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Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences.
Washington [etc.,Washington Academy of Sciences] http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/2087
v. 12 (1922): http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/27999
Page(s): Page 358, Page 359, Page 360, Page 361, Page 362, Page 363, Page 364, Page 365, Page 366
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JOURNAL OF THE WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIE NCES
VOL. 12, NO. 15
Vitreous and granular impure quartz itc, the upper part of which contain s Obole/la and trilobite fragments.
= • ..- • " " " S " • = U •
Harpers phyllite Chickies quartzite
Greenish gray schist .
" ~ 0 ,..,
" • " "
Hellam conglomerate member
Scolitlms-bearin g• Massive·bedded, Quartzite • light-colored vitreous • gralOY Quartzite with clear quartz grains, and some white clay beds i n
Quartz conglomerate, grainy quartz ite with rounded clear and blue . quartz grams, and slate chlorite schis t at base in Hellam Hills.
Greenstone and aporhyolite in H ella m • Hills; gneiss and granitic rocks m Welsh Mountain and Barren Hills
Most of the Lower Cambrian arenaceous series is well exposed in tbe gorge of the Susquehanna River through the Hellam-Chickies Hills. The quartzite at Chickics Rock has been called Chickies quartzite since 1878, when the name was first used by Lesley and Frazer ; they also u sed Hellam quartzite for the same rocks in Hellam Hills . Lesley and Frazer applied the name Chickies (Chiclcis) to the quartzite and associated "quartz slate" but not to the overlying phyUite, and later Walcott followed the same usage, applying the name Chickies to the quartzite. Conglomerate at the base of the arenaceous series was not mentioned by these early writers and apparently was not seen by them, as it is not exposed at Chickies Rock. It is brought to the surface three miles to the west in the midst of the H eUam HiUs, where the anticline rises higher, and is there included in what was later caUed by Lesley Chickies quartzite. These basal conglomeratic beds, to which the name H eUam conglomerate member is here applied, correspond in general with the Weverton and Loudoun formations of South Mountain. The H ellam conglomerate m ember lies on epidotic amphibolite schist or greenstone and aporhyolite, which are altered volcanic rocks related to the pre-Cambrian m etabasalt or Catoctin schist and aporh yolite of South Mountain. The basal beds of the conglomerate here are chlorite schist which contains glassy quartz gra ins and fl at fragments of chloritic and rh yolitic schists,
STOSE AND JONAS: LOWER PALEOZOIC OF PE NNSY LVA N IA
apparently pebbles derived from the disintegration of the underlying greenstone and aporhyolite. The higher beds are dark slate and pebbly vitreous quartzite with interbedded coarse conglomerate which is made up of crowded round white quartz pebbles, 2 to 4 inches in diameter, in a sericitic siliceous matrix . The thickness of the Hellam conglomerate is estimated to be 600 feet. The Chickies quartzite as exposed in Chickies Rock is a heavybedded light-colored vitreous quartzite and grainy quartzite with slate interbedded near the top, 400 feet thick . The quartzite carries Scalithlls tubes throughout. It is similar to the Montalto quartzite member of the Harpers schist of South Mountain but as it lies at the base of the Harpers and not in its midst , it is probably not the exact equivalent of the Montalto. The Chickies quartzite, including the Hellam conglomerate member, is about 1000 feet thick. The Harpers formation of the Hellam-Chickies Hills is a greenish gray phyllite with some biotite. 2 The bedding of the phyllite cannot be determined in most places, but the interbedded quartzite layers show several close folds . Although the thickness cannot be accurately determined it is estimated to be 1000 feet . The phyllite is overlain by light gray, somewhat calcareous, vitreous and granular impure quartzites, about 200 feet thick, some of the upper beds of which weather to a laminated, porous, highly ferruginous rock. These upper beds have the characteristics of certain fossiliferous beds of the Antietam sandstone of South Mountain, and their bedding surfaces show numerous rusty molds of Dbelella and trilobite fragments . This quartzite is therefore equivalent to the Antietam sandstone (quartzite) of South Mountain. The senior author has recognized in Welsh Mountain and vicinity tbe same divisions of the Lower Cambrian arenaceous series as are found in the Hellam-Chickies Hills. The Hellam conglomerate m ember in Welsh Mountain is made up of a grainy to finely conglomeratic quartzite and coarse quartzose conglomerate at the base, some of the pebbles of which are of clear blue quartz . The chloritic schist which occurs at the base of the section in the Hellam anticline is here absent because the pre-Cambrian rocks of the Welsh Mountain region from which the arenaceous Cambrian rocks were derived is
The rock of the Harpers formation in the Hellam-Chickies and Welsh : Mountain anticlines is referred to here as a phyllite to distingui sh it from the more metamorphosed rock on the flanks of ~'[ine Ridge, which is a schist . The senior author would prefer to use the term H arpers schist in both areas, which name he has used in previous publications on the South Mountain .
