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Coward TAOISM AND JUNG: SYNCHRONICITY AND THE SELF Harold I of In my book Jungand Eastern Thought,1 exploredthe influenceof Indian Professor Historyand such as karma,citta, buddhitattva, tapas, and mandalaon the Directorof the Centre concepts for Studiesin Religion developmentof CarlJung'snotions of "archetype,""psyche,"the "col- and Society, lective unconscious," "active imagination,"and "circumambulation." of Victoria University But the question of Easterninfluence on Jung'smost complex concept, "the Self," was given only very sketchy treatment.Followingthe lead of one of Jung'ssenior North Americanstudents,Joseph Hendersonof Stanford University,I suggestedthatthe notion of Atman,as found in the formativeinfluence in Jung's Hindu Upanisads,was the major Eastern concept of "the Self."2 Additional research, however, has led me to conclude that Chinese Taoism, ratherthan Hinduism,providedthe fundamentalformativeinfluence in Jung'sdeveloping notion of "the Self." This Taoist influence, I will argue, came to Jung's "Self" concept not directly, but by way of another of Jung's ideas, namely synchronicity. it "Synchronicity," will be shown, depends directlyon the TaoistChinese text the I Ching,with which Jungexperimentedfor a whole summer in to 1920.3 His experimentsdemonstrated Jungthat there are meaningful connections between the inner psychic realm and the externalphysical world. In his autobiography Jungsays, "Timeand time again I encountered amazing coincidences which seemed to suggest the idea of an acausal parallelism(a synchronicity,as I latercalled it)."4 It is this notion of correlativeparallels between the inner and the outer realmsof experience that is fundamentalfor understanding Jung's to complex notionof the "Self."Failure recognizethe Taoistbackground to Jung'sthinkinghas, I will argue, resultedin the mistakencharge that Jung is simply a gnostic in modern psychological dress. This mistake is made when the external half of the correlationof the outer world with the inner psyche in Jung's individuatedSelf is ignored. By highlighting the Taoistcontext of Jung'sthinking,this error,common amongJungians, is avoided. In addition,the analysisofferedwill show that in the case of Eastern influenceon his notionof the Self,Jungrejectssome aspectsof the Hindu atman,but fully accepts Taoistthinking.This articleis divided into three of sections: (1) The TaoistBackground Jung'sThinking,(2) Synchronicity and Individuation Archetypes,and (3) Tao and the Self. In this essay of PhilosophyEast& West I am explicitlyconcerned with Jung'sown reading,not the Chinesetexts Volume Number4 46, themselves. October 1996
477-495 The Taoist Background Jung'sThinking of Jungwas led to Taoistand Indianthoughtin the period 1915-1920, ? 1996 while he was doing the researchfor his book Psychological Types.5 Of by University of this book Jungsays: Hawai'iPress
I came across the problemof types.13 While Lao Tzu's idea did not lead directlyto the pairingof the human with the cosmic. Extreme introverts extroverts or alitytype relatesto the surrounding sufferedfroma very limitedexperience of theirworld or themselves. for example. can interactat a distance by virtueof (kan-ying)."12 Much of the groundwork this theory of resonance or correlative for was established by the classical Taoists. The identification opposite personalitytypes of introversion versus extroversion)gave Jung the insightthat every (e.This insightraisedforJungthe questionof how one could finda unityin which these opposite personality types would be balancedand theirnarrowness transcended. Itstrue name we do not know. in the Confucianconcept of filial piety.6 Alreadywe see here Jung'sinterestin correlatingthe inner psyche with the externalworld.9 Correlative thinkingdrawssystematiccorrespondencesbetween various ordersof realitysuch as the human.said Jung. it did much to create a context in which correlative thoughtcould develop. judgmentmade by an individualis conditionedby how his or herpersonworld. What caughtJung'sattentionin his Psychological Typeswas Lao Tzu's discussion of Taoas the middle way between and heaven-and-earth.especially Lao Tzu in thinking his proposalthat humans patternthemselves after heaven and earth. is held.g.along with John most other traditionalforms of Chinese thinking.the world of nature."a sort of perennial philosophy of Chinese civilization.. even in some cases that their identitiesare contained one within the other.My book. to people and things. "Way"is the name thatwe give it. "It assumes that these related orders as a whole are homologous.This work sprangoriginallyfrom my need to define the ways in which my outlook differedfrom Freud'sand Adler's.this notion of resonance is applied even in social relations.Jung being quotes fromthe TaoTeChing: One may thinkof it as the motherof all thingsunderheaven. is rooted in "correlative thinking. for it is one's psychological type which fromthe outset determinesand limitsa person'sjudgement.as well as opposites such as man-and-nature the source of all arisingsand the receiver of all subsiding.and the divine.was an effortto deal with the relationship the individualto the world."10Underlying "correlativethinking" is the notion of cosmological resonance it Correlations.In attempting answerthis questo tion. In a mutualsympathy.led him directlyto the Chineseconcept of Tao."1 Chinese thought. as.7 idea of a middleway betweenthe opposites.an idea based on music theory or harmonics. that they correspondwith one another in some basic respect. In its most general form the theory of resonance is stated as "the principlesof the cosmos are the same as the principlesof my mind. of therefore.8 the Hendersonhas recentlydemonstrated that Taoism.14 PhilosophyEast& West 478 .The search for an answer.
