jIn me puro paIye parbrahm ko rup. nanak sIkkh kIye tIhun kul agad ~ubhnam, bangle. 3 a special horse. See iS~MGl'~. bhakat saroruh ko bhaye je raVI athon jam. §'itMlii'F,j [kuvalymiV] a Surajvanshi king, who according to Vishnupuran, had 21 ,000 sons and ;:;gad nIj guruta daI bhalle bhale VIcar, 100 according to Harivansh. See yq. 2 son of amardas ko nIj sakal dino jagat udhar. Maharaja Shakarjit, whose name was amardas apne sakal guruta prabhuta gyan, Ritudhvaj. Galav Rikhi gave him a horse named ramdas ko sab dIyo jo SOQhIsultan. Kuvalay so as to kill demons who interfered arjun bIkram nam ha arjun jag purhut, with oblations. Hence this, name. See ~. jIn jag jas arjun kIyO ramdas ke put. arjun sunu udarmatI hargobf d narf d, ~ [kuvlasv] See ~~lJlTlJ. jIn han b mare nIkhII bEri prabal ka:d'd. §'itFMlii' [kuvlTyal, is·~~ffTlit;r [kuvliapirJ Skt 't'*11:1141'$ a powerful and intoxicated elephant choQYo jab gurudatt ju jagmaya VIstaI', of Kans, which was killed by Krishan and tIn ke sut harIray ko dino guruta bhar. Balram. "kuvliapir apI maraIda pIara."-sor bhaye sunu han ray ke guru atrI~n harIkrI~n, tajyo jabE tInha jagat tabE kari yeh pra~n.­ m4. guruta prabhuta ko UCIt? tegbahadur ek, ~[kuval1a] adj lacking method (to do things). narayan ja par kIyo bhaktI sudha ko sek. ~ [kuvak], ~~XJf [kuvakyJ, ~ [kuvac], ~ [kuvacyJ n unpleasant remark, abuse. nIj jan kErav sukh karan tegbahadur cad, jIn bhav paravar ke dur kIye dukh dyad. 2 adj utterance not worthy of speech.


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~[kuvat], ~ [kuvatri] S n wicked course,

gF;rel' [kUrIl] due to daughters. "kufIl rarti
dhami."-sava m 1. 'because of daughters, wives and homes'. ~;ft [kuriJ girl, virgin. See G ~m and ~m. 2 daughter. 3 in Jhang, a wife is called kuri. ~ [kurimar] adj daughter-killer. In olden times some people used to kill daughters so that they might save themselves wedding expenses and hence avoid having a son-in-law. In Sikhism, a daughter-killer is an outcaste. As a result of this, the practice has decreased a lot in the country. "mi!).a Jr masadia mona kuri ju mar. hOI sIkkh varta!). karE;'it kar6ga khvar." -tanama. ~ [kurhna] v writhe in anger. ~ [kul, 'i [kill In the western dialect ofPunjabi, this postposition indicates objective or dative case. "pasa!). ku saca dhani."-var manz 2 ill 5. "tIna kil mIIIoh."-sri chat m 5. "jfdu hI sailljhaI."-s fdrid. 2 P ,r n street, lane. cp>tGT [kuata] n well. "kud~a eku pac pdl.uhari_ ,. -gcJU kdbir. 'The body is a well, five senses are water drawers.' ~ [kual).a] v utter a word, speak, say. ~ [kua] well. ~ [kuasahIb] a well, which the Guru got dug. See ~ and~. 2 a well got dug by the Guru, two and a half kohs away from Anandpur, FtC. ¢ [kui] small well. ~ [kuh] n cry; shriek. "uthi kuh jah grre bir tama." -sdloh. ~ [ku1wi] Skt ~ n elbow. ¥ [kuk] n shout. "je darImagat kuk kare mahli khasam su!).e."-asa m 1. 2 announcement, proclamation with the beat of a drum. "sastra bed ki pIurI kuk nd hOI."-mala m 3. ~ [kuka!).] wife of a ¥ [kuka], follower of the Namdhari sect. 2 See ~. ~~ [kuk!).a], ~C«')T [kukna] v call. "kIthE

evil path. "dubIdha ChOQI kuvatri."-asa am 1. "duji ChOQI kuvatri Ikas SIU cItu In.'' --sava m 5. ~ [kuvada] See ~. ~ [kuvfd] See ~. ~ [kuver] See ~. ~ [kuvaQ] See ~. ~ [kuvaQal] adj archer. "krur kuvaQal ko ra!).maQal."-cantr 1. 2 n earth's atmosphere. ~ [kuvrIt], ~ [kuvrIta] adj who earns through evil means; crooked earner, scoundrel. ~ [kUVrItI] n sinful earning; vile way to make a living, venality. "as kUVrItI bir durdharakh atI."-paras. ~ [kuvvat] See ~. ~ [kurJ n wooden lid put on a churning pot with a hole to insert a churning stick. 2 See~. ~ [kurakki] n trap. ~ [kurta] See ~. ~ [kurna] v droop by withering. 2 crumble by drying. 3 See ~. g;n-r [kuram] short for, and a transform of, kutGbmal.:lI; fathers of son-in-law and daughter-in-law respectively, who are looked upon with reverence in both the families. "kIS hi dhara kia kuram sake nalI javai."-asa m 4.

~ [kuram!).i] mothers of son-in-law and of

daughter-in-law respectively, who are gems for both the families. ~ [kurmai] n act of selecting a daughterin-law or son-in-law; in-lawship. 2 engagement, betrothal. "kuram kurmai aya balnam jiu." -suhi chal m 4. ~ [kuf3!).a] adj dried, withered; crumbled. ~ [kUrI] adv having withered away. See ~. "kharu paki kUfI bhajE bInSE."-sri m 1 pellIre.

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kukdI; jau?"-ma}h m .5 dInrm. "keso keso kukiE."-s kdbir. ¥Q [kukdr] Skt ct~ n dog. "kukdr sukdr kdhif kupara."-maru salhe m 5. 2 See fum. ~c(driifTj [kukdrdnstI] SeeRof~. "kukdrdnstI rid kdb mdn dhdrni."-NP ~ [kukdrIJ, ~ [kukri] bitch. "bfSdndU ki kukdn bhdli."-s kabir. 'Better is the bitch of the Creator's devotee.' WW [kuka] See ~ 8. ~rq [kukI] after screaming, crying. "kukI mue gavara."-vad c115t m 3. 2 announcing loudly with the beat ofa drum. "ved kukI slJI,lavdhI." -var marl! 1 m 3. ~ [kuku] P II onom dove's cooing. ¥few [kukedIa] crying, screaming. See

2 cr:,1S1'fTU"5, a particular race ofdemons. "mdt kukhmagCltVCl tClvprasad SdPhIa."-salah. ~ [kucl 5'k1 ~ n weaver's brush. "kuc bIcare phue phcd."-g5Q kabir. :2 beard. 3 P &;1 move, advance. "kdrna kuc rdhIrIU t1UTU nahi."-suhi ravIdas. ~ [kucI;a] v ~ cleanse by scrubbing; rub. ~i3faij'd [kucbIharl a Hindu state, which is to the north of Bengal; and the main city or its capital, situated at the bank ofToursa river. F [kuca] n brush. "apan hathI apI hi de kuca ape laI."_var majh m 2. 2 a scrubber to cleanse the utensils. 3 P --::>/ lane, street. 4 alley, path. .CItJT feMoe'l"'l,fR'Uf [kuca dIIvalisrgh] a street ofAjmeri gate Delhi, where Mata Sahib Kaur and Mata Sundri stayed for some time. There is no gurdwara there. Arora Hindus live in the house. See R'm. ~ [kuci] small brush. 2 brush of the artist. 3 mason's small brush to paint walls. 4 broom, broomstick.

~~ [kukhmag] See wn-r~.

[kuj] Skt n sound, word. "sodClr mIl kuj karata."-NP" ijff [kuj] Ski' ~~ crane; a violet-coloured bird with a long neck, which causes heavy loss to the fields. It flies to hot countries at the beginning of winter and moves back to the cold ones in summer. "apni kheti rakhIlf kuj parfgi khetI."-sri 111 3. Here kuj means death. ~ [kujan] Skt n producing a sound, uttering a word. 2 song of birds. ijtRJT [kujra] See ;:f;::sr. "rdjak kujre panihar." -NP ~ [kujra] See '~HT. "aju phClridf kujra Sf koha thiomI."-s farid. ij'i'1;P' [kujra] Skt :;i"i'TnjGT vegetable and fruit seller; one who brings fruit from the jungle. cit=r.ft [kujri] wife of a vegetable seller. 2 crane. "aj mIlava sekhpharid, takIm kujria."-asa. Here kGja stands for the senses. ¥ [kuja] A ~)j n goblet with a handle, jug. "purab kham ikuj2."-var 111ala 1111. YO-»fTa"-WH'~. 'Liquid ofconsciousness [ab] fills the fragile [xam] body [kuzaJ.' '''kuja bag nIvaj musIa." -bas5t a In 1. 2 lump of crystallized sugar in an earthen pot. "kuja meva mf sabhkIchu chakhIa."~gauIn 1. 3 wild white rose. "phul gulab kevra kuja."-raghu. 4 Skt jasmine. ijm [kl1ji] See ~m. "satan hath I rakhi kuji." -1'a111111 5. ~ [kujigarl Sl~e ct~·. ¥ [kut] n direction, side. 2 Skt peak of a hill, hillock. "gnyo janu kutsthali VrIcch mul;)." -rudr. 3 hill. "jamna tClt kut paryo 1Gh bhat?" -NP. 4 heap of corn. 5 hammer. 6 dagger kept hidden in a walking stick; hidden weapon. 7 intrigue, deception. 8 secret. 9 puzzle, riddle. 10 adj false. 11 intriguer. 12 artificial, fake. 13 sinner. ~GFtT [kutasth] ad} fixed! like a mountain, motionless, static ~?ecretly concealed, hidden.


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3 n the Timeless. One, the Creator. "kIm kutasth lahE nrrdhare?"-GPS. 4 soul. ~ [kuttan] See 3'0. f!27i [kutan] v beat, thrash, warn. 2 n pimp. "kutan SOI jo man kau kUtE."-g5Q k<'Jbir. People used to condemn Kabir. He used this term in the opposite sense to emphasise that he who bashes his own mind is akutan. ~ [kuth] See ijO~. 2 a herb. See ~ 2. cjw [kuQa] See cj~. 2 mortar made of stone or clay to grind spices in etc. 3 vat of a dyer. 4 weaver's shallow earthen vessel. "chute kUQe bhigE puria."-g<'Ju k<'Jbir. 'renounced were mortar, pleasing objects, smoking and sexual pleasure.' See~. ¥ [kUl:J.], ~ [kul)a] n angle, edge. 2 corner. 3 See~. ¥ [kut] A .::,.,;; occupation, provisions. 2 See ~. 3 See ~. 4 See ~. ~ [kutl)a], ~ [kutna] v assess, evaluate, appraise. 2 assess the quantum of a field's produce. ~~ [kutu] See ~~. "keti datI janE bl)U kutU."-jdpU. 2 Skt short for l'ifTCJ3'. ~ [kudna] See ~. ¥ [kuna], ~ [kunar] S See cj()l". ~ [kunha] n leather-bag for carrying water. ¥ [kupl Skt n that which has less water as compared to ponds and rivers; well. "kup bhano jEse dadrra."-gdu r<'JvIdas. "kup te meru karavE."-sar kdbir. 'turns a pit into the peak of a hill,' i.e. turns the low into the high. 2 See OIOTO 6. ~ [kupm;}duk] frog of a well, meaning a person who has never left his place; who knows nothing about the outside world; shallow, iIIiterate. ~ i'lWliI' [kupm;}Quk nyay] See 0JIT0f. ~ [kupara]l is like a well. "grIh adh

kupaIa."-suhi m 5 p<'Jrtal. '!l.fT6' [kupar] n well; fissure made in the earth. "muhI kaQho bhuja pasan adh kuparia."-g<'Ju d m 5. 'Extend your helping hand and pull out of the dark well.' 2 short for akupar. See

~ [kubri] See ~.

Wf [kum] short for kumal. "dharmakur, sakul
kum dala, jfh ~akh baQhi sumti sukh bhari."

n delicate shoot; bud. "kaIa kumal phul gUl)."-var suhi m 1. ~ [kuya~] P J}.j lane, street. ¥ [kur] n falsehood, untruth, lie. "sukh S;}patI bhog IS jia ke bInu han nanak jane kur." -tOQI m 5. 2 adj coward, timid. "sur kur tIh tba parkhEhE."-saloh. 3 worthless, mean. "kaha kfnrani kur?"-carItr 212. 4 horrible, frightening. 5 pitiless, cruel. 6 n garbage, tatters, soiled clothes. "kab-hu kuran cane bInaVE."-bher namdev. 'sometimes He makes one search grams from the garbage.' 7 ~ (blind) is also pronounced ¥. See ~. ~ [kuram] Skt ~H n tortoise. 2 second incarnation of Vishnu. See ~~. 3 one of the ten breaths by which the eyelids open. 4 a Puran in which the story ofKacchuAvtar, figures in the main. 5 Devrikhi, a publisher of the hymns of Rigved. "machu kachu kuramu agIa autrasi."-maru solhe m 5. ~ [kurampural)] See ~ 4 and ~. ~ [kurmapall, ~ [kurmapalu] Skt ~ bed of a tortoise; bed in the form of a tortoise. "kurmapalu sahasraphani basaku sejvalua."-mala namdev. 'tortoise and the mythological bed like the thousand-headed snake.' ~ [kuramu] See ~. ¥ [kura] adj false, untrue. "bInSE bhram kura.,,_asa d m 1. "sagal bInase rog kura."

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-ram m 5. "kure gao.han gao.he."-gau m 4. 2 rubbish, garbage. "ketak kura karahf sakelan."-GPs. 3 microbe. [kurI] falsely, untruly.. "nahI mlliE pH kUrI."-sri m 1. 2 n falsehood, untruth, lie. "atarI haumE kUrI."-sri m 5. 3 See gaT. ~ [kuri] adj false, untrue. ~ [kul] Skt n bank, shore, coast. 2 rear of the army. 3 Fa water channel" rivulet. Skt .~ channel. "jae rallo o.haIr kulI."-s kabir. 'mingled in the channel of water.' ~ [kulghari] stream, that corrodes its own sides. "taha SOl) ki kulghari Inrajf."-cantr 405. ~ [kula] adj soft, tender. "saghan bas kuIe." -basJt m 5. 'Redolence has erupted from the tender plants.' ~ [kulI] in the channel of water. See ¥ 3. ~ [kulh] See ¥ 3. ~ [kur] n fraud, falsehood, untruth. "kur kapat kamavE mahadukh pavE."-suhi chat m 4. "kur bolI blkhu khaval).Ia."-majh am 3. ~E$OlaiE$ [kurkabar] n rubbish, sweepings, waste, garbage. 2 untruth and evil thoughts . "choo.Clhu pral).i kurkabara."-maru solhe m 1. ¥ [kura] n rubbish, sweepings. 2 adj false, fraudulent. "kura lalacu choo.if."-asa am 1. ~ [kurava], ~ [kuravi] adjfalse, unreal, untrue. "habhe sak kurave 0. I the."--var ram 2 -var asa.2 cheat, dishonest, intriguer. "kuri pure thau."-var mala m 2. 'A hypocrite fills the place of good persons or usurps that ofthe honest ones.'


[kuru] See ¥. "kuru raja kuru parja."-var asa.

falsehood, with untruth. "kUrl vlguti ta pHI muti."-gau c1'lJt rri 3. See O{1..f"C. 2 of the liar. "kUrI kure nehu laga."-var asa. 'The Iiar has lust for the unreal, for the false.' ~ [kupar] adj who tells lies. "asakh kupar kure phIrahI."-japu. iJf':p,rrfu [kupan] (woman) who is false, untrue. "VIl).U naVE kUrlarI."-Sor Cl ill 3. ~ [kupari] false, untrue. "kupari rajE kurI."-var sor m 4. ~ [kuri] adj dishonest. "kuri raSI kura vapar."
~[kUrl] due to

[kurd false, untrue. 2 in falsehood. "asakh kUfI ar kure ph Hal1I. "-japu. ¥ [kure] with falsehood. See gfu'" 2. ¥ ~ [kuro kur] adj falsehood beyond measure, nothing but untruth. "kuro kur kare vapara."--Inaru sollIe m 3. ~ [ke] pron what. 2 any. "je tISU nadarI na avai ta vat na pUChE ke. "-japu. 3 sui of. "tIn ke nam anek anat"-japu. 4 adj many. "tIthE bhagat vClsalu ke loa."-japu. 5 part or. "jo upjIO so lnnas hE paro aj ke kal."-s m 9. day before yesterday or day after tomorrow, today or tomorrow. ~ [keu] adv why, how. "keu nHasa hOI?" -var ram 1m3. ~ [keut] See ~c·. ~ [keura] See <3tG~. ~ [keu] pron some. ~ [kel], -5,'it [kei] pron some. "akhahI SI bhI keI keI."--japu. "kei laha lEcale."-var sar m 2. 2 very few; hardly any. a-'R' [kes] Skt ~H n hair. "kes sagI das pag jharau."-guj m 5. 'The hair is the first outward symbol of a baptised Sikh.' See tfm>. 2 god of water, Varun. 3 P Jf... mode, custom, fashion. 4 habit, nature. 5 religion, faith. 6 an island in the Persian Gulf. ~ [kesau] See i~. "PIo. patalI meri kesau klrIa."-asa m I. 'Coarse barley on plater sustains me.' ~ [kesan] n enemy of hair, razor. 2 hairremover. iUrcit [keski] n small turban, worn for the safety of the hair.


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~ [keskotL ~ [kesgarh]


Keskot and Kesdurg etc have been coined by Bhai Sukha Singh in Gur Vilas while literally translating the word Kesgarh. Kesgarh is that sacred place in Anandpur, where the tenth Guru revitalized the inert community by baptizing them on 1SI ofVaisakh Sammat 1756 and directing them to grow long hair. This is the third Seat of Khalsa. For the arms of Guru Gobind Singh, lying over here, See ~ under~-a~ [kesgur] See ~. ctR~ [kesdurag] See ~. ~ [kesdhari] adjwho grows long hair; who does not shave. 2 n devout Sikh. 3 Guru Gobind Singh. bacan gurudev ke gyan ESO kio mukatI ki yukatI Ese bIcari, race kartar yS raci akar te japEgi jap subh SrIstI sari, tatv ko dharkE jit bali phate mar dutan kiyo bhasam chari, bhayo jEkar trdok c::Jd£ bhavan aeal partap guru ke~dhari. -guru ?obha. ~ [ke~pa~] Skt n knot of braided hair. ~"l'IQ [kesar] Skt n saffron. "kesar kusam mIrgamE h,m:ta."-tIlag m J. 2 long hair on the neck of a horse and a lion; mane. 3 pistil ofa flower. For this ke~0r is also correct. 4 Dg a large evergreen tree. ~ [kesri] adj dyed in saffron colour. 2 of saffron colour. 3 n father ofHanuman. 4 horse. S lion; for having mane, the horse and the lion are known by this name. ke~ri is also correct. ~ [kesria] iion. See fu:Rft 5. 2 adj saffron coloured. ~ [kesriabahi] Skt OlHfd~lui'il Durga, who rides a lion. "kesriabalu bmari."-paras. OlAdh3€ [kesric5d] a hill raja of Jaswal who was killed by Bhai Uday Singh in the battle of

Anandpur. See ~ 2 brother-in-law of raja Bhim Chand Kehluri who along with Vazir Parmanand (Pamma) acted as an emissary in the court of the tenth Guru. ~1"(Jc'j't [kesribahni] See ~. ~~ [kes;w] S'kr <'ZB~ n one whose hair IS praiseworthy; one having beautiful hair; Vishnu. 2 the Creator, who is kind to Brahma and Shiv. "kesav kalcsnas aghkhaQan."--bIla m 5. 3 one who slew Keshi, the demon; Krishan. 1 4 manifest God. 2 ~~ [ke~avdas] adj a worshipper of the Creator. 2 n renowned poet ofVarijbhasha and authority on Hindu poetry, a known Pandit, who was a resident of Bundelkhand He was a rich Brahman. In Shivsinghsaroj, the year ofhis birth has been shown as Sammat 1624. He wrote Kavipriya, Rasikpriya, Ramchandrika etc, books of verse very much adored by the poets. lndarjit raja of Oreha, gave twenty-one villages to Keshavdas as estate. Sec ~. 3 See ~ 2. ~ [kesaIO] SktWt with hair. "caran jhari kesaIo."-sar m 5. ~ [ke~atak] 11 razor. 2 hair-remover. am [kesI] See am. 2 with hair. cV:ft [kesi] Skt ~, adj having hair. 2 11 a demon, who, on the orders ofKansa, assumed the form of a horse to kill Krishan. Krishan killed him by putting his ann in his mouth. "kesi kas mathanu jIl1I kia."--gSq' namdev. 3 In etymology, the sun is named KeshL for wearing rays [keshl. 4 from the hair. "kas kesi pakarI gIraIya."--c5q'i 3. 5 due to the hair. "na S;:)tI mug mu~iae kesi."-var ram J m J. 'Attainment of truth comes neither by getting shaved, nor by keeping hair.' OlmH(')I(') [kesis,:man] n the act of washing hair; ----i See kPrQlJ<JT<! nfF.r 5. ;) 16. '3Tv1<fT 11" 'JiI>1~fft "lfl1 d cf;')T ~rnw.
i';1@ cf;~roi


<T"J:!T\l. 1J1~r f~ mll11-mohabharot.

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i5lsr [kehu] pron any. "un thao na kehu."-sar m 5. bath including hair-wash. ctg- [kesu] See 'WIT 2. "k5s kesu m;:Jraha."-sor ~ [kehe] of what type. ~[kek] n crab, red-coloured fish ofscorpion's m 4. "k;'\s kesu caquru n;:J koi."--g;:Ju e> m 1. shape. ~"lJ [kesu] See ~. U:Ft [keso] See~. "keso kio na mit."-s kdbir. ~ [kekai] Skt ~ml daughter of rajaAshvpati of Kekaya,who was wife of Dashrath and ~ [kesogopal] protector of the earth, the mother of Bharat. Creator, who keeps a benign eye on Brahma and Shiv. See c5f~ 2. "kesogopal paqlt Olae1h€i'i [kekain;,\dcm] Bharat, son of Kekai. ~ [keby] a territory in Kashmir region, now sadlahu."-se>du. ~[ke$ot;:Jmma] adjhaving beautiful hair. called Kakka. 2~ something from the land of ~ [kesodas] See &H«!€iH. 2 a tantaric who, Kckay.3 inhabitant ofKekay, of Kakka. ";:JSIt with the help of magical hymns, boasted of kara!). prabhclsat kekay."-ramav. 'Kekay incarnating Durga in the presence of Guru horses, having black ears, look very glorious.' Gobind Singh, but ultimately left Anandpur 4 land between Beas and Satluj. Sahib in utter shame. Kesodas also refused to ~ [kekyi] See i51crel teach Sanskrit to the Sikhs. clcrr [keka] Skt n sound of a peacock. ctFr [kesJ] See~. "k;:Jh:[ bbir kes:) jdgI jogi." cioit [keki] n peacock. -bIla. etfu3' [kent] pron anyone, someone. cltJ [keh] ad'T how, why. "suami nulir keh?" ~ [kejarnJI A f';;; n act of snapping. 2 sword. -gdu m 5. 2 somehow. "Ik bud na pavai keh." "jape chappar chae ba!).ia kejma."-c.:JQi 3. -sri 2 m 1. See ~. 3 adj some, "nanak r5gu 'Swords drawn (by both sides) seemed as if nCJ utT!' bIa na lagr keh."-var sor m 3.4 pron the battlefield was covered with a thatched to whom. roof. ' cl"u [keh] adv somehow. 2 adj some. "tIsu bIn tTI:n;r [kejma] swords, See &-m-r 2. an na keh."-jEt m 5, ~ [keqa], :&-it [keQi] how big, how large. ~ [kehra] pron which, who. cl3' [ket] pron how many. "uthI sIdhare ket." iltIfu [keh;:Jn], frmft [kehri] Skt lion with the -bavdn. 2 how much, to what extent. "manukh mane. "aj krvaSI guru kino kehan."-asa m 5. ki kahu ket calai?"-asa m 5. "gun naIka! gu!). 'Now humility-cum-selfishness is arrogance.' kahiyr ket."-cu:la m 5.3 any. "karaj nahi ket." Ol~J1a'ii3 [kehribar] n a forest infested with lions. -majh baTdhmaha. 4 why. "ta qCJrir ket?"-var "'12k dIvas yah gayo $Ikara. ja dIS huti sri m 4. 5 Skt abode. 6 place. 7 sense. kehribara."-c2rItr 297. 8 concep1:. 9 grain. 10 flag; ~ and -&'3, both ~ [kehro], fuET [kehra], ~ [kehro] S pron are correct 11 See fu;r 3. which one, who. "prabh thanu tero kehro?" ihrcT [ketak] adj how many. 2 how much. "mE -kanm 5, mur;:Jkh ki ketak bat hr kOtI paradhi. 1 tana chJr [keha] advofwhat kind. 2 how. "bura kare re."-sor m 5. "'manukh ki kahu ketak bat." so keha sIjhr?"-s2va m 3, --bhET m 5. c5ffu [kehr] pron to whom, towards whom. ~ [ketakI], &-3ci.T [ketki] Skt n screwpine 2 adv how. "gu!).hi!).i sukh kehr?"-sri 2 m 1. tree L Pandanus Odoratissimus. 2 screwpine ~ [kehra] of what kind, of what sort. laccuscd.

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"keval nam dio gurmatu."-gclU m 5. 4 n a village seven kohs south ofDamdama. While moving from Damdama to the south, the tenth Guru first stayed here. It is four miles to the nOlth east ofKalanwali railway station in tehsil and police station Rouri in district Hisar. Outside the village to the south, there is a gurdwara of the tenth Guru. A legally constituted committee manages the gurdwara. With this gurdwara, forty bighas of land is attached. ~ [kevra] Skt ~ n It is from the pandanus family. It has white colour and its flower is bigger than screw pine. Its essence or scent is widely used. Many scholars regard pandanus and screw pine as of one and the same thing and not from different families. See ir3"W. ~ [kevari] See ~. it=:rr [keraJ n twist, crease. 2 See ~. ~ [kerha] pron who, which one. ~ [kr] pron how many, many. "kE loa khapI marijai."-var mala m 1. 2 from whom. "hall kE dan puchau jae?"-sri m 3. "kE SIU kari pukar."-dhana m 3. 3 part or. "karte ki mI tI karta jaI)E, kE ja!)E guru sura. "-oJkar. "kE sagatI kan sadhu ki kE han ke gUll gaI."-s kabir. 4 of. "pdhIle pahIrE rE!)I kE va!)jana mItra." -sri m 1 paiure. 5 having done. "kE prdddkkhna bri prd!)am."--GPS. "prabhu thabh te nIkse kE bIsthar."-basJt kabir. 6 from. "mdd maIa kE adh."-sri m 9. "gurmatI satI kar jonI kE ajonI bhae."- BGK. 7 See ~. el' [kE J pron where. "tudhu no chOQ I jaiE prdbhu kE dhan?"--asa m 5. 'where should we go?' ilFr [kES] adv whatsort of, how, why. "kaho su kEs paiE?" -akai. cli:r [kEs] n brawL conflict. clffir [kEsar] A n emperor, Caesar. 2 emperor of Rome. Many scholars hold that

in the Roman language kEsar is the name of one who takes birth after his mother's death. Augustus the emperor of Rome, had such a birth. Hence his name became kEsar; since then this word came to be used for a king or an emperor. ~ [kEsa], a-tRor [kEsIk], fu:ft [kEsiJ, [kEsel, [kEso] advwhat sort of, ofwhat kind. "kEse hangUl). gavE?"-vaQ a m 3. 'what type.' 2 kEsi has also been Llsed to mean jEsi. "chapa kar kEsi chabI kalfdi ke kul ke."-akal. ~ [krhbatJ See ~. ~ [kd1drJ See CfiB. ihr' [kEha], fuJT [kEha] n bronze. "ujalu kEha cIldkl).a."-suhi 111 1. "kEha kacan tutE sar." -var majh m 1. elm [kEhi] pron of anybody, of somebody. "luau na kEhi thahI."-s (arid. 'Do not break anybody's heart.' ~ [kEk] pron several. "dIn kEk gae. "-prrthu. clcmt [kEbyi], ~ [kEkei], ~- [kEkeyiJ See





2 This word has also been used for -&cmT. "jit juddh dYE bar lae kEkE."-carrtr 102. 'Kaikayi got two boons from Dashrath.' ~ [kEkhusroJ , / emperor of Iran, who was the third ruler from the Kiani family. He was son of Sayabash and grandson ofKaikaus. He is counted among religious kings. His name has occurred in the eighth hakayat. ~ [kEci] T Skt cBo't n scissors. ~ [kEtabh] Skt n glowworm. 2 brother of Madhudait. There is a story in Mahabharat and Ramayan that when Vishnu was sleeping in water, two demons took birth from his ears (from the dirt of the ear); one was Kaitabh, and the other was Madhu. They saw Brahma on the lotus flower and got ready to kill him. Brahma worshipped Vishnu, so Vishnu killed

clcl [kEkEJ because of.


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both in the battle. In the first Chandicharitar ofDasam Granth, there is a translation of this very story. '\;hrutmd te dEt race jug ta .... madhu kEtabh nam bhae tIn ke... juddh karya tIn s6 bhagvat, na mar sakE atI dEt bali hE, sal bhae tIn pac hdjar, duhu larte naln bah tali hE, dEtdn rijh kdhyo-"varmag" kuhyo harI-"siscln dehu", bhali hE, dhar um pdr Cdkr s6 katkE, jotI IE apne 5g mali he" It is written in the 52 th chapter ofHarivansh that Brahma made two toys of mud, and when he put life into them, they became Madhy and Kaitabh demons. See Hl]. ~ [kEtbharI] Vishnu, who was the enemy of Kaitabh demon. See m- 2. ~ [kEthal] a hill state in district Shimla. Kayonthal. ~ [kEthe], ~ [kEthE] Bg adv where. "baharI kEthe jaIo?"-gau m 5. "deh na hah tom mal).u krthE relnta?"-srdhgosatT. 2. pron who. "bIn bhIl).e kEthE paIO re."--tocji m 5. clw [kE4al n measure. 2 mould, structure. 3 Po pron whose. ~ [kEtdv] Skt n deceit. 2. gamble. 3 thornapple . 4 greenery. 5 adj gambler. 6 cheat. ~ [kEtvapdnhut:c] See »fl.IQB (b). cla- [k~thl Skt c~fth:r n wild pear~ See cm.fa-. 2 See orfutr. ~ [kEthal] main city of a tehsil of district Kamal, situated in Kuruksihetar area, 19 kohs west of Kamal. This city was founded by Yudhishtir. Because of the temple of Hanuman's mother Anjina, here, it was named KapisthaL Bhai Gurubaksh Singh's son Bhai Desu Singh of Bhagtu dynasty occupied the area in 1767 and made Kaithal his capital. His

son Lal Singh and grandson Bhai Uday Singh ruled over if: welLl'he poet laureate ofthe court, Bhai Santokh Singh, while living in this city, wrote Guru Pratapsuray etc. Bhai Uday Singh had no child, so after his death on 15 th March, 1843, this state was annexed into the English dominion. 1 There are two gurdwaras of the ninth Guru in Kaithal-- one: in Thandhar Tirathpur and the other in the city itself. Ten bighas of land is attached to the outer gurdwara. A mangosa tree, since the time of the Guru, stands at this place, the leaves of which were given by the Guru to a sick man "'ho recovered from his illness. The outer gurdvvara gets rupees one hundred from the Patiala state and forty seven rupees from the J ind state annually. One hundred ibighas of land was donated by Bhai Uday Singh. See 'g~ ~. [kEd] A _,~ n imprisonment, confinement. <l'e'r [kEda] See cffi~. 2 pron of somebody. "nalu mE tras dhar6 rIpU kEda."-GPs. W[krda] would say. 2 See m:r2 of somebody. ~ [kEda] adv how. ~ [kEdil A j } adjwho is a prisoner. clmr [kEdhar ],~'qfu [kfdharI] where, in which direction. "tudhu no cho4I jaiE prabhu kfdharI?"-asa m 5. clif [kEdhOJ, a;i:r [kEdh5] part as if. ihlfu[kEpaln] to whom. "dusarkEpahI javau?" -asa m 5. 2 from whom. "kEpdhI dikhIa leva?"-suhi m 1. b [kef] A ...;f n strong liquor. "kEph kacni me dhan khovl~."---(:JPS.2 intoxication. "posat bhag aphim magay PIYO sabh $ok VIda kar4aryo.



IThe territOl~~' occupied by Bhai Sukha Singh, the younger brother of Bhai Desu Singh, was not confiscated_ Successors ofSukha Singh have two chiefships ofAmoli and Sudhuval in district Kamal.

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mCltt hVE caroi kEph;m s6 sut fdr ke sIi) Im bEn pahI ete jahI ViSClrI nanka Iku namu."-sava ucaryo."-krIScll1. 3 adv how. m 3. 'The murder of some one spiritually ~ [kEphIya], mft [kEphi] adj drunk. "raj enlightened, a cow, and a maiden, and seizure kEphIye kClmavE."-CdrItr 245. "Ikk p')tha.Q. of a cheat's food (for retaining or eating) are kEphi ne mEnU dhClkka deke sutghClttIa". sins. Such sins befall a person who forgets the -JSBM. name of the Creator. To forget the Creator's ~ [kEphiyClt] A n description, detail. name is most sinful.' ihra' [kEbClr] n an arrow. "tuppClk tClrak. kEbClf ~ [kEle] a village in police station Raikot, district brak."-VN. and tehsil Ludhiana. A gurdwara of Guru '&Hift [kEinri] wild fig. L Ficus Venosa: Skl1..fCifit Hargobind is situated here. Only the maji is mlfuor ?).iJltif [kEmuttI k nClyay] See ?iJlTOf. there; no other structure exists. It is about 10 ~ [krr] n wild caper. miles away from the railway station Mullanpur. ~ [krrClu] n Kaurav. from the Kuru dynasty. ~ [kEvClI], ~ [kEvClly] SkI ~ n oneness, "meri meri kerClU kClrte duryodhCln se bhai." meaning unity with the Creator; supreme -dhana namdev. spiritual state. "kEvCllda ucre subh bEna."-NP. ~ [krrClv] Ski n blue lotus. "sadhCln krrClV ko 2 purity, pristine state. bIgsavClt."-NP. 2 enemy. 3 gambler. 4 Kaurav, ~ [ko]pron who. "gurmCltI ram bhI ko ko nCl descendant of Kuru. "kEr.:w r.:).Q. ghae."-paras. bEkuth gCle."-toe,li namdev. 2 anyone. "hClrI ~ [krro], ~: [krr6] Kaurav; from the Kuru bInu tere ko nCl sahai."-sar m 9. "bhuICl.Q.adClrI lineage. "kEro kurukhetr mare prClchac;l."-gyan. sClbhuko."-sri am 1. 3 particle of accusative b [kEl] See etl? 4. 2 See WGR? 3 new sprout, and dative case. of. "ram ko bClI puran bhai." tender shoot. -gau m 5. 4 P / short for fu-€", that he. ilw [kEla] SkI ~ n horse with deep red ~ [kou], ~ [kou] pron any. "kou sughClr nCl kou mura."-bc)Van. colour. ~ [kElas] SkI n Shining like a crystal on ~»fT [koa] n eye's edge, corner of the eye. water is a beautiful mountain to the west of 2 sugarcane's eye, from where it sprouts. Tibet and north of Mansarovar, which the ~ [ko-aQ] n bow. See~. "hClth hClSSE kClSSE Chinese call kIyunlCln. Per Purans, this ko-ac;la."-ramav. mountain is the abode of Shiv and Kuber. ~ [kou-ac;lClj] Skt~: arrow, which flies Thousands of visitors from Tibet, China and from the bow.-s.:mama. India come here and go around it. 2 prince. ~ ~ [ko-ac;lClj dami] arrow shot with a bow; the army showering arrows-sanama. See 1J7i't (h). ~ [kElakhClr] old name of a doon (valley), ~ [ko-ac;lni] bow-wielding army-sanama. in Tehri state, between Ganga and J amuna itfu [kOI] pron anyone. "kOI TICl kIS-hi jeha." -maru solhe m 3. rivers. "g~g jClmun bhitClr bClS£ kelakhClr ki dun."-carItr 25. ~ [koII] n Indian cuckoo. "kali kOII tu btu gUTII kali."-suhi farid. 2 In Gurbani, this word ~ [kEli] SkI afi.rw a cow with black teats. In is used for a devotee seeking spiritual Simritis, the best Kapila is described as one realisation. 3 a city in D.P. which is now known whose hair is brown and teats are black. by the name of Aligarh."koII ko uh gClrha "brClhmCl.Q. kEli ghatu k3J1ka Cl.Q.cari ka dhanu,


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bath includil'lg hair-wash. cl1J [kesu] See '&FiT 2. "k;'\s kesu maraha."-sor m 4. "k;'\s kesu caquru lla koi."--gau a m 1. ~1J [kesu] See ~. clH [keso] See m=r~. "keso kio Ha mit."~s k;Jbir. ~ [kesogopal] protector of the earth, the Creator, who keeps a benign eye on Brahma and Shiv. See '&Fr~ 2. "kesogopal paqIt sadIahu."-sadu. -aH3'Hr [ke~otamma] adjhaving beautiful hair. ~ [kesodas] See QH~eiH. 2 a tantaric who, with the help of magical hymns, boasted of incarnating Durga in the presence of Guru Gobind Singh, but ultimately left Anandpur Sahib in utter shame. Kesod21s also refused to teach Sanskrit to the Sikhs. iUj' [kesJ] See~. "kalu kabir kesJ jagI jogi.'"

i5tsJ [kehu] pron any. "un thao na kehu."-sar m 5.

