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**Yan Zhuge CIVE 3011 Structural Analysis and Computer Applications
**

19/07/2007 1

Element Types

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Element Types

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Element Types 4 .

The Steps 1. loading and boundary conditions. nodes.Finite Element Analysis . Define the physical problem 2. 5 . and elements. Create the finite element model – define geometry. – define material properties.

In structural problem D contains displacement components of the nodes. In stress analysis this means compute strains and stresses. and solve the global equations KD=R for the vector D of unknowns. Postprocess the information contained in D.Finite Element Analysis . assemble the element k matrices to obtain the "global" matrix K. Perform the calculations.The Steps 3. assemble loads into a global load vector R. 6 . impose support conditions. connect elements together. 4. The software: – – – – – generate the stiffness matrix k of each element.

Spring Element The first step in FEM is the derivation of the element stiffness matrix ke. mm) Nodal forces: F1.2 Nodal displacement: u1. N/mm) 7 . u2 (m. F2 (N) Spring constant (Stiffness) k (N/m. This is illustrated below by using a simple spring element x F1 1 2 F2 1 u k u 2 Two nodes: 1.

Spring Element We have: F = kΔ with Δ = u2 . we have: F1 = − F = −k (u 2 − u1 ) = ku1 − ku 2 and at node 2.u1 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Consider the equilibrium of forces for the spring. In matrix form F2 = F = k (u2 − u1 ) = −ku1 + ku2 ⎡k ⎢− k ⎣ − k ⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎥ ⎨u ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ k ⎦⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ or ku = F Where k = (element) stiffness matrix u = (element nodal) displacement vector F = (element nodal) force vector 8 . At node 1.

Bar Element Consider a uniform prismatic bar: L A E length cross-sectional area elastic modulus 9 .

2) associated with displacement of node j (j = 1. we have: AE F11 = F21 = u1 L and F12 = F22 = AE u2 L (8) where Fij is the force at node i (i = 1. then we have: δ = FL / AE (6) (7) and F = ( AE / L)δ For the respective cases in the above figure.Stiffness matrix – Direct method Assume that the displacement in the bar is δ.2) 10 .

the element stiffness matrix for the bar is: ⎡k k=⎢ ⎣− k − k ⎤ AE ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎥ = L ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ k ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (10) 11 .Stiffness matrix – Direct method Written the above expressions in matrix format: ⎡ F11 ⎢− F ⎣ 21 − F12 ⎤ ⎧1⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎥ ⎨1⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ or F22 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ AE ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨u ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ L ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ (9) where F1 and F2 are the resultant forces applied to the bar at nodes 1 and 2 From the above matrix. we can see that the bar is acting like a spring in this case.

This is called the displacement function and is usually a polynomial whose order depends on the number of degree of freedom (d.o.) in the element. Degree of freedom is number of components of the displacement vector at a node.f. the variation of the displacement between the nodes must be assumed first (what kind of behaviour can be expected).Stiffness matrix – A Formal Procedure • We derive the same stiffness matrix for the bar using a formal procedure which can be applied to more complicated situations • For different types of element. 12 .

f. to give an analytical expression for displacement at any point inside the element. 13 .Stiffness matrix – A Formal Procedure Bar elements are used to model truss structures and any other structures where axial effects predominate. usually a polynomial. Bar element consists of 2 d.o. per element and hence the displacement function can be assumed as: u = β1 + β 2 x (11) The FEM treats the nodal displacements as variables of an interpolation function.

(11) can be written by expressing the βi in terms of nodal displacements u1 and u2: at x = 0 at x = L u = u1 = β1 u = u2 = β1+ β2L x x u = (1 − )u1 + u 2 L L N 2 (ξ ) = ξ replace β1 and β2 into eq. (11).Stiffness matrix – A Formal Procedure Eq. we have: (12) Define two linear shape functions as follows: N1 (ξ ) = 1 − ξ (13) where x ξ= L 0≤ξ≤1 14 .

f. (12) in matrix form: ⎡L − x u=⎢ ⎣ L x ⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ L ⎥ ⎩u 2 ⎭ ⎦ or u = Nd (14) where N is the shape function matrix d is the vector of element nodal d.o.Stiffness matrix – A Formal Procedure Each shape function Ni describes how u varies with x when the corresponding d. ui is unity while the other is zero. 15 .f.o. Re-write eq.

Stiffness matrix – A Formal Procedure Axial strain εx is given by du ⎡ d ⎤ ε= N d = Bd = dx ⎢ dx ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (15) where B is the element strain-displacement matrix ⎡ 1 B = ⎢− ⎣ L 1⎤ L⎥ ⎦ (16) Stress can be written as σ = Eε = EBd (17) 16 .

Stiffness matrix – A Formal Procedure Consider the strain energy stored in the bar U= 1 T 1 σ εdV = ∫ ( d T BT EBd )dV ∫ 2V 2V ⎤ 1 T⎡ T = d ⎢ ∫ ( B EB )dV ⎥ d 2 ⎣V ⎦ (18) The work done by the two nodal forces is W= 1 1 1 F1u1 + F2u2 = d T F 2 2 2 (19) For conservative system. we have U=W (20) 17 .

Stiffness matrix – A Formal Procedure which gives ⎤ 1 T⎡ 1 T d ⎢ ∫ ( B EB )dV ⎥ d = d T F 2 ⎣V 2 ⎦ (21) Then we have ⎡ ⎤ ( BT EB )dV ⎥ d = F ⎢∫ ⎣V ⎦ (22) or (24) kd = F (23) where k = ∫ ( B T EB )dV V is the element stiffness matrix Equation (24) is a general result which can be used for the construction of other types of elements. 18 .