'5 The aim of the Taoist sage is to live in harmonywith the Taoand nor therebyavoid falling into one extremeor the other. but strikinga balance between the two.FromWilhelmJunglearneda greatdeal about Chinese thought.and laterthe I Ching translations: itself. Jungsummarizes as follows: Yang signifieswarmth. In his Forewordto the I Ching.femaleness. Specificguidance towardthatend is providedby the I Ching. extrovert." Synchronicity was a concept Althoughone of his earliestnotions. When in Harold Coward 479 . and from yin force comes kuei. Let us now examine in depth the way in which Taoism and the I Ching influenced Jung's notions of "synchronicity"and its crucial role in the realizationof the "Self.and the goal of his psychotherapy.yin is cold.This is why Jungrefersto the meaningfulcorrelationsof the I Ching not as chance but "acausal"18 and why W. As a microcosm.Fromthe yang force arisesshen. yang and yin. neitherintrovert to use Jung'sterms. namely a reestablishing balance of between the yang and yin in the Tao.in a recent article.All of this confirmedJung'sintuitionof a connection that is potentiallypresentin each of us between our innerpsychic realmand to the external cosmos.Jung notes that the coincidence or To correlationbetween the opposites is the chief concern of the work. arational. namely a balancing of the psychic opposites in the experience of the Self.man is a reconcilerof the opposites.20The I Chingoffered a traditional Chinese technique for reflectingon these correlations. Jung felt that his method of active imaginationwould achieve the same goal and was more appropriate the modernWesterner.which Jung A tried out on himself with convincing results.ButJungwas confor vinced that the goal of the I Ching. the celestial portion of the human soul. the earthly part. Yang is also heaven.relationalexperience described in Taoist texts like the I Ching is a direct reflectionof naturalreality.Therewas also the centralTaoistteaching thatthe Taomanifestsin creation as a fundamentalpair of opposites.light. but Callahan. yin earth. "synchronicity" that Jung struggledto express adequately throughouthis life. This friendship led Jung to write commentarieson two of Wilhelm's first TheSecret of the Golden Flower. Jung coined the term "synchronicity" describe this correlationbetween inside and outside events. were parallel processes.16 few years later."19 Both agree that the acausal.Jung Wilhelm'stranslation the I Chingand invitedWilhelmto of read Richard Zurich.refersto Taoistthoughtnot as irrational "arational.maleness. A. darkness.17 enter into the "Chinese mind" of the text requiresthat modern Westernersdrop for the momenttheirfixationon rationaland causal thought as the only valid thinking.
occupation of unconscious necessitated lookingfor chology processeslong ago my of ThusI foundthattherearepsychicparanother principle explanation.21 It is not surprising.In what follows we will show that all of these errorsare corrected if "synchronicity" approachedfrom is Chinese Taoism ratherthan from modern parapsychology. containing an extended discussion of astrology. Michael Fordhamlargelyconsigns synchronicityto Jung'sattemptsto deal with the occult..with externalfactors being given short shrift.. does not even treat it as a separateconcept and offersonly one ratherweak This consigning of "synparagraphunder the heading "archetype. in her authoritativepresentationof Jung's psychology..24 Jung's sense of the existence of psychic parallelism or correlations between inner and outer events was stronglynourishedas a result of of readingWilhelm'stranslations the I Chingand a book on TaoistYoga."22 chronicity"to Jung'soffbeatinterestin thingsoccult has helped to create a serious misperceptionof Jung'stheory as being almost totally inward.for which he wrote a psychological commentary. Jung's earliest thinkingon synchronicitywas promptedby a conversationover dinnerwith AlbertEinsteinsometime between 1909 and 1913.. To understandthe importanceof this notion of synchronicityfor Jung'spsychology.therefore.The difference this makes for one's estimate of Jung's thought and the understandingof his concept of "the Self" is enormous. a steel knife shattering. Einstein was developing his firsttheoryof relativity this started and about the relativityof time and space "and their psychic Jungthinking But of conditionality.. it is usefulto remindourselvesof the main constructs East West of his theory. allelismswhich cannot be relatedto each othercausally.1960 he finally produced a little monographon the subject.or seances for communicating with the dead. for example."23 it is in the "Chineseorientation" a 1930 memorial addressfor sinologist RichardWilhelm that Jungfirstclearly speaks about synchronicity: Thescienceof the I Chingis not basedon the causality but principle.Itis Jung'sview thateach of us sharesin threedifferent levels & Philosophy 480 . on a unnamed becausenot metwithamongus)whichI have (hitherto principle calledthe synchronistic withthe psytentatively My principle. The Secret of the Golden Flower. Indeed.it was generallyassumed that this was simplyJung'sattemptto explain odd psychic events such as a table splittingin half.And it has paved the way for the charge to be leveled that Jung is nothing more than a modern-daygnostic who does not take the externalworld seriously. in his "Editorial Preface"to the volume.. JolandeJacobi. focused on the collective unconsciousand the archetypes.Ithas led to a of misunderstanding the process of individuation.that synchronicityhas not been seen as a key concept in Jung's psychology.