~[kek] n

[kehe] of what type. crab, red-coloured fish ofscorpion's


amft [kekai] Skt ~fi:nit daughter of raja Ashvpati
of Kekaya,who was wife of Dashrath and mother of Bharat. QOle1hel'l [kekain~}dan] Bharat, son of Kekai. ~ [kekay] a territory in Kashmir region, now called Kakka. 2: something from the land of Kekay.3 inhabitant ofKekay, ofKakka. "asIt kClraI,l prabhas;}t kekay."-ramav. 'Kekay horses, having black ears, look very glorious.' 4 land between Heas and Satluj. ~ [kekyi] See &o~ft. ~ [keka] Skt n sound of a peacock. c3lc!t [keki] n peacock. iffe'3" [keCIt] pron anyone, someone. ifm.r [kejam] A (~j n act of snapping. 2 sword. "jape chappar chae baI,lia kejma. "-cJQi 3. 'Swords drawn (by both sides) seemed as if the battlefield was covered with a thatched roof. ' it:lw [kejma] swords, See fu:n.r 2. ~ [keqa], ihft [keqi] how big, how large. clo [ket] pron how many. "uthI sIdhare ket." -bavan.2 how much, to what extent. "manukh ki kahu ket calai?"-asa 111 5. "gun naIka! gUI,l kahiYE ket."--bLia m 5.3 any. "karaj nahi ket." -majh barahmaha. 4 why. "ta c;lariE ket?"-var sri m 4. :; Ski abode. 6 place. 7 sense. 8 concept. 9 grain. 10 flag; ~ and &0, both are correct. 11 See 1~ 3. ~ [ketak] adj how many. 2 how much. "mE murakh ki ketak bat hE kotI paradhi.\ tarIa re."-sor 111 5, '''manukh ki kahu ketak bat." --bIzer m 5. ~ [ketak:c], a:o-dt [ketki] Skt n screwpine tree L Pandanus Odoratissimus. 2 screwpine

-bria. 'Qu' [keh] adv how, why. "suami mIliE keh?"
-gc)(J III 5. 2 somehow. "Ik b{id na pavai keh."

-sri a m 1. See~. 3 adj some, "nanak ragu ne) utrE bIa nalagE keh."·-var sor m 3.4 pron to whom. ~ [keh] adv somehow. 2 ad) some. "tIsu bI:n an llCl keh." -jet m 5. ihJw [kehra] pron which, who. ~ [kehanl, ~ [kehri] Skt lion with the mane. "aj kE vasI guru kino kehan."-asa m 5. 'Now humility-cum-selfishness is arrogance.' Qcldh:liij [kehribar] n a forest infested with lions. "12k dIvas vah gayo ~Ikara. ja dIs huh kehribara."-c;Jrrtr 297. ~uij- [kehrol, ~ [kehral, [kehro] S pron which one, who. "prabh thanu tero kehro?" -kanm 5, -a-w [keha] adv of what kind. 2 how. "bura kare so keha sIjhE?"-sava m 3, clfu [kehI] pron to whom, towards whom. 2 adv how. "guI,lhiI,li sukh kehI?"-sri am 1. clfu>w [kehIa] of what kind, of what sort.


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the icy current of Rudarhimala in Garhwal state.(U .P) at a hi II under the mountain of ~andckor. Mahapanth. The peak is 11,753 feet high. A ~ [ketdnI] adj a cannon with a cavity. "gala Sadashiv Mandir is situated there in which pdd prIthme UCdr ketdnI pCld kdhu ;jt." Mahadev in the form of a male buffalo is said -SClnama. abode of the cannon ball; the gun; to be placed. It is told that, after being defeated big cannon. by Pandavs, Shiv came here in the form of a ~[ketra], <Br[keta], &fuq[ketIk], tBt[keti] Skt male buffalo.! The priests of the temple are afu'-fuor3" adjhow much. "akhdU ketra."-suhi a Hindu ascetics who wear matted hair and m 1. "jdl mehI keta rakhiE dbh-atdrI suka."-asa ringing bells. "kGbhI jdU kedar nhai£."-ram am 1. "keti datI jaDE kwu kutu."-japu. namdev. "kdPdf kedarE jai."-sor kabir. ~ [ketu] which. "kdr dllClrClth dClrClb sachIa so ~01Ff [kedarnathl Shiv. See ~ 3. kardj ketu?"-var jEt. 2 11 flag. "jInI dukh ka ~ [kedara] See ~~ 3. "gaga jdrnna kel katIa ketu."-dlldna m 5. 'The rule of torture kedara."-maru solhe m 1. 2 a complete rag of was put to end. ' 3 according to Purans a planet, Kalyan that in which rnClddhClrn pure and sharp the son of demon Viprachiti from the womb of are used. Both the nI~ads are also used. Pure Sinhika, which is counted among the nine rndddhClrn is primary note, and ~dfClj is secondary. rndddhdm is sharp and gdndhar is planets. 4 disease. 5 comet. 6 chieftain, headman. 7 pigmy. 8 See cB". weak. The time ofsinging is the second quarter ~ [ketumachi] 11 who has an emblem of ofthe night. gamut: nd ~d rnd, gd Pd, mi Pd dhd na dhd Pd, fish on his flag; Kam. J1C(f4cfi§) "sdji sm achi, mdno ketumachi."-GV 10. ~d na dhCl pd, mi Pd dhCl pCl rnd, ra ~Cl. In Guru Granth Sahib, it is at number twenty~ [ketumal] according to Bhagvat, one of three. 3 See ~. the nine regions ofJambudveep. "ketumal jdhf khaQ suhava."-NP cl~ [kedari] Lumba Khatri, a resident of a'3' [kete], <Bfor [keteh], ~ [keteke] adj how Vatala, who became a disciple of Guru much, how many. "kete fd cad sur kete."-jdpU. Amardas and was famous as a person of great "jivna vicarI dekhI keteke dIna?"-dhana m 1. achievement. The Guru made him a preacher <l3' [ketEl so many, countless. "kdhdn kdhavCln and bestowed him with a Manji (Seat). See kdU kdi ketE."-kan m 5. mHtft»lT. ~ [ketvayudh] ketu (flag) ayudh (arms) ~ [kedr] Skt 11 a core of the shaft. the centre 2 "sdkdl min ke nam kdhI ketvayudh kClhI ;jt." 'After getting defeated by Arjun, Shiv took refuge here in the form of a male buffalo. He thrust his torso into the -Sdnama. 'Attach ketu and ayudh to words hill, only his back being visible which the people worship. meaning fish'; as for example jhakhketu, The worship of'the remaining paIis is done at four other rndkarketu, mdcchketu, rnatdsyketu, rninketuayudh. All these mean arrow, the weapon of places: worship of limbs at Tungnath, of' mouth at Rudarnath, of navel at Madhyamesvar, head and matted Kam. hair at Kalpesvar. These five places are called five kedars. ~[kedar] Skt 11 field. 2 a small field in which 'In English this word has come from Greek Kentron and ~ (water) is fed by making ~ (a cut) in the it is a transform of Sanskrit kedr. channel. 3 a pilgrimage, which is situated in

flower. Many people use its essence and scent. It gives energy to the heart and the brain. See

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W; of"kabr keri kadh jIu."-sri m 1. of a circle. lin [ken] has done, does. "ut;:nn harr harr eta- [kere] plural of~; of. "ajab kam karte harr kere."-majh am 3. 2 pron plural of Q"(J"ijT ken."-kan m 4. 2 pron who, why; third declension, singular, "jen ken prakare harrjas (~); who. sunahu."-asa chJt m 5. 'somehow hear the ~ [kerhe] pron which. "'tu aho kerhe kamI." -s farid. 2 whose. praise of Hariyash.' 3 n an upnishad, which starts with Ken; that is why this name, as ch5' [kel] SkI' Q"f~: n play, fun. "jIm kelhII). kumar."-pnthu. "baj pae tIsu rab de kela sodaru. sopurakhu etc. The name of Ken vIsria."-s larid. 2 banana. "mali ke gharr kel Upnishad is also talavkar.. achr."-to<;ii namdev. 3 place of fun for ~ [keyur] SkI' n armlet. Krishan, Vrindavan. "gaga jamna kel kedara." ~ [ker] part of. "guru ker hukam SIr dharlin." -manz soLhem 1, 4 SkI' <5:fuorblue pine, a hilly -GPS. 2 n a gurdwara of Guru Nanak Dev tree inferior to the cedar tree in quality. about five kohs east of Mangat. See Qi;MfiJa. Ii~~ [kelkelali] adj who contro(s the 3 P ; : penis. playing ofKilali (by gods); because of whose QaS"l'fdS [kersahIb] About two furlongs east power gods aspire and endeavour to play the ofPindibahauddin police station, tehsil Falian. game. "han mr:llIa kelkelali."-dhana m 4. district Gujarat, is village Jaisukh, where a gurdwara ofGuru Nanak is situated. Maharaja ctw [kela] adj short for Ikela; uninvolved, disinterested. "maha anad kare sad kela."-asa Ranjit Singh donated 40 squares of land and namdev. 2 n banana tree. L Musa Sapientum. five thousand rupees a year to this gurdwara. Banana tree and its fruit are famous in all the He got constructed the dlarbar and the pond. Fairs are held here on the fourteenth offull countries. "kela paka jharr."-ram kabir. 'In the barbed fencing, banana is believed to be moon in Vaisakh and Chet and new moon night of Bhadon. The priests are Udasis. The ripe.' 3 See ~i. railway station is about six miles south of clwm [kelali] adf having nectar. 2 n God. See QMQMIM1. 3 one having water; cloud. Chilianwala. ~ [kerI).a] v pour, spread, scatter. 2 drop cim [kel:[] SkI' n fun, play. 2 coitus, sexual intercourse with a woman. 3 earth, ground, seeds of grain through a bamboo pipe. ci"ffi? [keral] SkI' n a southern state, that is spread land. from Kanyakumari to Gokaran along the sea cl#'[keI6l Sktfc:lj~~)}f n hilly wood having quality falling in-between pine and cedar wood, used coast, comprising Malabar Travancore and in buildings. Kanara. It is now called Kanara, and its language is called Kanari. See Bo. 2 inhabitant Ii~ [key] adv how. "tujhu bajhu pIare key raha?"-dhma m 1. "kev nEI).i dekhae?"-gau of the Kerala. 3 a branch of Phalit astrology, cMtm 1. which first began from Kerala. W [keral n act of pouring. 2 banana. 3 part ~ [kevall Skt n cave. 2 SkI' ~ boatman. of. "dhanu dhanu guru nanak jan kera."-gau ~ [kevaQl, c51,~~ [kevdQu] how big, of what m 4. "kat ki mai bapu kat kera. "-gau m 1. size. "kevaQu vaQa 'Jitha hOI?"-sodaru. ~ [keval] Skt adj only. "keval kalai kartar." ~ [kerra] poured, scattered. 2 part of. chit [keri] n small unripe mango. 2 feminine of -hazare 10. 2 decided, ascertained. 3 pure.

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"keval nam dio gurmatu."-gau m 5. 4 n a village seven kohs south ofDamdama. While moving from Damdama to the south, the tenth Guru first stayed here. It is four miles to the nOlth east ofKalanwali railway station in tehsil and police station Rouri in district Hisar. Outside the village to the south, there is a gurdwara of the tenth Guru. A legally constituted committee manages the gurdwara. With this gurdwara, forty bighas of land is attached. i,t~ [kevra] Skt ~ n It is from the pandanus family. It has white colour and its flower is bigger than screw pine. Its essence or scent lS widely used. Many scholars regard pandanus and screw pine as of one and the same thing and not from different families. See cBcft. ~ [kevari] See ~. ~ [kera] n twist, crease. 2 See ~. ~ [kerha] pron who, which one. ~ [kE] pron how many, many. "kE loa khapI marijai."-var mala m 1. 2 from whom. "hau kE dan puchau jae?"-sri m 3. "kE SIU kari pukar."-dhana m 3. 3 part or. "brte ki mItI karta jaI).E, kE ja1).E guru sura."-oakar. "kE sagatI bn sadhu ki kE han ke gU1). gaI."-s kabir. 4 of. "pahIle pahuE rEl).I kE val).jana mItra." -sri m 1 palure. 5 having done. "kE pradakkhna kari pral).am."-GPS. "prabhu thabh te nIkse kE bIsthar."-basat kabir. 6 from. "mad maIa kE adh."-sri m 9. "gurmatI sat I kar jonI kE ajonI bhae."- BGK. 7 See C!!Jf. el' [kE'] pron where. "tudhu no choc;l I jaiE prabhu kE dhan?"-asa m 5. 'where should we go?' fu:r [kES] adv what sort of, how, why. "bho su kEs paiE?" -akal. '&ir [kES] n brawl. conflict. ~ [kEsar] A ~ n emperor, Caesar. 2 emperor of Rome. Many scholars hold that in the Roman language kEsar is the name of one who takes birth after his mother's death. Augustus the emperor of Rome, had such a birth. Hence his name became kEsar; since then this word came to be used for a king or an emperor. ~ [kEsal, ~ [kESIk], fu:ft [kEsi], fu't [kEse], m=t [kEso] adv what sort of, ofwhat kind. "kEse hangUl). gavE?"-vaQ a m 3. 'what type.' 2 kEsi has also been used to mean jEsi. "chapa kar kEsi chabI kalfdi ke kul ke."-akal. ~ [krhbat] See ~. ~Q [kEhar] See q{JQ. clur [kEha], ~ [kEha] n bronze. "ujalu kEha cIlak1).a."-suhi m 1. "kEha kacan tUtE sar." -var majh mI. elm [kEhi] pron of anybody, of somebody. "hIaU na kEhi thahI."-s farid. 'Do not break anybody's heart.' b [kEk] pron several. "d In kEk gae."-prrthu. ~ [kEkayi], fuh!t [kEkei], ~ [kEkeyi] See

~ [kEkE] because of. 2 This word has also


been used for -&wit. "ji t juddh dVE bar be kEk£."-carrtr 102. 'Kaikayi got two boons from Dashrath.' ~ [kEkhusrol ,;{ emperor of Iran, who was the third ruler from the Kiani family. He was son of Sayabash and grandson ofKaikaus. He is counted among religious kings. His name has occurred in the eighth hakayat. ~ [kEci] T Jf Skt cB'o1 n scissors. [krtabh] Skt n glowworm. 2 brother of Madhudait. There is a story in Mahabharat and Ramayan that when Vishnu was sleeping in water, two demons took birth from his ears (from the dirt of the ear); one was Kaitabh, and the other was Madhu. They saw Brahma on the lotus flower and got ready to kill him. Brahma worshipped Vishnu, so Vishnu killed

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both in the battle. In the first Chandicharitar ofDasam Granth, there is a translation ofthis very story. "$hrutm£1 te dEt rdce jug ita.... madhu kEtabh nam bhae tIn ke... juddh bryo tIn s6 bhagv;-}t, na mar sakE atI dEt bali hE, sal bhae tIn p;-}c hdjar, duhu larte nalu bah tdli hE, dEtan rijh kahyo-"varmag" kuhyo hdn:-"sis~m dehu", bhali hE, dhar um par cakr 56 ka tkE, jotI IE apne ;'lg mdli hE." It is written in the 52 th chapter ofHarivansh that Brahma made two toys of mud, and when he put life into them, they became Madhy and Kaitabh demons. See Hg". ~<-"5'Ifu' [kEtbharI] Vishnu, who was the enemy of Kaitabh demon. See 2. it"Qli5" [kEthal] a hill state in district Shimla. Kayonthal. ~ [kEthe], ~ [kEthE] Bg adv where. "baharI kEthe jaIo7"-g;,)U m 5. "deh nd hoh tdU mdI)U kEthE rel1Ita7"~sIdhgosdtI. 2 pron who. "bIn bhII)e kEthE paIo re."~toc.li ill 5. &'W [krqa] n measure. 2 mould, structure. 3 Po pron whose. ~ [kEtav] Skt n deceit. 2 gamble. 3 thornapple. 4 greenery. 5 adj gambler. 6 cheat. ~~ [kEtvapdnhutI] See J?11.1"\ifu (b). &'a- [k~thJ Skt c.xftfB' n wild pear~ See c.xftfB'. 2 See cxrfuEr. ~ [kEthdl] main city of a tehsil of district Kamal, situated in Kurukshetar area, 19 kohs west of Kamal. This city was founded by Yudhishtir. Because of the temple of Hanuman's mother AI1jina, here, it was named Kapisthal. Bhai Gurubaksh Singh's son Bhai Desu Singh of Bhagtu dynasty occupied the area in 1767 and made Kaithal his capital. His


son Lal Singh and grandson Bhai Uday Singh ruled over it welL The poet laureate ofthe court, Bhai Santokh Singh, while living in this city, wrote Guru iPratapsuray etc. Bhai Uday Singh had no child, so after his death on 15 th March, 1843, this state was annexed into the English dominion. I There are two gurdwaras of the ninth Guru in Kaithal-- one in Thandhar Tirathpur and the other in the city itself. Ten bighas of land is attached to the outer gurdwara. A mangosa tree, since the time of the Guru, stands at this place, the leaves of which were given by the Guru to a sick man who recovered from his illness. The outer gurdwara gets rupees one hundred from the Patiaia state and forty seven rupees from the J ind state annually. One hundred bighas of land was donated by Bh3i Uday Singh. See 9ilT;f "9rcl. ~ [kEd] A.;} n imprisonment, confinement. ~ [kEda] See ,~. :2 pron of somebody. "nahI mE tras dhare' rIpU kEda."~GPs. ~[krda] would say. 2 See~2 of somebody. ~ [kEda] adv how. ~ [kEdi] A Ji) adj who is a prisoner. &'LRr [kEdharL -&l~ifu [krdharI] where, in which direction . "tudhu no choqI jaiE prabhu kEdhdrI'?"-asa m 5. iitr [kEdh6], air [kEdh5] part as if. ihrfu [kE:paJu] to whom. "dUSdr kEpdhI javdu7" -asa ill 5. 2 from whom. "kEpdhI dikhIa leva7"-suhi ill 1. ihr [kEf] A .....R;( n strong liquor. "kEph k;-}cni me dhan khovt."-(3PS. 2 intoxication. "posat bhag dphim m;-}gay pIyo sdbh $ok VIda karqaryo.
'The territory occupied by Bhai Sukha Singh, the younger brother of Bhai Desu Singh. was not confiscated. Successors ofSukha Singh have two chiefships ofArnoli and Sudhuval in dllsitricl Kamal.

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matt hVE caroi kEphan so sut fdr ke SIU Im bEn ucaryo,"-krIs;:m. 3 adv how. afuw [kEphIya], [kEphi] adj drunk. "raj kEphIye kamavE."-cantr 245. "Ikk p~thal). kEphi ne mEnU dhakka deke sutghattIa". -JSBM. ~ [kEphiyat] A..:;.J! n description, detail. [kEbar] n an arrow. "tuppak tarak. kEbar karak."-VN. IDRft [kEinri] wild fig. L Ficus Venosa: Skt 1.IOfcT ~fucr ?MTtif [kEmuttIk nayay] See (')jjlljf. -a-a- [kEf] n wild caper. ~ [kErau] n Kaurav. from the Kuru dynasty. "meri meri kErau karte duryodhan se bhai." -dh;:ma namdev. ~ [kErav] Ski n blue lotus. "sadhan kErav ko bIgsavat."-NP. 2 enemy. 3 gambler. 4 Kaurav, descendant of Kuru. "kErav ral). ghae."-paras. ~ [kEro], mr' [kEf0] Kaurav; from the Kuru lineage. "kEro kurukhetr mare prachaq."-gyan. b [kEl] See ~ 4. 2 See ~. 3 new sprout, tender shoot. ~W [kEla] Skt fu"c;ru n horse with deep red colour. bTff [kElas] Skt n Shining like a crystal on water is a beautiful mountain to the west of Tibet and north of Mansarovar, which the Chinese call kIyunlan. Per Purans, this mountain is the abode of Shiv and Kuber. Thousands of visitors from Tibet, China and India come here and go around it. 2 prince. See qo't (h). ~ [kElakhar] old name of a doon (valley), in Tehri state, between Ganga and J amuna rivers. "gag jamun bhitar baSE kelakhar ki dun."-carItr 25. ~ [kEli] Skt'Ci!i1.rw a cow with black teats. In Simritis, the best Kapila is described as one whose hair is brown and teats are black. "brahmal). kEli ghatu kaJ1ka al).cari ka dhanu,



pahI ete jahI visan nanka Iku namu."-sava m 3. 'The murder of some one spiritually enlightened, a cow, and a maiden, and seizure of a cheat's food (for retaining or eating) are sins. Such sins befall a person who forgets the name of the Creator. To forget the Creator's name is most sinful.' ~ [kEIe] a village in police station Raikot, district and tehsil Ludhiana. A gurdwara of Guru Hargobind is situated here. Only the maji is there; no other structure exists. It is about 10 miles away from the railway station Mullanpur. ~ [kEval], ~ [kEvaly] Skt ~ n oneness, meaning unity with the Creator; supreme spiritual state. "kEvalda ucre subh bEna."-NP, 2 purity, pristine state. ~ [ko]pron who. "gurmatI ram kahI ko ko na bEkuth gae."-toeji namdev. 2 anyone. "han bInu tere ko na sahai."-sar m 9. "bhulal). adan sabhuko."-sri am 1. 3 particle of accusative and dative case. of. "ram ko bal puran bhai." -gau m 5. 4 P / short for fu'-€", that he. ~ [kou], iffi' [kou] pron any. "kou sughar na kou mura."-b;:wan. ~»fT [koa] n eye's edge, corner of the eye. 2 sugarcane's eye, from where it sprouts. ~ [ko-aQ] n bow. See~, "hath hassE kass£ ko-aqa."-ramav. ~ [kou-aqaj] Skt~: arrow, which flies from the bow.-sanama. ~ [ko-aqaj dami] arrow shot with a bow; the army showering arrows-sanama. ~ [ko-aqni] bow-wielding army-s;mama. ~ [kOI] pron anyone. "kOI na kIS-hi jeha." -maru solhe m 3. ~ [koII] n Indian cuckoo. "kali kOII tu btu gum kali."-suhi [arid. 2 In Gurbani, this word is used for a devotee seeking spiritual realisation. 3 a city in U.P. which is now known by the name of Aligarh."koII ko uh garha


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kahaVE."-PPP. 4 See~. ~ [koIla] or c5rw [kola] Skt CfiI(1I:S~JII;C n burnt out charcoal, coal l See E Coal. "koIle pap pare tIS uparI man jalIa."-maru m 1. 2 pron anybody, somebody, "mukatI na janE kOIla."-mala namdev. 3 See itfuw. ih!t [koi] pron someone, one. "koi bolE ram ram koi khuda I."-ram m 5. aelare [koikoI] pron few, some, rare. "kotI madhe janu paiE bhai VITIa koikoI."-sor m 5. ~ [koe] plural ofW1r'. 2 pron anyone, anybody. "gUT bInu avaru na jaDE koe."-an<"Jdu. clFr [kosI Skt ~F.f n koh, a measure of distance. Initially distance (length) of a kos was determined by the bellowing ofa cow meaning the distance where the bellowing of the cow could be heard. People in their own lands determined this distance of kos in their own way. The kos of the southern people is much longer than that of the Punjabis. As per old measurement, a kos consisted of 4000 yards or 8000 cubits. The present kos is different for different areas. 2 "jIh marag ke g;:me jahI na kosa."-sukhmanI. See ThRf3T. 2 Skt -&F.f covering, cover. 3 box. 4 sheath, scabbard. S treasure. 6 dictionary. 7 egg. 8 vulva, vagina. 9 flower's soft bud having sweet sprouts. '''kamal vIkhEjImkosvITajE."-NP.10Vedant recognises five Cocoons, whiich like a quilt cover the soul. (a) a body born from grain and living on

Heavier the coal more the heat it has. The heat of hard coke is many times more than that of soft coke made from wood. Expert geologists say that in olden times vast forests got buried under the earth and by taking several elements from the earth this wood has hardened likc stone. Now the world is drawing huge benef1t from coal mines.

2In ancient books a koh is also shown of 4045 and 4558 yards respectively.

grain is called :3inmay kO$. (b) intelligence supported by five organs is called pranma)' kO$. (c) five sense organs and mind comprise manomay kO$. (d) wisdom iincluding five sense organs is vIgIanmay ko~:. (e) a pure di.stinctive soul has a covering named anildmay kO$. kO$ can be pronounced "&H [kosI too. 11 P 1.1/ a large kettledrum. 12 P J/ adj attempting. See ~. "&'RG [kosat], al'1O' [kosath] chamber. See ~. "bhojan ko kosat bhrayo bhat bhat kar."-GPS. ~ [kosr:la] v Skt 9~1 curse, reprimand. ~ [kostabh] See m::r~. [kosna] See itlw. [ko$ap], itl:lfl..rf3" [ko~:patI], ~[ko$pal] n treasurer. "kos2Ip hOI ~;ah ko jEse."-NP. cUr6' [kosro] just a koh; only a koh. "ek kosro sIdhI k;~rat lalu tab catUT patro a IO."-sor m 5. 'When just a leah of distance was covered towards the dearest, then the messenger came and met i.e. the Guru appeared on the scene.' ~ [kosa1] Skt -&m?' n land between Ghagra and Saryu rivers, the main city of that region being Ayodhya; a subcaste of Kshatris. [kosa] Skt cf,twT adj luke warm. 2 P 1::-1 he who attempts., af.PQ:I1il [ko$adhyak$] treasurer. See amr. ~ [kosal] See FI'C'S'. -afF.rf.r [kO$I~;] P ~1 n attempt, endeavour. ~ [kosid] See gFftt. 2 Dg lethargy, laziness. ~ [ko;;idanJI P (:J~1 v attempt. ~ [ko$th] n room. 2 stomach, abdomen. ~ [kohl See '~1=r 1. "koh karori calat I1d ;}t." -vaT asa. :2 anger, indignation, resentment. 3 P J hill, mountain. ~ [kohkaf] P ._Hio/ Caucasus. Skt ~~q n an imaginary mountain that surrounds the entire world. See o[TG 1 and 2.

arror mn.r


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~ [kohtur] a mountain named Tur. See~.

~ [kohnur] P .J}J a famous jewel, regarded

chftw [kohila] masculine of <gill. See <gill. cia' [kok] Skt n red-legged partridge. "arI kok

as the mountain of light. It is said that it was kul :;;okvat."-$ekhar. 2 wolf. 3 date tree. first with Karan and Arjun and then remained 4 frog. 5 Vishnu. 6 a Pandit who composed with Vikramaditya, but of this there is no Kamshastar; the famous book "Kok", a sexual historical proof. One legend is that this jewel treatise is a part of this Shastar. "kahU kok was first presented to Shahjahan in 1628 by kavy J puran ko parhat mat."-akal. See~. Mirjumla l , (a minister ofAbdulla Kutubshah ~[kokan] wildjujube fruit. king of Golkanda). In January of 1739 AD ~ [koknad] Skt n red lotus. "jIm dal during the plunder of Delhi it was seized by kokmda dutI pavE."-NP. Nadirshah who gave it the name of Kohnoor. ~ [koknar] P .Jl;J"/ n poppy pod. On 8th June 1747 AD this jewel passed into C(Claea [kokbadar], ~ [kokbadri] a coastal territory named Konkan, along the western the hands of Ahmadshah Durrani from ghats of Bombay, called 'kokan'. The residents Shahrukh Muza, the grandson of Nadirshah. ofKokbandar are kokbadri. "bhajE habsi halbi On 1st June 1813 AD it was acquired by kokbadri." -kalki. Maharaja Ranjit Singh from Shahshuja, king of Kabul. On 30th March 1849 AD after the ~creH [kobram] See cgcreH. "kaha brClm kokaram hE?"-akal. annexation of Punjab, Lord Dalhousie took possession of this jewel from the treasury of cia'l? [kobl] See ~. the minor Duleep Singh on 7 th December and ~[kokar] n stone of a dried fruit. "huti kokra on 6th April 1850, it was sent to Queen Victoria pilu keri."-CPS. of England through Colonel Mackson on a ship ~ [koka] n small nail. 2 T .1'/ midwife's son, maid's son. "pat:;;ah da koka rehfda si." named Medea, to reach the Queen on 3 rd July. Its previous weight was 319 rattis, after cutting, -JSBM. it has come now down to 102 rattis. The British cm:m [kohl], ~fu'w [kohla] Skt n cuckoo. "kokIl hova abI basa."-gaum 1. 2 The name jewellers have estimated its worth at thirty lac of raja Rasalu's wife was also Kokila. 3 At pounds. it<:ra" [kohClr] n frost, mist. 2 bloom of mango- one place, kokIl has been used for a raven "kohl kak jaha hlkarahf."-carItr 405. tree, etc. 3 red gourd; a fruit that becomes 4 green coloured small hill-bird. very red on ripening. "janu phal kohar lal udar." -Cps. chf [kokh], '&fu [kokhI] Skt gfu- n womb. See gfu-. ~ [kohli] a farming subcaste of Shahpur C(i1facl 'a [kocbIhar] See ~i1r~j(Jld. district. 2 a Khatri subcaste that relates to cha" [kochClr], ~ [kochar] lap, hip. See~. Khukhrains. "gurmukh ramu kohli."-BG. "snicad nIj kochClr payo."-NP. 2 a subcaste ofKhatris. a-m[kohiJ, ~[kohia] adjwrathful. 2 hillman, ~ [kojha] adj ugly. he, who lives on hills. ~ [kot] Skt n fort, castle. "kot m ot na kos ~ [kohia] P U"::i/ plural offuft. hill folk. nCl."-savEye sri mukllVak m 5. 2 city wall; 'Babar writes that this jewel was acquired by Hamayun fortification. 3 king's temple. 4 Skt m'c one in Agra in 1526 AD. from the family of a Hindu king of crore, ten million. "kaCCln ke kot datu kari."-sri Gawalior who was assisting Ibrahim Lodhi.

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ofthe castle. 2 guard ofthe citywall. 3 incharge am 1. 'measureless gold to be given in charity.' 5 endless, countless, infinite. "kotan me nanak ofa police station.. ~B"Ff" [kotpacasa] Scholars of Sanskrit have kou."-s m 9. 6 an English dress; coat. estimated that the measure of the ~ [kotsamhir] a village in Patiala state, circumference ofthe eaIth is 500 million yojans. district Bamala tehsil and police station Bhatinda, adjoining which is a gurdwara ofGuru "prIthvi jojan kotpacasa, 10k caturdas pur prakasa."-saloh. "te taskar jo nam na levahI Gobind Singh. There is another small gurdwara, with a cluster oftrees in 63 ghumaons ofland vasahI kotpacasa."-prabha m 1. ~ [kotbhai] a wellknown village in tehsil attached, donated by Patiala state. A three mile unpaved road goes in the south-west to Muktsar, district Ferozepur. Bhai Bhagtu lived here. There are two gurdwaras of the tenth Katarsinghwala railway station. Guru in this village: ~ [kotkpura] a town inhabited by Kapoor Singh Brar in Faridkot state, which is now a (1) The Guru came to the house of Bania devotees in ordelr to have meals. After getting railway station. The tenth Guru stayed here baptised, the Baniias turnedl Singhs, and the Guru for some time and then went to Muktsar. There are two gurdwaras at this place: one is in the named them Rangi Singh and Ghumi Singh. They middle of an unbricked pond. 126 ghumaons served the Guru lavishly. There is a gurdwara of land donated by the state is attached to it. with which 50 ghumaons of land has been attached since the Sikh Raj. The priest is a The second is situated to the south ofthe town, and is known as "guruQhab" Here Guru baptised Singh. (2) At a short distance the second gurdwara Gobind Singh tied his turban after ablution. is to the south of the village. When the Guru ae«M"l'al [kotkalyaI:ti] See ~. ae«idld [kotkagar] paper fort, castle built by came from Guptsar, he stayed here. This using paper as in Ramlila etc. "kotkagar bInas gurdwara was constructed in Sammat 1978. bar na jhuthIa."-jetcMtm 5. 'It does not take Here also, the priest is a baptised Singh. long to demolish a paper fort.' It is five miles to the north from Giddarbaha clG ~ [kot kagra] fort of Kangra. 2 Kangra railway station. The approach-road is town, also known as Nagarkot. unmetalled. aeaiad [kotkotatar] in millions; innumerable, ckfi.fai::rr R'"i") [kotmIrja jan] a village situated in crores. 2 &fc-&fc-»l'3o. "kotkotatar ke pap between Vatala and Kalanaur. At this place bInasan."-sar a m 3. 'which absolves sins of Banda Bahadur began constructing a fortress innumerable births.' of unbaked! briclks, Ibut before it could be ~ [kotguru] See Q)g~ 2. completed, the Mughal army launched an ~ [kotdvar] entrance ofa castle. 2 entrance attack. Banda Bahadur left it and occupied a through the citywall. 3 a town in district Pauri fortress at Gurdaspur.. See ~ ~ ~. of Garhwal. Here is a place related to Guru ~ [kotar] Skt n cavity in a tree. 2 jungle Nanak, known as Charanpaduka. surrounding a fort, which served as a defence for the fort. 3 Dg small underground receptacle ~ [kotdharmu] See ~. ~.ffi1W [kotpacasa] See '&c<JB"Ff". for holding grains. ~ [kotpal] Skt n guard at the fort; protector ck'w [kotla] a vililage situated at a distance of

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two kohs to the east of Ropar. Here two Pathans served the tenth Guru with full devotion. The Guru bestowed upon them a dagger and a shield. There are two sacred places relating to the Guru here. One is inside while the other is outside the town. 2 See 'HMda<::M'. ~<::M'f('iJ'dl [kotlamhag] See !36'A'fiJ8. ~ [kotlibagha] This village of tehsil and district Gujranwala falls under police station Mande. There is a small gurdwara of Guru Hargobind. The Guru sat under a peepal tree which still stands there. The place where the Guru sat is called "thara sahrbOO. A small pacca house is located closeby where Guru Granth Sahib is installed. A Namdhari Sikh is its priest. The village has donated 16 ghumaons ofland to this gurdwara. A fair is held on 14th Chet. Eminabad railway station is 10 miles east ofthis gurdwara. During the rainy season this road becomes unserviceable. ifG~~ [kotlehria] a subcaste of Rajputs. The hilly state of Kotlehar derives its name from this subcaste. See ~ tr"O. ~ [kotv;:lria], ~ [kotvar] See ~ 3. "vrer m;:ln kotv;:lria."-suhi m 5 pd{tal. '\lb bha k;:lrE kotvar?"-maru m 5. Here ~ [kotva1] means Dharamraj. ~ [kotvari] n function of a ~ [kotval]. "pap kdre kotvari." ~basat a m J. ~ [kotval], ~~ [kotvalu] See ~ and ~. "kotva1u sukrasui."-mala namdev. See

'cror.es of speakers have reiterated with crores of arguments.' See cmr. 3 corner of a bow. See O<"it. 4 sharp edge of a weapon. 0l1<::9Gaa [kotrkutat;:lr], afdiad [kotrkotat;:lr] See 0(<::0(<::3d. "kotrkutdtdr ke pap hdn khoVE.' -bua m 4. o!f<::a9aa [kotrtirath] crores of places of pilgrimage. 2 a pond of Gokaran. 3 a pilgrimage centre in Mathura. 4 a pilgrimage centre in Kurukshetar. 5 a tank near the temple of Mahakal in Ujjain. "kotr tir;:lth mdjj::m rS11a11a rs k;:llr md1u mEl bhdrijE."-suhi m 5. 0( fd31A [kotrtetis] thirty-three crore deities. "kotr tetisa khoj;:lhr tak;:lu."-majh am 5. See
..... ..., n _ , ..



ikr [kota] plural ofkotI. "udh;:lrdhr s;:lg1e kota."
-sor m 5. 2 a state in Rajputana whose principal town Kotah is now ajunction ofBB & CI railway. 3 salted mixture of roasted pith of melon seeds with powdered betel nut, consumed by the affluent persons after meals. 'O<fu [kotr] Skt n ten million, one crore. "bi kotr pr;:lbh kclU khojate."-suklulldlli. See Jfcrw. 2 initial part of an argument. "bthi koti kotr

'O<fc 3. "gdhr koti d;:le e;:l1arkE. ral). kali gussa kharkE."-caQi 3. 'caught demons with the help of the corner of a bowstring and shot them off.' See me:- 2. ~ [kotatcw] See adi3d. [koth] chamber. See~. "kajarkoth mahr bhai 11a kari."-asa m 5. kajarkoth, a chamber of collyrium, refers to household affairs and trade etc. chmr [kothra], '&om [kothri], Q(-6d1nfr [kothria], Q(o;ft [kothriJ big room, small room, chamber. "kothre mdhr kothri pardm kothi biear."-ram kabir. 'conscience in the form ofa small room within a big room and spiritual knowledge in the form of a still smaller room'. ~ [kotha] See ~1!. "kothe maqdp maria." --var asa. 2 multiplication table of a number, written in one column. "dhSee pU11 uthe jord11 kothe gramkar pdtvar."-NP '&or 'Jll'fua' [kotha sahrb] a memorial of Guru Nanak Dev in village Uddeke situated 5 kohs to the south ofBatala in district Gurdaspur. Guru Nanak Dev visited this place on his way to

~ [koti] corner of a string-bow. See


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arC'" ~ OfT


Batala. A fair is held here on the 10 of ~dradhs. 2 See ~. 3 See it5r ~ OfT. 4 See ~. ~ Q@ OfT [kotha gun; ka] a village of Malwa, situated in tehsil and police station Bhatinda of nazamat Barnala in Patiala state. It is situated at a distance of 14 miles from laito railway station and is 15 miles away from Bhuccho. This village was founded by Prithi Chand in Sammat 1653. Sodhi Kaul Sahib provided great prosperity and hustle and bustle to this village. It is said that Sulhi died in the same village when he fell into a burning brickkiln. This brickkiln was located at a distance of one mile to the east of this village. Guru ka Kotha is a possession and Jagir of the Sodhis, who are descendants of PI'ithi Chand. 2 a gurdwara or the sixth Guru at Wazirabad. See ~ OfT '&or. ~ ~ (kotha mdluka] a village in Malwa situated at a distance of five kohs to the east of laito. It is at this place that a guard of the tenth Guru forbade an insane person from entering the Guru's camp. The guard heat him up so severely when he insisted on entering that he died at the spot. itoral [kothari] See ~. "jIO kanko kothari CdfIo."-sar ill 5. 2 See ~. clzft (kothi] small room. 2 bungalow ofthe British style. 3 trading house, where bills ofexchange are traded. 4 part of a gun, close to the match of the gun, which is filled with gunpowder. It was part of old guns which were filled through the muzzles. "gdj mkal c;laldt bIC kdbr. kothi kItak h:mi L:'lkh tdbr. "-CPS. 5 physique. ";'Jdhi kothi tera namu nahi."-asa ill 1. ~ [koc;l] n inclination, bend, curve. 2 one crore. "koc;l dn;'Jdu."-)apu. "kJtak koc;l tamaSIa."-var jEt. 3 See~. cifw [koc;laJ ad) bent forward. ~ [koc;lI] S adv joyfully; with pleasure. ~ [ko!).] Skt n edge, corner. 2 angle. See fuw.