JOURNAL OF THE WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
VOL. 12, NO. 15
composed of an igneous complex of plutonic rocks and old sediments among which there are no greenstone schists. The pre-Cambrian, however contains conspicuous veins of glassy blue quartz, pebbles of which are inclosed in the basal Cambrian sediments. The conglomerate is well exposed near the sand mines northwest of Honeybrook, where it is only 150 feet thick. In Welsh Mountain the lower part of the quartzite above the conglomerate is vitreous and the upper part is granular, both carrying Scolithus tubes. The granular quartzite is generally disintegrated at the surface and is quarried for sand. It passes upward into a finegrained, white, siliceous, laminated clay , which is also mined. Four hundred feet of the formation has been measured in quarries and other good exposures. The Harpers phyllite, estimated to be about 1,500 feet thick, is composed of gray sandy phyllite. At the top the phyllite is interbedded with light gray, granular quartzite which weathers to a porous rusty rock containing molds of Obolella and trilobite fragments. About 150 feet of the upper quartzose beds are probably equivalent to the Antietam sandstone of South Mountain. The arenaceous series of the Hellam-Chickies and the Welsh Moun tain anticlines is overlain by the limestones of Lancaster Valley. The Vintage dolomite, the oldest of these limestones, is in part a gray, heavy-bedded dolomite, which weathers to a whitish chalky surface, and in part a knotty, dark blue dolomite with argillaceous partings. Some of the beds are sparkling, gray to blue mottled, with siliceous and calcareous blebs that stand in relief on the weathered surfaces. At the base is a whitish, schistose, thin-bedded impure dolomite containing muscovite flakes. This formation closely resembles the Tomstown dolomite on the northwest flanks of South Mountain . It, however, is known to represent only a part of the Tomstown dolomite and is therefore named Vintage dolomite from the small village 15 miles east of Lancaster, where most of it the section excellently exposed in a cut of the Pennsylvania Railroad. The Kinzers formation which overlies the Vintage is best exposed in the Pennsylvania Railroad cut at Kinzers just east of Vintage. At the base there are a few thin beds of impure dolomite that weather to an earthy tripoli, containing at many places remains of Salterella, brachiopods, and trilobites. These beds are followed by a variable thickness of blue hackly shale as much as 50 feet thick in places. Northwest of Lancaster this shale carries abundant trilobites chiefly Olenell"s, described by Walcott and extensively collected by Professor
S EPT .
STOSE AN D JONAS: LOWE R PALEOZOIC OF PENNSY LVANIA
R oddy of Millersville, P a . Above the shale is a variable series of da rk banded argillaceous dolomite tha t weathers to a tough , buff, ribbed , argillaceous rock , s paringly fossiliferous. Som e beds are an intima te mixture of nodula r white granular dolomite m arble and d a rk impure dolomite th at weathers t o a knotty pseudo-conglomerat e of wbite marble. Sontb of Welsh M ountain the Kin zers formation is much tbinner , in places not more tha n 25 feet thick , and the shale horizon tbere is not a prominent feature of the formation . Altbough no one section clearl y exposes all the different beds of the forma tion, the section at the Kin zers cut is so nearly complete tha t it is bere given in detail.
P ARTIAL S ECTION OF KI NZERS F ORMAT ION IN R A ILROA D CUT, KINZERS, P A.
Dark blue limestone with wavy impure partings.. . . . .. . . . . . ..
