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17

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18

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S o f t w a r e

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20

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atmufwb
kd mv? 2008

21

owif;awGu ....... 'Dvdk&Sdw,f

H a r d w a r e

Intel

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22

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H a r d w a r e

Apple iPod nano 4G

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Apple ukrÜPD\

24

STATS
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○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

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Videocards: ATI Radeon 4870
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Operating System: Windows
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Mouse and Keyboard : Microsoft
Natural Ergonomic Keyboard
4000 + Logitech G5 Rev.2
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37

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38

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CPU

Two Intel core 2 Exterme QX9775s

Memory

8 GB Corsair FB-DIMM
Coosair Dominator Fan

Power Supply

PC Power and Cooling Turbo Cool 1200

Motherboard

Intel D5400XS

Cooling

Black Ice Pro2 Xflow Radiator
Danger Den Reservoir
D012V-D5 Pump
Feser One UV-Reactive Coolant
Two D-TEK FuZion v2 CPU Blocks
Two Enermax Everest Fans

Videocards

Two ATI Radeon 4870X2s

Soundcard

Creative Labs Sound Blaster X-Fi Titanium

Optical drive

LG Super Multi Blue GBW-H20L

Speakers

Axion Audio Audiobyte

Storage

Two Western Digital Velociraptions
Three Samsung HD 103U

Case

Blackbird 002

Chroming

Smoked Nicket Plating

OS

Window Vista Ultimate x64 Edition
Windows XP Professional

Keyboard

Microsoft Natural Ergonomic Keyboard 4000

Mouse

Logitech G5 Res 2

Display

Gateway XHD3000

Total

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NEWPRODUCTS
Panasonic Toughbook CF-U1

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performance box vkdY ac:a0:

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processors awGudk oHk;xm;rSmjzpfjyD; tedrfhqHk; RAM
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40

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aiGaMu;udpt
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&Sdw,f/ tvGef tiftm;aumif;wJh nVidia 9800 GTX
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ay;w,f/ Inspiron awGqkd&if customisation udk tav;ay;

Voodoo PC Envy 133
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owfrSwfa&mif;csvmygw,f/ ESpfckvHk;twGuf hardware options
awG tajrmuftjrm; cGifhjyKxm;ay;w,f/ Intel Core 2 Duo
processors twGufjzpfjzpf? hard drives twGufjzpfjzpf? ATI
Mobility Radeon graphics twGuf jzpfjzpf high-resolutions
display twGuf pdwfMudKufwyfqifay;apw,f/
udk,fxnfta&mifudkvnf; tjym? tpdrf;?
vdar®mf? yef;a&mif? c&rf;eJY teDa&mif
pojzifh graphics eJYvnf;
&Edkifygw,f/

IdeaCentre K210

tvGefaumif;rGefwJh outfit awGeJY desktop udk tvdk&SdaeolawG
twGuf tar&duefEkdifiH&Sd desktop aps;uGufukd &nfrSef;jyD;
Lenovo u yxrqHk; IdeaCentre K 210 qdkwJh desktop udk
wifydkYay;vdkufwm jzpfw,f/ Intel Core 2 Quad processor wdkY?
Blu-ray/ HD-DVD comboo drive wdkYudk pdwfMudKuf awmif;qkd
cGifh&Sdovdk integrated graphic taetxm;jzpfap? ATI Radeon
2600 XT discrete graphic taetxm;eJYjzpfap awmif;qkdcGifh
ay;xm;w,f/ Built-in facial recognition technology
xnhfxm;ay;jyD; antimicrobial uD;bkwfwpfckvnf;
xl;xl;jcm;jcm; xnfhay;rSm jzpfw,f/
a&G;cs,frItay: rlwnfjyD;
aps;EIef;u 379 a':vmu
pwif &SdaerSmjzpfw,f/
pdwful;eJYqE´udk
aps;EIef;csKdcsKdomomeJY
jznhfqnf;ay;r,fh
yHkpHjzpfw,f/