3 stringed bow of a sar;'Jgi. 4 sharpness of a weapon such as a sword etc. 5 drumstick. ~ [kotar] short for Ikottar; one more than any number i.e., kotdr SJ. ~ [kotri] See tlrc5~T. ita?? [kotal] T J/ horse for the rich to ride. 2 decorated but riderless horse, that leads the retinue of rich persons. 3 Skt fast, clever horse. ~ [kotval] Skt ~~). 2 an official, incharge ofthe city's defence. 3 during the Mughal regime, a kotwal also used Ito be ajudicial magistrate. cEr [kota], cBru[kotah] P ~~/ or ; / adf small, inferior. 2 less, deficient. ~ [kotahi] P Lfil';/ n shortage, deficiency. ~ [kothri], mrnt· [kothli] S~, M ~ n sac, pouch, purse. "ramratanu mukhu kothri pardkhu age kholT."--s kdbir. 2 small pouch in which the Hindus tell their beads. &e' [kod] Pkt n direction. "je jf: ~dbdd bdddt CdhCJ kod."-NP. ~ [kodau] Skti):i2'R: or~~~n paspalum scrobi culatum; a kind of small millet, whose grains are pulverised and the flour so produced is used for making chapattis by the poor. "kodau ko bhus khai he," -gu} kabir. ~ [koddk] Skt ~1~'a n ehi!ld fond of playing. P J.y/ "jabahI bIIokyo ~tar kodak."-NP ~ [kodra], ~fe'r [koda], (~ [kodo] See ~. ~ (kodac.iJ Sktc~1C;Us n that vv'hieh produces squeaking sound, while an arrow is shot. i.e. string of a bow. 2 especially a string bow made of bamboo having nine nodes. ~ [kodr;w], -&qr [kodha], a-qr [kodhra] See ~. "h5s uQar krodhe paIa."-s farid. ~ [kodlm:] in the millet field, to the millet field. See ~ and WI'. ~ [kon], ~ [lwnaJ See ~~. "kone bethe khaie pargat hOI nIdan."--s kabir. 2 none, nobody. ~ [kone] plural of-&-(j1 [konaJ. 2 in the corner.

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ihr [kop] Skt n wrath, anger. "kop jaria."-kan
m5. ~ [kopar] Pkt a large platter with a handle attached. "kopar kandk kalas bahu thara."-GV 6. 2 bud, sprout. 3 Skt atfu skull, cranium. "kopar cur cavaDi latthI kdr;'iglE."-c~Qi 3. 'After crushing the skull and the face, the sword reached the skeleton.' ihRft [kopri] skull. See ~ 3. ~ [kopal] See ~ 2. -a-fu [kOpI] pron anyone. 2 See iNto cffi.rlW [kopIa] adj enraged, angered. iffia [kOpIt] adj enraged, furious. c{fuw [kopIla] enraged. "mujh upan sabh kopIla."-mdla namdev. 2 angered. a-tit [kopi] See -a-fu. 2 adj choleric, wrathful. ~ [kopin] See gtfto and ~. ~ [kopu] See chr. See '6t.J. [kofat] P ":;;'/ n percussion, stroke; injury. 2 fatigue. 3 inlaying of silver or gold on iron. [kofdtgar] P /..:;;,/ one who inlays silver or gold on baser metals. chso [koftan] P beat, strike. ~ [kofta] P ;:;/ adj beaten. 2 n round ball of mincemeat. c{li [kob] P'-;"'/ beat; infinitive of koftan. 2 When suffixed to another word, it means one who beats: sarkob i.e. one who hits on the head. ~ [kobad] P ;,/ may beat, beats, will beat. ." cffire" [kobId] See ~. 'IDf [kom] A (] n people ofthe same nationality; nation. "koman SUI koma."-guj d m 5. IDret [komdi] See ~. IDRr [komar] See ~ and Wffi. ~}ffi' [komal] Skt adj tender, delicate. sans hardness. "komal baI).i sabh bu S;'itOkhE."-gdU thItim 5. Poets consider the following as tender:mind of the ascetic, love, flower, butter, silk. 2 beautiful, fascinating. 3 water. 4 according to

m mora-


music a flat note. rI1?dbh, giidhar, dhEvat and nI1?ad are all flat notes. ~[komlta] n tenderness, delicacy. 2 beauty. ~ [komal b;'idhan] n sensuous bonds. komalb5dhan biidhIa."-ram m 5 rutI. 2 bond of attachment. [koy] See -&re. ~ [koyal] See ~. ~ [koya] See Ww. ~ [kor] n edge, border, hem. 2 corner of the eye. 3 crore. "nahi rahIt bIdhI kor.-GV 10. "lakh lakh kai korE."-kan m 5.4 M persistence, obstinacy. 5 defect. "tau tanI kai kor."-s farid. 6 enmity. 7 row, line. 8 P .J blind, sightless. 9 unproductive or barren land. 10 in the irrigational parlance, the field not irrigated after sowing. 11 short for ~ "sastr;'i chor, dE dE kor."-ramav. 12 adj without water. "ayo kor mu<;laI."-CdrItr 376. 'got his hair cut (without the application of water). , 13 new, unused. "ek <;lhol trIy kor m5gava."-CdrItr 355. 14 S stone of a fruit, especially of a mango. ~ [korak] Skt n bud. 2 See <ffi:ra". ~Qtit [karci] T J:J] manufacturer of arms. 2 armed; equipped with arms. 3 one who manages the court of a king; chamberlain. ~ [kort] General Court. He accompanied Avitabile to Lahore and served under Maharaja Ranjit Singh. His cantonment was at Begampura. He was a well read man. In 1841 AD, during the struggle for power at the court, he left his job at Lahore. 2 E court. 3 court of a king. 4 court room, court of law. ~ [kornIs] See ~. ~ [karma] See~. 2 T ,.-.J] n meat cooked in ghee (butter). ila;r [kordf] n hard grain, grain difficult to render soft by boiling. "koraf moth jIneha."-var ram 2 m 5. "kordf moth nd njhdi kdr agni jos." -BG. 2 S natural grown plants from seeds


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fallen from a tree. ~ [kor;}ra] lash, whip. 2 a metre, also known as "anad" characterised by four lines, each having thirteen characters,first pause at the sixth, the second at the next seventh, the last two characters being l;}ghu guru. With r;}g;}D, 151, in the final position, its rhythm becomes very charming. Example: S;}tIgUru kClhyo, suno vir khalsa, tyagdehu mClno, v;}QIai lalsa; hOI nI~kam, kClra seva de~ ki, cahat ho knpa, y;}dI j;}gte:;; ki. Its variant is pyar chad. See ~. ~ [korru] See~. ~ [kora] adj unwashed cloth, of which the starch has not been removed. "nan;}k pahE bahra korE ragu na sOI."-var asa. 2 a person unaffected by education or preaching. "manmukh mugCldhu nClru kora hOI."-suhi m 4. 3 unused or new vessel in which water etc. has not been put. See chIT. 4 unaccommodating; rude. 5 n frost, hoar. [kon] n crore. "sIdh sadhClk tetis kon." -sdvEye sri mukhvak m 5. afacr [konk] one crare. See ~. ~ [kori] feminine of c5tor [kora]. "nIt uthI kori gagClr an£."-brla kdbir. 2 n Hindu weaver. "kori ko kahu mdr;}mU nCl jana."-asa kdbir.' 3 See -&m 4.4 P (j.J blindness, sense of being blind. chr [kol) adv near, close by. 2 Skt n pig. "masCll bClli kol dIkhrae."~GPS. 3 a savage tribe which is especially found in Bhagalpur district. 4 Dg a boat made by tying pitchers under a cot. ~ [kol;}k] Skt n pepper. 2 See ~. ~ [kola] See ~ [kolah;}l] See ~. cffi? [kolI] See chr and ~. ~ [koHl adj living close by, living side by side. "hClrI nIkClt V;}SE h;}n koli."-gdU m 4.2 breeder



of pigs. 3 n an agricultural tribe that lives in the mountains. Many people consider them as untouchables. This is one of the oldest communities ofIndia. 4 The weavers in northeastern Punjab are also called ~m [kolil. 5 certain Gujjars ofAmritsar. 6 See~. 7 an ancient territory which is now in BastaI' district of Avadh in u.P. Its king, Suparbuddh, was maternal grandfather of Lord Buddh. Two daughters of Suparbuddh, Mayadevi and Prajapati, were married to Shuddhodan. clw [kolu] n oil press, crusher. "kolu cClrkha CClki cClku."-var asa. ~ [kolue] a Rajput subcaste. The rich from Kullu are of the this subcaste. 4 [kolhu] See ~, ~ [kov:cd] Skt n one who knows how to speak; learned scholar. ~roEee1F.1 [kOVId-i:;;l, c'mreTF.r [kOVIdi:;;l, ~ [koVIde~] chiefofgreat scholars. 2 chiefspeaker. ~ [kovaQ] See ~~. ~<iirn' [kovaIQ;}j] an arrow shot from a bow -Sdnama. ~<iii$H(')1 [kovaQajni] anny equipped with arrows. -Sdnama. ~ [kovaQnil army equipped with bows. -Sdnama. ~ [kor] n crom. "SImClrClhI devte kor tetisa." -maru solhe m 5. 2 Skt pig. "dhJl dhar h;}ryo, kagardi korabhI kClrakYO."-ramav. 'During Ram's battlle Dhaval (the mythological bull which is believed to hold the earth on its horns) got terrified and the back of Varah (an incarnation ofVishnu in the form ofa pig) gave out a crackling sound.' itm-JT [korma] n fam.:ily, clan. "Ik vaki korma vIcari."--BG. iffi:r [kop] n crore. "tin dey ;}ru kop tetIsa." -gujm 5. ~ [kori] n a score, group of twenty. 2 crores

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i.e. innumerable. "nanClk kori nClrClk bClrabre ujaru soi thau."-var jEt. ~ [kor5bhIl pigs too. See ~ 2. q [korhl n ~ See dIFM3<:3/'i. ci:r' [korhal, ~ [korhil adj leper. ~ [bl part of. See ~. "pCldarClth hIt b dun:n."-sar m 1. "bhClgCltI jog k) jetvar." -sClvEye m 5 ke. 2 adv when. See ai. cb1 [bsl See ~. "Ik pClg pClnhi nok bClQ, Ik pClg bs tIkaL"-NP. 'a shoe in one foot and a wooden sandal in the other.' "dhClri nIsani bs di, makke 5dafI puj kClrai."-BG.1 2 Skt silken garment produced from the cocoons of silk worms. 3 one from progeny of Kush. 4 P vi kettledrum made of brass. "dne dne dih
'Bhai Vir Singh has written the following footnote on the 36 th stanza of chapter 59 of the first half of his commentary in Guru Nanak Prakash: The following fact has been verified by Sant Sangat Singh (Kamalie wale) after his visit to 'Ucch': There is a place in Bahawalpur state known as 'Ucch Sharif; Sayyad Jalal Sani Makhdum RuknuddinAbul Fateh belonged to this place. He descended from the family of HazratAli Naqi. Even though he had migrated from Arabia to India, yet he was regarded equal to Mecca's Sharif, whenever he visited the shrine. At the time of Guru Nanak's visit to Mecca Sharif, Makhdum Ruknuddin was also present there. Many Indian hermits such as Laljati etc. were also around. When Mecca moved along wilh the feet of Guru Nanak, all the Muslims asked Makhdum Ruknuddin to lead them in religious discourse with Guru Nanak. It is he who is mentioned as Ruknal in Janamsakhis. Fully content wilh Guru Nanak's replies to his queslions, he on his return to India brought Kaus (wooden sandals) alongwith him. These wooden sandals are still preserved in the toshakhana (storeroom where precious articles are kept) ofUcch Sharif. Many a time, several rich Sikhs have tried to procure them in exchange for a large amount of money and land but Pir Sahib has declined to part with these sacred objects.

dhJsra, bs jujhJa dE re."-sClloh. 5 A v} bow. imor [bsakl See ~. ~[bstClkl Some ignorant scribe has written bstak instead of bstubh. "hIye bstak mClnI dhare."-Cdr.Itr 24 and 123. See ~Fl"g"§f. ~ [bstubhl Skt ~ n a gem retrieved from the sea, which Vishnu, the god, wears around his neck. ~ [b$Clll Skt n well-being, cleverness, wisdom. 2 ad) relating to Kaushal land. 3 n queen of Kaushal, Kaushalya. "kahI ko bsal kukkhI jayo jU."-sClvEye 33. 4 of Koshal subcaste. ii'J:n;r [k5sal] E council n advice. 2 council. ~ [bsaha] See ~. chlfi;m[bshsJ, ~[bsle$] people ofKaushal; their king Ram Chandar. "jos vaQo kar bshs5 adhbimlu te sar katutare."-ramav. ~ [b$alya] daughter of Kaushalland and its King; mother of Ram Chandar, the chief queen of king Dashrath. 2 wife of Chandarvanshi king Puru. cifi:rq [b$Ik] Gadhi - son of raja Kaushak, who was Vishvamitar's father. 2 Kaushak dynasty's Vishvamitar, 3 Indar. 4 owl. 5 silken garment. 6 mongoose. 7 treasurer, who guards the treasure. 8 recitation of a mantar of Atharved. 9 per Mahabharat a Brahman leper who had a pious wife named Narmada. 2 See~. clfaoIT [b$Iki] See »tr'i83i~ cit R 009»1". ~ [bkb5dar] See ~. clqr [bka] See ~.
'Once Narmada was carrying her husband on her head. On the way, her foot struck saint Mandavya, who was then hanging on a stake for being a thief. At this, saint Mandavya cursed the person who had troubled him to die at daybreak. By virtue of her chastity, Narmada stopped the sun from rising. On request from the gods and on persuasion fi'om Ansuya, Narmada let the sun rise. Kaushik, who was dead because of a curse, was blessed with life by Ansuya.

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ihr[be] armour, coat of maiL See~. "be<m iii:r [k5dh] Skt qci~cr sun. 2 lightning. ko jhatdE btdet."-GPS. 2 according to cii::ro [k5dhan]1 v flash. See ih:r. "jrm k5dhdt sava!) brjju ghata.-surdj. Tantarshastar, a song of protection. "tumi be ii'fta [k5dhJ:t] ad) flashing. See ih:r. "k5dhrt vaktrapne te luearyo."-cdrrtr 1. damanI saghan."-pards. atlr~Wi'd [bebrhar] See ¥fa<JT? ~ [bebrdya] n knowledge of wearing ito [km] See c$~' and ~Q. 2 A {j f n world, earth, material existence. armour. 2 knowledge regarding the manufacture of armour. 3 knowledge of defending c5hJlofbpin] belt, girdle, lloincloth. See~. one's body with the power of mantars. iiH [bm] A (~ n community. 2 nation. "bebrdya abhrdya"-gyan. 3 dynasty. iim [bei] adj armoured. "dsr gadi bci bal mr~ [bm bahattar] seventy-two communities gaQhe."-c.::lrItr405. swordsmen, maceholders of Arabia; seventy-two sects of Beni Israel. "kJm bahattdf sag kar."-BG. Hazrat and wearers of armour. ii~ [k)Qa] large cowrie. 2 See cn:I~. 3 a Mohammad united seventy-two communities carnivorous Bhil chiefofNishads who used to of Arabia into Islam and aligned them with himself. SeeI1~'Fn~m'€, ~ffi. plunder jungles in the south of Vindh. He wanted to catch hold of Bhai Mardana and iiHT\ft [bmaI'i] power of Kumar Kartikey. 2 ever virgin Durga. "kesri abahi bmaI'i." eat him. With his spiritual strength, Guru Nanak Dev transformed Koda's life in such a way -pardS. that he bade goodbye to his barbarity, became iilstft [bmudi] moonlight that makes the blue a saint and spent his remaining life in meditating lotus ecstatic. Blue lotuses bloom a lot in the upon the Creator. moonlight. 2 full moon night ofKattak. 3 a well [bQi] See ~. known grammar work Sidhant Komudi by ii~ [bQiaI'a], "6tiP?-rrw [bQiala], ~~ Bhattojidikshit, based upon Ashatadhyai by the [bQyara] a species of speckled snakes. They renowned grammarian PaDini. 4 Madhyasidhant Komudi by Varadraj Bhatt, written in Sammat are very poisonous. "janu <:;tasgayo nag 1250. 5 Laghu Sidhant Komudi by Varadraj bQyara."-CdrItr 297.2 a gambler who keeps Bhatt, which became more popular than the cowries with him for gambling. other two. 6 See Q)§C<lj-eT. 7 court of a raja. ~ [k:lI:d See ~. 8 mace of Vishnu Komodaki. ch'Q [btak] See ~. adOl~''d [btak-har], chait [btki] See 0(~3OWIO. ~ [bmodki] mace of Kumud (Vishnu). cl'31:;r [k5tey] Skt of or pertaining to Kunti. 2 n cla' [bI'] morsel.. "purab bI' nrkark£ pac, lage pun jeman."--NP. 2 pillar, threshold. "pJr khare Yudhishitar, Bhim and Arjun. 3 Arjun in hOI kor lag."-GPs. .3 short for bray (kuruva;;i) particular, is famous by this name, although all the three were sons of Kunti. 2 See ;g3t. "man bhitar k)I'an kop baQhayo."-krrscm. chr [bth] which date? 4 blue lotus, vvater lily. "bran ke mukhre iiw [btha] Skt 0lf3cr: and Olfuef what number? mukulE."-GPs. :5 prince. 6 name for a Sikh 'from his mouth. lady who has been baptised. As the word Singh 'In Gita, Krishan has frequently addressed Aljun as kStey. is added to the name of a Sikh male, so is the Hence this became a proper name tor Pu:jun. word Kaur added at the end of the name of a


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"b1nabhI bl jIh tal me rahat hr. "-iJkal. 'If Vishnu is known as Kaulnabh, then is that tank not Kaulnabh in which lotuses grow?' ~ [b1a] n a type of reddish orange. 2 pillar of a door from which an arch is raised. 3 Kamla, Lakshmi. See o®?r. 4 a Hindu girl Kamla, who was purchased and reared as a maid by Kaji Rustam Khan Mujang (Lahore). He taught her Islam and she became a scholar, but she had special inclination towards Hinduism. Having heard the praise ofthe Guru and hymns of Guru Nanak from various ~. iiw [bra] adj bitter. 2 See ~. hermits, she got attracted towards Gurmat and clfu [bn], a-oT [bri] n hug, embrace. "bhar took shelter under the sixth Guru and led a bri mahI lin."-GPS. 2 an object that may be pious life. Kamla died in Sammat 1686 at within the grasp of both the arms. 3 bricked Kartarpur. Her memorial is situated there. See superstructure ofa well, which is of the shape ~ under~. Bhai Santokh Singh has termed the burial of Kamla as contrary to ofa tower before it is lowered into the ground. "jEse kua khodkE su vasudha dhasaI bri." historical practice. -BGK. 4 cowrie. 5 bitter. 6 See a-a- 6. clW [b1a] See ~ 4. chr [bl] See ~ 1. 2 Sodhi Kaul Sahib from ch5'ra" [b1ar] See ~. the progeny ofPrithi Chand, who belonged to ~[blIk] Skt adjconventional religion of a village Dhilvan. When the tenth Guru attired family, that tradition has sanctified. 2 follower in a blue robe arrived at Dhilvan from of the Tantric path. 3 n Shiv-who initiated the Machhiwara, Prithi Chand offered two horses family religions ofTantrshastris. 4 cult of the and a white dress to the Guru, who put on the worshippers of Shakti. 5 weaver. white dress, tore the blue robe, and reciting- ~ [bb] till when, till that time. "nil bastra Ie kapre phare turak pathanI amal -a-;r [br], -a-'ST [bra] adj bitter. 2 choleric, wrathful. 3 n a Khatri subcaste of Bahujais. pa," burnt them. The Sodhis ofButter village 4 a Jatt subcaste which was very dominant in of district Ferozepur also belong to the Kaul dynasty. 3 blue-blooded. 4 according to Tantar Malwa before the advent of Brars as a great Shastar, an adherent oftantric mode ofworship. force. ~ [bramall] He was a minister of subedar ~ [b1sar] See ~. chs'a' [b1ak] See ~. Mir Mannu of Lahore. Disciple of the Gurus and supporter ofthe Sikhs as he was, he came ~ [blnabhI] Vishnu, who has a lotus in to be known among Sikhs as Mithamal. He his navel. 2 a tank where lotuses bloom. lA woman's name should be written with a sIhari (f) [II died at Lahore fighing against Durrani army in as J-IT3T R'f'iJ8" afu;:IT (mata sahIb brI ji). But at present 1752 AD (Sammat 1810) See l-itoJ..fQ. ifu has come into vogue. Anyhow wrong words which ~ [ka] Skt"Cfil'ln water. "pada ka pakhare."-NP. 2 forehead. 3 comfort, bliss. "kahu ka VI tala." get prevalent have to be accepted as right.

Sikh female. In fact, this word is kDvan (bn)l 7 Skt joint ofan organ. "katge kahu br aru carma."-gyan. ~ [brau], ~ [brao] See~. "chaq cale brau jEse."-caQi 1. "bhae tahI ke brao paqveya. "-janmejiJy. ~ [brpaI] protector ofKauravs, Duryodhan. "utE k)fpala dhiJrE chatndhiJrma."-gyan. ~ [brav] adj pertaining to Kuru dynasty. 2 n sons of king Dhritrashtar as Duryodhan etc. "kate brva dur sldur kheta."-gyan. See


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-VN. 4 fire. 5 god of love, Kam. 6 gold. offi' [kau] to. See ~. "jIn kau han prabhu kIrpa dhari."-va<;f chi'it ill 4. oii=r [kas] Skt n bronze. 2 goblet; a metal bowl. 3 king of Mathura, who was born from the semen of demon Drumil and the womb ofthe wife of king Ugars en. He was Krishan's maternal uncle and his great enemy. Kans was son-in-law of Jarasandh, king ofMagadh. With the help of his father-in-law" he dethroned Ugarsen and himself ascended the throne. Kans had married his sister Devki to Vasudev Yadav. At the time of the marriage, there was a revelation from an oracle that the son born from the eighth pregnancy of Devki would destroy Kans. Hence Kans imprisoned Devki and Vasudev and all the sons born to them were killed. From the eighth pregnancy Krishan was born, who was immediately sent by Vasudev to Gopraj Nand at Gokllll, and the girl born to Yashoda the same day, was handed over to Kans. Kans killed her by smashing her against a stone. Kans tried to kill Krishan in every possible way, but all in vain. Ultimately Krishan reached Dhanukhyag and caught hold of his maternal uncle by his hair, knocked him down and enthroned his maternal grandfather. "duapan knsan illuran kas kIrtarathu kio. ugraSEl) kau raju abhE bhagatahjan dio." -savE:ye ill 1 ke. ~ [kasan], ~ [kas i?atru] enemy of Kans, Krishan. ciJ:rcrra' [kaskar] brazier, tinker, maker of bronze vessels. d'Hfoaei'l [kasnIsudan], cfFrrfu [kasan] killer of K~ns, K~ishan. . cbI [kasu] See ciJ:r. cfcr [kak] Skt ~ a carnivorous bird from the family of vultures. Its feathers are attached to arrows. Some scholars take kr5ch to be kak.

"k'ikan pakhlnlad lage jIn."-GPs. "bahu gIdh kak bayas pukar."-GPS. 2 umbrella. 3 heron. 4 Dharamraj. 5 a Brahman who is described in 2ph CharitaI'. 6 nickname' of king Yudhishtir when he livled in disguise with king Virat. cfua" [kakal)], c~~Q'O [kakan] Skt ~ n bangle, bracelet. "hal' qor kak;m ghal)e."-oi'ikar. 2 crown. 3 ornament. 4 kagna, which is tied to the hand of the groom at the time of wedding. 5 a poet whose literary composition figures in Hanunatak of Hridayaram : tab janakI ko han kanan ten gae sar til' tnkha jal ki, kahI kakan nEku bhaE dng i?ital sapatI dekln ratopal ki alI kOi? gae athae dInnath nai chavI t=1 naiinidal ki, mal)u mI tr vIyOg pare murjha I qali mukhI melI halahal ki. of~'t [kakpatri] an arrow to which are attached feathers of the kak bird. "chute kakpatri. ",--saJoh. crcra- [kakar] See fc:;f-~. "jamkakar vas panya." -sri a ill 5,. 2 gravel. :3 small piece of stone. 4 Skt cps:~'"{ maligned, depraved. 5 n semichurned curd. 6 one hundred million, ten crores. ~ [kakri] n pebble. 2 gravel. cfu;r [kakar] See or-c«r. ~ [kakria] ad} in skeletal form; who is attired as Bhairav. 2 attired nastily, who is wearing a garland of skulls and having blooddripping skin. "kakria rupa raktali."-paras. of~ [kakal] Skt Cfi&CI'iffi Bhairav, Bhairon. 2 skeleton. ~ [kakali] Bhairvi. See ~. 2 who wears a skeleton of bom~s-Kali. 3 a temple of the goddess in Birbhum district of Bengal, which is amongst fifty-two seats of the deity .

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or~ [kakyan] vehicle of a kak (Khatri);

horse. 2 one who has gait like that of a heron or a white kite. ciar [kag] Dg n armour. "durga dte danvi suI hoia kaga."-c~Qi 3. "dtukk tukke dkag kage." -Tamav. 'broke the armour of the armed.' 2 a subcaste of Jatts. 3 Skt ~ lung. ~ [kagdD] See ~. ciaT<!y'Q [kagdDPur] a village oftehsil Chunia, district Lahore. It is a railway station. Its villagers showed disrespect to Guru Nanak Dev and did not allow him to stay there. He asked them to "stay put" and left the place. The VdD tree (salvadorea olevides) under which Guru Nanak Dev sat is now known as Mal Sahib. There is a small gurdwara built there. The priest is a Namdhari Sikh. A fair is held on the 1sl of Chet. See ~ -e-&. ~T [kagl)a] See cfu'o 4. ofaJil'[kagDi] n small bangle. 2 Skt~ millet, canary seed. oi\no [kagdn] See ~. ciaT'ot' [kagna] See 4. 2 See 1. "kdr kdrI kdrta kagna pdhIrE."-asa m 1. cfurH'r8t[kagmai] a small village of police station Hariana, tehsil and district Hoshiarpur. It is situated to the north-west of railway station Hoshiarpur at a distance ofeleven miles. There is a metalled road upto Hariana. From there is a two mile unmetalled stretch. Bhai Manj was a resident of this village; Guru Arjan visited this place. Bhai Manj was from the family of Manj Rajputs of the area and he was a renowned devotee ofSakhisarvar. His name was Tiratha. In Sammat 1642, Manj became a Sikh of Guru Arjan Dev and presented such an ideal specimen of the faith as seems marvellous to all. Once, during a dust storm, he along with



the firewood he was carrying for the community kitchen, fell into a well of Sultanwind. Driven by his affection, Guru Arjan Dev himself reached there, took Bhai Manj out of the well, embraced him and thus spoke: "map plara guru nu, guru map plara map guru ka bohltha, jdg IaghaDhara."1 After testing him thoroughly, the Guru appointed him a preacher in Doaba. This sage obliged the people of the territory by not only organising free kitchen but also by propelling them towards meditation. In Sammat 1651 Guru Arjan Dev graced Kangmai. Bhai Manj took it as a fulfilment of his service. A memorial of Bhai Manj as we II as a gurdwara of Guru Arjan Dev are situated here. Earlier, the entire land of Machhian, Granthpur and Kang villages was in the name of the gurdwara but now there is no free land any more. The community kitchen is run only with offerings from the followers. People come to visit this place with great devotion. A big fair is held on the 1st of Magh. Routine fairs are held on the first day of all the months of Bikrami Sammat. ~[kagrorl spine; spinal column. ~ [kagaI] See ~ 2. pauper. 2 destroyer of comfort (or). ~ [kaguDi] See cfaTit. ~ [kagura] P tr or for pinnacle. 2 crownD/":"/' shaped mark at the top of a house. ofurr [kaghal Skt ~ comb. cfur' CffiOT [kagha kama] v comb or dress hair. 2 annihilate, loot. 3 break someone's head. ciuft [kaghi] Cf]i5·Cfif2iCfiI small comb. 2 interlocked fingers of both hands. 3 weaver's comb. ciuft ~ [kaghi marDi], cfuit J-P07J't [kaghi mami]
IThis couplet is not a part of Guru Granth Sahib; it is a part of historical records.

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v interlock fingers ofthe both hands. 2 interlock ciei'l<ii'li [k5canv:;:lna] adj having a glowing body; having a golden body. "k5canvane pase kalvat fingers of both the hands over the joined knees. cirIa."-asa farid. 3 grasp something so as nolt to let it go. 4 separate virtue from vice by discretion or crmft [k5cni] n a woman of the Kanchan caste; female worshipper of gold; prostitute; harlot. logic. ci1i<!" [ki.'lUn] See ci~. "hal' ki.'luan dhngu cftrQ [k5canuj S~~,e m3C~·. "kacanu tanu hOI parasI paras kau."·-saveye m 4 ke. bana."-l'am m 5 l'utI. cie' [ki.'lc] Skt cru glass. 2 short for ki.'lcan i.e. ~cft [kacuki] Skt Cf~;qiT n bodice, blouse, brassiere. 2 Skt;~fcfq, in-charge of women's gold. [k5can] Skt ~ n gold. "k5can SIU apartment, usually a eunuch. paiE nahi tol."-gau kabil'. 2 thorn-apple. 3 a ~ [k5cua] Skt Cfi0{~~ n blackbird. "lage kacua deciduous tree, Nauhinia variegate. 4 gold coin, phal moti.."-gau kabil'. 'vices and virtues.' 2 kar5jua; }fttr<~~' [m:lcka]; a thorny plant with mohar. "tIU ki.'lcan aru pEsa."-gau m 9. 5 brilliance, lustre. 6 a tribe that regards gold bitter leaves" Its leaves are ground and as its favourite god and is the custodian of swallowed to get rid of fever. See ~. cfi:r [kaj] n which is produced by water [k5]; adultery. 7 adj of gold, golden. See~. citJo fu'a'o [k3can hIran] pure gold, 24 carat lotus. 2 elJixir. 3 hair; which grow on the head. gold. "loha kkan hIran hOI kEse?"-l'am cfi:r ~ [kaj ClvalI] See tfextii'l'fcex' 2. ravidas. ~ [kaj-jasu] Brahma, born from the lotus citro ~ [kacan kaIya] body glowing like [k5j], his son Narad" "mun5 k5j-jasu tnya s5g line."-GV ]' O. 'Narad along with the yoginis.' gold; robust body attained through celibacy. "'kacan kaIa gurmukhI bujhE."--mal'u solhe m cfi::Rr [k5jar] See i:ftr(')" 6. 2 a community which makes both ends meet by making brooms and 3.2 i.e. priceless body. 3 healthy body. citJo [bc5n kot] mountain of gold; Sumeru. mats of seed gJrass. 3 Cf~ drawer of water"k5cankot gIryo kahu kahI na7'''-datt. the sun. 4 elephant. 5 belly. 6 peacock. 7 sage ot'~m [kacandehi] See cftri"i w~. "jIh Agast. offfi?cf[k5jlakl, a~iNcit [kajlaki] lotus. k5jlak stands prasad I arag k5candehi."-sukhmani. for stamens which are present on the pod; of;rny'Rtf [kacanpusap], oftr~(? [k5canphul] bearer of stamens" "k5jlak nEn k5bugriv." flowers made of gold; flowers for showering on the bier ofelderly and respectable persons. -gyan. "'dhan gan ki.'lccm phul bcmae."--GPS. 2 a ofwr [k3jUS] n miser. ~ [k5J1ka] virgin, girl. "brahman kElighat golden coloured fragrant flower; magnolia. cf'tli'lSfl'S [kaccmbelI] Skt aiBoyFp.IT n beautiful k5J1a a.Q.cari ka dhan."--sava m 3. climber bearing golden flowers. "kacanbelI iiG [k3t], oR;CS[ [k~l1;akllthom. "~ri guru pag ketakI pusap prem k;3t jIh sag. man malfd ko vedh gIri Ikbara."-GPS. 'yellow jasmine.' kar kah6 katha saum5g."-NP. See»fUlofc and 2 gold-like body. ~. 2 adj painful, irksome, prickly like a ~ [k5canvapu] Seei~:»fT. 2 Hiranyathorn. "nako katak vnai."-val' vac;l m 3. kashipu, younger brother of Harnakhas, who had a glowing body. It is translation of 3 enemy. fth'li'lJlexFHY "kacanvapu bha harakh apara."-NP. ~ ~ [k5tak alapil adj who uses harsh or



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unpleasant language.