Thick-bedded light gray dolomite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Dark-blue limestone with wavy impure partings . . .... .. . . . . . .
White spotted marble with wavy buff dolomite partings. . . . . . . Blue limestone banded with slightly wavy siliceous layers. . . ..
Highly siliceous banded dark limestone, weathering to skeleton of buff siliceous network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 3 8 10 50 ±
Impure thick-bedded dolomite, weathering to dense buff tripoli White spotted marble with even buff dolomite banding. . . . . . . .
Wavy banded blue limestone, numerous argillaceous partings. .
Crumbly, fi ssile, dark shale, weathering spheroidal. . . . . . . . . . ..
Impure dolomite, weathering to buff tripoli and containing rew trilobite fragments and Salterella . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Massive light blue dolomite (Vintage)
Tbe Ledger dolomite, which overlies tbe Kinzers formation , is a granular gray to white dolomite, generally thick-bedded with few bedding planes. B ecause the bedding cannot be determined in many of its exposures and because outcrops a re few owing t o the readiness with which the dolomi te weathers to a gra nula r red clay soil , its truckness cannot be exactl y det ermined . It is appar ently abou t 1,000 feet thick. Although fossils have n ot been found in tbe Ledger dolomite, it together with the underlying Kin zers formation a nd Vintage dolomite are believed to be tbe equivalent of the T om stow n dolomite of Cumberland County. It is n amed from Ledger, 3 miles northeast of Kinzers. Tbe Elbrook dolomite, which overlies tbe Ledger dolom ite north and nortbeast of Lancaster , is an impure, white to cream-colored , fin e-grained dolomite marble which splits to fin e plat es a nd leaves on weathering and eventually breaks down to fragments of soft b uff
JOURNAL OF THE WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
12, NO. 15
tripoli and earthy yellow soil. It closely resembles the Elbrook limestone of Cumberland County and is correlated with it. The Waynesboro formation, a purplish sandy shale which lies between the Tomstown and Elbrook formations in Cumberland County but which dies out northeastward near the Susquehanna River, is evidently not present in this area. Because of poor exposures, the thickness of the Elbrook formation cannot be detellnined but it is estimated to be about 500 feet. The Elbrook is succeeded by a series of limestones comprising thicj< pure light gray limestones which are apparently largely Cryptozoon reefs, tbin-bedded finely laminated wavy limestones of related organic origin, sandy conglomerate beds which weather to pitted porous sandstone, and dark blue impure dolomite. This formation corresponds to the Conococheague limestone of Cumberland County. As many of its beds weather to earthy yellow soil similar to that of the Elbrook dolomite it cannot readily be distinguisbed from that formation on upland surfaces. It is estimated to be 900 feet thick. Overlying the Conococheague are well-bedded pure blue limestones and magnesian limestones containing gasteropods. The fossils and the lithologic characters determine the formation to be Beekmantown. The Beekmantown limestone is estimated to be about 2,000 feet thick. The Beekmantown limestone is overlain by a dark gray shale, gray, green, and purple slates, and soft greenish impure sandstone. The dark shales contain graptolites of Normanskill type and have at their base thin crinoidal limestones which are also fossiliferous. It is probably at least 1,000 feet thick. It is named Cocalico shale from the creek which exposes the shale where its relation to the underlying Beekmantown limestone is well shown. South of the Hellam-Chickies Hills and Welsh Mountain there is a dark slaty and conglomeratic limestone formation that develops to great thickness south of Lancaster and eventually supplants all other limestones. Eleanora Bliss Knopf and Anna 1. Jonas have called it in manuscript the Conestoga limestone. It has been traced and studied by them from Lancaster southward to .Quarryville and into Chester Valley, but its relations are not there revealed. It was named Conestoga limestone because of excellent outcrops along Conestoga Creek, south of Lancaster. The Conestoga limestone is made up of thin-bedded dark slaty limestone, coarse conglomerate or breccia of limestone and marble pebbles and fragments, thin-bedded blue crystalline limestone, and thin, dark, graphitic slate. Its total
S EPT . 19, 19 22
Si OSE AN D JO NAS: LOWER PALEOZO IC OF PE NNSYLVANIA