Stiffness matrix – A Formal Procedure Now we use equation (24) to re-calculate the element stiffness matrix for the bar element: k=∫ L 0 ⎧− 1 / L ⎫ AE ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎬E [− 1 / L 1 / L ]Adx = ⎨ L ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 1/ L ⎭ (25) which is the same as we derived using the direct method The strain energy can be written as U= 1 T d kd 2 (26) 19 .

Example: Find the stresses in the two bar assembly which is loaded with force P. 20 . and constrained at the two ends. as shown in the figure.

Notes to example • In this case. since we are using the displacement based FEM. • We need to find the displacements first in order to find the stresses. 21 . It will not help if we further divide element 1 or 2 into smaller finite elements. averaged values of the crosssectional areas should be used for the elements. the calculated stresses in elements 1 and 2 are exact within the linear theory for for 1D bar structures. • For tapered bars.

Beam Element The beam element is used to model beams or frames where flexural effects (shear forces and bending moments) dominate. Beam element consists of 4 DOF per element and a cubic variation in displacement has to be assumed in the form: v = β1 + β 2 x + β 3 x 2 + β 4 x 3 (27) I = moment of inertia of the crosssectional area E = elastic modulus v = v(x) lateral displacement dv rotation about the z-axis θ= dx F = shear force M = bending moment about z-axis 22 .

o.f. with θz=dv/dx=β2+2β3x+3β4x2 for example: x = 0. (27) can be written by expressing the βi in terms of nodal d.Beam Element Axial effect can be added on if necessary Similar to bar element. β1 = v1. β2 = θz1 We can then derive the shape functions for beam element. N 1 ( x ) = 1 − 3 x 2 / L2 + 2 x 3 / L3 N 2 ( x ) = x − 2 x 2 / L + x 3 / L2 N 3 ( x) = 3x / L − 2 x / L 2 2 3 3 (28) 23 N 4 ( x ) = x 2 / L + x 3 / L2 . eq.

we can represent the displacement as v = [N 1 N2 N3 ⎧ v1 ⎫ ⎪θ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ N 4 ]⎨ z1 ⎬ = Nd ⎪ v2 ⎪ ⎪θ z 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (29) Curvature of the beam element is d 2v ⎡ d 2 ⎤ = ⎢ 2 N ⎥ d = Bd 2 dx ⎣ dx ⎦ (30) where strain-displacement matrix B is given by ⎡ 6 12 x B = ⎢− 2 + 3 L ⎣ L − 4 6x + 2 L L 6 12 x − 3 2 L L − 2 6x ⎤ + 2⎥ L L ⎦ (31) 24 .Beam Element Then.

Beam Element Strain energy stored in the beam element is L ⎤ 1 T 1 T⎡ T U = ∫ σ εdV = d ⎢ ∫ B EIBdx ⎥ d 2V 2 ⎣0 ⎦ (32) Can you prove this?? Based on eq (32) the stiffness matrix for the beam element is: k = ∫ BT EIBdx 0 L (33) 25 .

the expression of k is as follows ⎡ 12 EI / L3 ⎢ 6 EI / L2 k=⎢ ⎢− 12 EI / L3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 EI / L2 ⎣ 6 EI / L2 4 EI / L − 6 EI / L2 2 EI / L − 12 EI / L3 − 6 EI / L2 12 EI / L3 − 6 EI / L2 6 EI / L2 ⎤ ⎥ 2 EI / L ⎥ − 6 EI / L2 ⎥ ⎥ 4 EI / L ⎥ ⎦ (34) Stress σx = My/I Bending moment M is computed from curvature d2v/dx2.o. d. which in turn depends on nodal d.Beam Element Applying the result in (31) and carrying out the integration.f. d 2v M = EI 2 = EIBd dx (35) 26 .

2D Beam Element Combining the axial stiffness 0 ⎡ AE / L ⎢ 0 12EI / L3 ⎢ ⎢ 0 6EI / L2 k=⎢ 0 ⎢− AE / L ⎢ 0 − 12EI / L3 ⎢ 6EI / L2 ⎢ 0 ⎣ − AE / L 0 0 AE / L 0 0 0 ⎤ u1 6 EI / L2 ⎥ v1 ⎥ 2EI / L ⎥ θ z1 ⎥ 0 ⎥ u2 − 6EI / L2 ⎥ v2 ⎥ 4EI / L ⎥ θ z 2 ⎦ 0 6 EI / L2 4 EI / L 0 − 6 EI / L2 2 EI / L 0 − 12EI / L3 − 6 EI / L2 0 12EI / L3 − 6EI / L2 27 .

This can be done by imposing boundary conditions at appropriate nodal points on the model. • In general. 28 . Same as general structural analysis.Boundary conditions • In order to prevent the finite element model from moving freely through space. displacement boundary conditions simulate the actual supports of the structure. each of the possible degrees of freedom must be constrained somewhere on the model. there are three basic types of supports: simply supported. fixed and roller supports.

29 . programs that use 3D elements for 2D problems require that all displacements in the third dimension are zeroed.Boundary Conditions • The application of boundary conditions depends on the type of structure being analysed and also on the finite element program being used. • If the program supports 2D elements. On the other hand. then the application of boundary conditions in the third dimension for a 2D analysis is unnecessary.

Boundary Conditions • Engineering judgement must be applied in determining what boundary conditions best simulate the behaviour of the actual structure. 30 . In some cases. it is necessary to try the analysis using different boundary conditions to determine which set of conditions produces the worst case results.

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TRuss elements explanation in the field of finite element analys of beams

TRuss elements explanation in the field of finite element analys of beams

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