<:kaT [katka] See

~ [katari] a herb with fine thorns~olanum

Xanthocarpum. "je nahI bOVE: bij agari. kyo katak dukh deI katari?-NP cffew [katIka] See~. thorny shrub. "kamal vatIka hute lagavat, UdE katIka thIri saQal." -CPS. 2 bridle fitted with a bit. "karE su vasI mukh mahI katIka deIkE."-NP. ~ [katila] adj thorny, barbed. cia [kath] Skt Cf1UO n throat. 2 neck. "kath raml).iy ram ram mala."-sahas m 5. 3 bank, coast. "kathe bEthI gursabadI pachanE."-mala am 1. 4 voice. "kohl so kath."-knsan. 5 adj committed to memory. "gurubani ko kath brijE."-GPS. ~ [kath-abhukhal).] See c:(6'~R<!. ~ [kathsIri], ~ [kath!.iri] n necklace. 2 bejewelled ornament like a garland. cf6djftJd [kathgrahIta] that which strangulates; ' noose.-sanama. ~ [kathramal).I] beautiful necklace. ci'ofuy [kathnpu] death by hanging; noose. -sanama. 2 thorn-apple. of'6W [kathla] necklace. 2 chaplet made of beads of rudra~ seeds, which is worn by saints devoted to Lord Shiv. "abpat kathla." -hazare 10. ciOT [katha] See ciow. 2 bank, coast. "kathe bEthi gurusabadI pachane."-mala am 1. ofo'tt[ [kathagr] adj committed to memory. cf6 l gd<! [kathabharal).], c:(6 i gdC'l [kathabharan] ornament worn around the neck. ~~ [kathabhu!.ial).] See c:(6'gd<!. 2 a metre characterized by four lines, each having three bhagaw, two gurus, organised as 511, 511, 511, 55. Example: "bhartkumar na :Jhath kijE, jah ghar!" na hamE dukh dijE, raj kahyo ju hamE ham mani,

trayoda!.i barkh baSE bandhani." -ramav. cffo [kathI] in the neck. "namnIdhanu kathI un dhana."-var bIla m 4. 2 hug. "han rakhE kathI jan dhare."-ram m 4. 'The Creator keeps the devotee close to his heart'. 3 banks, coast. ~ [kathIphul] n necklace. 2 a bejewelled gold necklace, with a flower-shaped pendant in it that hangs upon the chest. "sagal abharal). sobha kathIphul."-asa m 5. ofo9" [kathi] necklace made of metal or wooden . beads worn around the neck. "kathi kath kath ki Qari."-VN. ~ [kathirav] Skt n lion, from whose throat comes out a loud roar. cia [kaQ] n back. "gun thapi dIti kad jiu."-sri m 5 pEpaI. 2 very fine alkaline dust that is present on such plants as grams etc, whose touch is irritating to the body. of~ [kaQjharni] v remove thorns from plants by threshing. 2 prick the ego of an arrogant person by admonishing him. ofaT [kaQa] n thorn. "tIn atan haumE kaQa he."-sohIta. "kaQa paI na gaQ-hi mule." -maru solhe m 1. 2 hooked implement to take out articles fallen into a well. 3 pointer ofscales which is in the beam's middle and bends towards the heavier side. "ape kaQa tol taraji."-suhi m 1. 4 small scales. "jIU kaQE tolE sunIara."-var sar m 1.5 angle, fish hook. ~ [kaQIari] Skt CflO (':eti I £) n shrub having sharp thorns. Solanum Jacquinii. cii [kaQu] Skt ~ n itch, scabies. ofw [kaQha] n bank, coast. [kaQhi] adj of or pertaining to the bank or the coast. 2 n an ornament which women wear around their necks. 3 foothills. 4 land by the bank of a river. cia" [kat] Skt "Cfi"Rf n one who is worth loving,


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husband. "avIgUl:lIari k~t vIsari."-dh~ma ch;'}t m 1. 2 adj beautiful, attractive. cf3'OiJTij" [katnagar], cf3'OiJTij" ~5}jl [k~tnagar 1;~cchmi] Kahalgaon; a village at a distance of ten kohs to the east of district Bhagalpur. Guru Teg Bahadur stayed here. The gurdwara there is under the supervision ofthe Mahant ofPatna Sahib. cf3'H'fr"ffi' [katm2lheli] adj beautiful woman, graceful lady. ~ [k~tra] See cfu. "ja uthi C2l1si btra."-sri m 5. i.e. soul. cfol [kati] Skt CJiR1 n wife, consort. 2 adj graceful, elegant. "nan2lk sa sohag2l1).I k~ti." -tukha bardhmaha. 3 of the husband. of;~ [k~tuh2ll] See 2~. "k2lmla k~t k2lr2l1u k~tuh2ll."-maru solhe m 5. "s~t m2lral k2lr2lhI k~tuh2ll."-SdVE'ye ill 4 ke. chr [k~th] See cfu. 2 See ~. 3 n tale, talk. "su1).lehu mItr s~chep k~th."-dj. ~ [k~tha] Skt ~n n patched quilt worn by an ascetic. 2 mud wall. 3 human body. ere [k~d] or ~ [k~du] Skt ~ n root of a crop. 2 carrots, onions etc which grow under the ground. "CU1).I khaiE kada."-brla kdbir. "IkI kadu mul CU1).I khaVdhI."-val' majh m 1. 3 cloud that gives water. 4 short for k~d2ln (kdd2ln). 5 P ;; crystalized lump sugar. ~r [kadah] P n.;;) engraved. ~ [k~d-har] See cfu1o. 2 one who brings tubers or vegetables grown underground etc. 3 air, which drives away clouds. cf't!'O [kad2ln] See CR7i'. "$rI ag2ld kad2ln VIgh2ln."-NP. 2 P (;.1.;;) excavate, dig. oferae1d'J [k:"ldbIdari] See ~re-. ~ [kadmul] Skt n a plant that is about three cubits tall. Its leaves are like those ofsilk cotton tree. It has a thick root, which is used as vegetable. See cfe" and ljC? "k~d mul aharo khaiE."-srdhgosdtr.


cfe'a' [k~d2lr] Skt 91;<0: n what pierces the head of an elephant; a goad. 2 See cf\!ijT. "rukh
bIr2lkh k2lrE kadaJr vasu."--rdtdnmala b;'}no. cfe"atr [kadr2lp] Ski ~f n which causes vanity i.e. lust; Kam, goel of Ilow. cn:ar[k~dra] Skt n cave, cavern, or hollow place made by the flow of water. Caves are made in hills by the same process. These serve as dwelling places for the h~:rmits. [kadro] See i~~. ~ [k:"ld2ll] n lotus. "kad2l1 sukh2ld tIn2lhu p2lg b:"ld."-GPS. 2 blue lotus. 3 a plant with white flowers that grows near water and withers in the sunlight. "kad2l1 duraI d2ll."-NP. See l-fTI? W. 4 gold. 5 skull. 6 condemnation, censure. 7 temple. 8 earth. 9 ginger. 10 tuber root, yam. 11 ill-omen. cfuw[k:"ldla] n gilt. 2 according to Vishnu Puran, a mountain upon which seers and deities reside. ~ [k:"ldli] Skt n lotus-seed. 2 a flowering shrub which grows near water. ~ [k~duk] Skt ball. 2 onion. "j2ltha su k:"lduk mE 2lb phore."-GPs. ~ [kadoi] Dg n maker of sweets. ~ [kadu] a devotee of Guru Arjan Dev from the Sanghar subcaste, who became a spiritually awakened and altruistic. ~ [kadrap] god of love, Kam. See ~. "kadr2lp kotI jakE 12lvE n2l dharahI."-bhE'r d kdbir. 'Millions ofKams cannot compete with Him, i.e. they cannot compete in beauty.' c{q [k:"ldh] n wall. 2 human body, which, without the soul is just like an inanimate wall. "UQE na h:"lsa parE na kadh."--srdhgosdtI. 3 idiotic; unintelligent. "pahan ki prI tma ko :"ldh k:"ldh hE pujari."-BGK. 4 S neck. Skt cfmr bearer of the head. "nace k:"ldh-hi1).:"l kdb:"ldh:"l."-cMi 2. 5 Skt ~u shoulder. "k~dhI kuhara SIr ghara."-s £arid. See WeC? 6 See oflJ. 7 Skt


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bearer of water; cloud. 8 barbaric community insect that causes irritation in the ear. See F.I3tfe" of Orissa. and~. i.'imr [k~dhdr] Skt n bearer of water; cloud. cio W [k~n del).a] to listen attentively. "de 2 bearer of head; neck. 3 according to k~nu sundhu drdasI jiu."-sri m 5 pEpaI. Markandey Puran, a great warrior. cio ~ tTa' ~ [kan nil hdth 1aul).a] v take a citr' [k~dha] See cfz:r 5. solemn pledge not to do a forbidden act in oftRf [k~dhar] a subcaste of Rajputs, the future. It also carries the implication that in progeny of Val. 2 Skt "fCF~:ncm::- n regular case this act is repeated, his ears may be pulled. deployment of army during the war. "duM 2 It is mentioned in Parashar Simriti that after kadhara muhjure qh01 sakh mgare bdjje."-caQi telling a lie or talking to an apostate, one should 3. 3 P .lIP» Skt 0JTqr-a- a territory ofAfghanistan touch one's right ear, because there live the and its principal town. It is sixty-two miles from deities and touching them sanctifies him. See Chaman and 313 miles from Kabul. It is d 7 $ 28-29. situated at 3,462 feet above the sea level. ~. [kanmdrOrna], ~[kanmurd~na] v twist someone's ear and warn that this evil Kandhar is renowned for its fruit. deed should not be done. "kdn pirdhu ~ [k~dhari] adj resident of Kandhar. 2 of kdnmurd~iE."-var ram 3. or relating to Kandhar. cf'i'i'QR' [k~nrds] n love for music. 2 fond of offu' [kadhI] upon the shoulder. See cfz:r 5. lkadhi] S n bank of a river or canal. "k~dhi listening to idle talk. utE rukhra."-s [,:;rid. "adhe! tu bE~ha kadhi cior [kana] n vowel mark for [a] (r). 2 shoulder. pahI."-sri m 5. "tIkh muia k~dhi pasI." ~ [kanaphusi] See O(i(')JcgA1. -maru m 4. 'died ofthirst inspite ofbeing close cifo [kanI] See ofif. 2 upon the shoulder. "kanI musla suph gdII."-S farid. "dekhdhu b~da to the bank of a river.' 2 adj situated on the cdIIa cdhu jdl).Ia de kanI."-s [arid. bank. ciy [k~dhu] See cfz:r. 2 aspect, cause. "tIn ka cifonIr [k~nIa], ~ [k~nIka] See 0(('iJf0(l' and qo;rr. k~dhu nd kdb-hu chIjE."--gau var 1 m 1. cffotro9' [kanIdhani] n having treasure-house 3 body. ci'n [kan] or cia [kanu] Skt wf ear. "de kanu of water; the earth.-sanama. sundhu drdasI jiu."-sri m 5 pEpaI. 2 shoulder. cioT [kani] n skirt of a garment. 2 border. 3 in the ears. "kani buje de rdha kI ti vdgE pdUl).. "-s 3 Skt cpoq a sage whose numerous mantars [arid. 4 to the ears. "k~ni sutdku k~n pE laItbari are included in Rig Ved. He lived on the bank khahI."-var asa. of river Malini. It was he who nurtured Shakuntla. It was in the hermitage of Kanv cioT O(d~J1f1C!:1 [kani kdtraul).i] v get picked the edge of a garment with money tied to it. that king Dushiant had sexual liaison with 2 avoid someone. Shakuntla. "sesnag dIU k~n nkhi."-JSBM ciQ [k"')nu] See ofo and ofo 4 See cq. [k~nE] Pa adj close, near. 2 n direction. cioHfu [k~nsoI] See ~. ofoy [k~mhu] Pa from. "Ih budhI pai mE 3 adv upon the bank. "ddnavE kanE bdgula." -s [arid. sadhu k~mhu."-toQim 5. of?:' - [k~no] adv from. "ldh~nI se sal k~no ~ [kankhdjura] Skt ~ centipede; an




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datI."-s [arid. 2 nrom the ear.

ciij [k.'lnh] See cq.-. 2 Kanh, Krishan. "gharia
sabhe gopia pahar kanh gopal."-var asa.

ciQ' [kanha] n shoulder. cifq [kanhI] upon the shoulders. 2 with the
cio:;rc:{r [kanyaka],

ciOJIT [kanya] See

~ and

2 See ~ ~'.
n gift of a girl without any

cloOlt't!'(j [kanyadan]

pecuniary gain; marrying a girl to a suitable groom. clo:;I'Qo [kanyadhan] n dowry; girl's wealth; the wealth which a girl receives from her father etc. at the time of marriage. It includes garments, ornaments, cattle, cash. oi'o:;l'd i m[kanyarasi] See iX07. 2 a man, shy and timid as a girl, is called by this name. oi'Q' [kanv] See cJ:o 3. oi'l.l [kap], cfuo [kapan] SkI' n trembling. "tharhar kapE bala jiu."-suhi kabir. cfl.lol [kapni] E Company, association. 1. companionship. ;; companion. 4 society. 5 a troop ofsoldiers. iit..rol FI'dQTij' [kapni sarkarl, ci'tl?it ~ [kapni bahadur] SeecftRc~{f~. oi'l.fT1!iJ}fT()' [bpayman] Skt adj trembling, vibrating. oi'~ [kapavan] v shake, give a jolt. oi'fu-d' [kapIt] See ~ro. cifirw [kapIla] adj shaken, jolted. 'fi\f [kapu] E camp. oi':a' [kab], ~ [kabDa] See cfu-mro. "tIS kabahI papE."-var illaru 2 ill 5. oi'tra' [kabar] See ci'm? "'kabar ek dharE tan chadan."-GPS. See ;:ra-oh:r~r. 2 Skt adj dappled, spotted. 3A ;; a slave of Hazrat Ali. ~ [kabarbeg] commander of Shah lahan's army, who was speared to death by Raijodh in the battle of Gurusar Mehraj. chfl;r[kabal] Skt n blanket. 2 shawl. "kabal badh

aQabarkE."--cCJ>ntr 161.3 jowl hanging under the neck of a cow or an ox. 4 a king of snakes. ~ [kabalril, c:hR~ [kabli] See oh:r1? "parI patola dhaj kari k;'ibalri pahneu."-s [arid. "cala ta bhIjE k;'ibli." --s f~rid. oi'tihr [kabir] See a~r. "nama jEdeu kabir tnlocan."'-bIla a 111' 4. '''kahI k;'ibir kou s;'ig na sath."-bher. 2 water-warrior. oi''§' [kabul Skt n conch. "kabugriv trE rekh VIsaIa."-NP. 2 elephant. ~ [kabugriv] adj with conch-like neck. See ~. and c~. oi'it [k;'ibo] n a community engaged in agriculture. Its members, originated from Kambi town of Gujarat, henc:l~ the:ir name, Kambo. Some scholars are of the view that this community belongs to Karnboj territory. [kaboj] Skt n the territory surrounding Hindukush mountain range in Afghanistan. It is known for owning horses of good quality. oi'H [kam] Skt c~~.fwork. "han kam karavan aIa."-suhi ch~H ill 5. c:b-rl¥ [kamla],r.~Hffi [k;'imli] adj crazy. "sahu nerE dhan k;'imlie!"--tI1.§g ill 1. 2 See ~ [kamra] work. "j:mi k;'imi nahI gUD te k;'imre vIsan."-s {arid. ~ [k'imaUl)a], ;s!l-ft~ [kamavan] v earn. 2 put into practice. "sara sariatI Ie kamavahu." -illaru soJ'he ill 5. cffi.r [kamr] iin action, put to use. "amal jI kite duni VICI dargah ae kamI."-s [arid. ciW [k;'imi] adj doer. 2 worker. 3 due to deeds, in deeds. See (~~H;P. Cir.iJl' [kya] See 1f,!;r»fT. ~ [kyamat] See :~l-l3". ~ [kyar], aJl1~F [kyara] See fu»ro-funrrQT. ~ [kIyhu] from. "dam kIyhu hoti sat." -cau ill 5. 'if it could be exchanged with money.' cd' [kyo] adv why. 2~ how.



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~ [krat-ar:t:ti] n river, the destroyer of

various territorial boundaries of regions and villages. "krat-arl)i pad adI kahI jaearnath uear. satru uear kar tupak ke hjo nam sudhar." -s;:mama. 'First of all it is river, then grass produced by it, then its grazer, the deer, then deer's lord the lion and finally lion's enemythe gun.' ~ [kratagy] See~. "karat rahe kratagy karul).amE ~tarjami gyan."-kanm 5. 'Keeping in mind the benevolent and the omniscient. One, they kept performing their actions gratefully.' 2 It means when a person is aware that God knows about his actions, then he is not inclined towards evildeeds. ~ [kratabI] See ~. C!~ [kratu] Skt n '(jf(J]Jf. 2 concept, desire. 3 discretion thought. 4 soul. 5 Vishnu. 6 according to Purans a saint who was born from Brahma's hands. He was married to Kriya, daughter of Kardam. She bore him sixty thousand Valkhiley saints. 7 son of Krishan. 'WI' [kram] SktCJJf action. "jap-hin tap-hin kulhin kramhin."-gau namdev. 2 Skt activity of taking two footsteps. 3 serial, order, system. 4 action, practice. "man bac kram hangul). nahI gae."-dl1;:ma m 9. 5 See "GfEIl'CPf. ~ [kramnasa] See ~. "iJlil" [kray] Skt n buying, purchasing. "iJlil" ~ [kray vIkray] n sale and purchase, exchange, business. ~ [kraIap] See ~ and~. 2 crying like a curlew. ~ [kravar], ~ [kraval] See ~. ~ [krat] Skt adj buried. 2 covered. 3 absorbed, engrossed. 4 penetrated, put across. "barchi tab bhup ealaIdai. $IV ke ur me lag krat bhai." --knsan. 5 n horse. 6 foot. qif3' [kratI] n speed. 2 taking two footsteps.

3 orbit on which the sun moves. 4 This word has beeen used by some poets in place of kat I (splendour) as well. ~3" [kratIVrItt] See exif3" 3. qra- [krar] See ~. 2 bank, coast. ~'dci'ei'i1 [krark~dni] river, which demolishes the banks.--sanama. ~ [krIa] See fcIw. "sag2l1 krIa m2lhI ut2lmu kIrIya."--sukl1mani. ~G [krIyakGt] fraud, hyprocrisy. 2 act of staying immovable like a mountain. ~-~ [krIya-VISeSal).] See f"rq:rTG1:rrIr.~~..ai.l""'I"I""'<!. ~ [krIyavIsekh] an act that lays more emphasis on rituals, knowledge not being primary to it. "kriyavIsekh puja kareI."-bas5t m 3. 2 specific or special action. %H [kris] Sktcpr lean, thin. 2 weak. 3 delicate, tine. "namo sarabdrIs~. nama sarabkrIs~." -japu. 4 Skt ~ VI' pull, attract. 5 fN n agriculture. "krIS kahO han na pavE." -c5dr. ~ [krIsak] Skt~ adjwho with a plough draws furrows upon the land. 2 farmer, cultivator. 3 bullock. ~ [knstan] E Christian; disciple ofChrist. fcarro [krIsan], fcrpro [krI$an] Skt ~ adj black, dark. "krIsan rId2l ujj2l1 karhf."-GPS. "krIsan VISV tarbe nImIt."-krIsan. 'in order to salvage this world become dark with sins'. 2 n Ved Vyas. 3 Arjun. 4 cuckoo. 5 crow. 6 dark half of the lunar month. 7 Kaliyug-an era of vices. 8 indigo. 9 iron. 10 collyrium, antimony. 11 eighth incarnation of Vishnu i.e. Krishan, who was the son of Yaduvanshi Vasudev from Bhojvanshi Devak's daughter l Devki. He was born in prison at Mathura and nurtured in village Gokul at the house of Nand Gop, under the supervision ofYashodha. Krishan was a great statesman and warrior.
ladopted daughter ofUgarsen. See ~o and ~.

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who is a devotee, lndar provides rain in equal very powerful. He killed Kans and made his measure. maternal grandfather Ugarsen king of FqHhHea [knsansasur) Krishan's wife Yamuna, Mathura. In Mahabharat, he played a pivotal her father, the sun.-sanama. 2 Jamvant. role in the war that ensued between Kauravs 3 father of queen Rukmani etc. and Pandavs. As a charioteer of Arjun, he ~ [kns.msakha] Krishan's friend, Arjun. made victory possible for Pandavs. His precept fqHOCia [knsanbr), ft3"F~fu[knsanbn]See in Gita prevented Arjun from timidly laying CJfafgH(,) m'o~rg· down his arms in the battlefield. Fed up with ~ fql:ro aQ WtT ~~ [knsan knsan kar sadh battles ofJarasandh, he established the capital do.]--knsall. 'Two saints (Devki and Vasudev) started reciting KJrishan, Krishan.' of Yadavs at Dwarka in place of Mathura. Krishan had eight queens (Rukmini, Kalindi, fq"JII"O"iIfarr [krIfj;mg;~ga] a south Indian river, Mitarvinda, Satya, Nagnijiti, Jambvati, Sushila, which has its origin in the western ghats and Satyabhama, Lakshmana) Apart from these, flows into the' Bay of Bengal. It is 400 miles there were said to be other 16, I 00 wives as long and is also known as Krishna. well. Krishan was killed at Som Tirath fcaHhtfe [knsanc;')cll See o'i'aP' l-fT3T. (Prabhas) at the age of 125 years by Jar the fqHoaadw [knsanbartama] See fgHMljdl-fT. hunter (supposed to be an incarnation ofBali). FqHoaMi [knsanbalbbha] beloved ofKrishan, Shevya, Sugriv, Meghpushap and Velahak Yamuna.-sanama. "krIsanbalIabha tat Ik were four horses of his chariot. His charioteer rahE."-GV 6. was Darak. fc!~~ ~: [krIsanballabhais sastra) There is a narrative in Vishnu Pural). part 5 noose, the weapon ofVarul). who is the lord of a 1 that in order to save the world, God had Yamuna and Yamuna is the beloved of sent two hair-one black and the other grey. Krishna.-sanama. Froll} the black hair Krishan and from the grey FgHMii@ [knsanbhav) spiritualism, spirituality. hair Balram were born. 12 In part 7, sukt 96 "aganbhav kIh bJ:dh kahf' knsanbhav ke of Rig Ved, it is mentioned that on the bank of sath?"-knsan. 'How do gopis talk of Anshumati river, there was a dac:oit named sensuality through spirituality?' Krishan who lived alongwith ten thousand fqHoC'S'l'S [knsanlal] brother of Pandit Harilal robbers. People were fed up with him. At last of Kashi, who was a devotee of Guru Arjan Indar killed him. 13 the Supreme Being, the Dev. See <:rfcr ~)'. 2 a poet who rendered Creator l who is the source of birth and death Mahabharat into Hindi verse. He has written to all. "ek krIsn;') sarav deva."-var asa. "sov;')n 18 chapters ofBhagvat Gita under the heading Shri Mukhvak Patshahi 10. It is also known as <;lhala knsan mala japahu tusi saheliho"-vaQ Gobindgita, but eviident from its verse is the cMt m 1. 14 Skt ~ pearl. 15 heartbeat. fact that its author is not the tenth Guru, rather 16 Bhai Santokh Singh has also used knsan in place ofknfjak (cultivator) "knsan bhagat it is Krishanlal himself ko meghad jIsanu."-GPs. 'To the cultivator fgHoi@a3w [knsanvartama] Skt 't50I'1\J::f~, n whose passage is dark; which is recognised 1"~q;: ~: 'If""!. f.1~ CfT'i'I'P: I by the presence ofsmoke; fire. "krIsanvartama ~ t'f!:i ~ 'f""T ~!ft<fct" -.:;ridhar.

It was due to his valour that Yadavs became

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kan knpche."-bas5t m 4.
~ [knpaD] miser.


fqtrt [knpJ)e] kindly. "han devahu kan
knpDe."-nat m 4.
~ [knpan] See ~. "dhaI dhaI knpan

(a) dan bIn darab nIdan thahrat bn gyan bIn ya~ apya~ kar karge, "kavIray" satan subhaI sune suman ke dharam bIhune dhan dhara dhar dharge, kam ae kahu ke na dam duhO dinan ke dham gage gae}e sab gath gar garge, bor bor buad bae}ai be~aur kete jor jor knpaD karon mar marge. (b) data hath jati tJ kadar hu na pati ab mere hath ai hE badhai bat bavri ! khane darkhane tahIkhane bic bas dEh6 hOI na udas mero yahE CIt cavri! bhai sut mitan pE be} I nahI jan dEh6 vadhav sapuran ko apan subhavri ! khEh6 na khav2h6 marjEho to sIkhay jEh6 sum kahE lacchmi ! tu bEthi git gavn ! (c) s:m lagyo jab rm me sum ko tahI same supna ayo bhEya, an asis kari dIj ne Im"rajI rakhE tum ko jagmEya," den lagyo tab ek rupEya, su h'ihI same akhIya khulgEya, ah! re dEya kaha kardEya! ju jag na atI tu jat rupEya. (d)kupan apni yuvatI s5 ratI manat alsay. mat kahG putr udar hVE dEhE dravy lutay. (e) devta te sur J asur kahE danav te dai ko su dhay dal pahIti 1ahat hE, darpan mukur J dakh te munakka kahE das te khavas kahI kahI nIb-hat hE, devi s6 bhavani Jr dehra ko kahE math rm dIn ghasiram yahi to cahat hE, dana s6 cabe na ty6 hi dip ko carag kahE deIbe ke e}ar te so dada na kahat hE. 2 insect. 3 mean. ~ [knpaDta] n miserliness, parsimony,

sram kino Ikatr kan hE rna Ia."-tocji ill 5.

fqmrr [knp-pha] n kindness. "dhari han
prabhu knp-pha."-prabha m 4. See GT. See ~. ~ [knple] n kindness. "dharihan knple." -llat ill 4. ~ [knpa] See fuotr". "knpa karahu guru melahu han jiu."-mala a m 3. 2 See fqtft. 3 Kripacharay. See fqtft. "nahI bhikham droD knpa aru droDaj."-c5cji 1. fqtMlfq [knpasfdhu] ocean of kindness. "krIpasidhu kaltray darsi."-hajare 10. 2 ocean ofskulls; battlefield. "knpasfdhu kali garajji karala."-VN. 'Goddess Kali thundered during the fierce fighting.'

fcr..rn" [knpal]





[knpakatakhy], % ~ [knpakatach] n favour, kindness. "krIpakatakh aVIlokan kinau."-dh;:ma m 5. ~ [knpakar] ~-»flCm treasurehouse of kindness. ~ [knpacaray] See fqtft' ~ [knpaD] orfcrtrro [knpan] 'fI11UT n which abnegates mercy; wielding of which does not call for mercy; sword. Second of the k's of the baptised Singhs. It is binding on them to wear it. See~. "je je hute akte vIkte su kate kal knpaD kar ke mare."-VN. cakrapanI panI me tIhare ~ri gobfd sigh! teri jo knpan parE ja par knpa na hE. -gvalkavI. kacch knpan na kab-hu tyagE sanmukh larE na raD te bhagE. -pra$anottar bhai n5dlal. 2 a metre ofkabItt type, characterised by four lines, each line having 32 characters, four

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"prabhu daIaI' knpar."-kan m 5. "hohu din knpara."-gau chJt m 5. ~ [krIpal] See ~.fIC2. 2 n Kripal of Jallu, who was a disciple of Guru Hargobind and a great warrior. 3 king of Katoch, who went to fight a battle at Nadaun against Bhimchand Kahluria. Guru Gobind Singh defeated him severely. 4 See fcrl.fTC?'k. 5 See ~. ~. [krIpalc;'id] brother of Mata Gujri and maternal uncle ofGuru Gobind Singh. He was Guru's devout disciple and great warrior. In the battle ofBhangani he displayed remarkable valour. Guru Gobind Singh has described it in the eighth chapter of Vachitar Natak: "taM matuley;'i krIpal;'i karuddh;'i." 2 a king of Kangra. His subcastt) being Katoch, he is at places referred to as Katochia. See chapter 9 of Vachitar Natak. At one place he has also been mentioned as Kriparam. He died in the battle of Husseni. See ~ ~ chapter 11. -s~mama. ~ [krIpaldas] votary of Nam (secret word to meditate on, bestowed by the Guru) ~[krIpanpani] See ~~. 2 n Durga, Bhavani. "dini rajdhani vajrapani ko and great warrior. He was the chief of the krIpanpani."-NP. Udasi sect, who killed commander Hyat Khan with a cudgel. Pleased with it, Guru Gobind ~ [knpanbhet] See ~ mor. ~rfotrro [krIpanIdham], f~rfof"Q" Singh bestowed upon him a robe of honour,

pauses each after every eight characters with alliteration. Seventh, fifteenth, twenty-third and thirty-first characters are guru and eighth, sixteenth, twenty-fourth and thirty-second characters are laghu. This metre is specially used in heroic poetry. Example: sEnapCltI kalaxan, jor kE camu mClhan, dhar bClI ClbhIlnan, 9Cltyo hE mEdan an, rIskar pEdaxan, bhayo guru samuhan, sfghnad ucc than, bolyo ndhI pEho jan, gdlukE rClkab pan, roklin hE kfkan, het bhumI pE gIran, lavat ~Clrirtan, $dtrubdn ko krI$an, vir SOQhIv;'i$ bhan, kaljih ke saman, jhari SIr pE knpan. ~.~ [knpa!).pa!).I] adj armed with a sword. 2 n Macrotime. .~ [knpar:u] n small sword. 2 adj armed with a sword. .~ [knpan] See ~. '~[knpanknt] a metre, having 4 lines, each line structured as 115, III, I Example: jClhf til' chutat. ra!).dhir jutdt bar bir uthat. tanutra!). tutat-kalki (b) In Dattavtar, Madhubhar is also named as Kripankrit asmunI atI dpar. gu!). g;:W udal'. vIdya VIcar. nIt karat car. ~ [knpanad] See ~e-. 2 bestower of the sword. ~ [krIpandhari] bean:r of the sword. 2 baptised Sikh; Khalsa. ~ [krIpananI] army, armed with swords.

[krIpanIdh:([ treasurehouse of kindness. 2 ocean of mercy. "knpanIdhan dIal bekhs;'id."-sukhmani. "knpanIdhI! basahu rIdE harI nit."-toc;li m 5. ~ [knpani] See f.~. "sdda rakhlE mo krIpakE krIpani."-chakke. 2 small sword. "pag hu ko badhbo kachuk dIn piche sikhyo, pahIle hi sikhyo sfgh badhbo krIpani ko." -52 poets. ~ [knpabud] ;'ibud (a cloud) of mercy. "januk barakh krIpabud gayo."-carItr 244. ~ [knpayatan] house of kindness.
~[krIpar], i~rr[krIpara],~[knpari],

~ [knpaml adj merciful, kind, benevolent.

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and mentioned thus in Vichitar Natak. "knpala kupyo hE kuttko sabhari, hathi xan hayyat ke sis jhari, uthi ChIcch IccM kaQQha mIjj jora mana makhna mattki kanh phora." His seat is located at village Hehar (district Ludhiana). When the Guru dressed as Uch Pir arrived at Hehar from Machhiwara, Kripaldas served him with full devotion and at the time of the Guru's departure put his shoulder under Guru's bedstead for many kos from this place. ~ [knpalu] adj kind, merciful. ~[knpavat], ~ [knpavan], ~ [knpavat] adj kind, merciful. See~. ~~l [krIpi] Skt fcfT (or fqtfT) She was Dronacharya's wife and Ashvthama's mother. There is a story in Mahabharat that in order to disrupt the meditation of Gautam's son, Bhardwaj (Sharadvan), Indar sent Gyanpadi, a fairy. At the sight of her, the sage's semen ejaculated, and it fell in reeds from which at a boy and a girl were born. When king Shantanu noticed them, he felt pity and took them to his house and affectionately nourished them. Hence the boy came to be known as Kripa and 'the girl as Kripi. Upon coming of age, Kripi became Dron's wife and'all his life Kripachary served the progeny of Shantanu as a great teacher and supporter. fqtfu:r'3' [knpisut] son of Kripi; Ashvthama "bhIkham dr::n:J. knparu knpisut."-krrsan. 'Bhishampitama. Dronachary, Kripachary and Ashvthama. ' fc!H" [knm], fcIfi-r [knmI] flli See fumf. "VICI pathar knmjata."-var SOT m 4. fqfH'A'r [knmIja] Skt ~ shellac produced by insects. See fum-rtft. ~ [knymal).] adj which is being done. 2 n work in hand.


fqw [knya] See~. 2 part of speech which
asserts or predicates something as aUI:la, jal).a, lIkhJ:la. Verb. ri!GI'tlija [knyacatur] in poetics, a hero, who by his actions, depicts shrewdness i.e. without speaking but through his gestures. fq~ Hilr.iJT [knyavacak sagya] gerund, verbal noun as dukh-harta, mukatIdata. ri!GI'roilf.lJllC! [knyavI:;;eSaJ:l] adverb; word added to a verb, adjective or another adverb to express some modification of manner or time as abhI, hUJ:le, mr [othe], Ese. ri!GI'F~Rl:f [knyavIsekh] See~. ri!GI'roiledlQI [knyavIdgadha] Skt f,t,41f'1i;JSlT in poetics, a heroine who is adept in depicting her feelings through her gestures. ~ [kricak] See ofttror. "Ih bIdhI sun kricak harkhana." -NP. ~ [krichan] See ~. ~ [krit] See fuoTc. c!S" [krit] Skt adj purchased. ijSo [kriran] Skt n play. 2 merriment, joviality. ~ [krira] See ~. 2 See ~ and }{'iT 1. ~ [kriracakr] See ~ (c). ¥[kru~] Skt'ff!l vr shout, weep, abuse, accuse. $I [kruc] Skt ~ vr go near, rotate aslant, bend, be insignificant, be rude. 2 a type of Indian pond heron. 3 grey-coloured water fowl. 4 Kronch mountain. 5 rudeness. "dhanu bhnkuti su krOc bIn bara."-NP. 'without ruffled hair i.e. gentle, soft. ' ~ [krudh] Skt vr be angry. [kruddh] adj angry, enraged, furious. ~ fua"' fi:ro Uta" [kruddh bIkh'E: jIll ghor] sen 'In fury, don't poison the atmosphere.' -ramav. ~ [krur] cruel. 2 hot. 3 sharp. ~ [krurkarma] adj pitiless; cruel. "sag krurkarma ab ana."-GPs. 2 n a Surayvanshi king. ~aaaH [krurbaras], ~~ [krurvara~] a


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Surayvanshi king. See~. ~ [kres] dispute, problem. "kCJUSCJ1 ke chor kres."-ramav. 'leaving aside the problems of Kaushal kingdom.' ~ [kretu] dark young lady. "kl1rkdt kretu kak."


Skt n calling" crying, wailing, lamenting. See ~'F.l: vr. ~ [kroh] See ~.q:. "nCJ moM na kroha."-Clkal. ~ [kroc] See i3"'tr. ~[krodh] anger. See cRfq. "krodh bInasE sCJgCJl bIkari."-gCluCJm 1. c!fu [krodhI], iKtft [krodhi] adj c3'~ angry. 2 See If(51. 3 See ~. cIt.r [krop] See -a-t.r. "je atI krop karekan dhaIa."-asa kClbir. ~ [krOpI] due to anger. "hCJsti kropI muq mahI mano."-g5c;1 kdbir. cJa [krorJ n one hundred lakhs, one crare. "jore 1akh krore man na hore."-gdu m 5. -GPs. ~ [kror] Skt ~ n pig, swine. 2 lap. 3 cavity ({Ts [kvaq] See (h¥~. "kururav kvaq bhe in a tree. 4 See ~. maryo."-cCJrrtr 137. 'King Kuru was shot dead with a bow,,' ~ [kr3c] Skt ~ n stork. "kr3c su arul).CUf pukarat."--GPS. 2 a mountain in the era- [kvath] Skt n decoction. Four tolas of drug put in sixty four tolas ofwater, is boiled till the Himalayan range. According to Harivansh, he is the son of Menak and grandson of same is reduced to one fourth. This mode of Himalayas. There is a story in Mahabharat that preparation is mentioned in various Ayurvedic once Kronch mountain became so intoxicated books. that it started crushing its residents. Aggrieved, crfu [kvapI] adv anywhere. the people went to Kartikey for help. He shot ifQ [kvar] See cgrwo 3. See gtf'"O. "janat h6 ghan an arrow or a spear in such a way, that it kvar ko garjat, baras nCJ aI."-krrsCJn. 'A cloud immobilised the mountain, and he cut its in the month of Assu thunders but it does not (Kronch 's) horn with a sword. "kr3c sEl me rain.' janu ;;Ivn5dCJn barchi mar dhasai."-GPS. 3 a CfijT [kvara] See gJ-fT'3'. demon, son of may. He resided on Kronch if [kvE] See ~. 2: pron any. "na subhat thaqh kv£ rahyo."-krrsCln. island. 4 according to Purans, an island fram amongst the seven ones, on which Kronch if [k;;a] Skt e:r, This letter is a combination of~ and 11. Per Punjabi usage, it should have been mountain is situated. It is surrounded by Khir written as the first compound consonant i.e. Sagar. Its measurement is mentioned as 1.6 its place should! have been after tIppi C), but million yojans. "kr3c nam tIh dip ko nar sOdar

c!E7i' [kro;;an]

samuday."-NP 5 See i3"'tflltT. ~ [kr3cpada] See~:it 29. ~ [kr3cbyuh], ~~ [kr5cvyuh], ~ [kr3cabyuh] n deployment ofarmy in the battlefield in such a formation that it resembles a stork. "kr5cabyuh kIyO asuns jab."-CClrItr 405. eft:!' [krad] Skt ~ vr express sorrow, be upset, cry in pain" cjt!O [kradal).] Skt n weeping, crying. 2 lamentation of the wounded ones in a battlefield. efH [kr5m] See C3"H. "man bac kram sevi£ saca." -sClvEye m 4 ke. ~ [k1If?t] See (xrn~ ~t:!' [kled] See cr~t:!'. ~ [k1edcm] S~:e cmt"i'J. ~ [kva] part where. 2 See gfu. ~ [kvacrt] adflthe few; rare; perhaps some. 2 anywhere. "nac sukh5 dn;;yte kvaCIt."