Jung indicatesthat the archetype mediatingthe phenomenaof synchronicityis embedded in the brainstructure and is physiologicallyverifiablethroughelectrical stimulationof certain HaroldCoward 481 . It is in the raisingof the archetypesto the conscious level and in the shifting of the center of gravityof the personalityfrom the ego to the Self that synchronicityplays a vital role."28 as he put it Or. The deeper meaningwithinone's psyche was experienced in relation to a correspondingmeaning in the external reality.of consciousness:the conscious level of the ego.but is based on the idea of an ordereduniverseinto which everythingfits harmoniously. IraProgoffsays: "His vision was so rich and essentiallyvalid.memories. AlthoughJung'ssynchronicityconcept saved him from falling into the gnostictrap. the dreams. the archetypeis an "arranger" psychic of forms inside and outside the psyche into meaningfulpatterns. In a letterto PastorBernet. As is the case in Chinese thought..this notion of Jung'sis not allegoricalor prelogical. Without synchronicityboth of these processes could not take place.. in a letterdated August 1951.Jung said. When the two connected. to rereadJung'snotion of "synchronicity" through his referencesto the Chinese texts so that the meaning intendedby Jung will be understood.29 When this occurs one is taken out of one's small ego consciousness by experiencing contact with the largermeaning-wholeof oneself withinthe cosmos. that comprisethe personalunconscious.Jungneverdeveloped a theoreticalframework would that enable him to discuss this concept systematically.About this failing of Jung. yet he could not reduce it to a form that he could communicate. one needs to know the Chinese doctrine T'ien-jenchih chi ("the interrelation heaven and of In Englishwe might use the term "correlativeanthropocosmolman").. Jung content of the inner psyche with the meaning content of the external cosmos. To be clear about the archetype and its creative individuation of throughthe use of materials the externalworld.and the predisand repressions to universalhumanreactions. of course. the notion of the archetypesand of the collective unconscious that is the trademark Jung'sthought. It is.the archetypes."26This is what underliesJung'snotion that an archetype includes not only psychic equivalences but psychophysicalequivalences too."25 It remainsfor us. then. the "archetypehas a tendency to behave as though it were not localized in one personbut were active in the whole environment. an experience of synchronicitytook place. for Jung'spsychology would be encapsulatedwithinthe innerpsyche and out of touch with the externalworld. Then the charge againstJung of gnosticism or mere idealism could be made to stick.27 Likethe Chinese doctrine of the interrelation the individualwith the of conceived of the archetype as interrelating meaning the cosmos.thatcompose the positions collective unconscious. ogy.
as synchronisticevents include not only the psychic but also physicalformsof manifestation.When we thinkof the unfolding of events in this interactionbetween humansand nature. It is the Chinese worldview that startedJung in this direction. and the archetypalmeaning is revealed..we should not take them to be only psychic. Jung's"synchronicity" the idea that a person is a participantin and meaningfullyrelated to the acausal patterningof The weakness in Jung'stheory is that he does not events in nature. the key word in the Chinese "The symbolic correlationsor correspondences worldview is "pattern": all formedpartof one colossal pattern.When the two are broughttogether a significantmoment of synchronicityis experienced.30But in a letter to WalterSchmid. In Easternreligion this is the revelationof the divine. The individualparticipatesin the whole in accordance with its comprehensivepattern(the Tao).Westernideas of cause and effect are replaced in Chinese thoughtby notions of interdependence. According to Joseph Needham.then. of In his discussionof the forerunners the idea of synchronicity Jung Therenatureconstitutesa dynamic. "In so far .34 pointsstrongly organic whole. This interdependenceis based on the idea of a simultaneous resonance between otherwise independent entities.32 demonstratehow the synchronisticevent and its meaning consistently What is are clearly relatedto the depth psychology of the individual. conclusion is justified that both modalitiestranscendthe realm of the psychic and someThe inherentpatterningactivity how belong to the physical realm.Jungwarns that even though the archetypeand synchronicityare rooted in the psychic realm. Thus the deepest levels of the collective unconscious were seen to participatein of the underlying patterns the externalworld of nature. Thusthe vision 482 . psychic versus physical."31 by the archetypeis not only presentat the level of the collective unconscious but. under Chinese influence.35As mentioned earlierit is more like a music theoryof resonancethan Newtonian physics.33 of clear is thatJungbecame quite sure thatthe multiplicity the empirical world restson an underlyingunity."36 Thingsbehave as they do not because of cause-effect relationshipswith other things but because of their intrinsicinterdependent relationshipwith the existentialpatternof all life.areas of the brain stem that produce mandalavisions. is In summary. and spiritual versusworldlythe potentialto become linkedin meaningfulacausal synchronisticexperiences. to Chinesethought..37LimitaPhilosophyEast& West tions are not groundedin the patternof the whole of life. It is this underlyingunity that gives opposites such as innerversusouter. and it is Jung's reading of Chinese thought that can renderhis thoughtmore systematicin relationto synchronicity. came to be regardedby Jung as a psychophysicalcontinuum present throughoutthe cosmos. Jungquotes ChuangTzu saying the Tao(the whole) is obscured when one fixes one's eye on little segments of existence only.
There-isa universalvalidity.contact is made between the inner and outer forms of the pattern. outside with inside.42 The Taoist approach is the synchronisticway. time. [T]hingsbroughtout are not Court. it involves the study and classificationof events wherein meaningfulinterdependence transcendsspace. he said: "When I sense the vigor of Chang Tsao's painting. I see Tao.. As in the I Ching.of the successful artistis of one who "can follow Nature'sspontaneity and be aware of the subtletyof things.While in Chinese culturethe throwingof the yarrowstalks in accordancewith the I Chinghelps the process of seeing the Taoalong. and causality as the determining factor.40The potentialitieswithin and without come together according to the divine pattern.when a Chinese artistis successful. in which the extremeopposites unite. in the West Jungfelt that his practiceof "Active Imagination" played a parallelrole in a way more suited to the modernWesternmind. So. In both cases the end result was an experience of the inner psyche and the externalworld coming togethersynchronistically a meaningfulwhole. he observes.fromthe Taoof Lao-Tzu the coincidentiaoppositorum to of Cusanus. and synchronicity is complete." Fromthe viewer's perspective. under the influence of the archetype."a term first used by Chuang Tzu to mean what Jung calls the depth of the unconscious.. night is wedded with day. His brushwill secretly be in harmonywith movementand quiesOne who is not in tune with the cence and all formswill issue forth. in Self Jung typically describes spiritualmaturityand psychological inteCoward grationas the shiftingof the center of gravityof the personalityfromthe Harold 483 .The work of individuationor symbol formationinvolves the creativeworkingtogetherof the archetypal formswith the interiorized contentsof the psychicalworld until a "synchronousfit" is achieved and the interdependentmeaning revealed (usually in a series of dreams ending finally in a conscious experience). News of the externalworld is firsttaken into the psyche by the sensing function and then taken deep within the psyche by the intuiting function. I no longer see a painting. There.The archetypecontains the meaningfulpatternthat waits to resonate sympathetically with events sharingthe same patternin the external world.4' In other places Jung describes this as the mysteryof the coniunctio. but from the Spiritual InJung'sview this is also what happens in the makingof the best mandalas."39 from consciousness of the eye and ear. when Fu Tsai saw ChangTsao's paintingsof pines and rocks."38 harmonicsof reality"becomes a slave of passion and his naturewill be distortedby externalities.. and male with female.and his mind will be absorbedby them. The Tao is revealed. the paintingis said to reveal the potentialitiesof the "spiritual court.