thickness is not known , but it is probably several hundred feet. The marble conglomera tes tha t occur at or near the base were described by Walcott' as intra formational conglomerates in the Lower Cambrian sediments. At the Bellemont quarries, 12 miles southeast of Lan ca ster, one of the many excellent exposures, the conglomera tes occur a t about the horizon of the banded d ark blue argillaceous limestone and knotty white-ma rble pseudo-conglomerate beds of the Kinzers formation , and a t first were regarded by the writers as a n expansion of this formation. La ter work in other parts of the region has shown that the Conestoga limestone is an overlapping and much younger formation. In the northeastern outskirts of Lancaster, the coarse basal limestone conglomerate clearly fills depressions in the upper surface of the Ledger dolomite. North of Vintage, it overlaps on the Kinzers formation. At the Bellemont qua rries it lies on the Vintage dolomite . Five miles south of Vintage it overlaps on the H arpers schist. The b asal beds of the Conestoga are so variable that no consecutiv e section has been recognized for any distance, a fact that m ade it very difficult to distinguish the formation from the limestone on which it rests a nd t o draw its bounda ry with certa inty a t ma ny places. The characters of the basal beds of the Conestoga vary with the formation on which they overlap and from which they were largely derived . • \Vest and north of \Velsh Mounta in the section is continuous from the Vintage dolomite up to the Beekmantown limestone with no indication of Conestoga t ype of sedimentation , and as th e Conestoga is known t o unconformably overlie the Ledger, it is believed to be younger than the Beekmantown . A few brachiopods and crinoid plat es a nd st ems recently found by the writers in the lower h eds of the Conest oga limestone east of York, F a., have heen identified by Ulrich as forms found in the Frederick limestone of Frederick Valley which is prohably The F rederick limestone a lso som ewhat resembles of Chazy age. the Conestoga limestone in appearance and they are probably in part equivalent, but the greater thickness a nd extent of t he lime-stones t o which the name Conestoga is applied a re believed to warrant a sepa rat e formation nam e. T he Frederick limestone rests on Beekmant own limestone in Fred erick Valley a nd the Cocalico shale rests on the Beekm antown northeast of La ncaster. T he Conestoga limestone, which is an argillaceous limestone with many shaly beds, may therefore be in part the southeastward representative of part of the Cocalico sha le.
' C. D .
U. S. Ceo!. Survey. Bull . 134 : 17- 19.
JOURNAL. OF THE W ASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIE NCES
12, NO . 15
It is concluded , therefore, that in post -Beekmantown time, preceding Conestoga deposition , the southern part of the area was uplifted and the older fo rmations were successively exposed by erosion from the Ledger dolomite near La ncast er t o the Harpers schist at M ine Ridge, and that the Conestoga formation was then laid down across the eroded edges of these formations, the wast e from the respective underlying forma tions being incorporated in its basal beds.
SCIENTIFIC NOT ES AND NEWS
D r. LEWIS M. H U LL, who for several years has been engaged in studies of electron tubes in the radio laboratory of the Bureau of Standards, has resigned to acce pt a position as Director of Research of the Radio Frequency Laboratories, Inc., of Boonton, N. ] .
E. A. SCHWARZ received the honorary degree of Doct or of Philosophy at
the commencement exercises of the U niversity of Maryland on June 10. NORMAN SNYDER, a member of the scientific staff of the Radio Laboratory of the Bureau of Standards, left the Bureau June 1st for a leave of absence of several months. D uring this time Mr. Snyder will be with the Research Laboratory of the General Elec tric Co. at Schenectady, where he will work on electron tube problems. PAUL C. STANDLEY, of the National Museum , returned to Washing ton in June from several months' botanical collecting in El Salvador and Guatemala . •
Dr. KNUD STEPHENSEN of the Zoological Museum at Copenhagen, well
known for his biological survey of the Brede Fjord in southwestern Greenland and for his studies on the Crustacea, accompanied by Messrs. T AAN ING • and OLSEN, recently v isited the Nati onal Museum. Dr. RICHARD C. TOLMAN has resigned as director of the Fixed N itrogen Research Laboratory to take a position in th e California Institute of Tech-
nology. He is succeeded by Dr. F . G. COTTRE LL. E. D. WILLlAMSON, of the Geophysical Laboratory, left Washington in
July to attend the meeting of the British Association, where he will present
a paper on the high pressure work of the Geophysical Laboratory .
WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
VOl•. 12 OCTOBER 4, 1922
ZOOLOGY. -The possibility of control of H eterodera radicicola and other plant-injurious "emas by m eans of predator,)' nemas, especially by Mononchus papillatus Bastian. l G. STEINER and HELEN HEINLY . (Communicated by N. A. COBB.)
The investigations, the results of which are described in this paper, were carried on from December, 1921 to the end of May, 1922, in the Osborn Zoological Laboratory of Yale University, in collaboration with the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The work was outlined by Dr. N. A. Cobb of the Bureau of Plant Industry. As the investigations were of a novel nature, numerous methods for the rearing of nemas had to be worked out . A large quantity of soil-material was collected and washed by a combination of the sieve method described in an earlier paper by Cobb (7) and the well known gravity-method . The daily control of the cultures, transferring the pred atory nemas to fresh conditions, keeping records of the victims and adding a fresh supply of food requires much time and patience. H eterodem radicicola material was kindly sent to us by the Connecticut Agricultural Station and from the Plant Introduction Garden of the Department of Agriculture, Brooksv ille, Florida. We wish here to express our appreciation for this assistance. We feel indebted to the authorities of Yale University, particularly the Osborn Zoological Department, for their permission to carryon our work and for their cordial cooperation . THE PROBLEM Numerous methods of control of plant injurious nemas have been described in the past. Although some of these methods are very useful , yet the fact remains that today the damage done by nema-pests is enortnous and is still increasing. In recent years the study of free-liv ing nemas has been greatly increased , and as a result the problems connected with nema-pests
From the Osborn Zoological Laboratory. Yale University, New Haven, Conn ., in collaboration with the U . S. Department of Agriculture. Received Septe mber 9, 1922.
JOt.TRNAL OF THE WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
have acquired a new aspect. It was shown by Cobb (4,5,6), Menzel (13) and other investigators that there are in the soil certain species, and even whole genera, of nemas, which in some cases are, and in others may be, predatory and doubtless at least occasionally, are feeding on other kinds of nemas, and even species known as nema-pests. Cobb recorded a series of such observations (4) and suggested first the possibility of using these predatory nemas as a means of decreasing the number of plant injurious nemas in the soil. In a more recent paper Dr. Menzel (13) compiled all the recorded facts and observations on food and feeding habits from the literature on free-living nemas. He performed also some experiments with a species of M011011ChIlS, corroborating the observations of Cobb. He observed that Monol1chlls papillatus, brought together with Ty!enchlls sp. , Pleetus a1triwiatlls, TripJ'la media and Al1guiliuia aceti, attacked these forms, and killed them either by sucking out their vitals, or by swallowing them whole . Cobb therefore advocated an investigation of the relationship between predatory M onol1cll1l5 species and other soil-inhabiting and plant-infesting nemas, especially H etel'odera. If possible the investigations should show to what extent the above mentioned facts regarding the feeding habits of some mononchs are a true expression of the life habits of these animals. If they prove to be a true expression, methods for the propagating and rearing of M ol1oncllus should be studied with the view to applying the results for practical purposes in agriculture, especially for fighting the root-knot nema, Hetel'odera radicicoia. The first thing for us to find out was the life history, food, and feeding habits of the predatory mononchs. We chose for our investigations Monol1clllls papillatas Bastian, a species which appeared to be best fitted , first because it seemed one of the easiest to obtain, being among the commonest of mononchs, and second because many observations have been made on the voracity of this form . Recent investigators (1- 3, 8- 12 and 14- \8) have reared free-living nemas, but as far as we know, mostly forms which feed on decaying matter, and therefore in most cases easily reared in a small amount of suitable medium on slides or in watch glasses. Berliner and Busch and also Byars were the first who used agar as a culture medium for true soil nemas, although the nemas they experimented on were plantparasites, namely : Hetel'odera schachtii and Heterodera radicicola. They planted seeds of oats, etc. on agar and then nematized it with eggs and larvae of f-fcterodcra .