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as is prevalent in dictionaries we have placed it at the end. ~ [k$~rD] See f'cf<!. 6il&3ijJ d [k$ClDbhagur] See ~. ~ [k$ClDIk] adj momentary. iB [k$Clt] See 68". "jIn ke jClg Clk$Clt sis dhClrE. tIn ko tClnu SClk$Clt bn kClr£."-ramc;'}dnka. 'Who can injure those whose heads are worshipped by the offerings of rice?' '6ilftr [k$CltI] n loss, damage. 2 destruction, annihilation. ~ [k$Cltr] n that which saves from getting wounded; armour. 2 one who saves someone from annihilation; Kshatri. 3 kingdom. 4 power, force. ~ [k$Cltn], ~ [k$Cltny], ~ [k$Cltri] Skt ~ n a powerful man. According to the Hindus, the second caste of the society, who defend their subjects through the use of physical force. In Veds, Purans and Simritis, the origin of Khatris is described as from the Creator's arm. See ~. ~ [k$ClPDClk] Skt n one who has given up sensuality; a Buddhist ascetic. 2 a well known poet of king Vikramadity's court. ~ [k$Clpa] See GRfT. iUf3T [k$Clrnta] n capacity, ability. 2 power, strength. ~ [k$Clrna] See ferHr and ftmr. 2 earth. ~ [k$Clrni] See sHt. ~ [k$ClY] See ft. 2 tuberculosis. See e:reT 3. 3 doomsday. 4 annihilation, destruction. S disease. 6 house, abode. 7 violence. ~ [k$Clyah] See fcf»fru. '6iltill [k$Clyi] See e:reT and ~. 2 adj destructible. 3 n asthma. 4 moon. There is a mythical story that as a result of the curse from Daksh, the moon had contracted tuberculosis. irn [k$Clr] See 'l:fa". ~ [k$ClrClD] See ~.

srT3' [k$i'it] adjforgiving, indulgent. 2 v tolerate.
[k$ar] See "l::f'G. ~ [k$aICln] n washing, rinsing. ~ [k$ItI] See fuf3'. ft.:ffutr [k$rtIp]' fufutrf3" [k$ItIpCltIl, ~ [k$Itrpal], ft89H [kptis] n king of the earth.

[k$IprCl] See fu1;r. [k$iD] See ~ and &. iiiITa' [k$ir] See <::fhr and 6fu:J'. iiffin::ni~ [k$irsurnudrCl], Sll<:JHIdld [k$irsagarl, 5fulfu [k;;iradhI], 6llaF(')Fq [k;;irmdlu], ~ [k$irod] According to Purans, the ocean ofmilk from the churning of which fourteen jewels were extracted. It is regarded as the abode of Vishnu. ~ [k$iv] See t:iW. ~ [k$udr] See §''i. ~ [k;;udh] See 1jl.T. F [k;;udha] See 13l:fT. ~ [k;;udhatur] adjoverwhelmed by hunger; hunger stricken. 2 famished, starving. ~ [k$up] Skt n son ofKrishan from the womb of Satyabhama. 2 In Mahabharat, a king of the solar dynasty who was the son of Prasandhi and the father of Ikshwaku. "hot bhayo k$up bhup rnClhan."-GPs. 3 bush. ~ [k;;ur] vr cut, split, tear, pierce, draw a line or furrow. 2 n razor. 3 dagger. 4 hoof. S arrow. ~ [k$etr] n body. 2 conscience, mind. 3 field. 4 woman, wife. ~ [k$etrClgy] n soul, that regards the body as its own. 2 adj knowing or familiar with the fields. ~q:H [k;;etrClj] adj farm-produced. 2 n per Hindu faith, a son who is the offspring of one's wife by some other man, as Pandav. See~. ~ [k$etrClpal] See ~. ~ [k$epClk] adj who throws. 2 n one who



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adds a spurious passage of his own or of 2 a variety of Kalyan musical measure another in some writing; an interpolator. evolved by blending together the notes of two itrc!" [k$epClJ!] n act of throwing. 2 feiling, musical measures namely Hamil' and Kalyan. thro ving. 3 sending, directing. 4 laying a It is counted amoung the hybrid musical blame, reviling. measures. iH [k$em] See ~}f. rn [k$oJ!i] See m. ~ [k$emkCllyaJ!] ecstasy and liberation. b [k$obh] See 5.

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[khCJkkha] seventh character of Punjabi script. It is uttered from the throat. Skt n sun. 2 sky, ether. 3 an organ or organs of sense or action. 4 body. 5 cypher, dot, point. 6 paradise. 7 comfort. 8 hole, aperture, cavity. 9 action. 10 town, city. 11 field. 12 knowledge, discernment. 13 Brahma. 14 also used in Punjabi as a substitute for the Sanskrit ~ and 1'Q"; for instance, weft [sakhi], Her [mokh], bIrCJkh, VIkh, khat etc. ~ [khCJu] Skt ~ n annihilation, destruction. "CJkal muratI jISU kCJde nahI khCJu."-maru solhe m 5. "katI pCJradh khIn mahI khau bhCJi h£."-sar m 5.2 disease, ailment. "kCJrunanIdhI dur kan: khau."-krrscw. 3 See ~. ~ [khCJus], ~ [khCJusra] See ~ and


fear, dread. "khCJuphu na khCJta na tCJrasu j;:JValu." -gau ravrdas. ~~ [khauh:la], ~EO'" [khaulna] v boil, simmer. Skt~C7. vrtremble,jump, play, go. The word kh::llna derives from it. 2 massage, anoint, smear. "gCJdCJhu C;)dCJnI khCJulir, bhi sahu SIU paD-u."-var suhi m 1. ~ [khCJu] adj destructible. 2 See ~. ~ [khau] Skt ~ annihilation, destruction.

~ [khCJuph], ~ [khCJuphu] A

...J; n

l:ffu [khaI] See ~.
l:ffu>w [khCJIa] destruction.
See~. "dut dusCJt sabhI hoe khCJIa."-brla m 5. 2 annihilated, destroyed. "ah;)rog sagal hi khaIa."-sar m 5. 3 destructive; violent. "mue dusat ja khan."

--dey m 5. 'Murderous aberrations were destroyed.' 4 collided. See 'l::fD<!T. ~ [khaIkal] See~. lRft [khCJi] See~. "kCJlmCJl tIsu khCJi. "-var ram 2 m 5.2 eats, does the eating. "IkthCll bhojCJn sCJbhko khai."--GPs. 3 Skt ~ and ~ . , JJtf consumption. At first there is catarrh with cough and fever, and then inflammation of lesions gradually develops in the lungs. Blood is emitted with phlegm. Pain is felt in the chest. There is constant fever. The body becomes sluggish. Hunger vanishes and thirst increases. The redness of the blood lessens. The colour ofthe face fades. Sleep decreases. There is constant dejection, anxiety and fear in the mind. The upper half of the body perspires during the night. Continued mild headache, bad dreams, swelling of the feet, occasional constipation and diarrhoea etc are symptoms of this disease. Tuberculosis is caused by excessive coition, marriage at young age, excessive exertion in studies, lack of good diet, living in polluted air, suffering from anxiety and sorrow, prevention of hunger, thirst and excretory functions, long sittings and lack of air circulation in the residence. Sometimes, this disease is inherited from one's parents. It can be contracted by contact with a patient of tuberculosis. It is difficult to extirpate it once it enters the house. A patient of this disease hardly survives for 1000 days. As soon as symptoms of this disease appear,

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treatment should be started in consultation with a competent doctor or physician. The patient should leave his home and start living near a river, sea or in a jungle ofpine trees. The patient should abstain from sexual intercourse and protect himself from the cold. Such things as are pleasing to the eyes and the mind, should be used. Easily digestible and nourishing diet (milk, meat curry etc) should be taken; and all the time the patient should have the urge soon to get well. The treatment for consumption must never be got from the quacks. One should undergo treatment by expert doctors. Here are general instructions for treating consumption: Use anti-tussive and anti-pyretic medicines and avoid diaphorics and purgatives. Take codliver oil. Take trituration ofbamboo-mana, cardamoms, extract of menispermum glabrum, real pearls and silver leaves with cow milk. Prepare tablets of two mashas of each of the following ingredients: black pepper (dried berries of piper nigrum) one tola, piper longum two tolas, pomegranate peel four tolas, alkali of barley six mashas and jaggery eight tolas. Take two tablets daily with warm water. "khai su badi bhai mavesi."-c<JTItr 405. ~ [khaihE] will devour. "manusu bapura musa kino micu bIlaia khaihE re."-bIla kabir. 2 See cret. l:I't [khae] got annihilated or destroyed. "sunat jaso kotI agh khae."-gau m 5. l::fR' [khas] Skt ~ vr rub, graze. "sIla s:Jg khas calat nir."-GPS. 'The water flows grazing past the stone slab.' 2 See ~. :~ P root of a plant which is very fragrant. Otto is prepared from it. During the summer season the rich people use its screens and handfans. "khas tati kine chukav."-GPs. It has a cooling effect


and cures headache, burning sensation and vomiting. L Andropogon Muricatus. 4 Skt Garhwal and the territory lying to its north, the territory lying to the south of Kashmir which is inhabited by the Khas people. 5 a tribe inhabiting the Khas territory which is now also called Khasia" "~ffilT ~: "@W:"-manu. 6 a foot disease. ~ [khasa1<J.:la], ~r [khasakna] v slip, slide. l::fR'l::fR' [khaskhas] Skt '(3JWfB n poppy-seed. P J~ E poppy--seed. It is used in numerous medicines and is somewhat intoxicating. 1:fRG [khasat] Skt 1'11'); adj sixth. 2 In Punjabi, it indicates six also. "das asat khasat sravan sune."-sar m .5 partal. 'heard eighteen Purans and six Shastars.' ~<!" [khasatnEJ.).], 1fR"Z~o [khasatmn] Trishiradait, a six-eyed demon. See ~. "hal.).yo khasatnEl).;'\."--ramav. 2 tertian fever. l:fRCH [khastam] Skt m~ adj sixth. lfflZfi.r [khastamI], 1::fFlCl-IT [khastami], cmfc [khasatI], 1::fFl(~t [khasl;i] Skt 111'[t n sixth day of a lunar fortnight. "khastamI khatsastr kahahI."-gau thIti III 5. "khasti khatdarsan prabhu saje."--bIla thrti m 1. 2 a goddess who is regarded the wife of Kartikey. According to the Hindu custom, she is worshipped on the sixth day after the birth of a child. 3 sixth day after the birth of a child. "khasatI kin bhale kulcali."-NP. 4 Skt siixty. "khasatI kul jadav jujjhe."-paras. 'Sixty clans of Yadavs died fighting.' 5 a kind of rice (ripening in about sixty days after sowing.) 1:fFfc!T [khasl.).a] v snatch, wrest. S ~. 2 slip, slide, move away. "bntha sram khasat hE." -BGK. 'Pain and fatigue disappear.' 3 graze past, rub lightly. }:fR3O [xastan] P I,;f--> v be injured. 2 fall ill. 3 become a paupl~r. J:f1Ef [xasta] P ,;.->' adj brittle. 2 ill. 3 injured,

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hurt, wounded. 4 n a fruit's stone. to one eighth ofits original quantity. Small dozes l:fROT [khasna] See ~. ofthis decoction, mixed with honey, should be given to the patient. 1:fRH [khasam] or "l::fFIB [khasamu] A ~ n lord, master, owner. "nanak huk')mu na calai naIr (2) Take sandal, andripogon muricatus, khasam calE ardasI."-var asa. 2 Godhead, the coriander, spikenard, fumitory, cyperus Creator. "khasam VIsan kie ras bhog."-111Clla pertenuis and dry ginger in equal measure, prepare a decoction and give it to the patient TIl 1.3 husband, consort. "parpIr rati khasamu VIsara."-111aru solhe 111 1. 4 enemy, foe. "kahu in small dozes. kabir akhar dm bhakhI. hOIga khasamu ta (3) Take eleven basil leaves, half a tola of leIga rakhI."-gClukClbir. 'Iffor no reason you glycyrrhiza glabra, one tola ofsisymbrium lro, half tola of aniseed, one clove and one fourth have an enemy, God will protect}ou.' 5 T ~ ofa fig. Boil all these ingredients in half a seer friend. 6 relative, relation. 7 P (' indignation, anger, rage. of water. When the water is reduced to one fourth, sieve it through a piece of cloth. Give 'l:ffiH'11f [khasmahu] by or from the Lord. "sabhI this decoction to the patient in small dozes. ae hukamI khasmahu."-trlag 111 4. 'All came by the Lord's command.' 2 A D/ record keeper's list of village land, its numbers and measurements. 3 rough draft of 'lfflHT?iT [khasmana] P .;~ like the master, ownership. s"l:ffi::n.ft7) mercy, grace. "prabhu jiu an account. khasmana kan p I are."-sor 111 5. "k;'it hamaro ~ [khaslat], lfR"ffi'3" [khaslatI] A ~ n kialo khasmana."-asa 111 5. "khurasan nature, disposition, habit. "muc;lhE di khaslatI khasmana kia, hfdustan c;laraIa."-asa 111 1. na gaia."-var brha 111 3. l:IFIfH[khasamI] Master, Lord (nominative case) l:Ifi:r [khasI] See~. "jab bhavE leI khasI."-s "kac;lhI kuthar khasamI SIr katIa." kClbir. 'may snatch'. 2 having grazed (past). -brla 111 5. 2 to the Master, of the Lord. See1:fH. "khasI apasmahI thIremahip."--GPS. "khasamI mIIrE sukhu paIa."-111aru Cl 111 1. 'l:ffRt;p- [khasIya], cn=fPw [khasia] See 1:fH 5. 2 adj castrated. 3 n billy goat. The reason for this 'because of meeting the Lord.' l;fFl}j [khasamu] See l::fmf. "khasamu VIsan name is that billy goats reared for the table khuari kini."-111Clla 111 1. are castrated while young. "khasIya adhIk ~ [khasra] a disease like smallpox. Skt s;'ig IE ae."-CClrItr 52. 3 scrotum. ~, ~,~. A ~ measles. The patient l:flJ [khasu] See ~. of this disease suffers from fever and burning 1:fl;f'RO [khasusan] A w.~ adv especially, particularly. sensation in his body. His face becomes red; he feels thirsty and suffers from dryness of l:I"ftGor [khasotna] v snatch, wrest. the tongue and the palate. After some days, l:Iffi.r [khas;'im] See 1:fRH. small pimples appear on the neck and the chest. ~ [khassl).a] v snatch, wrest. 1:hft [khassiJ A jP castrated, gelded. 2 billy Its treatment is: goat. See erfi:rw 3. (1) Take cyperus-pertenuis, fumitory, licorice (glycyrrhiza and glabra) raisins in equal ~ [kha~tJ See'l::fRC. quantity by weight and decoct them in water. ~ [khastI] See'l:fA'fz. Sieve it when water in this decoction is reduced . lflljt [khastiJ See ~.

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[khahl)a] See 1::fFf. v rub, scrape. 2 jostle, pull and push. 3 quarrel, wrangle. ~ [khahdi] ate up. "apI khahdi khnI dabtiE."-var ram 3. 'He himself ate as also distributed (it) among others as charity.' l:fmlT [khahra] See l:fftRJT. l:fir.P' [khahra] n doggedness, obstinacy. "khoI khahra bharamu man ka."-maru m 5. 2 insistence, obduracy. l:ffu [khaI] having grazed or brushed past. See


[khalul)a] See l:fU<!T.

1ffuar [khalura] Rajput descendants of Jahir
Chand, son of raja Tara Chand of the Kahloor state. 2 a Jatt subcaste, one of whom namely Mehma, was a famous disciple of Guru Angad Dev. 3 a village established by the Khehra Jatts. See ~ 11'f<:ra-"if 7. l:I'ftriJ [khahne] plural of khahna. See l:fftRJT. 'tf9 [khahu] See 5i\lJf. "atkal khahu lakhahu rukkhE."-BG. 'At last the tree is destroyed by the lac.' l:fi1QT [khahura] adj rough, coarse. 2 harsh, hottempered. ~ [khahada] adj quarrelsome, pugnacious. "sukh na paInI mugadhnar sat nalI khahade."-var g~m 1 m 4. l::fl:I' [khakh] See tll:r. l:fl;Rf[khakhar] n house of irascible or malevolent creatures; hornets' nest; wasps' nest. w-Jt [khakhri] See ~. "khakhria suhavia lagria ak katllI."-var gew 2 m 5. 'The malevolent and ill-natured ones became genial.' 1:fl:IT [khakha] pronunciation ofth~: character 'l::f. 2 the character 'l::f. "khakha, khara sarahau tahu."-bavan. l:l"l::f [khakkh] Skt ~ vr laugh; joke. 2 n joke, banter. 3 fine dust diffused in the sky. lft:Ir [khakkha] See l:fl:IT. Accord ing to Gurupratap Suray, a Kashmiri Khatri who got converted

to Islam during the reign of Aurangzeb. "tIS dIn turak bhae tahf sare. hfdun hahakar ucare. khakkhe nam bhaye khatrin. bhabhe nam dIjan ko cin."-GPs. l:fCIT [khag] Skt n that which moves in the sky, a bird. 2 sun. 3 moon" 4 star. 5 god. 6 air. 7 locust. 8 cloud. '9' arrow. 10 short for kharag. "khag khac;l bIh~lc;la khal dal khada."-VN. "chatri ketIk khag dhari."-GPS. See crfur. 'l:IiJ1i?ffa' [khag-an] enemy of birds, a falcon. 2 sword, the enemy ofthe arrow. Soldiers used to cut flying arrovvs with their swords. "khag mng jacch bhujag gan e pad pntham ucar. phun arI sabad ucariE jan tISE tarvar."-sanama. l:faT37i [khagtan] ad; having the body of a bird; whose body is that of a bird: Kakbhasund, a devotee of Ram, cursed to be come a crow; garur, the vehicle of Vishnu. 2 incarnation of the swan. "khagtan mintcm mngtan barahtan sadhu sagI udhare."-mala m 5. 'Incarnations such as those of the swan, male milter, sage Sringi and Varah were liberated through association with the saints.' 3 See 30. l:fOIO't [khagni] that which possesses swords and arrows, an army,·-sanama. ~ [khagpatI] master of birds, garur. 2 mind. See ~ ~~Ff OlftB230. l:faTa1"i'f [khagraj] king of birds, garur. l:fOI'6'u [khagroh],I:fdPHo [khagasan] one who rides garur, Vishnu. "muratI IE na karE khagrohE."--krrsan. 'lest Krishan absorb our appearances as his own.' See orsr;:r. l::fd1T3cr [khagatak] destroyer of birds, falcon. 2 See craT»rfu. 1:fiIlTfi:Itr [khagadhI p 1 master [adhIp] of birds [khag], garur. lffirr [khagI] with the sword. See cror 10. "rag dokh agh moh chIde hannam khagI."-s;:lv£ye sri mukhvak m 5" l::ffarn' [khagIs], 'l::f~3R' [khagfd], 1::fii'h:r [khages],

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~ [khagedr] master or king of the birds, garur· "khagIs ke sal' lage."-CdrItr 203. "je nar grase kalukh ahesa. jeHu :;;aran so nam khagesa."-NP. 2 sun. 3 moon. 4 Indar, the king of gods. 'tf'iIT"l? [khagol] n celestial sphere; sky that appears round like the earth. ~ ~ [khagol vIdya] n that branch of knowledge which tells about the motion and movement of the planets and their effect; astronomy. 'l:far [khagg] short for khdrag; sword. See csar. "khdggan kharake khulhE tuppak tdrake tug." -ramdas. ~ [khaggkhyata] adj famous in swordsmanship. "dou khaggkhyata."-GPs. ~dlSijit!ij [khaggbdhadurl Bhai Sukkha Singh's translation of Guru Teg Bahadur's name and used as such at numerous places in Gurvilas. t:l'crr [khdggal adj swordlike; of the shape of a sword. 2 n beans of acacia sirissa and butia fondosa etc which look like a sword. l:ffi' [khdC] Skt ~ vr render prosperous, purify, bind or fasten tightly. l:fif<!l' [khacDal, l:fB?iT [khdcnal v become one; join. (See crtr vr.) "pritI prem tanu khaCI rahIa."-cClu m 5. "sdt.sagatI seti man khdcna."-sClveye m 4 ke. "hansagI sagI khdciE."-sar m 5 pClrtal. lffiij' [khacarl adjmoving [carl in the sky [khal. 2 n bird. See ClOT. 3 See e:l";:m. 4 wickedness, wiliness. ~ [khacrcm] wickedness, wiliness, guile, fraud. l:ItJ'ijT [khacra] adj deceitful. 2 vicious, base. 3 prankish. ~ [khacal See crtr vr. n wealth, pelf. "adarahu thotha kUfI.aru kuri sabh khaca." -var maru 2 m 5. lfftr [khaCI] having been absorbed. See~.

lffuo [khaCIt] adj fastened, joined. 2 inlaid.
3 drawn. 4 engrossed. "man khacIt premras." -sar m 5. See crtr vr. t:l'tr [khacc] n conflict, bickering. 2 loose talk; blatancy. ~ [khaccar] n offspring of a donkey and a mare; mule. Skt ~. l:Iii [khdj] Skt ~ vr churn, agitate, mix. ~[khajal] n liquid [jal] of the sky [kha]; dew. 2A adj abashed, .embarrassed. l:fE1i'i'til' [khazanci] P Jy} n treasurer, cashier. l:fHIOT [khajana], 1:ftfloT [khajina] A ~17 n treasury. "nam khdjana bhdgti paIa."-gau m 5. "hdn han jan ke mal khajina."-sukhmcmi. l:fij'6" [khajurl Skt crtt''6" n a tree, the fruit of which is called date; date palm, date tree. Phoenix sylvestris. "jal ki machuli carE khajun."-to<;fi namdev. 'They are talking of improbable things.' 2 silver. "kacan Jr khajur ddYO pun dasi ddi."-NP 3 scorpion. l:fij'ij'T [khajura] See l:fij'6" 3. 2 Skt ~ an insect that enters the human eiu, also called :;;dtpad; centipede. See R31R. "sis pdtkat jake kan me khajura dhdsE."-C1kal. See~. l:fijfa" [khdjun] on the date tree or date palm. See ~. 1. 2 with date. ~[khdjuril n fruit of date palm, date. dried date. "rab khajuri pakia makhIa nadi vahanI."--s fClrid. 'Benevolent words of the saints are like dates and the coversation about God is like a river of honey. ' ~ [khdjjdl] abashed. See l:fi=rI? 2. l:fGI [khat] Skt (f[C:, vr desire, search. 2 Skt six. "eI<: ghdri khat masa."-tukha barahmaha. 3 anything comprising six units as, khat :;;astra khat karam etc. "khat bhi eka bat bakhan;;hI." --ram ill 5. 4 Skt (f[C: dried up well; ruined or abandoned well. 5 phlegm. 6 plough, ploughing implement. 7 grass. 8 See cf~. 9 Scot, I Another form of it in Gurbani is khatu.


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~[khat-uramI], ~

[khat-urmi] Skt ~ n six facets of existence: hunger, thirst, grief, infatuation, old age and death. 2 he who has six superhuman powers; God. See

l:IGnfor [khat-ag] Skt ~r six parts; six principal
parts of human body are - head, two arms, chest and two legs. 2 human body, which has six parts. "khat-ag pal).I uchalia."-c,'JQi 2. 'With her hand, Durga tossed up the body of Shumbh'. 3 Six branches of policy [nitI]: a. sadhI: alliance or treaty. b. vIgnh: war. c. oro ryan]: invading the enemy. d. as~m: picketing, maintaining a post against the enemy. e. sa~ray: seeking protection or refuge of the more powerful. f. dVEdhibhav: exciting dissension (in the enemy's camp). 4 Six parts of the Veds are: a. sIk~a: the knowledge of proper articulation and pronunciation of words. b. kalap: from which knowledge of the kinds of mantars and procedures of their repetition is acquired. c. vyakaral).: grammar. d. jyotI~: astronomy.! e. chad: science of prosody. f. nIrukt: etymological explanation of difficult words. l;fCRTR'3"2 [khatsasat], 'l:IcH'H3d [khatsastar], ~ [khatsastraJ, ~ [khatsastra] Skt
'Astronomy is now uscd for ascertaining the movements and effects ofthc planets and the lunar asterisms but in the Vedic times it was used for ascertaining lunar dates for the performance of sacrifices. rituals etc.

Another form of it in Gurbani is kh<J\vsas<Jt.

priincipal systems of Hindu philosophy. "khatu sasat VIcrat mukhI gIana."--majh m 5. "khat sastra SImntI vakhIan."-sukhm;mi. A book that provides beneficent precept or knowledge is called a ~astar but this word is used specifically for six principal systems ofthe Hindu philosophy. The six Shastars are: (1) VE$e~Ik: Kanad Muni is the author of this system which recognizes only six categories: a. dravy: matter.. (earth, fire or light, air, sky or ether, time, space, soul and mind or the internal organ). b. gUl).: quality. (colour or form, taste, smell, touch, number, distinctness, conjunction, disjunction, remoteness, nearness, affection, word, intellect, pleasure, pain, desire, aversion, effort, merit, demerit, tendency). c. karam: action. (throwing upward, throwing downward, contraction, expansion, locomotion). d. samany: generality or jatI speciality. par: remote and apar: proximate. It is a common trait of the facets of a collectivity; that is, the general characteristics as existing between the genus and the individual. e. VI~e~: particularity or distinct nature. Each of the eternal subtances has uniqueness of its own so as to keep itself distinct from others. f. samavay: inherence; the intimate connection between cause and effect. These six substances are eternal as well as non-eternaL The earth, water, fire or light and air are eternal in their micro form and are non-eternal in their macro form. The qualities inherent in the eternal substances are everlasting and those residing in transient substances are transitory. All actions are nonlITc,vrrBf SIX

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eternal. Generalities, particularities and with deception, fraud, jealousy and obstinacy inherences are all eternal. Souls in all the and meant only for refuting the other person's different bodies are separate. God is separate view). from the souls. The universe has been created m. tT~~l1 [hetvabhas]: fallacy of from the atoms through the will of God. inference. (savyabhIcar: argument to prove Through a complete knowledge of these six too much, vIruddh: to prove the reverse. substances, emancipation is attained. The neoprakaraI).sam J : to tell ofequality on both sides. Vaisheshiks consider negation or non-existence sadhyasam2 : an assertion identical with the [abhav] as one of the categories. The point to be proved, petitio principal. WW3tr Vaisheshik philosophy thus has seven [kalatitP: mistimed.) categories in number. n. chal: quibbling, refuting the argument (2) 0J!Ttir [nyay]: Gotam is the author ofthis of the opponent by putting forth a different system of philosophy. The Nyay system admits meaning. of sixteen categories: o. jatI: evasive or shifting answer to an a. pramaI).: acquisition of knowledge argument. p. nIgrah sthan4: ground of defeat in a (sensuous perception, inference, analogy or debate. (In other words, not to be able to comparison, verbal authority or revelation). adduce apt argument or adducing an b. pramey: objects of knowledge (soul, incongruent argument that may lead to one's body, senses, cognition, mind, activity, defects, transmigration, rewards of deeds, pain or defeat). suffering, liberation. The knowledge ofthese sixteen categories c. saf;iay: doubt (the cognition of two leads to liberation which is the absolute cessation of suffering. The individual soul is attributes, i.e. in which one ofthe attributes is not clear). different from the Creator and, therefore, d. prayojan: motive or purpose. (for which cannot become identical with Him. The physical objects 'are made of atoms. one makes an endeavour). (3) sakhy: Sage Kapal is the author ofthis e. drIf;itat: example, instance. f. SIddhat: conclusion, doctrine system of philosophy. According to the (accepted as true). Sankhya, there are twenty five elements: g. avyav: promise, a compotent of a. prakrItI: nature, from which all things syllogism (proposition, reason, example, have been made and which itself has not been application, conclusion). made from anything and which is the state of h. tarak: reasoning (logic). equilibrium of the three qualities called sat: I. nIrI).ay: decision. goodness or virtue, raj: passion and tam: j. ~ [vad]: discussion (for the sake of darkness or foulness. b. mahattatv: the great principle, intellect. knowledge, without thinking of winning or lIt is also called s<Jtpr<JtIpa~. losing). k. jalap: sophistry (sophistical wrangling 2It is also called <JsIddh. JIt is also named as badhIt. with the motive to win). I. vItaQa: cavilling (the argument mixed 4They are of twenty-two types, See ?l:ii'Gl€dfi?l.

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(which came into being due to animation of nature and has established itselfas intellect in the human body. c. ahakar: self-consciousness (of which ego is the manifestation). d. paj tanmatr: The five subtle elements (colour, savour, odour, touch and sound.) e. gyara fdria: The eleven organs (five perceptive organs, five active organs and one mind). f. paj mahabhut: the five great or gross elements (earth, water, fire, air, ether). g. pum;;: soul or spirit. According to the Sankhya, the universe is eternal and is the result of continuous evolution; it always goes on changing. Nature needs the help ofthe soul and vice versa, and by themselves both are unproductive. The soul is different in every body. Intellect, self-consciousness, el,~ven organs, five elements together constitute the subtle body sukham.(lfg) sariI' which is the mainstay of action and knowledge. It does not perish with the material body. Prompted by passion for action and knowledge, the subtle body leaves one material body and enters another. The subtle body does not perish till the dissolution and at that time it merges with Nature. At the time ofthe new cn~ation ofthe universe, the subtle body springs up anew. Through its discriminating faculty, the soul regards itself different from Nature and its activities, and it does not suffer from grief which is registered through the intellect. This sense of being different is known as liberation. (4) patajal or yogdar~an: Sage Patanjali is the advocate ofthis system of philosophy. The doctrine ofthis system holds that the observer and the observed are two different entities.

The spirit (purakh) is the observer and the rest, that is, Nature (prakntI) in the form of the universe is the observed. Nature (prakr:rtI) is the material cause of the universe and God (i$var) is its efficient cause. When the oscillations (or the modifications) ofthe mind come to a standstill then, there being nothing else to be seen, the observer's identity is confirmed. Detachment and constant practice are the means ofstopping the oscillations ofthe mind which then result in total concentration and this state is known as Yog. By following yam (abstension), nIyam (observance), asan (posture), praIJ.ayam (breath control), pratyahar (sense withdrawal), dharr;ta (concentration of mind), 'Q'JI1?) [dhyan] (steadfast contemplation) and samadhI (absorptiion the mind in the object of contemplation) mind's pollution gets removed. By knowing puI'U~ and prakntI as two separate entities, realization oftme knowledge takes place and the soul is freed from the bonds of prakntI. It comes to know that it is separate from prakrItI and thus gets emancipated. (5) mimasa: Sage Jaimini is the advocate of this system. He considers complete knowledge of dharam as means of emancipation. According to him, the performance of the Vedic sacrifices etc is dharam. Through the: performance of such religious activities, the living being attains the status of a god, incarnation etc and enjoys the pleasure of the region regar?~d as heaven etc. (6) vedat: Vyas is the Piopounder of this system of philosophy. According to the Vedant everything has sprung up from Brahm (the soul of the universe) with thy help of His illusory power and shall merge into Him. The reflection of Brahm in pure Maya is called i$var and

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920 reflection of Brahm in impure Maya is called ;::j'W [jiv] (being). ~ [jiv] is one and immortal but due to different superimpositions, it appears to be manifold. By obliterating the superimposition, the identification of;::j'W [jiv] with pure Brahm takes place. Through the knowledge of Brahm sense of separation ends and union with Brahm takes place within one's own self. This union is known as emancipation (the absolute oneness with God). ~ [khat;;astri] Skt lS[C~-~ adj he who knows or has studied the six systems of Hindu philosophy. ~ [khats;:ipatI], l::fZI'ft.reT [khats;:ipda] Skt l$rc>~: religious accomplishments of six types: I f?am: control of the mind. 2 dam: control of the sense organs and the motor organs. 3 upratI: cessation of material things. 4 tItIk$a: endurance of pleasure and pam. S $raddha: faith. 6 samadhanta: concentration of mind. l:fGU [khatah] aggregate of six things, a hexad. See 3C(J. 2 See C:ICCXOH. l:IGCf [khatak] n apprehension, anxiety. 2 worry, care. 3 Skt TSfC,'fl hexad. 4 See CfZCS" 3. l:fGaC!T [khatak.!).a] v rankle. 2 apprehend worry or misgiving in the mind. ~ [khatkaram] Skt lSTc,CJ1P'f";'f, n the six activities or functions. "kan kIna khatkaram karata."-so purCJkh. According to Manusimriti, the six duties enjoined on a Brahman are: studying, teaching, offering sacrifices, conducting sacrifices for others, giving and accepting gifts. (3T<J11R, 3TUfTLfl, ~, ~, CiFf, six duties. constant repetition of the Veds, religious austerity, knowledge, control of the sense organs, non violence, service of the mentor 2 • 2 According to Yoga, the following are the six activities: (a) dh:Jti: the practice of swallowing everyday one cubit of piece ofcloth in fifteen days. The outer end of this clothapproximately four fingers wide and fifteen cubits long, soaked in warm water, is held tight inbetween the teeth so that one is able to swallow fifteen cubits of strip and draw it out slowly. This exercise cleanses the intestines. (b) ?i"q't [netri]: Approximately one span (nine inches) long piece ofthick and soft thread is pushed into the nostrils. One end of it is brought out through the mouth, catching both the ends of this thread in separate hands, to clean nostril-passage and throat. (c) n:JlI (mauli): sitting straight with both the shoulders somewhat pushed down and with the help of the vital air (pra.!).) moving the abdomen upward and downward right and left in such a way as curd revolves in a pitcher when it is churned. (d) vasti: sitting in navel-deep water and cleasing the intestines by sucking water through an approximately finger thick hollow piece of bamboo inserted about three inches into the rectum. (e) tratak: looking steadily at some special symbol until tears flow till the eyes get tired. (f) bhasta (kapalbhatr): breathing repeatedly in and out like the bellows of an ironsmith. 3 The following are the six acts according to Tantarshastar: $,ltr: peace, absence of passion, va$Ikara.!).: the act of
'See mvnu a 12, ~ 83.

lJfWJm '
Manu has also shown the following as the
'See monu v 10. ~ 75.