The Taoist insistence on a balance between inner and outer. The equal inclusion of the external world is of crucial importance."which he says is simply another name for the unconscious.Jungfound his readingof Chinese to thought.. and acts... In explaining his concept of self. This is exactly Sankara's FromJung'sperspective.48 Brahman Brahman.44And this circumambulationprocess of the self includes materialsfrom both the inner psyche and the external world in ever widening circles.as soon withoutqualities. offera betterclue to the self. Jung points to the Hindu Upanisadic teaching that it is not the individualego that speaks.ego to the self. in the awareness on the one hand of our unique natures. which is overbalancedon the externalempiricalconsciousness and virtuallycut off fromthe internalunconscious. universal consciousness. thinks. confirmed in Jung'smind that both sides were essential for the development of the self.in Jung'sview. Taoism is structured such that an overbalance on one side is necessarilycompensated by a stresson the other so that within the personalitythe two sides are always seeking to be in balance. for it saves one from falling into the theosophical trap of much Hindu thought. there is only a circumambulation which everythingis related to the center.45Jung makes it clear that his concept of the self is not that kind of "universalconsciousness. with the empiricalworld. As Frieda Fordhamputs it: "[The self] consists . which speaks throughthe individual and so uses the individualas a means of expression. one is as one gets out of dynamic interrelation either unconscious or out of life altogether. but animal and plant. TheSecret of the Golden Flower. between yin and yang. It bringsa feeling of "oneness" and of reconciliationwith life."46 The two Chinese notions of correand lationbetween the innerand outer (synchronicity) a balancedcenter so that expands or circumambulates as to include both the innerand the to outer are fundamental Jung'snotion of the self. namely that the external world is mere maya and ultimatelydisappears.leaving a pure.and Taoismin particular.Jung found for the first time an outline for the East& West developmentof a balanced self..and on the otherof our intimaterelationship with all of life. On the other extreme is the modern Western mind. not only human. as such. and even that of inorganicmatterand the cosmos itself. In the Taoistbook..47But the becomes one-sidedly identified dangerin Hinduthoughtis that Brahman as pure consciousness and.43 Jung's discovery of the self as the goal of psychic development occurredas a resultof his study of Taoism in 1918 while for writingPsychologicalTypesand in 1927 while writinga commentary of Wilhelm'stranslation TheSecretof the Golden Flower.These Chinese texts taughtJung that in the development of the self there is no linear in evolution. Ratherit is the universalBrahman. Philosophy 484 . Because it balanced both extremes. is no longer in dynamic interrelanotion of nirguna tion with the physical world.
the developing self.and yet is "a singularlyappropriateexpression of the total personality. Master Lu teaches that the one primordial whole is the Tao. or."49 The translator.an expressionthat one could not imagine in a more complete form.quietly.Charles San states that the aim is "an enrichment of consciousness which will unite the innerand outer worlds of reality. Hun dwells in the eyes and is bright and active. Butit was neversomethingthatcame exclusivelyeitherfromwithinor fromwithout.the new thing came to all those personsfrom a darkfield of possibilities. higher spirit.53 The said Jung.50In the text. It seemed to me typical that. Junggoes on to say. is normal.adds thatthe book teaches a correlation of the innerspiritual principlewith the psychogenicforces of the cosmos so as to preparefor the possibilityof life after death in a transfigured bodily form. [l]n no case was it conjuredinto existence throughpurpose and conscious willing. I saw that their fates had somethingin common. seldom corresponds to conscious expectation. in some cases.or rather. by wu wei (actionless Harold 485 .51 energy of the yin or p'o and convert it into the lighterspiritualenergy of yang or hun untila balance is achieved. Yet the TaoistYoga of the text soughtout a point of balance or freedomthatwould take one beyond the clash of opposites without becoming one-sided or overbalanced. grew beyond themselves. It is identified with yang and associated with the lighter. contradictsdeeply rooted instincts.In his Introduction the Causeway Editionof The Secret of the to Golden Flower.The Tao phenomenalizes into a multiplicityof individuals in the formof hun and p'o. Whetherarisingfromwithoutor within.54 Problemscaused by being overbalancedon one side or the other can never be solved but only outgrown. but rather seemed to flow out of the streamof time. Richard Wilhelm."56All this was accomplished Coward by doing nothing. does not permitmechanical duplication.Jungcomments: as if unconsciously. and into others from within..they accepted it and developed furtherby means of it. however.that it grew into some persons from without. P'o dwells in the abdomen and is darkand earthbound.. At death it decays and returns the earthwhence it continually The goal of the yoga as taughtin the text is to arousethe sexual begets. the new thing was found outside themselves. Growth into the self.52 What struckJungabout this Taoistmodel for the developmentof the self was that it never attemptedto force the pairsof opposites so farapart that all connection between them is lost. is the midpoint of the opposites.which afterdeath rises in the air and flows back into the reservoir life. This new thing. To remain overbalanced and caught up in a conflict between the opposites is pathological. and in otherswithin.55 WhenI examined wayof development thosepersons the of and who. as Master Lu Tzu said. It is equivalent to the self.. Tao. of It is identified with yin and associated with the body and its sexual to energy.
