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METROLOGY LABORATORY

NAME: Swarup Ghosh

CLASS : B.M.E. – III; B

2

ROLL : 000611201094

EXPERIMENT NO. – 6

DATE : 22-04-09

TITLE : MEASUREMENT OF THE ELEMENTS OF

SPUR GEAR

OBJECT : To determine the base circle diameter and

tooth thickness at a given pitch circle diameter of a

spur gear

2

1. Sketch the gear tooth vernier caliper and state, which

element of the gear is measured by this instrument. Write

the relevant mathematical expressions required for said

measurement of the element.

Ans :>

which Gear tooth Vernier is used to measure the thickness

of a gear. Generally tooth thickness is defined as the length of

arc along the pitch circle from one face the opposite face of a

tooth. As the tooth thickness varies from tip to the base of a tooth

the instrument must have provision for

3

a) Measuring the to the thickness at a specified position

on the tooth.

b) The position at which the measurement is taken.

The gear tooth Vernier has a horizontal slide to measure

the tooth thickness, and a vertical slide which acts as a Vernier

depth gauge to measure the position at tooth thickness is

measured.

The vertical slide measures the depth of our measurement

taking the outer diameter of the gear as the datum level. Since

the instrument has two degrees of freedom, the holding of the

instrument along the proper axis as shown depends on the skill

of the operator and the accuracy is seldom more than 0.05mm.

W

A

B

E

D

R

tooth thickness is specified as the arc distance AEB. Also

distance d=DC adjusted on the instrument is slightly greater than

the addendum EC.

So we calculate using:

4

W = chordal thickness, d = chordal Addendum

2. Show with deduction of necessary mathematical

expressions, how the tooth thickness of the gear can be

checked by the constant chord method with the help of gear

tooth Vernier caliper.

Ans :>

The constant chord is a useful dimension since it has the same

nominal value for all gears of a common system; the backlash

allowance is the same for all gears. It is the chord between point at

which the tooth profile touches the basic rack of the system, where

tangents to the flank (i.e. at the pressure angle to the tooth centre line)

The geometry is shown in the figure below. AF is shown as the

constant chord.

( ) ( )

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

°

− + ·

,

_

¸

¸

°

− + · θ − + ·

θ − + · − + · − ·

,

_

¸

¸

°

·

,

_

¸

¸

°

· θ · ·

·

°

· ∠ · θ · ·

N

90

cos

N

2

1

2

Nm

N

90

cos

2

Nm

m

2

Nm

cos

2

DP

m

2

DP

cos R m R OD EC OE OD OC d

N

90

sin D

N 4

360

sin R 2 sin AC 2 AD 2 W

R N

N 4

360

AOD AD 2 ADB Line W

p

Again,

Now,

radius circle Pitch teeth of number the is Where

and

5

Thus, we see M and h is independent on number of teeth but

are functions of ψ and m. The same series of gears have the same

pressure angle ψ, thus much laborious calculations are eliminated by

this method.

3. Sketch a “Module Gauge” used for Gear Metrology. What

is a “D.P. Gauge” ?

N

D

N

PCD

BD

p

π

π

×

× ·

×

× ·

4

1

4

1

( ) ψ ψ ⋅ ·

ψ ⋅ · ∴ ψ ·

ψ ⋅ · ∴ ψ ·

π

·

cos cos BD AC

AB AC cos

AB

AC

BD AB cos

BD

AB

4

m

BD

cos

triangle handed right for Also

cos

ABD triangle angle right In

( )

1

]

1

¸

ψ

π

− · ψ

π

− ·

ψ

π

· ψ ψ

π

· ψ ψ · ψ ·

ψ

π

· · ⇒ ψ

π

· ⇒

2 sin

8

1 m 2 sin

8

m

m h

sin

8

m

sin cos

4

m

sin cos BD sin AB BC

cos

2

m

AC 2 M cos

4

m

AC

2 2

Also,

6

Ans :>

D.P. gauge and module gauge are the name of the same

instrument but the term module gauge is generally used where the

dimensions of the gear profile are specified in metric units and the

term D.P. gauge is used for gear profiles specified in imperial units.

D.P. (Diametral pitch) is only the reciprocal of module for a gear. But

since most standard metric gears have module greater than unity they

are commonly specified by their modules. For standard gears

specified in imperial units the module in commonly less then unity and

the diametral pitch which is greater than unity is used.

7

: SAMPLE CALCULATION:

Micrometer reading over 3 teeth, a

1

= 34.13 mm. a

2

= 34.15 mm.

a

3

= 34.16 mm. a

4

= 34.12 mm. a

5

= 34.19 mm.

Micrometer reading over 4 teeth, b

1

= 47.14 mm. b

2

= 47.12 mm.

b

3

= 47.15 mm. b

4

= 47.11 mm. b

5

= 47.14 mm.

Difference, b

1

– a

1

= 13.01 mm.

b

2

– a

2

= 12.92 mm.

b

3

– a

3

= 12.99 mm.

b

4

– a

4

= 12.99 mm.

b

5

– a

5

= 12.95 mm.

Base pitch P

b

= (b - a) ÷ y = 12.92/1 = 12.92 mm.

Base circle diameter D

b

= 16× (b - a) ÷ πy = 65.84 mm.

Pressure angle ψ = cos

-1

{(b - a)/mπy} = 23.94

0

(where, m = 4.51

mm.)

The angle subtended by the gear centre by arc tooth thickness along

base circle,

α = [2{a – (x -1) P

b

} πy] / T (b-a) = 0.14 radian or, 8

0

(where, x= 4)

The angle subtended by the gear centre by arc tooth thickness along

pitch circle,

8

β = {α - 2(tan ψ - ψ)} = 7.90

0

= 0.141 rad.

The arc tooth thickness along pitch circle, L

a

= (m.T.β)

/

2 = 5.15 mm.

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