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subjugating (by means of spells, charms etc), Barsola railway station. 2:50 bighas ofland and st;'lbhan: paralysing, vIde$al).: exciting hatred rupees 85 cash figure as grant in the name of or enmity, uccatan: discontent, and maral).: the gurdwara. The priest is a Sikh. killing. 2 a mountain range between Kohat and 4 Sage Atri has denoted the following Peshawar. The Afghan race that inhabits the as the six acts: jap: constant repetition of Khatkar range, is also called khdtak. spiritual hymns; tap: practice of austerities; 't:I"GC{T [khatka] n noise. "paYdn ko kh<ltko tirathyatra: visit to the holy places of kIyo."-CarItr 248. 2 care, misgiving, anxiety. pilgrimage; devpujan: worship of the gods; ~ [kh<ltkavy] Skt"GR:~six well-known m;'ltarsadhan: performance of an incantation; books of poetry, three of which are known as s;'lnyas: renunciaton of the world. l<lghutr<lYi. The books under reference are: S In the Parashar Simriti the following Kalidas's Raghuvansh, Meghdoot and are shown as the six acts: Kumarsambhav and those comprising VrIddh s;'ldhya: performace of the morning, noon trdyi are: Magh's Maghkavya (Shishupalvadh), and evening prayers, R?J1?) [sanan]: religious Sri Harsh's Naishdhkavya (Nalopakhyan), bathing, jap: constant repetition of spiritual and Bharvi's Kirtarjuniy. Mallinath has hymns, haYdn: oblation to the sacrifical fire, written a fine commentary on all these six books. ved path: recitation of Veds, and devpujan worship of the gods. ~ [kh<ltgul).] Skt 1SfC2rl See CfC »far 3. 1fGCffiHT 3' ~ [khdtkdrma te dugl).e] twelve 'l:fG'e'i! [kh<ltcakr] Skt "lSfc,Trni" six mystical circles acts, according to Hinduism. See CfC ORJ}-f 1 ofthe body yogis believe in. "ult<lt pavan c<lkr kh<Jt bhede."-gau kabir. and Ffi')T('), tRf, ~, ~R?l, ~ and 3tf. Added up, they come to twelve in number. (a) ~ [muladhar]: It is the circle of "khdt kdrma te dugl).e puja kdrta naI." the anal area; there is an inverted four-petalled -sri a m 5. yellow lotus in it. ~ [kh<ltkdrmi] 1SfC,~, adj performer of (b) svadhI$than cakr: It is the root of the the six acts. See 1::ICOffi}-f. genital organ. There its an upward-facing six~[khatbr] a village situated between lind petalled, red lotus in it. and Dhamdhan. The ninth Guru visited this (c) m<ll).Ipurcakr: It itS located at the root of the navel and is an upward-facing, tenplace. The thieves who stole the Guru's horses went blind. Out ofpenitence, they came to seek petalled lotus. (d) <lnah<ltc<Jkr: It is a l'welve-petalled golden Guru's protection and, having become his disciples, gave up crime for ever. lotus in the heart. The water in this village was brackish. The (e) VI$uddh c<lkr: It is a sixteen-petalled Guru ordered a new well to be dug at a upward-facing, red lotus in the throat. particular spot. The water ofthis well was very (f) agyacakr: It is a bi-petaIled, upwardsweet and this pleased all. facing, white lotus in between the eyebrows. Khatkar is situated in tehsil and police Besides these six circles, yogis believe that station Narwana in Sunam sub-division of there is a seventh circle in the tenth opening· Patiala state. It is one mile to the east of ofthe ultimate realisation which is a thousand-

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petalled white lotus and which they call the throne or seat of Divine Light. 2 that which has six mystical circles; human body. "ehathI khateakr ehahu d ISI dhaI."-gem kabir ba vcm. ~ [khatjyotI] six sources of light - moon, sun, stars, lightning, fire and intellect. l:fG<!T [khat!).a] v earn, acquire, gain. "ja tau khata!). vel to3. tu rata duni SIU."-S farid. "satI kE: khatI£ dukh nahi paIa."-asa m 5. 1fG3Tl'r [khattal] a measure or ryhthm comprising eighteen beats. It reads: "dha tnk dhf dhf, dha dha dhf dhf, dha dha tI ta, dhf dhf, dha dhag, na dha tnk." ~ [khatturas] six flavours with sour taste, such as sour-sweet, sour-saltish, etc. ~ [khattursi] state ofsix flavours or tastes mixed with sourness. See ~. "khattursi mukhI bol!).a."-sri m 1.
~[khatdaras], ~[khatdarsan] ~

six systems of Hindu philosophy. See ~ "car bed khatdaras s;:-lmasi."-var maru 2 m 5. 'Four Veds and six philosophical systems will vanish.' "khatdarsan vart£ vartara. gur ka darsan agam apara."-asa m 3. 2 According to some, the six systems are: Raft [jogi], j;')gam (moving Shaivite ascetic), jmi, s;')nyasi, Hindu monks, vnagi renunciants and madari conjurers. But this is not the right view. In a way, any six philosophical systems or their followers can be termed as khatdarsan. l:fG ~ [khat devta] See ~ 'l:fCa". lfGc") [khatan] See l::fC'(!T. 2 See 3'CO. ~ [khatnem] a circle which has six fixed rules; six circles. See?>tH. "khatnem kan kothp bo3.dhi basatu anupu bie pai."-gau kabir. 'a cubicle having six circles, that is, the human body. ' See ~. 2 a system for following the six rules. See l::fCCiRf}-f. l:fGl.fit [khatpati] n want of agreement or harmony; disunity. 2 breakdown of the six

principles of statesmanship. l:I'Glre" [khatpad] Skt 1SlC.;rG n a six-footed black bee; bumblebee. 2 See cj~ and ~. l:fClfift [khatpadi] six-footed louse. 2 lizard. 3 See ~. 4 bumblebee. l:fG ~ [khat prama!).] six proofs. See ~. l:fC8'3r [khatbeta] adjwho knows the six systems of Hindu philosophy. "munIjan khatbete."-asa m5. l:IGH? [khatmatu] a hut having six circles, human body. 2 one who has six limbs. See 1:Qnfar and ~. "khatmatu dehi manu b£ragi."-ram a m 1. l;fG}-fH" [khatmal] n insect born of filth in a cot; bedbug. 1:fGfi.rc5r [khatmItha] sour and sweet. l:fG'!::j1:f [khatmukh] Skt ~ son of Shiv, Kartikey having six faces. There is a story in Ramayan that Shiv's semen fell on a reed scrub and caused the birth of a son having six faces. See O(ll:Jr:3~Gf. l:fG)jl:f ~ [khatmukh vahan] peacock, the vehicle of Kartikey. l:fGCJ1 [khatras] ~ six tastes savoured by the tongue: sweet, saltish, pungent, tart, astringent, sour and bitter. "bahuras sal!).e savardi khatras mithe paI."-sava m 3. 't:fGaTaT [khatragJ n conflict, discord; singing of six tunes together so that one enjoys none of them; chatter, nonsense. 2 six major musical measures. See "I:JTaT. ~ [khatntu], ~ [khatrut] ~ six seasons of the year, each comprising two months. eet-v£sakh: spring;jeth-harh: summer; saun-bhad6: rainy season; assu-kattak: autumn; maghar-poh: extreme winter; maghphaggu!).: cold season. I "rutI saras bas;')t mah eetu v£sakh sukhmas jiu, hanjiu nahu mIlIa maulIa

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manu tanu sas jiu, ghar nahu nrhcalu anadu sakhie carankamal praphulra, st1daru sugharu sujaJ).u beta gUJ).govfd amulra, vaQrbhagr para dukhu gavara bhai puran as jiu, brnvatr nanak saral).r teri mrti jam ki tras jiu. grikham rutr atr gakhri jeth akharE ghamu jiu, prem brchohu duhagl).i, drrsatr na kari ram jiu, nah drrsatr aVE marat haVE maha garabr muthia, jal bajhu machuli tarpharavE sagr mara ruthia, karI pap joni bhEbhit hoi der sasan jam jiu, brnvat nanak ot teri rakhu purankam jiu. rutr barasu suhelia saval). bhadve anad jiu, ghal). unavr vuthe jal thaI purra makrad jiu, prabh purr rahra sarab thai harInam navnrdhr grahr bhare, srmarr suami atarjami kul samuha sabhI tare, prraragI jage nah chIdr lage krrpalu sad bakhsfdu jiu, brnvatr nanak harrkatu paIa sada manIbhavadu jiu. rutr sarad aQabro asu katrke harrpras jiu, khojati darsanu phrrat, kab mrliE gUl).tas jiu,

brnu kat prare nah sukh sare har ka-!JaI;l dhrIgu bana, sudarI sujal).I caturr beti sas brnu jEse tana, it ut dah drs alokcm md/nr mJ:lan lei prabh pras jiu, brnvatr nanak dhar:r krrpa melahu prabh gUl).tas jiu. rutr hJ:mkar sital harr pragte m~lghar pohr jiu, jalanI bujhi clarasu para brnse maradhroh jiu, sabh kam pure mrII hajure harrCdr~I~sevak:[ sevra, har Qor sigal' sabhr ras gUl). gau alakh abhevr a, bhau bhagatI govfd biichat jamu na sakE johr jiu, brnvatr nanak prabhr apr meli tah na prem br choh jiu. srsiaTU rutr manIbhavti maghu phagal).u gUl).vat jiu, sakhr saheli gau maglo grrhr ae harrk~.t jiu, grrhr lal ae m,mr dhrae sej sudarI sohia, val).U trIl).U trrbhaVCll).U bhae harIa deklu darsan mohia, mrle suami :rch puni manr japra nrrmalmat jiu, brnvatr nanak nrt karahu ralia harr m:cle sridharr kat jiu. -ram rutr m 5. ~ [khatlak~aI)J, 1~ [khatlakhaI)], ~ [khatlakhyaI)] six qualities ofa perfect human being. "lkhatlakhyaI) puranapurakhah." -sahas m 5. (1) fixing one's attention on the

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omnipresent Creator and repeating His Name. (2) living an honest life; not making any enemy, and keeping one's poise during the time of pleasure as well as pain. (3) resisting the impulse to rely on the five sense organs and showing kindness towards all living creatures. (4) relying on the Creator's glory as one's nourishment and like a lotus leading a detached life in the world. (5) counselling friend and foe alike to cultivate devotion for and faith in God. (6) humbly becoming the dust of everybody's feet and not listening to libel against anybody. 'l:fGfi;far [khatlfg] six marks or components; six parts of a book: (a) upkramupsahar: Prologue of a book and its epilogue on the same theme or note. (b) abhyas: reiteration of the context. (c) apuravta: uniqueness of the context. (d) phal: conclusion. (e) arthvad: sentences creating interest in the book. (1) up-pattI: logic. 2 In grammar, the three ajat (vowel-endings) and three hat')t (consonant-endings) masculine, feminine and neuter genders. For example vowel-ending masculine is 0T}f [ram], feminine is rama and neuter is dhan and the consonantending masculine is rajan, feminine sraj and neuter ;:reyas. ~ [khatvadan] See~. ~ [khatvarag] Skt lSJ6,cni" n a group or coIJeGtion of six; a hexad. 2 six perversions are:- a'H [kam]: lust, ~tT [krodh]: anger, [lobh]: avarice, Hv [moh]: infatuation or attachment, mad: arrogance, matsary: malice (jealousy).

~[khatvf:;i] ~ twenty-sixth. ~ [khatvf:;iat], 1::lcFciF.tfa [khatvf:;iatI] Skt ~twenty-six.
l:lc:f~o(ia [khatVIkar] ~~ See CfC ~ofi-r.


2 See ~. 3 six states of the body: conception, birth, growth, decay, change and destruction. "janam astI aru VrIddhI pral).ama. khil). hon marno dukh dhama. khat vIkar atam mahf nahi"-NP. 4 six other associated changes: birth, death, hunger, thirst, happiness and sorrow. "khat vIkar ]anamahI aru marne. Ih :;iarir ke donahu varne. chudha tnkha dUI pranan ker. harakh :;iok man ke jug her."-GPs. ~ [khataul).a] v help to earn profit. 2 be accommodated. "ek grIh mahI dUI na khatai."-prabha am 5. 3 cause to be dug. "puran tal khataIa. "-BG. l::fGTlft [khatai] n sourness. 2 See ~. 1:IG'11 [khatas] n sour juice, sourness. l:f<:Ti')T [khdtana] absorbed or merged into. See ~. "jIujalmahI jaIaI khatana."-sukhmani. "mIlI jal jalahI khatana ram."-va<;i chat m 5. See cfc vr. l:fG""01 [khatani] liked or approved. "jal). ki dhun manI mith khatani."-gau m 5. "tau bI dhI niki khatani"-dhana m 5. "manI tanI caran khatani."-asa m 5. See l:fz vr. l:lit [khati] n earning, gain. "totI na aVE khatiE." -varram3. lfiP;rr [khatia] Skt (9C.::rr cot, bedstead. 2 Skt ~ bier for carrying the dead body. "khatia legae bhai."-asa kabir. 3 earning, profit. "Itnaku khatia gathia matia."-keda kabir. 'So much wealth has been earned, so much is at hand and so much has been buried.' l:fit>;t [khatiE] let's earn, let's gain. 2 let's make well known. "dohi khatiE."-var ram 3. ~ [khatik] Skt (9CfrcF n tanner, manufacturer of leather containers.

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927 ll? [khatu] See l::IZ. There is a monument of Guru Angad Dev l~ [kR;}tusasat] See l:fCRTR~. in this town. It is here that Guru Amar Dev If?l'l? [khatumatu] See l:fC11? used to serve Guru Angad Dev. Guru Nanak " l~ [khatual adj earner, breadwinner. Dev had also sanctified this town with his visit. 2 performer of the six acts. See l:fZO[ij}f. In the residential area, there is a beautiful "bI carahI anI ksastra bahu kh~tua."-seweye sri gurdwara of Guru Angad Dev. In the mukhvak m 5.3 knower of the six systems of circumambulatory path. ofthis gurdwara, there Hindu philosophy. See~. is a remnant of a peg which Guru Amar Dev [khatola], l:IZm [khatoli], l::fZ5 [khatolol stumbled against and fell while he was fetching small cot. 2 cot's frame. "cft khatola val) water for Guru Angad's bath. This gurdwara dukh."-s farid. 3 bed. 4 human body, torso. has an annual grant of rupees two thousand "atI niki meri bani khatoli."-brla m 5. six hundred. The following gurdwaras are also lfG [khatt] Skt ~ n cot, bedstead. 2 dowry there in this town: (1) Tapiana Sahib, situated at a distance given to the bride and groom at the time of their marriage of which the main is the of about one furlong to north-east of the bedstead. 3 See l::IZ. 4 Skt <flC, vr desire, search. habitation, is the place where Guru Angad used S Skt <flC,c, vr cover, surround. 6 Skt "1iJZ,c, vr to perform religious aillsterities. Nearby, there is a tank on thl~ bank of which stands the tomb live, exert, give, beat. 1~ [khattl)a] v earn, make profit. ofBhai Bala. 1:fGQ [khattar] adj one who is harsh by nature; (2) Thara Sahib is that platform where Guru Amar Dev used to recite Gurbani sour, short-tempered. 2 buffalo or cow that whenever he got time to spare from his daily hits when being milked. lfcr [khatta] adj sour, acidic. 2 n citrus-like routine. (3) Dehra of Guru Angad Sahib. plant and its fruit which has sour juice; sour (4) Mall Akhara. Near the habitation, lime. Its fence is very beautiful and its juice is towards the west, is the place where Guru used with boiled potatoes, arum and also in Angad Dev used to sit while instructing children pickles. It is used as a rootstock for grafting in the art ofwrestiing. See ~ difi:!\:~~'A. orange and sweet lime. L Citrus acida. 1:rcr [khaq] Skt ~ vr cut into pieces; refute. l:fir [khaqq] n burrow, hole. 2 gorge, ravine. l:llft [khaq.qi] that pit in which the weaver sways See cr.rn. 2 See ~. 1:ffir [khaqI] in the burrow or hole. "cuha khaqI his legs while weaving fabric. na mavai."-var mala m 1. lfc!" [khaI).] Skt '~R. vr cause grief or trouble, dig [khaqi] See trnt. up, excavate. 2 Skt &-1UT moment, instant. l~ [khaqua] n pit, ditch. 2 burrow, hole. "udhare Ik khal)e."-vaT ram 2 m 5. 3 Skt ~ part, segment; especially those segments of 1~ [khaqur], ~ [khaquru] a town under the ceiling which fall between two beams. See police station Vairoval in diistrict Amritsar where Guru Angad Dev residled. It is situated 1:10 3 and 4. at a distance often miles to the north-west of ~ [khal)I] See em'). Tarn Taran railway station. "sane sane avat 1d' [khal).e] in a jiffy, iin an instant. See l:f<!' 2. 2 dug up. See l:fO vr. bhae gram khaqur avas."_NP.



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[khat] n ditch, pit. "panhm mar khat Qar." ~ [xatib] reciter of xutba. See J.:f3W. -GJrItr 194. 'after a thorough shoe-beating, ~ [khatu] See l:f3". threw him into a pit.' 2 enmity, opposition. 1:S'ar[khatag] Skt ~that which wounds limbs 3 jealousy. 4 A b> ~ I written piece or of the body, an arrow. "bachar ghatti suna document. 5 line. 6 letter. 7 A .,::...> impediment, VIC khet khataga."-ci'iQi 3.2 injured, wounded. check, restriction, interdiction. "ISU handhan 3 S brave, courageous. 4 P ....{.;; a tree, of ka koi sarik nahi, kISE ka khat nahi."-var bI1a whose wood bows and arrows are made. m 4. 8 snatch, wrest. 5 bow or arrow made of xadag tree. "lie kar cakr vakr gophan khadagni."-salah. 1:f3OT [khatna] A ~ See H?i"3". ~ [khatpatl)a], ~ [hatphatl)a] v get l:f3laft [khatagi] adj who carries a bow. See 1:S'ar a tom letter etc, breathe one's last. See ~.2 4 and 5. 2 tearing ofa statement ofaccount, i.e. closing l:hrot [khattri] See ~. of an account. "na han bhajIo na khatu l:ffI [khatr] Skt !R?f n that which protects from phatIo."-s kabir. injury or violence, king or the administration. 2 warrior. "tahf jaI pare jahf khatr bara." ):f3'}f [xatam] A sense of completing something. 2 act of sealing or stamping. -gyan. l:f3'aT [khatra] n answering the call of nature. ~ [khatrhal)] adj destroyer of a dominion. 2 destroyer of men of the warrior class. 3 n 2A~.? danger, fear. 3 apprehension, misgiving. "khatra na kijE patijE sadiv."-GPs. Parshuram. ~ [khatreta] son of a person of Kshatri ~ [khatrkheta] adjbom in the military class; subcaste. "satru ki SEn taraganI tull hE tame real warrior. "dou khatrkheta."-gyan. turag tare khatrete."-carItr 2. ~ [khatral)] adj progeny of Khatri caste; of 'l:f8iw [khatrama] n Kshatri community. a military family. 1;f3T [khata] Dg n beard. 2 A IV n error, ~ [khatnatkar] killer of a warrior, an omission. "khaIIk! khata na kari."-sfarid. '0 arrow.-s;:)nama. 2 Parshuram. God! may my target not be missed.' 3 crime, lffifuriq ~~ [khatnyak khelak] that which offence. "asakh khate khInI bakhsanhara." dangles from the body of a warrior, a sword. -bavan. "asi khate bahut kamavde."-sava m -sanama. 3. 4 an ancient city in the centre of China, lffif'lifl(!" [khatnyal)], crftr'lif'O [khatnyan] adj Turkistan and Turan. born in or belonging to the martial caste of lf3T8" [khatab] A ",:",IV n form of address. Hindus. 2 conveyance of a warrior, the horse. 2 title, rank. lffifliJ'fu [khatnyan] enemy of a warrior, a sword.-sanama. 2 Parshuram. };fQ"lfJ;flJ [xatabaxa~] A if'IV adj forgiving, indulgent. ~ [khatri] Skt ~ second of the four castes lffuw [khatIya], ~ [khatia] n pit, ditch. of the Hindus. "khatri brahmal)u sudu bESU "khatIya pare ravju pae."-carItr 194. udhrE SIman caQal."-gau thIti m 5. 2 he who protects his subjects or people from 2 postman. IAnother form of it in Gurbani is khatu also. danger, a warrior. "khatri so ju karma ka 2A corner ofthe letter conveying the news ofsomebody's suru."-s;:)va m 1. 3 Many people believe that the words chatri and khatri have different death is torn before it is posted.


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meanings. But it is not so; for the source of both these words is k~atny. In Purans two major dynasties ofKhatris are mentioned, one being the solar dynasty in which Ram Chandar was born and the other being the lunar one to which Krishan belonged. At present the Khatris are divided into four main groups: Barhi, Khukhran, Bunjahi and Sarin. Barhis stand further divided into twelve subcastes; Khukhran into eight; 1 Bunjahis into fifty-two and Sarins into twenty subcastes. Inferior Khatris ar, th, Mehra, Kapur and Khanna. In the six ca..;.,s come Behal, Dhaun, Chopra, Sehgal, Talwar and Puri and under five castes come Behal, Beri, Sahgal, Vahi and Vij. Vedi, Trehan (or Tehan) and Bhal1a (of Sodhi subcaste) which have gained respect due to the birth of Guru Nanak Dev, Guru Angad Dev and Guru Ram Das respectively, are counted among Sarins. There is a story current among Khatris that during the reign of Alauddin Khalji, when a large number of Khatri soldiers were killed, the king tried to arrange the marriage of their widows. Those Khatris who accepted the royal order were termed as Sarins (i.e. who accepted ~arah-ain). Dhanna and Mehra, the two residents ofKajnand village went to lodge an appeal with the king against the orders for the said marriages. Those Khatris who joined them, two and a half kohs away from their villages were termed as Dhai Ghar; those who met them at twelve kohs came to be called Barhi. After this those who met them at
'Suris, Chadhas. Kohlis. Sethis, Sahnis, Bhasins, Anands, Sabharwals. Some include Talwars, Tannons, Jattchopras, Dhauns, Kakkars and Bahure also among the Khukhrans.

various other places were termed as Bahujai or Bunjahi. ~Fr [khatres] king or master of the warriors. "kine su jer khuni khatres."-manuraj. 't:R:!' [khad] Skt W~ vr eat, strike, cause trouble to somebody; n:main steady; cover. J:reBT [xad~a] A ~.Jo~ n act of scratching. 2 heart-lacerating anxiety. 3 apprehension, doubt. 't:ft!'a'T7)T [khadrana] See fl~. cre'O [khadan] excavation, pit. ltfua [khadu] Skt n plant; L Acacia Catechu. 2 Indar. 3 moon. ~ [khaderna], 1:f~)T [khaderna] v drive away. 2 chase, pursue. "bClhut kas tIh ffingahI khadera."--CClirItr 344. l:ft!ar [khadag] See c8dT 4 and 5. ~ [khadagni] that which carries bows and arrows. ~ [khaddar] n a kind of rough cotton cloth woven by the native w(~avers. ~ [khadyat], :~371 [khadyatan] Skt n that which shines (e:~ra- [dyat]) in the sky (kha); the sun. 2 fire-fly or glow-worm; an insect that glows like a spark. It is found especially in damp places. Some poets regard khadyot and the rfganjotI as identical. But they are different. The latter does not fly, it shines while crawling on the ground.. ~ [khan) Sk! <9~l vr dig up, turn up the soil, uproot, excavate. 2 n a piece, fragment. "hau tIsu vItahu khan khaniE."-maru m 4. 'I cut myself into pieces (i.e. I sacrifice myself) over him.' 3 P l:fO short form of xanah; house, dwelling place. 4 storey or floor (of a house). The Punjabi word, [khal).], is derived from it. l:fi")Cif [khanak] Skt adj digger, excavator. 2 n rat. 3 housebreaker, thief. ~ [khClnkhaniE] See Cfc'l 2. l:fOi"i' [khanan] Skt v dig, turn up the soil,

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excavate. 2 split, tear. See 1:fO vr.

-maru solhe m 1. 2 expenditure, outlay. 3 See

l:fOi'l't [khan-nil n spade, shovel. "vndh vac te
khan-ni Ie hath, takk Iagay crtav gurunath."j

l:fi'i'ffi [khanli] See cfoc;ft. l::fcWIt!'[khanvad] n refutation; refuting another's argument. "caudahr khanvade."-BG. 'refutaion offourteen branches ofknowledge. ' ~ [khanvaral, ~ [khanvaril adj who digs. 2 n miner. "jEse khanvara khanr khanat hanat ghan."-BG. "jy6 khanvari pavahr hira." -NP. l:Ifo [khanrl in a moment or jiffy. 2 having scraped or scratched. "kaIukh khanr utar." -saveye m 2 ke. 3 Skt n mine; a place from which metals and diamonds are extracted. 'l:ffc1tr [khanrjl substance obtained from a mine; semi-metal or precious stone. 't:I'01' [khani] dug, excavated. 2 See crfo. l:ftI' [khap] Skt ~ vr throw, cast, send, despatch. 2 Skt tWr. vr throw, destroy, ruin, strike or hit (with a weapon) lay the blame on, pull, tie. From here is formed the Punjabi word khapna or khapp. 1flfG [khapat] adj consuming, destroying. "khapat khal garjat."-kan m 5.2 ugly, hideous. 3 emaciated, weak. 4 who has the sky itself for his clothes; naked. 5 See l:fYC. l::ftIit [khapti] adj consuming. 2 n breach; split wood. l:f1.I? [khapatu] See l:f1.IC. 2 expert in knowing the state of the sky; astronomer. l:l't/C!l' [khapDa! v be destroyed. See l:ftI'. "khrma vrhuDe khaprgae."-oakar. "khrn mahr UpjE khrnr khapE."-sri Cl m 1. 2 be spent. 3 be absorbed. 4 be caught or ensnared. "brkhu mara mahr na or khapte."-bavCln. 1::f1.IO [khapat], l:fllf::r [khapatr] n destruction, annihilation. "opatr khapatr na avaD jaDi."
lcontemplating Guru Nanak Dev.

and cra3t. 4 master of the sky, the sun. 'tI1.RI" [khapatl Skt qtfu n skull; skullbone which is like a bowL 2 Sktl:fl..fubegging bowl. 3 thief. l:f1.reT [khapral n insect that eats into grains and makes them hollow; weevil. 2 Skt~ widepointed arrow. "tikhan khapre."-GPs. l:I'l«M'ft [khaprali] skull-carrying woman; sorceress attendant on Durga; Durga. "hassi khaprali."- VN. l:fl.ra't [khapril carrying a skull. 2 someone holding a begging bowl. See Cjl.ffl". "khalri khapri lakri camri."-asa m 1. 'skin-clad, skull-carrier (Shaiv ascetic) stick-carrier (ascetic of the order founded by Shankracharya), deerskinclad and celibate.' ~ [khaprEll adj carrier of a wide-pointed arrow. See 'l:jl.fijT2. 2 n flat oval-shaped tiles of clay used for roofing. 'l:flllt(!T [khapauDal v destroy. 2 spend; See


l:If4 [khaprl having been exhausted. "khapr
hoe kharu."-var asa. 't:f'lJC [khaputl Skt n nail of a lion. 2 See l:f1.IC. lltf [khapp 1 See 'l:f1..f. 1:Nt [khappil noisy. ~ [xafkanl, creraJTO [khaphganl See ~. }:UIiJiUxafgil n displeasure, vexation, anger. ~ [xaftanl T ~c;;::; n a sort of vest worn under the armour. l:Rm [khaphanl See <XG?). l:I6i'ft' [khaphnil See ~. ~ [xafal P ~ adj whose throat or breath has got choked. 2 displeased, annoyed. l:fi!t [xafil A j adj obscure, hidden. ~ [xafif] A ...;f adj of little weight, light. 2 a little, less, scanty. 3 of no consequence, frivolous. 4 abashed, ashamed. ~ [khaphaDl See <XG?). ~ [xabat] A .b? n fumbling, fidgeting. 2 frenzy,


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madness. lm:ft [x<lbti] A adj insane, crazy. lmi3" [x<lb<lr] A j n tiding, news. 2 knowledge, understanding, comprehension. 3 information, notice. "m<lt ghal<lhu j<lm ki kh<lbri."-brla k<Jbir. 4 watch, supervision. "sfc<lnhan: ekE mali. kh<lb<lrr k<lr<ltu hE pat P<lt q.ali."-asa m 5. ):(lI~ [x<lb<lrdar] P .Jbj adj careful, alert, aetive. J:fll~ [x<lbardari] PU.Jbj n alertness, carefulness. 2 act or process of getting information. lnlfa' [kh<lb<lrr] See ClmJ. 1nl'6t [kh<lbri] n emisssary, messe:nger. 2 letter, nl~wsletter. 3 See 'I:l'a"i3". l:Ill'g [kh<lb<lru] See 'I:l'a"i3". l:Illrm [kh<lbis] A .:.d' adj impure, polJluted. 2 depraved, wicked. 3 ghost, fiend. latta [khabir] See )::f)-/'Rr. lh'V [khabbcu] adjwho can lift an object with the left hand; left-handel'. lhlH' [khabball a kind ofgrass. It has long stalks, remains green throughout the year and is relished by horses. It is grown for its greenery in gardens and playgrounds. L Cynodon Dactylon. The juice of its roots cures wounds, piles and also dropsy. 1:fl:fT [kh<lbba] Skt ~ adj left. 1:fl:fT Rw [kh<lbba sajja] adj left right. 2 good and bad. 3 here and there. l:f!!rrQ [khabhar], ~ [khabbhar] n perturbation, distress. "paryo sar<lb parIvar kh<lbharu." -GPs. 2 large scale affliction, scourge" }f)f [xam] P n curve, crook, !bend. 2 upper arm. 3 Skt that which measures the sky, an arrow. See cffi.r. }f)m [xam<ls] A ~ adj five. l:fHWo [khamsan] Pkt n affinity, relation. }flfij' [xamar] A j n wine prepared from


l:ffif [kh<lmr] with an arrow. 2 of an arrow. See
C1H3. "badhIkuudhaI'IokhamI prahar."-b<Js;')t <Jm 5. 'liberated the hunter who had hurt (it) with an arrow.' J:fl-fur [x;nnir] A j' n surge, swelling. 2 fermentation ofkneade:d dough. 3 a persons's inherent nature, disposition. 4 jealousy, spite. }:f}j1.T [xamu~] P d,} a transform of xamo~. lfJfJ:r [khamos] S·ee ):fTH-F.r. lfJfJ:It [xamo~a] P ,,)(;.j plural of xamo~; the silent ones. For example, $ahre xamosa. See J:1llfF.r'f.Rl'Q.

J:l1.frij' [xammar] A .11.7 wine [x<lmar] seller.



See ~rr. ):f'liI"Q [xayat] A 1.!?· n he who works with the thread, a tailor. 2 See l:f:il"3'. 1:fliI'I7)3' [xayanat] A. ..,::;:~ n evil intention, theft. 2 embezzlement. ~ [khayal] St~l~ fl:p~. 1::ftiI'1('i5T [khayala] See ftrnfrw. l:f1l [khayo] was wasted or destroyed. 2 confronted, resisted. "ban kaman gahe harr samuhe aI khayo."--krTs<Jn. l:f'ij' [khar] Skt n that whiich has a large cavity (kha); donkey. See 11 below. "nanak se nar asalI khar jI bInu gUD garabu karatI."-var sar m 1. 2 a demon who was Dookhan's brother. "dukhaD J khar dEt pathae."-ramav. Ram ChandaI' killed him in Dandkaban. 3 thorn. See P WOo "tJ:S khar dhare deh par yiHe so malin hE."-NP 'The lotus has thorns on its body.' 4 crow. S heron. 6 ad} sharp. "khar krrpaD k<lr g<lhi kal."-s<Jloh. 7 hot, burning. 8 merciless, hard hearted. 9 Skt a:f\ vr dissolve, melt. "baq.e bol(~e bir bar ora sam kharge." -thakur. 10 n also used for kha1 or khali "khar ko tukro hath hamare pE dharyo. "-c<JrItr 192. 11 P j ass, donkey.. 12: drumstick, plectrum, bow, blow. "sat! pai khar cami."-c;')c;li 3. 'The drum skin was struck with a drumstick.' See
lftiI' [khay]

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13 a bow for playing upon a violin. etc. 14 adj large, big. 15 rough, uneven. l:fflR' [kharas] See J:fIfuH. "l:RJCf[kharak] See l::SO[2. 2 a village under police station Barki in district Lahore. See RTfua" 2. 3 See C:RJCX ~. ~ [kharak sfgh] See ~ and 'l::SdTfi:fur. "l:RJCf ~ [kharak bhura] a village under Sunam subdivision, in tehsil and police station Narwana in Patiala state. It is near the railway station Uchana and Ghasso. Towards the east of this village, there is a gurdwara of Guru Teg Bahadur. On his way to Delhi, the Guru paid a visit to this place. This gurdwara has got donation of 150 bighas and rupees twenty-five per annum from the Patiala state. The priest is a Sikh. l::fa"OlT [kharka] See l::SC\T. "dhunr sakh bajay karyo kharka."-caQi 1. 2 derogatory term for donkey. l:Im:IW [xarxa;;a] P >:f n dispute, quarrel, wrangling. 2 fear, dread. l:ffl'1:IQT [kharkhara] P ojj Skt ~ saw-like device of metal used for grooming horses; curry comb. "kharo kharkhara kharo karata." -GPS. 'He is currying the horse nicely, while standing. ' l:RrcIT[kharag] See CSOT. "tab bnjbhu;;an kharag gahr."-krIscm. crearfifur [kharagsfgh] a great warrior and a friend of Jarasandh. In Krishanavtar its meaning is thus explained: "kharagramyatanu garmrta sfghnad ghamsan. pac baran ko gun lryo rh bhupatr balvan." See l:Sdlfl:fur and


0Rl"fi..sr ~. J:rniitF.r [xargo;;] P J/} one with ears of an ass;
rabbit, hare. l:Rrtl' [kharae] P (;;j A &j n expenditure, outlay. 2 provisions for a journey. "kharae banu eagraiii."-sor ill 1.

leather stick, leather drumstick. "cot pai khareami."-caQi 3. 'Kettledrums were struck (beaten) with drumsticks.' See CfQ 12. 2 In old times, instead of a wooden stick, a woven leather thong of one and a half feet was used to beat a kettledrum. The stick of leather struck the kettledrum. 3 It appears that it is also a name of another musical instrument different from a kettledrum. "dE cobdamaman usat khari, khaream anek bajE jhankara."-saloh. "khaream aspi hieri ;;utri."-saloh. This proves that the musical instrument of hard leal;:, which looked like a kettledrum, was beaten while mounted on the back ofa horse, donkey, camel or elephant. 4 According to some scholars, it is a kettledrum having parchment of donkey skin. 5 skin of a donkey. 1:RffiI1-ft [khareami] with the leather drumstick. 2 on a drumstick. 3 on a large kettledrum. 4 See l:fOBTH. l:ffifu [kharer] spending. "khat kharaer kaehu totr na aVE."-ram m 5. 2 having spent. 'l:RI'H [kharaj] young one of an ass. 2 mule 3 See l;:f;rtf. 4 string producing kharaj sound (;;aQaj) (first of the seven primary notes of the Indian gamut). 5 See l:fOtf. 6 Skt ~ vr worship; give a knock; cause pain. ~ [kharjadal] hard-hearted executioner. "turak kahE kharjadal path hE."-PPP ~ [kharDa] Skt ~. n dripping, oozing. 2 flowing, seeping. 3 See tS?iT. ~ [khardara] rough, bristling, prickly. ~ [khardukhan] Skt ~ n thron-apple, by eating which a donkey dies. 2 See CfQ and

l:fatJlH [khaream]

l:RJi"iT [kharna] See~. "kai janam garabh hrn

khana."-gau m 5. 2 See l:S(jT. "jo disE so kalahr khan).a."-suhi ill 5. "grasr mina vasrgat khana."-kan ill 4. "jajir biidhr karr

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khare kabir."-bh£r a kabir. ~Ef [kharab1 Skt n one of the treasures of Kuber. According to Lilawati, ten times a crore is an arbud, ten times an arbud is an abaj and ten times an abaj is a kharab. In Ramayan it is stated that a thousand mahapadams equal one kharab. See Ffe:n:;rr. "lakh arab kharab dina dart"-gau m 5. 2 dwarf. 3 adj small, short. ~a;r[kharbarl M adj uneven, unequal. 2 high and low. "kharbar hoe khudi khuara."-BG. lffl8"'m') [kharbahanl, ~ [kharbahanI], l::fiW<.Jo't [kharbahnil one who rides a donkey; goddess Sitla, the donkeyrider. "kharbahan uh char uqavE. "-gSc;l namdev. 2 goddess Sitla who rides a donkey. lffl~ [kharbarul See ~. 2 Skt ffl marshmelon. "kharbaru khira."-BG. l:fa~ [kharbujal P ~;i.} Its pronunciation as xurpuzah is also correct. Skt l:ffH", ~ and -eJ~ marshmelon. It is an autumn crop and grows on a creeper. Its effect is hot and moist. Marshmelons from Balochistan and Egypt are very sweet. sarda from Kabul also belongs to this genus. lfil~ [kharbharl, [kharbhari] n di:sturbance, confusion, perplexity. ";'idh dhUdh jag kharbhar paryo."-GPS. "kehan gal'jan te jyo kari. hal poj taddapI kharbhari."--NP. 2 noise, tumult. 1:RIlffl3t[xarmasti] P ~} n unrestrained joy like that of a donkey; horseplay. 2 overt lewdness, lasciviousness. lfalroa-r [kharmohra] P yt7 n cowrie, cyproea moneta. lfa'5 [kharal1 a caste of Muslims inhabiting chiefly the district of Jhang. 2 a subcaste of Rajputs. 3 Skt ~ boat-shaped stone vessel in which antimony and drugs are powdered; mortar. Mortars manufactured in Gaya are of excellent quality and are priced from eight


annas to two thousand rupees.
~ [kharvahan], CI~fuol [kharvahmi]