the Golden Flower. said Jung. an enlargementinto a self occurs by making present partsof one's inneror outer world that one had previouslyblocked out. findingone's own mandala symbol is crucial for the development of the self. InJung'sview. What is meant by the self is not only in me but in all beings. life and consciousness.action). The union of these two.like Tao. Jung provides one of his clearest descriptions of "active imagination"as inspired by his reading of the Taoist notion of wu wei." In fact. the mandala of the text.dala.In Chinese terms. We use the word "self" for this contrastingit with the littleego. when Jung read The Secret of the Golden Flower..60In a later article.Mandalas pictoriallyrepresentthe harmoniousinclusion of both the inner and outer realmswithin the self. is the Tao.he found and the circumconfirmationof his ideas about the self. Such symbols are mandalas. Earlier(19181920). "I had a dream about the center and the self which I A representedin a mandalapaintingcalled 'Windowon Eternity'. It depends on their startingpersonalitytype-introvert or extrovert." year laterJung painted a second picture. sified ego.. which sees and comprehendsthe whole.. like the Atman. Tao. It is psychic totality.some have to enlargetheir personality into a self by taking from without.61 Behind the opposites and in the opposites is true reality. letting go of oneself-became for Jung the key to opening the door to the development of the self. likewise a mandala. This art of letting things happen-action in nonaction. others by expanding within. In Western terms this makingthe opposites consciously in harmonywith the largerpatternof life is "conversion"conversion from the ego as the center of the personalityto the self as center. [T]hisself is not just a rathermore conscious or intenetc.that was very with a golden castle at the center. as the words "self-conscious.62 PhilosophyEast& West 486 .. Chinese in character. Later he was technically to designate the process as "active imagination.59In the Taoist text.this is of the bringingabout of Tao. the Golden Flowerof Heavenly Lightis the mandala. in 1927.As was the case with Jung. Eitherway.""self-satisfied.." mightlead one to suppose. Jung comments that Atman.The term implies a circularnature.57 As the Taoisttext makes clear.. at this point in his Commentary. ambulation(the circling around)of the center.says Jung. the man.58 This expansion of the personalityand the union of the opposites throughthe process of lettinggo of the ego expresses itself in symbols. symbolizes the self in which the unconscious has become conscious in a harmoniousunion with all of life. says Jung. The process involves an enlargementof consciousnessthrougha uniting or correlating what was separated. and Christ are different culturalsymbolsfor wholeness that correlatethe innerself with the animating principle of the cosmos. Some years later.
a golden flower is necessary. which the self is and text of The Secret of the built up. and religiousphenomena (in which the thought-fragments be personifiedas spiritsor gods).63 by Jung found the process of circumambulation. a freeing of oneself from emotional or sensory entanglements. This is not an easy or quick process but.66Again the circular movementdominatesthe process. the The picture.thoughtJung.and a deepening sense of unityof being.As it refocusesone's psychic energy from the ego to the self. Jung comments that such possessing psychic partial systems are common in mental illnesses (like schizophrenia). which gathers up and integrates fromthe unconsciouswith those of the externalworld received materials the senses. there is felt a heighteningand clearness of consciousness. claims Jung. the Tao begins to take prescribed.portrays spiritualstate of the yogi who is about to rid himselfof his many small egos and pass over into the more complete objective state of the self.A circumambulatio circularcourse of development is meditation. self-knowledge by tapas). That logical nothing than meansof self-incubation (Hindi. as the TibetanBook of the Dead (the BardoTh6dol)makesclear.65 Jung observes that the Taoist text is aware of certain dangers that arise when such an expansion of consciousness is taking place. or. The beginmay ning formationof a self gives one a centerfromwhich to recognize these partialpsychic systems for what they are and. in turn. Psychologically. a symbol such as the sun.the turningin ever widening circles about oneself engages all sides of the personality. Newly activated unconscious contents are frequentlyprojected upon the outside world.Action is submergedinto nonaction. makes possible their depotentializationand assimilationby the center.says Jung. The text offersvisual representations such projectionsand of describesthem as "thought-fragments" are empty colors and shapes that no being in and of themselves. one that may engage one even beThe assimilation such psychic projectionsthrough HaroldCoward of yond one's death.all the psychoof kind means else opposites whatever theymaybe. Through leadership.dala or Golden Flower.mediumisticphenomena. and everythingperipheral is subjected to the command of the center. fully representedin the man.64 For this circularmovement to take place. a castle. Thusthe circular movement also the moral has of all significance activating and the lightand darkforcesof humannature. as in this text.67 487 . As such the symbol is a manifestation the God or of through self archetype.struck by a In The Secret of the Golden FlowerJung was particularly of a yogi with five human figuresgrowing out of the top of his drawing head and five more figuresgrowingout of the top of each of theirheads. withthem.The symbol is a visual image of the divine pattern.
and other people.the process of circumambulation an essential partof the individuation is of the self from its entrapmentin either the inner unconscious or the external world. says Jung. namely the text's emphasis on direct experience and the refusal to attempt a metaphysicaldescription. one's sexual energy is transmuted.for that indeed is the aim: "To understandmetaphysiThe cally is impossible. LaoTzu: "TheTao that can be told of is not the eternal Tao.Levy Bruhldefines participation of between mystiqueas "theindefinitely largeremnant non-differentiation and object. Jung's reading of the Taoist text highlighted another important aspect. In modernpeople this nondifferentiation takesanotherform. They are reallysymbolicalpsychologists. therefore.."If by "psychologism"is meant the bringingof "metaphysics"withinthe rangeof experience."72 Taoists. thoughtJung. The unconscious is not projected any more. In both kinds of nondifferentiation.or one accuses others of things one does not see in oneself. Jung'sfollowing of Taoism on this point has led to charges of "psychologism.an obstacle to directexperience of the divine.through yoga practice. Nor do the Taoistsmake the mistakeof takingthis breath Philosophy 488 ."71). one is identifiedwith one's parentsor with one's affects."69This is what is meant by the text. The instructionsin The Secret of the Golden Flower.As Jungputs it. "It ceases to be the ego. But when these unconscious projections are made conscious."70 the second half of life. This naturally In the focus of the firsthalfof life on "begettingand reproduction." the indestructible spirit that develops in the Golden Flower. then Jungsays he pleads guilty and is flattered. understand well. and is located instead in what might be called a virtualpoint between the conscious and the unconscious." Such an expression symbolizes a psychological to attitudethat is invulnerable entanglementsin the outeror innerworld. When the text speaks of the "diamondbody.it can only be done psychologically. This new center might be called the self.into the universalspiritualenergy of the self."68In primitivepeoples this nondifferentiation takes subject the formof plantsand animalsbehaving like humansand vice versa. which is merely the center of consciousness.g.when it speaks of "the diamond body. has been disentangled.teach the pupil how to free himselfor herselffrominneror outer bondage.Whereas in Taoism any metaphysicaldescriptionis negated (e. it is describingnot a dogma body but a real experience. the participation mystique is transcended and the centerof gravityof the personalityshiftsits position. people feel themselves to be magically influenced by things.the primordial interweaving consciousness with the world. circumstances. this says Jung. the participation of mystique. Jungagrees with the text that the time for this process to take place is in for follows the second half of life as a preparation death.in Western religion metaphysicshas become the normand. Jungthinks. which Master Lu Tzu has had and expects his & East West pupil to have.
spontaneous action centered not in the ego but in the self.' It is as if the leadershipof the affairsof life had gone over to an invisible center. Conclusion This study has shown that two of Jung'scentraland often misunderstood concepts. the synchronicityis understoodto be a fundamentalprincipleunderlying and the way in which the opposites within and without the archetypes psyche interact."78In his readingof but Taoism. "No longer do I live. to use the Christian context. I know!"76 with it a release fromthe compulsion and impossibleresponsibilbrings ity that are the inevitable results of dogmatism and the participation mystique..an experience of Kant'sDing-an-sich. Instead."75 The experience of this new center is the Taoor.." were stronglyinfluenced and in their initialformulation his readingof Taoistthought. the thing we are tryingto express is the feeling of having been 'replaced. in Jung'sterms. There is no dualism here.there is a feeling of reconciliationwith oneself and with what is happeningin the world.says Jung. unitingthe most diverse culturesin a common task."Do you believe in God?"Jungpaused and reThisdirect knowledge. When examined in relationto the I Ching.When placed by against the backgroundof Chinese correlationalcosmology. sponded.or spirit"diamondbody" to be separatedfromthe physical. Jungdeveloped his notion of the self in a detailed reflectionon the Tao.Of centralimportancehere is the idea thatthe contentsof the innerpsyche and those of the external HaroldCoward 489 .As such it becomes a basic building block for Jung's encountered in his dreamsand laterconfirmedand concept of self. One is released to live in wu-wei. First explained in TheSecretof the Golden Flower. when asked.' but without the connotation of having been 'deposed. but Christlives in me.seeking.the thing in itself. synchroof nicity is seen as primarilyconcerned with the inherentinterrelation the inner psyche with the external world. which nature has imposed on mankind. It is not skepticismor agnosticismbut."73This ultimateexperience can only be hinted at in words such as "Itis not I who live. says Jung. "synchronicity" "the self. the Tao.the self.77 Jung concludes his Commentaryon The Secret of the Golden Flower with the following words: "It is . What is experienced is a purifyingand correlatingof the physical and the mental into a balanced self symbolized by the "diamond body. it is the tremendousexperiment of becoming conscious. "I do not believe. it lives me. in an interviewwith the BBC. and strivingcommon to all civilized peoples. the atmosphereof suffering. This is why.Jungfound not only an adequateexpressionof synchronicity also a trustworthy to the experience of the self as the spiritual guide center. and only secondarily as an explanationof occult events."74Jungadds: "In a certain sense." or.