[kharvar1 l:~ See l:fatITH. "satt pai kharvar kau."-cac;li 3. 2 See ~. 3 Skt ~. ass load. P .If,] In Kashmir, load oftwo standard maundls and three seers is called a kharvar. ~ [kharvara] See: l::R'~. l:fa'3' [harar1 n rattling or clattering sound. 2 rough hemp cIloth used for loading grain on the bullock cart etc. 3 a major city of a tehsil ofAmbala district. 1:RJT [khara] adj very much, excessive. "tu mE khara pIara."-d'hana m 1. "ae khare kathIn jam kakar."-bxha chat m 5. very stern. 2 unadulterated" pure, absolutely pure. "khote kau khara kahE, khClre sal' na janE."-gau a m 1. 3 genuine. 4 honest, sincere. 5 standing, steady. ";'it ki bar ko kh;)ra na hosi." -sor m 5. 1:RJll1 [kharas] n rough mill; large flour mill which is worked by a bull or some other source of energy. 2 P J,j bruise, scraping. ~ [xarar;;idan] P (;)-"c,j v scrape, lacerate. ~ [kharas:Jda] See 'iji]$Ci(ie'. ~ [kharahat] a village under police station Tibbi in tehsil Pakpatan district Montgomery. It is twelve miles to the south-east ofPakpatan railway station. There is a gurdwara of Guru Nanak Dev. Th(~ priest is an Udasi Sikh. i:RfTii [kharaj] Ai;,') n act of pressing or taking out; tax, tribute, impost, revenue. See f'tfor;:r. l:RI"Q [xarat], J:RJr,:!" [xarad] A 1,1} P JI} n act of peeling or scraping. 2 turner's lathe, that turns objects of metal and wood into round pieces. }::I"ijT8"[xarab] A ",:""j adjbarren, desolate. 2 bad, worthless. J:ffi'1it [xarabi] P ~jj destruction, desolation. 2 evil. l:ffiI1iI"3" [kharayatJI alms. See ~. "ketIk det


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l:fl?[khal] Skl<?fff., vr gather, collect, move. shake. 2 n threshing floor. "IE taguli khal damn jya ~ [khdrav] n wooden sandal. "deI khdrav ndbh bie uc;lai."-krrsan. 3 See l:fOC? 4 earth. sdddn ko mora. "-NP S residue of mustard seeds etc when most of 'l:ffu>,rr [khdrra] See l:RfOT and CS7iT. 2 See cSl»rr. the oil has been extracted; oilcake. 'l:ffit [khdri] feminine of khdra. "rdsna hdrrjds 6 that which disappears into the sky, the sun. 7 that which has the sky coloured, tarnal tree gavE khdri suhavI).i."-var sor m 4. "VIC sahUrrE khdri sohadi."-sri eMt m 4.2 SkI feminine of (xanthochymus pictorius). 8 adjwicked, base, vile. "khdl murakh te pac;lIt karbo."-sar kabir. khdr, she-ass. 3 adj relating to or concerning an ass. "dspi ~utri bdjdt dsekha. pH khdri mbdt 9 cruel, pitiless. 10 See 1::l'c? nalu lekha."-saloh. 'The kettledrums laden l:fffiJli5" [khalhal], ~ [khalhdluJ n fluster, dread, distress. "dII khdlhdlu jakE jdrdd ru bani." on horses, camels, elephants and asses are -bher kabir. 'One whose mind is agitated, is being sounded. ' l:«fl>>fT [khdria] See cSl»rr. pale in the face.' 2 See C:I"l?C? ~ [xdrita] A J"j n pouch, purse (of leather lfflUTO [khdlhan], 'l:fffiJTQ [khdlhanuJ See l:fl? 2. P fuoHo. "bInu kdI). khdlhanu jEse gahdn pan." etc) 2 envelope or bag in which a despatch is -bher m 5. See l:fft;mrn. sent. 3 formal royal letter. lfli5Cr [xdldk] A n God's creation, the universe. l:Rire" [xdrid] P ~.7 n purchase. "khaIIk khalak, khdlak mahI khaIIk."-prabha ~[khdridI).a],~[khdridna] P t,;}..J:.j buy, kabir. 2 create, make. purchase. SkI SFITOT "mullkharidi lala gola." l:fli5q3" [khalkat] A ~ n world~ universe. -marum I. ~ [khdlkhac;ldk], ~ [khalkhac;ldn] adj ~ [xarif] A .....fl.7 n autumn harvest. destroyer of the wicked. 2 n sword-sanama. l::/9 [kharu] See ~. 2 SkI adj stupid. 3 cruel. 4 covetous, greedy. S n tooth. 6 horse. 7 Shiv. ~ [khdlkhac;lniJ adj female destroyer of the wicked. 2 n sword-sanama. 3 army 8 Kamdev. 9 egotism. equipped with swords-sanama. ~;:r [xaruj] A '(:;,j sense of coming out; There is a city named Khalaj emerging. "namkkia khdruj."-mago. See l::fTfut:r. l:ffifft [xdlji] A in Afghanistan and this noun relates to that [khdrudJ n horseplay, rowdyism. place. Jalaluddin of this clan was a famous cffi' [khdre] See l:fOT, l:RfOT and CS7iT. emperor of Delhi. The Khalji dynasty ruled ~ [kharekhdroe] adv standing on guard; over India from 1290 to 1320 AD. military guard on duty. 2 while standing. "kharekh3roe bEthat uthat mardg pathI 1:fli57j [khdlanJ See "R"l::ffiO. 2 stand up, halt. 3 to the wicked 4 the wicked (nominative dhIavEgo."-kan am 4. case). ~ [khdroa] stood. See ~.

phdkir khdraYdt."-NP. l:RJTfu [khdrarr], 1::RJTeT [khdrari] Ram, the enemy of demon Khar. See ~. 2 thorn-apple, eating of which causes a donkey to die. 1:RI"'"5 [khdral] See ~ 3. "cuna sukhdm pis khdrale."-GPS. 'in the mortar.' l:RJl't [khdrale] with the mortar. 2 in the mortar.

~ [Xdro~]

P J,j n noise, clamour, hue and

~ [xaro~idan] P t,;},K,j v make a noise. ~ [kharotJ See~. "khare kharot su dalgdn


l:fW [kharha]




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[xalafl A ...;.Ib adj one who follows; a follower. 2 successor, heir. 3 n progeny, posterity. 4 son; male offspring. 1:fliI5~ [khalmarak] adj killer of the wicked. 2 n sword.-sallama. 1:fliI5~[khalmurakh] vile and foolish. See CfC') 8. 1:fliI5QT [khalra], ~ [khalri] See Cf(\)3T-l,m;IT. 2 leather strap worn round the neck by the devotees ofSakhi Sarvar from which a walking stick keeps hanging. "khuQi khalra gal mahI dharo."-GPs. ):Ri}"!'? [xalal] A JL7 n interruption, restriction. 2 impediment. 3 defect, drawback. "khalal m:jdal paryo svami."-saloh. l:ffi~ [khalvaIa] v got stood up. "bhagta agE khalvaIa."-var vacj m 4. 2 fed; made someone eat food. l:ffietQT [khalvara], ~ [khalvara] enclosure for stacking unthreshed corn; threshing floor. S~:e CfC') 2. mound of grains. "kheti jIll ki ujrE khalvarE kra thau?"-var sar m 1. "sabh kUrE ke khdlvare."-nata m 4. l:((?;;rr [khalra], 1:fliI5;ff [khalri] n skin, hide. See l:fCii. 2 leather bag. "bhdU tera bhag khdlri mera cit."-tIlag m 1. 3 adj See l:ft.fcit. "khdlri khapri ldlqi camri."-asa m 1. l:fliSl' [khala] adj standing. "sajallu sabhkE m:kdtr khala."-ram chat m 5. 2 plural of khd!. "se apavItr dmedh khala."-var ge)U 1 m 4. See CfC') 8. 3 See cffi". lffi"rJ1 [khalas] A r./v.;. adj unfettered, free, liberated. "dargahI hOI khalas."-sar m 5. "kahI rdvrdas kh;:llas c;:lmara."--gau. lffi1W [kh;:llasa] See 1::fWJ1 and 1j(?'W. l:fl?lm [khalasiJ P ifv.;. n releas~~, liberation, deliverance. "tIsu bh;:li kh;:llasi hoi s;:lgal sIdhr."-gauam 5.2 employee on a ship who unties the ship from the anchor. 3 tent pitcher. lffi1lJ [kh;:llasu] See 'l:fWFf. "jIn k) sadhu bhetiE so d;:lrg;:lh hOI kh;:llasu."-majh barahmaha.


[khalaph;:lt] rank of a caliph; caliphate. 2 duty of a caliph. SI~e lffilGr. ~ [kh;:llavna] v feed. "kh;:llaVE bhoj;:ln." -dhalla m 5. l:ffl.I [kh;:llr] Skt n n~sidue of sesame and mustard seeds etc after the oill has been extracted; oil cake. "na kh;:llr bh;:li na tel."-s k<Jbir. kh<Jl and kh<Jlr are both genuine Sanskrit words. 2 See 1:R? l::Ifl;p,rr [khaIIa] standing, erect. 2 adv while standing. '''SOV;:lt bES;:lt kh;:llra. "-suhi chat m 5. ~ [kh;:llran] See ~~ 2 and l::ffffiJro. 1::ffli5fu[kh;:llI-I] advafter standing up. "khalr-I kicE ardasr."-var maru 1 m 2. l:ffiruro [khalrhan] See l:fl'? 2. 2 Skt 1ff1;ro1 multitude ofthreshing floors. crfi;mtfo [khalrhanr] on the threshing floor. "koi vahe ko lUQ.e ko pae khal:chanr. "-var bIla m 1. crrna- [khaIIt] Se~: RClf1?'o. <ffit [kh;:lli] See l::I'~5' 2 and l:ffl.I. 2 adj stood up. "hath jop: kh;:lli sabIn hoi."-var bIha m 4. 3 Skt n that whiich is hidden in the buccal cavity; curved bit ofa bridle. • [xalik] A ~ adj good-natured. l:flofur [xalij] A rff n part of the land that has indented into the sea. It has land on three sides and sea on one; bay. 2 small ship. ~ [khalita] See l::R"i'\3T. ~ [khaliti] small bag. "riti ram nam te rahi jJ bIn kam, l:J ye kharrj kharab hal khal ki khaliti hE."-gval. See lffu"r. ~ [xalifa] A --,:~b This word is derived from xalaf, which means to leave behind. i.e. to appoint someone as a representative for the period of one's absence. The heads of Islam and the successors who reigned and preached their religiof! aftl~r the demise of Mohammad, were called xalifa; caliph.! To begin with, the
I'Caliph' also means a leader. In the Koran, the word 'Caliph' has been used for Adam and David. See Koran.
surat 2 ay<Jt 28 and surat 38, ayat 25.


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caliphs belonged to Mecca of whom four were prominent: (I) hI Abu Sakal'. He became caliph Rasul Allah (that is, the vice regent of Mohammad, the apostle ofGod) in Hijri II at the age of60. He was father of Mohammad's wife Aysha. He remained caliph for two and a quarter years and died in Madina on 23'd August 634 AD. (2) Umar, son of Khattab, was installed as caliph in Hijri 13. He was father of Hafsa, third wife of Mohammad. His title was Amirul Mominin. He conquered Persia and Egypt. He razed the world-famous library ofAlexandria thinking that ifthe said library contained some books against the Koran then there was no use to keep them and if they were in accordance with the Koran then their content was already there and therefore, there was no use keeping them intact. He captured Jerusalem and constructed a mosque there which is, till date, named after him. He made laws according to the Islamic principles. He was fatally injured with a dagger by Firoz, a Persian slave, on November 3,644 AD while reciting his morning prayer (mrnaz) in the mosque only to die three days after. (3) (;}tY Usman, son of Affan. He was appointed the caliph in Hijri 24. He was husband of two of Mohammad daughters, namely Rukiah and Ummukulsum. He was assassinated by Abu Bakar's son Mohammad, at Madina on 30 th June 665 AD. (4) J Ali was son ofAbutalib and husband of Mohammad's daughter Fatima. He was born in 599 AD. He was installed the fourth caliph but was forced to give up his caliphate after five years. He was injured with a poisoned sword by Abdul' Rahman, at Kufa and died four days later in 661 AD. His tomb


in the city of Najaf is a famous place of pilgrimage for the Muslims. Imam Ali had 18 sons and 18 daughters in all. Among them were three sons Hasan, Hussain and Muhsin from Mohammad's daughter Fatima. All of these four caliphs are famous as Charyar, that is four comrades or friends. The fifth caliph, Hasan, son ofAli, reigned for six months only. After him there were 14 caliphs who ruled over Damascus from 661 AD to 749 AD. Then, the caliphate passed on to the rulers of Baghdad and it remained with them from 750 AD to 1258 AD. After that the caliphate came under the control ofthe Turkish kings. On November 12,1922, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey deposed Sultan Wahiddudin from the caliphate and installed Abdul Majid as the new caliph but deprived him of the all authority. He was reduced to a mere religious figure head. In March 1924, the office ofthe caliph was totally abolished. Besides the above-mentioned caliphs, many Arabic, Egyptian, Persian and Turkish kings have, in the past, been posing themselves as independent caliphs and some are so called even now. The ruler of Delhi, Alauddin Khalji and the Mughal emperor Akbar used to term themselves as Khalifa (caliph). That is why the capital city was known as Dar-ulKhilafat. The Sunni Muslims believe that a caliph can be from no other caste except that of the Quraish family. According to the Shiah Muslims, it is proper for a caliph to be only from the family ofAli. l:R'fur [khalir] n performer, player. 2 acrobat, gymnast. 3 jester, mimic, buffoon. ~ [xalil] A ~ true friend. "Ihbrahim khdlil

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pagabar."-GPS. ~~ [xaIiI xa] name of a military officer in Shah lahan's army, who commanded five thousand soldiers. See ~ 5. ~ [khalu] SkI' part question. 2 negation, refutation. 3 reason, cause. 4 certainly, doubtlessly. "In dutan khalu badhukdn mano."-jet ravrdas. ~i'W[khaloa],~[khalOIara], l:fffiJr[khaloha], ~8r[khalota] stood up, halted. "mkatI khaIOIara mera sajanra."-ram ch:'it m 5. "vIeI kartapurakhu khaloa."-sor m 5. "agE aI khaloha."-var ram 2 m 5.2 on the threshing floor. "khatI sarin jo bijiE so atI khaloa aI."sava m 3. 'Whatever is sown in the field comes to the threshing floor.' ~~ [khalovna] See ~. ~;[khall] Skt11fffi n pit. 2 rain bird, pied cuckoo. 3 leather water bag, bellows. "bhau khala aganI td'P hu."-japu. 4 leather, hide. 5 Skt ~ stone or metal vessel for grinding drugs; mortar. ~i'Q [xallak] A J!Y adj the Creator. See ~. lffit [khalli] convulsions. This ailment results from the affliction of the body by windy humour. The muscles ofthe arms and the calfs gl~t tense and the patient suffers from cramps. During cholera it is very painfuL Massaging the body with narayal)i oil and intake ofmuscletonics are useful to cure this disease. 2 swelling of glands in the groin due to some boil or wound. ~f [khallu] See ch:>. 2 one who skins an animal; skinner. 3 of the skin. "meri khallum:>jre gursIkkhha4hade."-BG. ~: [khav] See ~. ~:c!' [khavcl1).], ~ [khavl.).a], w~ [khaval.).u] v bear, tolerate. "prabh das ka dukhu na khavISakahI."-var guj 2 m 5. "nidak sakat khav na sakE."-basat am 4. "nIVaI.).U su akharu



khaval.).u gul.).u."--s farid. See rn. "khave na vaJ1anI."--var gu;2 m 5. 'cannot be tolerated.' "eku bol bhi khcl'vto nahi."-asa m 5. 'Even a single utterance could not be tolerated.' 2 pardon, forgive. 3 dissolve, merge. "avatal.).u ape khaVE dudh kau khapal.). na deI. "-sri d m 1. l:fVl7iTor [khavlana] v feed. "jo bijE so khavlavEgo. "-kan dill 4. ~ [khavas] A ul} n plural of J:fTR [xas]; ministers, grandies etc, royal servants. 2 special qualilties. 3 A ~n;" lion. 4 slave. S dacoit, plunderer. "kine kharab khane khavas."-aj. 6 P ~fl} adjpetitioner, supplicator. ~ [khavasi] P ttl} duty of an attendant. "narad sarad karalu khavasi." -asa kabir. 2 backseat of a buggy, ,chariot or howdah of an elephant etc for the servant to sit in attendance, behiind the noble man. 3 grandies, distinguished or favourite attendants. "kIa laskar kIa neb khavasi?"-var majh m 1. ~ [khavaIl.).aj! v feed, provide food. "es no kur bolI In khavaIiE?"--var guj 1 m 3. l:Ifu [khan] See 1:~. 2 having tolerated. ~ [khavi] n talI and rough grass which, like reed stalk, has a small ear at its top. ~ [khavis], Cj,furcft [khavisni] djinn, ogre, ogress. "khavisni pIsacni bItal bir bhnvi."

[xavid] P ~:j n wheat or barley plant on which the ear has not appeared yet. 1::f& [khavin] See ~. ~ [khavhi] See ~. lS' [khar] or ~. [kharu] See 1::SC')T. 2 Skt m paddy straw. "kharu khavahI amnt dehI." -guj m 1. S~' residue of pressed mustard seed etc; oil cake. 3 crop. "kharu paki kur bhajE bInS£,"--sri m 1 pahrre. 4 Skt lSTZ, six. "dharal.).I suvani khar ratan jaravi."-gau var 2 m 5. Here khar has a pun: 'The earth decorated with different kinds of gem-like grass,

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becomes comely after having been equipped Sammat 1860 and ascended the throne of with spiritual glory.' Lahore in Sammat 1896; but wily Dhyan Singh ~ [kharasanI) will take away. "avgal). Dogra dethroned him and put Naunihal Singh, kharsanI banI. "-sri m 1 pahIre. Kharag Singh's son, on the throne. Having ~ [kharhar) n knocking or clattering sound. remained grief-stricken for one year, Kharag l:j"3'q [kharak) See ~. 2 a village which Bhai Singh died at the age of 38 years, on 21 51 of Santokh Singh has referred to as Kharak. It is Kattak Sammat 1897. situated at a distance of twelve kohs towards ~ [kharagdhari) adj sword-bearing. 2 n the south of Dhamdhan. While travelling Khalsa; the sword-bearer. 3 the Timeless One. through Bangar, Guru Teg Bahadur halted here ~ [kharagdhvaj) the Timeless One, whose under a banyan tree. "kharak gram nIygrodh I standard has the emblem a sword. vIsala. tahi'i jaI <;leTa guru <;lala."-GPs. l:GCIIO't[kharagni) Skt~troops armed with l:j"3'q fl:fur [kharak SIgh1See C:RJ01fRur and l:SdTfl::fur. swords.-sanama. 2 See CflJd'aW. ~ [kharagpal).I) one who has a sword in l:faW[kharka), crscg [kharaku) n knocking noise, hand; community of the duly baptised Sikhs. tap. "ghughar kharaku tI agI VI sure."-ram m 2 the Timeless One, God. "kharagpal).I khaldal 5. 2 fear, apprehension, trepidation. "haumE balharna. "-gyan. adan kharaku hE."-var vaQ m 3. l:f;'J(Jft [khargi) Skt ~,adj swordsman. 2 n 1:fflCIf [kharag) Skt ~ n that which cuts. See duly baptised Sikh; the community of baptised em: vr sword. According to Dhanurved (miltary Sikhs. 3 rhinoceros, having a (sword like) horn science), a sword should be four fingers wide on its nose. 4 Skt ~ female rhinoceros. and fifty fingers long. Thirty-two methods of ~ [khargul).) Skt ~ See ~ 3 and brandishing a sword have been defined. "aSI ~ J:!ifu" ~ ch 69. 2 produce, nurture, knpan kM<;lo kharag sEph teg tarvar. racch bring up, devastate, reward or punish suitably karo hamri sada kavditak karvar."-sanama. for a consequent action, pardon, forgive, 2 Macro Time as the supreme destroyer of excuse, be competent. "khargul). isvar pOn atul the world. "namaskar sri kharag ko."-VN. bal."-dIlip. "kharag god mE tum ko payo."-GV 10.3 horn ~[kharga]Skt~ See~. "kharga asekh of a rhinoceros. 4 rhinoceros. vIdya vIsekh."-datt. 2 See 1:fflCIf. l:f3OIffiur [kharagsfgh) a warrior mentioned in lfflH [kharajJ Skt ~ n the first note of the Krishanavtar, a part of Dasam Granth. He was musical scale which originates from six places friend of J arasandh and several times defeated viz nose, throat, chest, palate, tongue and teeth. Krishan and other commanders, but, at last he This musical note is produced with the help of was killed through deception. "tIh bhupatI ko these six parts ofthe body.21n musicology, its mItr Ikk kharagsfgh tIh nam. pEre samar origin is traced to the sound of a peacock. samudr bahu maharathi baldham." ~ [khartal) See ~. 2 See ~. -knsan. See l:fOdTfi:fur and d'RI"fi..sr mR". 2 eldest ~ [khardOm] adj having its tail raised; son ofMaharaja Ranjit Singh, the lion ofPunjab, mischievous, roguish; (an animal) driven into from Maharani Datar Kaur. He was born in 2'lffii 9iU6~{("<1I<j)~ GrClT"-,,-\~:
'ny;:Jgrodh, boh;:Jf, V;:Jt.
~: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~:-sagitdamod;:JT.

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excitement or fury. 2 n uproar, furore. lfflC)T [khdrna] v take away. "dVgdl). khdrSdnI banI."-sri m 1 palure. 2 stand. "ghdrI dpanrE khari taka." -suhi chat m 1. 3 steal, abduct. 'tl;fIlir [kharpEC] sixth among five village headmen i.e. self-styled chief; presumptuous person; one who pokes his nose . lffl"!r.f [kharbhar] See ~. "kharbhar bi1'a." -suraj. 'tffliffiO [khar1'atan] See cr;r 4. l:S" [khara] ad; standing. "khara puka1'E patl).i." --s farid. l:S"~ [kharaG] n wooden sandal. According to an article in Aangiras Simriti, "A king would get the feet of a person other than Agnihotri and Tapasvi chopped off, if he dared to walk beyond five houses from his home with wooden sandals on his feet." See ~or 51. l:f:j'i~ [kharas-hari] Skt lSki~I$IR,\ n the ruler, who collects one sixth ofthe produce from his subjects. In ancienttimes, the king used to get one sixth share of all kinds of produce from his people. l:S"oo [kharamn] See ~. If;f~ [khararu] adj who takes away. "kal khararu ae."-vaQ m 1 alalwi. 'The messengers of death came down to take him along. ' Chanting of this line as "kal khara mae" is incorrect. 'l:ff::r [khafI] adv by carrying away, by taking along with. "kharI da1'gahI pEnaiE."-sri m 1.
St~e l::l;RlT.

~[kharOl).a], l:f;§~[kharovl).a] v stand. "apI

kharovahT apT kClr."--var suhi m 1.
l;f;far [kharag] Skt 1~ See ~.

~ [kharagyog] Instead of eight, six kinds

l:ffll1>mR [khariasI] will carry away. "bIn bujhe
sabh khariasI badhI."-basat m 1. See 1:f;ror.
'l:f;fl>w [kharia] n a kind of white soil; chalk.

2 adj who takes away. [kharu] See cr;r. l:f3'ffiit [khares1'i] n an ascetic or hermit, who remains standing day and night, never to sit or sleep.

ofYog are described iin Daksh Simriti: p1'al).ayam - a system of breathing exercise and regulating respiration; ~ [dhyan] concentration; pratyaha1'-control over senses; dha1'l).a - concept; ta1'ak -logic; and sClmadhI deep meditation. Yog c:omprisingthese six kinds is called kharagyog. 2 six actions ofYog, which form its various practice:s. See C:fZ qo}f 2. 1:fT [kha] short form of khadnakuru. v eat. 1:jT [xa] short for J:r7l (xan). See 1::f17i. lf1' [khau] adj gluttonous. 2 one who swallows another's wealth. 3 corrupt. 'I:fTfu [khaI] eats. "bhogi hOVE khaI."-suhi m 1. 2 tolerates, endures. "muhe muhI pal).a khaI."-var asa. 3 adv by eating, by making one eat. "mata pritI ka1'e putu khaI." -gau m 4. 4 after eating. "khaI khaI ka1'E badphdI."-majh m 5. ~ [khan] ate. "gharI gharI khaIa pfQu vadhaIa,,"-guj trrlocan. 2 decayed. 3 finished. "so dia na jai khaIa."-sor kabir. 4 P =-(; ovary, scrotum. "te1'e patI ke das khae."-carItr 43. 5 egg. ~Hoc!r[khaJ:a mam)a] v feel obliged, feel indebted. "kahI2l sUl)lah:[ na khaIa manahI." -basatm 1. l:fTfuor [HaIk], crrf~r<3 [khaIku] P ....f(; n grasshopper, wiinged insect. 2 Skt ~ garrulous "je ko khaIku akhal).I paI."-japu. "thau nahi khaJ:ka."-var sri m 1. 3 glutton, voracious eater. l:fTfirc!' [kha:cl).] Ski ~ n act of eating, process ofeating. 2 victuals, food. "amrI t1'asu khaIl).." -val' ram 2 m 5.. ~ [khai] ate, consumed. "bIkhE thagauri jInI janI khai."-gau m 5. 2 n trench dug around a

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fort containing water so that the enemy might not get across it. "l~ka sa kat saillud si khai." -asa kdbir. 3 one that consumes - desire. "lahbar bhujhi khai."-asa ill 5. See~. l:(TFf[khas] A Lf(; adj chief, principal, the elected one. 2 P J'i1i n desire, need. "kIsi vastu ki khas lld rahi."-GPS. l:f'W [khasa] will eat. "jEsa bijahI tEsa khasa." -g<JU ill 5. 2 na special sedan chair for the rich; palanquin; kiosk-like seat for a holy scripture. "khase ko ucvaI calehE."-GPS. 3 P ..-"(; a kind of fine muslin. 4 adj superior, excellent, ofgood quality. "jIssnpau pan gaii khasa he. "-maru solhe m 5. 5 free from disease, healthy. 6 A n nature, temperament. l:fiJ:rr [khasa] See m. 't:fTfmiI3" [khsIydt] A ..::.d-'(; qual ity, important matter. 2 habit, nature. 3 special effect, after effect. 1:fTJ:ft [khiisi] a disease. Skt ~T and '!'"ffi, J~ cough. This ailment is caused by taking sour or acerbic food in excess, drinking cold water immediately after consuming hot substances, inhaling dust and smoke through nostrils, eating dry, unseasoned and stale food and dwelling in filthy and damp places. A patient, disabled by a chronic disease suffers from cough due to sudden exposure to the cold. There is a Punjabi proverb. "Root cause of all diseases is khasi (cough); bone of contention of all quarrels is Hansi (a place)." The sound released from the throat of a cough patient is just like that caused by a broken bronze utensil; the chest gets strained, respiratory pipes are choked with phlegm, there is a thorny feeling in the throat and on the tongue; the patient has headache, feels no hunger. There are many causes and types of cough. It must be got treated from a properly experienced and well-qualified physician. However the common treatment is as follows: (1) licking the extract of green leaves of bamboo soaked in honey. (2) swallowing the berry-sized ball of a mixture by equal weight of roots of liquorice (glycyrrhiza glabra), bark of myrobalan (torminalia balerica), starch, tragacauth gum and lump sugar. (3) licking the extract offresh ginger mixed with honey. (4) making small balls (weighing about a rarti each) of the crushed mixture of black pepper, opium, lump sugar, catechu, arabic gum (one masha each) and taking one such ball with warm water in the morning as well as at the time of going to sleep. I ~ [khasiyat] See l:fTfR1E. l:fTfu [khahI] eats. "k~ni sutak k~n pE laItbari khahI."-var asa. backbites. 2 See 'I:f{T. lfTfuR" [khahIs] See ~. l:fTtit [khahi] adj (one) who eats. "juga jug~tarI khahi khahI."-jdpU. 2 desirous, ambitious. J:ITiir [xak] P J(; n dust, grit, ashes. "tere cakra pakhak."-trlJg m 1. 2 earth, land. l:j'aiil'C!o' [khakchal)na] v trudge a dusty path. 2 tolerate insult, search for wealth. "kauc;li kauc;li kau khak SIr chanE."-ram m 5. ~ [xaktoda] P ~)jiJ~ n dump ofearth, used as a target for arrows to be shot at. A thin mudwall is erected in front of the heap that is filled with fine and dry soil. The extent to which the arrow2 penetrates the wall, indicates the strength of the archer. "kdryo khaktoda sudhraI."-GPS. ~lf [xakrob] P "':"'))~ n one who sweeps away dirt, dust etc; sweeper, scavenger.
IThis medication should not be administered to the children.

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sketch: plan, outline map. wf~ [xakIst~r] P7~ 17 ash, calx (of metals). J:fl1sft [xaki] P J'(; adj made of dust; made of earth. 2 dust-coloured, greyish brown. 3 17 a S(~ct of ascetics, members of which rub ashes on their body. This sect desce:nds from Kil -the disciple of Krishan Dass. ):f'i:iP?fT [xakia] plural of '.l:f'oit [xaki]; people, persons, populace. "I:j1'i~ [khaku] See cpq. "khaku loreda tanIkhe." -var maru 2 m 5. "I:j1'i~ [khaku] the vowel [u] pronounced whh cpq [khak] is indicative of genitive; pertaining to l:lTCX [khak]; of cpq [khak]. "kh:m rmhJ: rulta khaku na1I."-g5t;i ill 5. 2 adj made of ash. "khaku khak ra1£."-brla am 1. 3 17 earth, See J:1iTa'2. "khaku jeq,u na koI."-s brid. l:f1l:f [khakh] 17 meeting point of the two lips. 2 See cpq; the corner of two lips. l:fICIT [khag] See ~. 2 arrow, (which moves through the sky). "chutgayo sarap sam jaI lag. j;)ttu bhujan ke bic khag."-GPS. l:fIm [khaci] See 1::ffu3". l:fIR'[khajJ or1:f'B' [khaju] SkI l::fTeJfn food, victuals, meals. "khaju ho murdaru."--var sar m 1. "jmahu akhaj khaj 1akh pae."-GPS. 2 SkI l:ftf itch. ~ prurigo. Psoriasis is caused by remaining unclean, not taking fully cooked dean diet, indigestion, hepatic (liver) diseases, stoppage of menses etc. Whenever there is an impurity in the blood due to any ofthe above causes, scabies appear on our body. The best treatment for this ailment is to keep the body clean, constantly to take blood-purifying medicines. Take five mashas each of IJItpapra, caraIta (blood-purifYing drug made from a plant (ophelia chirretta), muq,i buti, cItta canal). (white sandalwood-santalum album), choti harar (a medicated nut-myroba1an) and also seven grains of fruit of jujube; put this

J:fl1i{T [xaka] P .J(; 17

mixture in one and a quarter pau of water, to keep it soaked over night. Filter the mixture in the morning and drink with two tolas ofjujube syrup. Avoid intake of acerbic food, red chillies, wine etc. Apply such conditioners on the body as a massage to keep the skin soft. l:f1W [khaja] See 1:f'H 1. 'l::f'fi:ro [khajIn] A (:};(; adj who accumulates. 2 17 treasurer. l:fIti'Ifo»IT [khajinia] treasurer, holyman, hermit. See l:f'ft:ro.. "sacu teTe khajinIa."-suhi m 5. l:fItf [khaju] See 1:f'H. crff [khajEl should be eaten. "de khajE akhI gavaiE."-var asa. 'VVe should eat whatever is provided by God. One loses when he claims himself to be a giver.' 2 We should share food with oth(~rs without assuming ourselves to be charitable Le. we should not boast ofdonation. l::fl'G [khat:! SkI lf~ cot, bedstead. See E cot. "khat magau caupaL"-sor kabir. l::f1'G<! [kha~al).l, l:lTC?l [khatan] v earn, get profit. "khatal). kau harr han: rojgar."-dhana m 5. "dhan khatan kijE brdhI run."-NP 't:fTfG [khatI] 17 earning, profit, gain. "vaq,bhagi dhan khatI."-sri m 5.;~ adv by earning. "mai khatI aw ghan puta."-guj m 5.3 SkIn bier, hearse, funeral pyre. 1f"feti' [khatIo] earned, gained. "ramratanu dhanu khatIo."'-tot;ii ill 5. 't:fTfG ~t [khat:c khatuli] after making profit, after earning. "kaha karahI re, khatI khatu1i." -sar m 5. 'l::f'Gl [khati] eamed. "namraSI sadh sagI khati."-gau ill 5. 2 adj sour, pungent. 3 bitter. "j£sa amrItu tEsi bIkh khati."-sukhmani. "gurprasadI anuItu brkh khati."-gau m 5. l:flit ful:f [khati bIkh] 17 wine, liquor. 2 strong poison, bitter venom. l:fI?ffi'[khatuli] S~:e l::f'f~l:l'?"ffi. 2 small cot, cradle.