throughout that the physical world is as important the innerarchetypes.Jungfinds that the self evolves by a process of circumambulation aroundthe center in ever expanding circles. the Tao. is necessarilyone-sided because it engages in & Philosophy 490 . but because it corrects some major misThe understandings. all theology. a self in the form of a mandala. however. The third misunderstanding relatesto suspicions.Thatthis chargebotheredJunga greatdeal is evidentfromthe attentionit receives in his Commentary TheSecretof the Golden Flower.the unconscious as the source of knowledge. a fact that Jung himself recognizes in Aion.82 on Basinghimself on Lao Tzu's teaching. usually voiced by ministersor theologians. that he has done away with God by psychologizingGod into an archetype. but. "The Name that can be spoken or described is that not the true Name.but simply experienced. Following the lead of TheSecret of the Golden Flower.though real.81 The partof gnosticismthatJungaccepted was that there was knowledge to be found within the psyche.Jung'spsychologyrequires and extrovertin ever that we expand our personalitytypes of introvert widening circles until the opposite aspect is assimilatedand made conscious in the new whole of the self. This insight is basic to correspondingknowledge and the self and effectivelysafeguarded Jung'sconcepts of synchronicity frombecoming a gnostic. All of this is importantnot just for our understanding how Jung of developed his basic ideas.Jungrejectsmetaphysicsas havingany gripon reality. is always Jung in tensionwiththe outer." Gnosticism places a one-sided emphasison the subjective. Following his readingof Taoism. who have not seen Jungthrough his readingof Taoism Commentators have frequently chargedhim with being a gnostic-Maurice Freedman79 and R. The evolving self is not somethingthat can be described. that Jung is a skeptic or agnostic. the Tao. ForJung. firstis thatJung'spsychology is so dominantlyintraor inwardlyfocused that for him everythingcomes out of the psychic collective unconscious. a letting go of ego in wu-wei or spontaneous action. The Taoist background helps us to see that there is a balance between innerand outer in Jung'sthinking. East West All dogma. usually process of the conscious ego."Jungseeks to demonstrate he is neithera skeptic nor an agnostic but a direct experiencer of the divine. Zaehner80 have brandedJungas "a moderngnostic. This is not a symbol. again following his reading of Taoism. The second misunderstanding relates to the same basic problem.the inner.world must be assimilatedand balanced to approximatethe Tao.which is equallyreal. But this was immediatelybalanced by with a his Taoist insightthat any inner knowledge must be interrelated of the externalworld. will be born. C. When a sufficient number of projections has been made conscious and archetypesindividuated throughthis process.and that as both are expressionsof the same fundamentalpatternor whole. metaphysicallyor otherwise.
p. 11 -Ibid.1985]).the Atman. Jung. The Development and Decline of Chinese Cosmology(New York:ColumbiaUniversityPress. 374.The Tao Te Ching of Lao Tzu.. 6 (Princeton: 6 . Henderson.Ibid. 3 . 1. providesthe cosmic patto."83Jung seems to have been convinced that in Pauline theology Taoistand Christian thoughtcoalesce.PsychologicalTypes. the underlying and receives back all of existence.Dreams.1985).pp.p. BenjaminSchwartzsuggests the term "correlativeanthropocosmology"as a more exact translationof the Chinese principle (The World of Thoughtin Ancient China Harvard UniversityPress.1971).p. 214. Richard and Clara Winston (New York: Vintage Books.Dreams. 9 . PrincetonUniversityPress. 154-155. Chapter25. Psychological Types. 373. will be happywith It is not likelythat theologiansor metaphysicians But it is something quite differJung'sTaoist experience of the divine. 2 .. ent from skepticismor gnosticism.p. 8 . Jungmaintains. [Cambridge: 10 . Coward 13 . Jung.Jung.pp.HaroldCoward. trans. p. Reflections.trans. 12 .. G. 4 .vol.Memories. In an even more recent book.To know God.Reflections...Ibid.Ibid.The divine. 1965).any discussion of Jung's religion would be advised to begin with the Taoist backgroundand then to grapplewith his contentionthat in Paul'sexperience of Christ "the deepest religious experience of the West and the East meet. G. the Tao. 207. G.John B. p. NOTES StateUniversity 1 . Aniela Jaffe.Memories. 5 . xv.James Legge. tern in which all distinctionsinhere.in The Collected Worksof C. requiresnot metaphysicsbut a directexperienceof the whole-and that.Ibid.If it is to hit the mark.Jung. 7 . which gives birth makingdistinctions.C. 22. 52-55.ed.is availableto us all throughthe Self.C.p.whole. 208.Ibid. Jung. supports.1984).Jungand Eastern Thought (Albany: of New YorkPress. p. in Harold 491 ..
31 . ed.1962).. Synchronicity. Collected Works.vol. in 28 .C. p."(b)the numinouschargeasso492 . Jung (New Haven: Yale UniversityPress. Synchronicityand Human Destiny (New York: Dell. (Princeton: vol. 14 . 49-50. G. pp.C. 24 .see Jung. 1973).Jung. 23 . 1975). 22. 2. vi. RichardWilhelm with Commentaryby C.10:451452. The Psychology of C. Forewordto The I Ching or Book of Changes. 25 . 258-259. trans. Jung: Letters. Synchronicity. pp. trans. p. p. 29 . 26 . GerhardAdler and Aniela Jaff6 PrincetonUniversityPress). 158. Callahan. 1. G. 19 . 374.Civilizationin Transition..Jung.Ibid.p.p.Jung.6:214.p. 32 . xxiv. to 21-C.Jung.The Secret of the Golden Flower. "meaningfulness" the Jungassociates with synchronisticevents consists in four interrelated layers state and the objecof deepening significance:(a) the intrapsychic East tive event as "meaningful Philosophy &West parallels. pp. 20 . 22 .. 8).." PhilosophyEastand West 39 (1989): of 171. xxii. Jung. Jung. Synchronicity:An Acausal Connecting Principle PrincetonUniversityPress.pp. 216-217.The Worldof Thoughtin Ancient China. p.Dreams. G. p.Schwartz."Discourseand Perspectivein Daoism:A Linguistic Interpretation Ziran.The Textsof Taoism(New York:Dover Publications. Richard Wilhelm (Princeton:Princeton University Press. A.W. 15. G.As quoted by Jung from Waley's translation.1973).C. pt. xxiv. G.in Collected Works.Jung.Ibid. 1950). 142. p.1973) (see Collected Works.Ibid. 18.Ibid.p. 350. 447.Foreword TheI Ching. Psychological Types.p. 68. 99. (Princeton: 30 . 17 . p.As Robert Aziz has demonstrated.Memories. Jung. Jung (New York:Causeway Books. v-vi. 16 .JolandeJacobi.Reflections.Ira Progoff. G. 27 .