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3 molasses. 4 adj sugary. khate."-dh;ma m 5. W [khaQa] See ~. If'iar [khatag] Skt b~1T See CfCnfar. "tIlak l:fTit [khaQi] n gulf, bay; portion of the sea khat5ga."-kan m 5. consecration mark on six surrounded by land on three sides. parts ofthe body i.e. forehead, both ears, both ~ [khaQUfu] See ~~. "phen vasaIa arms and chest. In some scriptures pherUaI).I satIgurr khaQuru."-var ram 3. consecration mark is applied on twelve parts ~ [khaQyo] broke to pieces, broke into of the body. See arafcr ~. fragments. "bhagvan akhaQan khaQyo." 'l::fTiI [khaQ], ~ [khaQ] SktW6 n sweet material -krIscm. made from sugarcane juice; sugar; white sugar. l:f1<!" [khaI).], or ~ [khaI).u] See ~. "dIta "khir khaQ ghiu na bhavE."-bhcr namdev. pmaI).U khaI).u."-sor m 5. 2 See cffo. "harr hE khaQ ret mahI b I khri."-s kabir. 'l:fl'C!T [khaI).a] v take meals, eat. "khaI).a piI).a 2 ditch, trench. pavItr hr."-var asa. 2 n food, meals, edibles. ~[khaQav], ~ [khaQavvan] Skt~ n lfTfc!" [khaI).I], 1::f"it [khaI).i] n mine, mineral per Kalika Puran and Padam Puran, a forest deposits. 2 macroscopic classification of biological evolution. "teria khaI).i teria baI).i." redeveloped by the ruler of Kashi (Kashiraj) -majh a m 3. "aQaj jeraj utbhuj setaj tere kite after the destruction ofKhandvi town. He did this as desired by the deities. The forest was jata."-sor m 1. situated near Indarprasth (old Delhi) on the ~ [khaI).u] See ~. bank of river Yamuna.! This was a favourite l:fIO[khat] eating, taking meals. "harrras bhojan khat."-bIla m 5. 2 Skt n pit, ditch. "dunia forest of Jndar. There is a tale in Mahabharat labu paIa khat adarr."-maru m 5 {ijulia. that once the sun god was down with indigestion. As a treatment it was suggested ~ manure, fertilizer. that ifhe gulped the herbs ofKhandavvan, he l:fl3HT [khatma] A .--tl., n end. would be relieved of indigestion. So he started l:fI3"a" [khatar] See ~. eating the forest, then Indar extinguished the 'l:fT3"6tIW [khatarjama] See ~. flames by pouring torrential rains. Ultimately l:fI3T [khata] eating, taking meals. "harrras bhojan khata."-dev m 5. "sabhI dokhahI Arjun came to rescue the sun. The god offire khata."-g;:w var 2 m 5. 2 n pit, ditch. was pleased with Arjun and presented him a "manmukhI dukhu khata."-var guj 1 m 3. bow named Gandeev with the help of which 3 trader's ledger; diary. 4 ledger folio. he made a shelter of arrows that protected the sun from the effect of heavy rains. Arjun 'l::fTftrn [khatIm] A (l,; adj who finishes, who blew offthe clouds with the arrowsY'khaQav puts an end to. jaran ko agni hIt parath ne janu megh vIQare." l:fTfuw [khatIma] See 'l::fT3HT. 2 a book written by Bhai Nand La!. See cfu (?1(?~. -krIsan. 2 substance made of sugar. lIn Mahabharat, Khandav Van was situated on the ~ [xatIr] A )~ n respect, honour. 2 intention, resolve. 3 attention, attentiveness. bank of the river Ashwarth, which means that this "nIj khatIr me kIse na lyavE."-GPS. forest was a few miles away from Meerut in District 4 satisfaction. "uttar dehu pir tum diragh jIs te Mujaffarnagar. mam khatIr hVEjaI."-GPs. 5 heart. 6 aspect, 2S ee ~ >?fIfu ~ })f: 225.
~ [khate] adv by earning. "apne gharr IE an

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partisanship. [xatnj;:Jm;:J], C:fTf3m:n..rr [khatnj;:lma], crffifow [khatnnIsa] A 6:J1,; n satisfaction, contentm.ent, patience. "khatnj;:Jma hOI urt;:JbhL"-NP "jhuthmuthk;:JhE s;:Jbhkhatnko j;:Jma rakh, j;:Jma hOI gh;:Jr me to khatnj;:Jma r;:JhE." -llIpatk;;WI. "khane ko hama rahE na kahu ki tama r;:JhE. jo gath me j;:Jma rahE Ito khatnjama rah£."-gval. ~fl [khati] Skt ~ n carpenter, cutter, outcaste. "na Ihu brahmaD na Ihu khati."-g5Q kabir. 2 Skt ~ adjwho digs; who hoes. 3 in a muddy pit. "ane pavDa khati tOVE."-scwa m 1. 1:f1fO [xatun] T (;,IiI,; respectable woman, lady, wife, begam. l:f"r [khad] Skt ~. "bhram bhE s;:Jgle khad." -sar m 5. 2 edible substance, meals. .3 manure, fertilizer. See CfT3" 3. 1::fTt!H [khadam] See 1:flfuJ..r. 1fi!'a" [khadar] Skt ~ n mud, slush. 2 mire, land near a river bank, that always remains slushy. 3 land adjoining the foot hills. l:I't~[khadari] a village in tehsil Nankana Sahib ofdistrict Shekhupura. There is a gurdwara in memory of Guru Arjan Dev in this village. 2 a resident of village Khadar. See l::fTeB" 2 and 3. l:flfe- [khad I] See l::fT"eJl. J:fTfm-r [xadIm] A (ll,; n adoring servant, humble well-wisher, servant. "khad:[m kijE bara khudaI."-GPs. 2 servant. J:fTfew [xadIma] feminine ofxadIm. l:f'tIT[khadi] n coarse cloth of homespun cotton, perforated coarse cotton cloth. 2 adj eatable. ~f[khaday] Skt n ~food, meals, eatables. 2 adj eatable, edible. "ak;:JrDa karotI akhady khadya."--sahas m 5. lfTtlT [khadha] eaten. "khadha hOI suah."-var majh m 1. lfTtfT3T [khadhata] See 31". l:f'it [khadhE] on eating. "kIa khadhE kIa

pEdhE ho:r?"-var majh m 1. P (;,II,; n wealthy person, noble man. "sultan khan maluk umre."-sri a m 1. 2 home, dwelling place. "kahu gari godri nahi kahu khan parara."-asa kabir. 'Some do not have even tatters or rags, while others have majestic and ell~gant palaces to live in.' See tRJ1'QT. 3 family, housl~hold, kith and kin. "jEse . ghar lagE agI bhag nIks;:Jt khan."-BGK. 4 beehive, honey beehive, honeycomb. 5 title of the Pathans, appellation of the Pathans. 6 Skt 1:fI(fr "s;:JbhI khusia sabhI khan."-var sar m 1. 7 See l~-rfo. }:fl'i')F.\'Tij [xan$ah] a disdplle of Bhai Pheru (s;:Jci dari) who was a sage professing deep faith. }:fTOR1}{l' [xansama] P ,;.ILl)1,; attendant of a rich man. 2 one who cooks food for a rich man; butler. }:fTi'iU [xanah] See: 'l:fIOI'. ~[xankah] P ~!f;L; or ~I,; n dwelling place, home. 2 residence, particularly of a Muslim monk. l:fTOl:ITi')T [khankhana] P l.jtlil,; supervisor of a princely palace. 2 chiefofchiefs. 3 a high rank which was conferred on army commanders by Mughal emperors. 4 a famous nobleman. who was one of the chiefs of Akbar. See l?1ai;;JMaJlHJ:f'?i". 5 a rich man, and devotee ofthe tenth Guru, who usually stayed in Agra. His real name was Munaim Khan. He attained the rank ofa minister during the regime ofemperor Bahadurshah. He dit~d in Sammat 1768. 1 1JITi'5'ifit [xangi] P l.fl,; adj domestic, household, pertaining to the house. 2 used for a harlot satirically. ~ [khanjarad] ,,;I,;Jj.JJ armoury, arsenal, arms-store. See l:f1'C'i'F1d":ft. - - - - - - 'I::fI7i [khan]

Bahadur Shah got annoyed with him because knowingly he let Banda Bahadur escape from the blockade. His book Ilhamat Munimi is very popular.

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[khanjaradi] adj pertaining to the annoury. See~. "karan guman kamangar khanjaradi bahut bakhoa."-BG. 'The bowmakers boast that the bows made in their armoury are special.' l::fTC'leTO [xandan] P (;,II,,\; n dynasty, lineage. ~H [khandes] Skt territory towards the south of Satpura mountain range in the Bombay presidency, which is divided into two regions. Dhulia is the capital of western Khandesh while Jalgaon is that of eastern Khandesh. ~ [khanprara] See 'l:fT(') and ~. l:fTOl.rO [khanpan] v relish eating. 2 n foodstuff. ~ [khanpur] a village near Gurdwara Toka in tehsil and police station Naraingarh of Ambala district. When Guru Gobind Singh arrived in Toka, his camels were stolen away. The Guru came to this village to warn the thieves. There was a Manji Sahib here, which has since been washed away by floods. Land measuring about I 00 bigha~ is allocated to the gurdwara. The priest is a baptised Sikh. 1:jI(')~Witld [khanbahadur] His real name was Zakriakhan. He was son ofAbdul Samad Khan and the father of Shahnwaz. He is referred to as Khanoo among the Khalsa Panth. His role in Sikh history is duly mentioned. See~. etc. Khanbahadur became governor of Lahore in 1739 AD and died in 1745. J:ITi')}f [xanam] P (\; n wife of a khan; queen; begum. "mir na khanam sagI na kou drISatI nIharau."-savEye sri mukhvak m 5. 1:fTOlfIi') [khanman] P (;,Ilit; short for xanah va samano house and luggage. 1:ji(')dA'e' [khanrajada] a villa,ge about one and a halfkos away to the wesfofKhadoor Sahib. A gurdwara in memory ofGuru Angad Dev is situated there. The Guru came here after being harassed by the rich people ofKhadoor village. He was persuaded to come here by Tapa.
1:I'(')Ad 1e1

Now this place is named as Chhapri or Khan Chhapri. See~. ~ [khanval] an ancient village; Guru Arjan Dev founded Tarn Taran on a part of the land ofthis village after purchasing it. See 3d(')3'o('). 'l:fl7iT [khana] n food, meals. 2 v take meals, eat. 3 P ,.;t; n house, home. 4 wife, woman, lady. 5 a Brar Sikh who on the order of Kapoora went to the tenth Guru to guide him to the path leading to Khidrana (Mukatsar) pool. 6 a devotee belonging to Chhura subcaste of village Dalla, who attained selfrealisation on becoming a disciple of Guru Amar Dev. 1:I""i')'1"f [khanaI] housing complex, houses. "mIlak khanaI."-trlag ill 5. 2 Afghans; Muslim nobility. l:fTfo [khanI], l::fT?iT [khani] Skt 'l:ffo and crrfo n mine. "vacan bhane gunkhanI."-GPS. 2 classification ofthe origin of mammals. "a<;!aj jeraj setaj kini. utbhuj khanI bahur racdini." -C:Jpai. 3 diet, food. "jEsI lasan ki khanI."-s kabir. l:flQ [khanu] See l:j'(')a'Jitld. 2 a devotee of Guru Amar Dev. ~ [khanevall See ~. l:jl1.f [khap] n consumption, destruction. "mad matsar sadhu kE sagI khap."-sar m 5. See fW..r vr. l:jl1.fC[ [khapak] adj who propels; who projects. "khapak hE sabh tap."-NP. 2 destroyer. 1:fl1.fG [khapat] adj destroying, devastating. "haDYo kapta khapta."-paras. 'l:f11.I?) [khap~m] v destroy, devastate. "atkal soi khapanhara."-c.Jbis. 2 projecting, throwing. 1:f'1..Id' [khapar], l::fTl.Ig [khaparo] See C:fl.N 2. "phutE khaparu bhikh na bhaI."-ram am 1. 2 See 'l::f1..IQ 1. "khftha jaii kOIla bhai khapar phutamphut-"-s kabir. 'The corpse got burnt to coal and the headskull smashed to pieces.'

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l:fTlt [khape] were destroyed, were devastated.
"maIa mahI khape."-bher kabir. wN [xafixa] (,:)~J~ a historian and writer of Muntkhibaul Lubab. (History of Khafi Khan). His real name was Mohammad Hashim. He described historical events of the period from 1519 to 1718 AD i.e. from the time ofemperor Babar to that of Mohammad Shah. Nobody was allowed to write history without the permission ofAurangzeb, but he wrote the book secretly and published it in 1732 during the regime of Mohammad Shah. The emperor honoured him with the title ofKhafi Khan, in addition to giving a reward and handsome money in cash. According to V.A. Smith, he was named Khafi Khan because he belonged to the village Khwaf of Khurasan. Khafi Khan was not a dispassionate writer. He described Banda Bahadur through the prism of his prejudice. }:fra' [xab] P ",:",,} n sleep. 2 dream. lff}f [kham] P (~adj raw, unripe, half-baked, fragile. "purabkhamkujE."-varmalam 1. "pur ab xam kuzah." 'Half-baked pitcher is just like the mortal body, while water is its conscious energy.' 2 non-durable, non-lasting, perishable, mortal. "sigar t;'ibol ras saD: dehi sabh kham." --majh barahmaha. 3 closed. "kagaj karkE kham ko dino sIkkh pathaI."-GPS. 4 inexperienced. "taj gopal an jo karD:i soi soi bInsat kham. "-jet

l:frfi.r [khamI] S sorrow, grief. 2 jealousy, heartburning.

}:fW [xami] P

(]I; n weakness. 2 lack of

experience. 3 deficiency. "bhayo hukam seva mahI khami."-GPS. 4 immaturity. J:lrW:T [xamo~] P adj silent, mute. lfTJlJ:rE"U'a' [xamo~ ~ahar] n city ofsilence; silentcity; cremation-ground, grave-yard. }::ItHm [xamo~i] P Jyl; n silence.


[xayan] A I.:{I; adjwho misappropriates or embezzles. ~ [xayaf] A ..~~I; adj terrorised, frightened. J:fTtiIT [xaya] P ::L; n egg. 2 ovary. l:fTO[khar] Skt~r n alkaline taste. "anras sabhI khar."-sar m .5. 2 ash, calx. "pap hovat khar."-sar m 5.. 3 salt. 4 an alkaline substance like borax, unpurified washing soda, crystalline nitre, ammonium chloride etc. 5 adj alkaline. "khar samGdr (lh;'iq.holiE Iku maD:ia pavE." -marv am 1. 6 P jl; n thorn. 7 jealousy, enmity, envy. 8 P jf} disgraced. "khapI hoe khar." -var asa. 'l::fT'a'mj-e- [kharsamud], :tfTORJ:f-e- [kharsamGd], ~~ [kharsamGdr] Skt ~ n ocean with saline water. "khar s;}mGdr q.h;'iq.holiE Iku mal).ia pavE."-maru a 111 1. 2 See ~ ~ if~. 1:RJq [kharak] Skt ~ n dried date, date fruit. "surajmal kharak mukh dine."-Gps. 'Making the potential groom bite a dried date offered by relatives of the bride signifies the confirmation of the betrothal ceremony.' l::Rfii [kharaj] See l::fTf~. l:fIQT [khara] adj having alkaline taste. 2 n seat spread for brid,~ and groom during ceremenial ambulatiions around the holy fire. "motIn ke CJk kare lalan ke khare dhare."-krIsau. 3 a village oftehsil Tam Taran in Amritsar district which is at a distance of one and half miles to the west ofDukhniwaran railway station. The following two gurdwaras are there in this village. (a) Manji Sahib: Guru Arjan Dev visited this place several times when Tarn Taran was under construction. A beautiful temple is built there. A well got dug up by the Guru, still exists. Ten bighas land is attached to the gurdwara. (b) Dukhniwaran: There was a small pond here in which Guru Arjan Dev occasionally washed lI1is feet. A pucca tank was built during

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the regime of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and an estate with annual revenue income of Rs five hundred was alloted to .it. Land measuring 40 bighas is also attached with this gurdwara. 1f"aT "R"fua" [khara sahIb] A gurdwara exists in memory ofGuru Hargobind about two furlongs to the south-west of village Bhai ke Mattu in Nushahira Verka police station ofdistrict and tehsil Gujranwala. When the Guru came to this village, someone paid obeisance and sat close to him. His moustaches had turned yellowish because ofexcessive smoking. The Guru asked him his name who replied that it was Hargobind. The Guru asked him why with such a name, he was committing a misdeed like smoking. The man felt ashamed and gave up smoking and became the Guru's disciple. A small gurdwara stands here. A fair is held there on Savan 7 every year. The railway station is situated 15 miles to the south-west ofGujranwala. 'l:fI'aT8"[kharab] See'l::RJTa". "kharaba vekar."-var asa. l:ffirEr [kharI$] P ~I,; n itch, scabies. See Cf'R. l:fTfutr [kharIj] A GJI,; adj what oozes out, what flows out. 2 discharged, expelled. 3 rejected, repealed. ~ [khari] n basket or box made of bamboo or cane. "P;)tI kU$ti ko dh;)rVIC khari."-GPS. 2 sea, which has saline water. "khari l;)g l;)cchmi s;)gri."-GPS. 3 small pitcher, earthern vessel. "qar d;)i d;)dhI ki s;)bhI khari." -kns;Jn. 4 adj alkaline, saline, brackish. "at ki bar hot k;)t khari."-s;Jveye sri mukhvak ill 5. 5 SkI <miJ n weight equal to one maund and twenty-eight seers.' 6 stain, spot, blot, blemish. ~ 1itr [khari bir] Guru Arjan Dev ordered Bhai Banno resident of Mangat, district
IAccording to some books, one khari is equivalent to two maunds and sixteen seers.

Gujarat, in Sammat 1661 to get Guru Granth Sahib bound from Lahore. Bhai Banno made another copy of Guru Granth Sahib while tarrying on his to and fro journey to Lahore and added some extra compositions to the original text. When the manuscript was presented to the Guru, he named it as khari bir due to interpolations. This holy manuscript is intact with the descendants of Bhai Banno in Mangat. Copies ofthis holy manuscript are mostly available in the south-western region of undivided Punjab. See aj'cr wfua", a?> and WoJc. If'9 [kharu] n salinity, brackishness. "k;)r;)mk;)rI kharu m;)phit;)SI ri."-dh;Jna tnloc;Jn. 2 See



't:f'IH [khal] See

ch? 2 P JI,; mole, mole-sized

black spot on the skin. 3 line, streak. 4 waterchannel, drain. 5 fountain. 6 spring. 7 flag, standard, colour. 8 arrow. 9 messenger, advocate. 10 A pride, arrogance, vanity. 11 cloud. 12 lightning. 13 bridle. 14 big horse or camel. "mallal ;)r sal mE khal cal va cal. SId;)k guru ka Ell qhIg Ihi sIkkh ka sval." -GPS. 'mal (wealth), lal (son), sal (house), khal (horse, camel etc) to move on or barefoot, the disciple longs for the sustenance offaith in him through all these activities.' l:fl'l?R" [khal;)s] A J'!(; adj pure, genuine; unadulterated. 2 n the Creator, God. "khal;)s ki c;)rni s;)bh lago."-GV 10.3 See l:l"r)RT. ~ [khalsa] A ,J.l(; adjpure. 2 unadulterated, clear, unmixed. "k;)hu k;)bir j;)n bh;)e khalse 2 prembh;)g;)tI jIh jani."-sor. 3 n territory or region that belongs to the emperor, with a
'Some ignorant authors mention that Guru Gobind Singh substituted CfTffi't [khalseJ for khvlase at Damdama Sahib, but it is incorrect. In the Kartarpur version of Guru Granth Sahib the original handwritten word is [khalsel.


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'l:fT15W ~


~ ~ "if~

landlord having no right on it. 4 Sikh religion, Khalsa of the Creator. 5 a Sikh; a devotee of Guru Nanak. "jagdtjotI jdpE nIS basdr ek brna mdn nEk na anE, purdn pI'em prdtitI SdjE brdt gor mdri mdt bhul nd manE, tirdth dan ddya tdP Sajdm, ek bIna nahI nEk pdchanE, purdnjotI jagE ghdt mE tdb khalsa tahI ndkhalds jan£. -33 saveye. vak kio kartar satan lio bIcar supne sasar tahI kahI laptaie bIkhIn ko tajo neh ~riguru ki sIkkh leh naSE chIn mahI deh yampuri jaie, sis na mu<;iao mit! hukka taj bhdli ritI prem pritI man kar ~abad kamaie jivdn hE dIn car dekh bujh kE bIcar vahguru guru ji ka khalsa kdhaie. -gurusobha. khalsa hamari sJj khalsa hamari mJj khalsa hamari phJj jit ki nI~ani hE, khalsa hamari cal khalsa hamari <;ihal khalsa hdmari ghal bhog mokh dani hE, khalsa hamari jan khalsa hamari an khalsa hamari khan mod ki suhani hE, khalsa hamari jatI khalsa hamari patI sri guru gobad SIgh bani yo bakhani hE. -sat nrhal SIgh. puja ek ddvay akal ki hE I~t jaM satynam vahguru jap muktmal sa" baniguru gaybe ko sudhi gurugrath ju ki khaybe ko bhojan karah nakd mal sa, kahE "tokh hdrI" bhae carD hi baran ek daran malechan ko dharyo vapu kal sa, dVEmat ko saIl sa nIralsa dharam nitI lalsa 2 bharan dhany bhayo path khalsa.

l:f11i5FIT qtfffi:r [khalsa kaIIj] Khalsa College. See
l:f11i5FIT ~ [khalsa divan] See



l:fT1?Il -e-

2desire. longing.

~Ft [khalse de bolle] n symbolic vocabulary used by the Khalsa (Sikhs) in the early period, also called gdrgdj bolle. People now do not remember the vocabulary used by the early Sikhs. Most ofthese terms have been forgotten with the passage of time. Terms which we could collect are being alphabetically reproduced below: ~[ugrahi] begging, collecting ofofferings. ~ [ujagar] lamp, oil lamp. ~ [ujagri] lantern. ~ [asvara] holy scripture ofGuru Granth Sahib. 2 march, departure. 3 death. ~ wfu-a" 1.:fCl:rB7)T [dsvara sahIb prdka~;;na] instal with reverence Guru Granth Sahib in the open position. ~ C{~ [asvara kama] attack, march, invade" 2 die" expire. ~ [akaldan] stick, staff. ~ [dkaspari] nanny goat. ~ ~r [akasi diva] sun and moon. ~ lakasibj] band of martyrs; invisible force. ~aTaTr[akal bagal ovation of Sat Sri Akal, raised in unison. ~ [akali] worshipper ofthe Timeless One. 2 a Sikh in blue robe, Nihang Singh. nn:f~ l.fTCi [akM<;i path] continuous and uninterrupted recitation of Guru Granth Sahib. The holy scripture is not to be covered with sacred cloth until the recitation is complete. The duration ofthis recitation varies from 13 pahIrs (one pahIr equals three hours) to 16 pahIrs. »!3T ~ tPa [ati akha<;i path] continuous and uninterrupted recitation of Guru Granth Sahib performed by a single Sikh reciter in

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one sitting. This recitation may be completed within 8 to 9 pahIrs. (i.e. 24 to 27 hours). »Bt »n:hr l..flO4" [ati akhac;l pathil single reciter, who can complete the whole recitation of Guru Granth Sahib in a single sitting. »rtfor[athakkl feeble horse, infirm horse. »rtfor ~ [athakk savaril pair. of shoes. l'if?KJO~[anhat ~abadl snoring. ~[aflatunl quilt. ~[aflatuni) flamboyant. ~ [ardasa] prayer. ~ [ardasia] a Sikh who offers prayer. ~ [arakaI:1), »iO'Oit [araki] horse, mare. 2 pony, female pony. »sonciar~[arag barag hOI).al sleep, go to bed. »f1l WV"~ [ahu lahUI).el massacre, butcher. ~ [akarbhan] disease, ailment. »flCft ~ [aki hOI).a] be in the lock-up, be in prison. ~ [anad] fully satisfied, fully satiated; marriage ceremony according to Sikh rites. ~ [£rapat] young adult he-buffalo; stud buffalo also named mahIkhasur. »for HoT rag sag] companion, helping hand. 2 the Creator, God. nfiJftor [agitha) funeral pyre. »fi::roT [ajni] night. 2 Kal i, the goddess. »f7iJ-l'31»fr [anmatia] person belonging to a religion other than Sikhism. nfQr [anha] idol worshipping Hindu. nffi;r3'~[amrItvela] early morning. »ffi:f3t [amrIti] saltish curry. ~ [amntia] one who has been duly baptised. ~~[Iktagi b;)tera] brinjal. ~ [fdr) cloud. ~ [fdr-jal] rain-water. ~[fdraI).i] wind, air, breeze. ~ ~ ~ ~ [fdraI).i japphia paudi

hE] pleasant wind strikes the body. ~ [Ilaci] a type of tree, acacia modesta. 2 twig or bark of the above tree, used as tooth brush. ~ [~ahid] martyr. F.tm€dlfl [~ahid gajl battlefield and cremation ground of martyrs. ~ [~ahidi] martyrdom, sacrifice made in war. F.l'"tit€T Hl:f [~ahidi sodh] natural suffering, suffering as willed by the Timeless. 2 punishment given by martyrs to persons who do not strictly observe the traditional Sikh code. ~ ~ [~ahidi deg] sacred sweetened drink of hemp. 2 kitchen conducted to serve food to people on behalf of the martyrs. ~ IlFfT€" [~ahidi prasad] sacred sweet pudding of wheat flour. 2 meals prepared with devotion for five Sikhs. ~ ih:r [~ahidi biJ army of martyrs. 2 secret army of the Timeless One. Rtitt!t }f'TQ [$ahidi mar] punishment given by martyrs; torture inflicted upon vicious people by martyrs. ~ [sacckhac;l] abode of the Guru, the true One. 2 religious congregation of Sikhs. 3 GurdwaraAbchal Nagar, Hazoor Sahib. ~ ~ [sackhac;l vasa] abode in heaven; death; departure. Ffur 1..flOF.fT(J [sacca pat~ah) the true Master. ~ [sajI).a] get ready, be dressed. 2 sit in assembly. 3 be accoutred. Ff3" 1)1 ~ [satt sri akal] Sikh slogan of victory. 2 ovation shouted after goat slaughter; a march and conclusion of Sikh congregation. R€'<!)wa [sadagulab] acacia. H€Iq,lwa ~r ~ [sadagulab da mukhmajI).a] twig of acacia for cleansing teeth.

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small axe, battleaxe, axe. [sabaj pulao] green leafy vegetable; dish prepared from green leafy vegetable. 'R-a'H m [sabaj madar] tree; shelter under a tree. Em: l$abad] hymn of Gurbani; verse uttered by the True Master. F.rat cfur30 l$abad kirtan] chanting ofGurbani. F.r<ttSc [$abadbhet] offerings made to a person who recites and chants Gurbani. Frtfto [samudar] milk. Fnj~ [samudradhari] one who takes only milk. F~ [sardai] drink made with crushed hemp. 2 pond's water. F~ [sard:ma] cold, coldness, chill. F~ tf~ ~ ~ [sard:ma mutthia bharda hE] feeling cold; shiver. HQ'"ffiJR [sarabras] salt; aiso called ramras. 1~ [sarabloh] the Timeless One. 2 iron, arms. HQ'<m<:frtIfT [sarablohia] a Sikh, who takes his meals only in iron utensils. 1~ [salotar] heavy club. 2 wooden pestle for pounding cannabis or hemp. l~[savaIa] a little; in small quantity. l~ [savara] See~. 1~ 'i:iIQ7iT [savara kama] See :~TQT 'i:iIQ7iT. lW ~ [sava lakkh] one, single. lW~~[s;wa lakkhbj] a single Sikh" ;~ [saugi] green gram. HT(J mft [$ahjaha] poppy plant. J::rcB [sakat] disobedient to the Guru; one attached to worldly possessions. 2 apostate, immoral. :qTtf3" [sakhat] See ~. :~ tsar] iron, steel, arms, weapons. :FRit [savi] a kind of kidney bean; mCigi. .~ [$Ikri] pincers, tweezers, nippers. '~[$Ikari] lecher, adulterer, womaniser.
'RGT Herr [sapha j~g]

ft:fur [sigh] baptised Sikh. fJ::fuI<ft [sighDi] baptised Sikh woman.
[sIrkhfc;l.i] raw sugar, brown sugar. fi:RJoj1-f [sIrguml one who has got his hair trimmed after being c1uly baptised. fFRrufFlT [sughasa] clean-shaven. 2 Jain monk. 3 ascetic. fJ::RrR;r [SIrjorJ jaggery. ~[$,i$mahal] thatched hut in dilapidated state, through which one can see the sky. ~ [sukmaj] hungry. ~ fi:fur [sukhai sigh] he who crushes hemp and offers it as a drink. ~ [sukhdei] mattress padded with cotton wool. 'lJl:ffoqro [sukhmdhan], lj'l::fT [sukkha] hemp. ~ [sucala] lame, club-footed. lJB-3r [suceta] defecation behind the bushes. 2 having a brief wash; ablution. lJB-3r ~(iT [suceta tarnal have a brief body wash; be ready by washing feet, hands and face. 'l]iB" ~r [sucete ja:r:la] go out for defecation. BtfT'l::fT [sujakha] mesh, sieve. 2 learned person. 1.f~ [sudri] broom. ~ [sunahra] iron utensil for preparing nectar.. 2 stone mortar. 1J~ [sunahria] a Sikh who, on being baptised, has taken nectar from the same utensil. "l.JQOT [surag] distress, calamity. 2 sleep, sound sleep. ~Jtn.rr [suragduaria] one with clipped nose. ljddla''R [suragbas] have sound sleep. ~ [surmai] Ilight-blue, grey, black. ~ trW [surmai dala] pulse cooked in iron vessel. 2 (a variety of) cooked pulse, lentil; mah di dal. ~ lsubedar] a Sikh assigned the duty of

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950 sweeping. lJOW [surma] blind. ~ [seu] grafted berry (fruit ofjujube). j:j-Q -e- cfo [~er de kan] corners of cloth used to sieve hemp. Fre-r W [sojha del:ta] scrub, cleanse. 2 punish a person who does not strictly observe the traditional Sikh code. 3 reform a criminal by punishing. ifq [sodh] purity, sacredness. 2 purification (by punishing) of a person not observing the traditional Sikh code. ~ [sodhl).a] purify (by admonition) the nonobserver of the traditional Sikh code. 2 conquer a territory. 3 collect subscription. "Ffcft [sakhi] a bone in a meat dish. ~ [satokhl).a] close and wrap Guru Granth Sahib. 2 finish a piece of work. ~ [~risal1Ib] sword, sabre. ~ [hajarmekhi] beggar's blanket; ragged or patched blanket. tJ!)Q" Ji"Tftnr [hajur sahIb] Takht Sri Abchal Nagar. ~ [hajuria] one who has visited Hazoor Sahib (Sri Abchal Nagar) 2 one who serves in Hazoor Sahib gurdwara. ~ l..fQ7)T [hajuri pama] towel used for cleansing hands and face. "JEr ~ ~ [hatth sucet kame] wash hands. UQO ~ [haran hOl).a] run away, flee. lJOi'i1 [hami] fly, housefly. 2 louse, head louse. iRfT [hara] dry, dehydrated. iRfT CRJ7iT [hara kama] dry, dehydrate. 2 wash, clean. ~ ~ [hajri bhami] attend the Sikh congregation in the morning as well as in the evening. ~ [hImacal] digested, digested food. ~[hIrankhuri] woman's genital organ, vagina. [hukamsatt] pass away, die. ~[hiljha] sheet-like wrap for the lower body. "iJW [hoHil cardamoms. '5"w ~ [holla kheQ.l).a] fight. 2 enact the traditional Sikh fight. '5"w 1-Rfw [holla mahalla] festival observed on the I st day of the lunar phase of Chet; Sikhs enact the traditional way of fighting on this day. ~ ~ [!lakana hOIa] torn, ragged. tior [!lana] penis; also termed as ghora. ~ [kastura] pig. cfuT fU'w [kacca pIlla] lax inthe observance of Sikh traditional code; one having loose notions of Sikh traditional code; one who does not strictly observe Sikh doctrines. cfur~[kacca bolla] commentary against Sikh religion. 2 false statement. cfuhr<it[kacci bal).I] verses other than Gurbani. 2 verses devoid of the Almighty's praise. ~ [kachahra] underwear, shorts. c;kT [katta] elephant. ~ [kathJta 1wooden pot. ~ [kap?arbij] cotton seed. m-rc:rorw CRJ7iT [kamarkClsa kama] gird up one's loins, be ready for a task. 2 pass away, die. ~ lj~~~ [kamarkasa khulahul).a] be hospitable to a stranger. ~[kardJna] small kitchenknife. ~ [karari] radish. ~ [kalga] bald (person). qMdnQij [kalgidhar] Guru Gobind Singh. ~ 1{FP"e" [karah prasad] pudding prepared by mixing three ingredients, i.e., flour, sugar and ghee in equal proportions; pudding of five ingredients. ~ [karaka] hunger, going without food. 2 trouble, calamity. Ci(1'HT [kaja] hungry; non-availability offood. Ci(1'HT ~ [kaja kholhl).a] eat, take meals.

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~~"€I [kh:ccar pulaul



[kaji] cock; rooster.

pyre. (~[kal).a] Turk, Muslim. b(l(fJl [kanugo] bamboo club with crooked root-end; stick with crooked grip. (~?3T [kabuli kutta] Ahmad Shah Durrani. c~ [kardar] spade-like wooden scmper. c~ [karbhet] voluntary donation collected in the Guru's name. cfuJ30 [kirtan] chanting ofGurbani. ~3tit [kuhi] sickle. ~3tit 'e'T ~ [kuhi da ~nkar] cut grass or crop with a sickle. ~rQT [kuttha] meat got through the Muslim mode of animal slaughter. ~~ [kul).ka] a bit of the sacred pudding. 2 sacred pudding. ~~ [kutabdin] dog, hound. ~rcrfuo [kurahIt] conduct in violation of the Sikh traditional code. ~row [kurla] gargle, mouthwash. ~~ [kurimar] killer of a female child; one who receives money in lieu ofhis daughter's marnage. ih=Rr [kesar] turmeric. i~ [kotal] cot, bedstead. i~ [kotalkasl bedsheet. 2 decoration of bed. i~ [kotval] knife, penknife. cfulr qQ?iT [k;)gha kar.nal cause grievous harm. 2 comb the hair. f~ [knpaD] sword. 2 kitche:nknife. ~i1:it ~ [khassi bj] band of ladies. crga+ [khajuraljujube fruit. c~ [kharagketul eternal. cS- 'e'T l:f17?RT [khare da khalsa] benefilting those who are present. c~ roj't!Q [khar samudar1buttermilk; lassi. c[Tffi1T [khalsa] baptised Sikh. f~ [khISkuJ loincloth; wrestler's drawers.

(~[kathgarh] funeral

dish of rice mixed with le:ntils. 2 jujube flowers. ~ ~r [khu~;ak pulau] roasted grams for munching; roasted grams. ljQHT [khurma]jujube. i8T [khotil bowli of hubble-bubble into which are pUll tobacco, hemp and burning coal. chf [kh;)c;l] ash, calx. ilTawofGr [gahra gappha] heavy food like the sacred pudding enriched with fat. 2 ample wealth grabh;ld during the war. 0ftl0TT'U [gajgah] al1 iron weapon with a 'Khanda' at the top and two half moons of steel in the middle. Nihang Sikhs adorn it in their turbans. ~ [gajjl).a] roar loudly, roar like a lion. ortit [gadhil smoking pipe, hookah, hubblebubble. crrtft 1furit [gadhi cughDi] smoke a pipe. o'fGr [gappha] wealth. 2 delicious food enriched with fat. 3 booty, loot, plunder. Cl'i'Gr~;r [gappha laUIJa] take delicious fatenrich';ld food to one's satiety. ~ [garre] rice:, ~ [garh] forest, deep forest. 2 enclosure. ~ ~ [garh torna] achieve one's object; tackle a difficult problem. 2 enter after breaking the fence. fa'fe;r [gIdda:r1 coward., deserter, absconder. 2 one who shirks work and lives by begging. fdlt:!;'$ddi' [gIddarraga] one who wears saffron clothes. ~ [guDgrahil winnowing tray. ~ [guddar] skim of milk. Qflf3'" [gupta] dumb. ~ I[gupalphal], q]~ [gupallaQ-Q-ul hen's eggs. ~ [gubrdial carrots. ~ [gubrde] musk melons. ~. [gurduaral, Qn~ [gurdvara] Sikh

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religious place, Sikh shrine. ~[gurmClt] Sikh religion. 2 Sikh ideology. CJ.1OH3T [gurmClta] resolution passed in a Sikh congregation. ~~[gurmCltasodhDa] pass a resolution. ~ [gurmClrjada] a rite according to Sikh doctrine; code set by the Guru. QJOlj1:f [gurmukh] true follower of the Guru. ~ [gurmukhi] the script created by the Guru, in which Punjabi language is meticulously written. ~BFf3ldT[gurmukhidClstara] turban worn in the traditional Sikh way. ~ ~ [gurmukhi darha] flowing beard. ~ 1:fJ=l"'"eT [gurmukhi prClsada] thick loaf; thick loaf of Indian bread. C)J01:fcIT ~ [gurmukhi vClrtara] equal distribution, identical distribution. arm ~ [grbi bja] secret martyr forces. ~fu [gopal c;'idCln] ointment to be applied on the wound; ointment. ~ [goIClk] offerings to the Guru stored in a metallic pitcher. ~ [g;'igajClI] wine. o\'m? [g;'iQhCll) one who has been rebaptised after violating the Sikh code; a hypocrite. ~ fi:fur [gyani sIgh] a Sikh who recites and explains or elucidates Guru Granth Sahib. llf}fFfl(f [ghClmsaD] war, battle. 2 dispute. u1~UfTQT [ghClllughara] fierce battle. 2 annihilation, total destruction. ~ [ghaD] war, battle. ~ [ghalamala] disposing off a matter without any decision. 2 including a nonobserver of the traditional Sikh code into the main stream without punishing him. ~ffijW [ghusmusa] whispering, not exposing oneself publicly. Uf;,r [ghora] penis. See ti'or. 2 pair of shoes. Uf;,r C(l'# O[QOT [ghora kaje brna] maintain


Uf;,r ~ [ghora dJrauDa] copulate. 'tl'CiRft [cClkrij small ring to be worn on the head.
BCI [cClkr] circular weapon to be worn on the neck or the head. It was used in warfare in ancient times. Be<!' ~ [cCltClD pulau] sauce. ~ [cClQhai] See~. ~ 3;:ror[CCltJrgClrh torna] urinate. tldC'l€'m [cClrClndasi] shoes, pair of shoes. 2 wooden sandals. ~ [cCllakClD] small short hoe with a handle. tJWClT [calaka] large needle. ~ [CCllaDa] die, breathe one's last. ~ CXW [cClrhdi kClla] courage, high spirit. 2 promotion, progress. ~rtt [c<Jrhai] march, departure. 2 attack, assault, charge. 3 death. ~ ~ [cadni pulau] roasted sorghum; juar. rtl33dlij ~ [CItJrgClrh torna] See ~~. ftn.fol'iraTrr [cImni begam] opium. tftor [cita] urine. tftor ~ [cita kudauDa], tftor ~ [cita bhCljauDa] urinate. ~[cugClI] poppy pod. "i]"d'R'\" ~ [cugClI mCllne] crush poppy pod by rubbing. 'JCW 1:fFJTe' [cutka prClsad] salt and ground chillies taken alongwith unbuttered bread. 1fl.f[cupp] sugar. ~ ~ [cubare CClrhIa] See ~ ~'. 'jFl"Fit[curasij living beings other than the Sikhs. VW [cula] washing the mouth on taking meals and prayer to the Almighty. VO" [cuna] flour, aHa. ~ [curma] wheat chaff. Bmfto't [cobcini] red chilly. Bcft [cJki] group of four Gu