G.trans. Jung.pp. pp.p.Mysterium Coniunctionis. 33 34 . Collected Works.Jung. 5. 46 .1-3. p. 48 . interpretation. 69 ff. England: Penguin. p. a feeling of "grace" is conveyed). 37 .p. an eighth-century Taoistadept. 1975). The Holy Men of India. Jung'sPsychologyof Religionand Synchronicity.Jung.FriedaFordham. thesis. 1981). e. of pp. 206.ciated with the synchronisticexperience (from R. 42 .C. 196-197.Ibid.14:166. 98-99.Nathan Sivin.Jung. Harold Coward 493 . 39 . Press. 137. Chinese Alchemy: Preliminary 35 Studies (Cambridge: Harvard UniversityPress. The book is said to go back in oral form to Lu Yen. 36 .11 :576586.Jung. by Chang Chung-yuan (New York: Harper Colophon. ChandogyaUpanisad6.Synchronicity. Introduction TheSecretof the Golden Flower. be noted that HinduTantricsystemsshare with Taoisma balanced emphasis on the inner and outer worlds. G.See KarlH. xii. Jung. 207.1956). 45 .8:488. It should. in Collected Works. .Chang Huai's "Treatiseon Painting"as quoted in Creativity and Taoism. 49 . to RichardWilhelm (New York:Causeway Books. Science and Civilisationin China (Cambridge: CambridgeUniversityPress.1968). 40 . on 41 . .CharlesSan. (c) the importof the subjective level of and Aziz.Joseph Needham. however.p.in Collected Works. 47 .Jung. p. TheSymbolic Life.1957).Dreams. 2:281.in Collected Works. It just happens thatJungfound his help in this regardfromChinese Taoisttexts. Introduction Jung'sPsychology(HarmondsAn to worth.See.Memories. C.D. G. 1963). Potter.12. in 38 . G. pp. subsequentlypublishedby StateUniversity New York 1990).Reflections.. 110.18:68-69.g.13:6-7. 76ff. Commentaryon The Secret of the Golden Flower. Jung.Commentary TheSecretof the Golden Flower. 63.Synchronicity.. p.Advaita VedantaUp to Samkara and His Pupils (Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress. Otto.in Collected Works. 43 .C..Ibid.C. 44 . (d)the archetypallevel of meaning(Robert Ph.
Jung.15:126.. 51 . on 56 .10:463. 90-92. 104.C. like the many small egos of the drawingfrom The Secret of the Golden Flower.Commentary The Secret of the Golden Flower.Ibid.p. p..Jung. of course. Jung." (p.7:221.. the three systems being at once diverse and identical . It would be interesting compare this Taoist notion of to the transfigured body-spirit personalitythat survivesdeath with the Christian doctrineof a resurrected transfigured body-spirit entity. A 63 . G. in Collected Works. 54 .Ibid.Ibid. pp. 62 .Ibid.. 101102. 58 . 53 . Jung quotes from an experience of EdwardMaitland:"Once started on my quest.Ibid. G.Jung. p.. Jung.pp. the impression produced being that of mounting towardthe centerof fromthe circumference a vast ladderstretching the solar system.Jung.in Collected Works. 66 .There is no one characteror figurein the novel the to represent self. Two Essays on Analytical Psychology.Ibid. in 61 .Commentary TheSecretof the Golden Flower. usually rejected the Easternnotion of individual rebirth. Jungsees the many figuresin JamesJoyce's Ulysses as many small egos.. 14ff.Jung.p. 96.p.11:156.Memories. xi.. pp.Commentary TheSecretof the Golden Flower. 100.C.Ibid. Collected Works.Ibid. 90. "Ulysses": Monologue. in Collected Works. G. 4.which was at once my own system. Jung..pp. 106-113.Dreams. the universalsystem. 52 . As a modernparallelto this descriptionfromthe ancientTaoist text. G. 197. on 60 .C.Reflections. Jung. 102). Good and Evil in Analytical Psychology. 65 . 87. East Philosophy &West 494 67.A PsychologicalApproachto the Trinity. althoughtowardthe end of his life he came close to accept- . on 64 ..50 .p..C. and a system. p. This is one of the few times Jung uses the term "conversion. 89. 55 . I found myself traversinga succession of spheres or belts .. p.. 57 .Ibid." 59 . p..
Zaehner (New York: Hawthorn Books.p. 73. trans.p. 124. 81 .pp. 69 .Ibid.he toys with the idea that rebirthmight be conceived as a psychic projectionand offersevidence from his own dreams(pp. 1959). p. 131-132. pt.. Harold Coward 495 .Ibid. 83 .BBCTV.Ibid. PrincetonUniversityPress. 9. Tao-Te Ching."TheStoryof CarlGustaveJung.p. 79 . p. 223. 80 . 136.Dreams. In Memories.C.Reflections.pp. 133."interview.Maurice Friedman. but Christliveth in me.Ibid. p.Commentary The Secret of the Golden Flower. 78 .Wing-tsitChan (Princeton: 139. 77 .To Deny our Nothingness (New York:Delta..p.. 82 . 128129.ing it. 74 . vi. 322-323).Aion.Ibid." in A Concise Encyclopedia of Living Faiths.vol.Lao Tzu. Jung. 132). 404). C. 70 .g.pp. "A New Buddha and a New Tao.TheSecretof the Golden Flower. p.Ibid. 75 . pt. 123. in A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy. 68 . Zaehner representsJung as identifying God and the self with the collective unconscious (p. 1967). G. "No longer do I of live.Jung. R. 71 . on 72 .p. 1972. 1..Jung.1969). 131 n. ed. 132.. Zaehner.Commentary The Secret of the Golden Flower...pp.R." as a manifestation the self within a Christian context (e. 76 .Ibid. in Collected Works. Commentary The Secret of the Golden Flower. C.Jung. 2. 133on 134. Jung frequentlyquotes from Paul. 128on 135.