atmufwkdbm? 2008

41

NEW PRODUCTS
Asus EAH4850 graphics

tv,ftvwfwef;pm; graphics
card awGxJrSm performance
tjrifhqHk; &&SdEkdifwJh graphics card
vdkY qkd&ygvdrhfr,f/ aps;EIef;u 199
a':vmyJ owfrSwfxm;wmrdkY ATI
Radeon HD 4850 cards trsKd;
tpm;&JU aps;EIef;xuf0ufom&SdjyD;
nVidia GeForce GTX 280 xuf
enf;enf; ydkrsm;aew,f/ 'gayr,fh
orm;½dk;us obm0 system awG
ay:rSm taumif;qHk;*drf;awGudk
pwifupm;EdkifapwJh pGrf;aqmif&nf
ay;ygw,f/ vufr 30 armfeDwm
tqifhtxdawmh jynfh0wJh settings
awG ay;Ekdifvdrhfrnfr[kwfay/
'gayr,fh Direct X 10.1 udk ydkifydkif
EdkifEkdif yHHhydk; aqmif&Gufay;Ekdifw,f/
Power Connector ESpfckrvkdbJ
wpfckwnf;yJ vdktyfw,f/ uyfvsuf
&SdwJh slot awGudk vHk;0taESmifht,Suf
rjzpfapbl;/ DVI- to- HDMI
adapter ygw,f/ Dual Link DVI
ports ESpfcku High-Bandwidth
Digital Content Protection
(HDCP) twGuf tqifoifh jzpfae
apygw,f/ S-Video eJY component
- video output udk yHhydk; aqmif&Guf
ay;EkdifwJh analog video port wpfck

ygw,f/ tvkyfvkyfaecsdefrSm tvGef
jidrfoufw,f? tm;enf;csufuawmh
rsm;rsm;tvkyfvkyf&if ylvmw,f/
Single - slot cooler eJYom oHk;&if
awmh Ekdifeif;rSm r[kwfay/

42

uGefysLwm*sme,f

Western Digital Velociraptor
300 GB yrmPavmufeJYyJ auseyfr,fqkd&ifawmh
tvGef jrefqefwJh desktop oHk; hard drive udk
0,fr,fqkd&if Western Digital Velociraptor udk
om oHk;awmhvdkY ajym&ygvdrhfr,f/ Velocirapton
u 10,000 rpm EIef;xm;eJY vkyfudkifay;w,f/
2 'or 5 vufrt&G,ftpm;&SdwJh hard drive jzpfjyD; lce PAK vkdYac:wJh
pyg,f&S,f tvsLrDeD,H heat sink eJYtwl standard PC hard drive cage
xJrSm xnhfoGif;xm;wmjzpfw,f/ 'DZkdif;tm;enf;csufwpfckuawmh SATA
connectors awGudk ,lepf&JUtv,favmufrSm wyfqiffxm;wmjzpfw,f/
aemuftm;enf;csuf &Sdygao;w,f/ aps;EIef;MuD;jrifhvSw,f/ Hotswappable rjzpfay/ SATA II interface wpfckeJYtwl data transfer rates
u wpfpuúefYrSm 3 gigabits txd aqmif&Gufay;Edkifw,f/ (300 megabytes
per second ) olYxufydkjrifhwJh 'burst' rate udkvnf; cGifhjyKay;xm;w,f/

tvGefw&m jrefqefw,f? jidrfoufw,f? at;aeapw,f/ xkdufxdkufwefwef
capacity vnf;&Sdw,f/ owfrSwfa&mif;aps;u 299 a':vmjzpfw,f/

Canon Pixma MX7600
Canon ukrÜPDu 399 a':vmeJY
all-in-one inket udk &Edkifovdk avqm
t&nftaoG;&SdwJh text rsKd;? photo t&nf

taoG;jynhf "mwfyHkawGudk xkwf,lEdkifcGifh&apzdkY Pixma MX7600 udk
xkwfvkyfa&mif;csay;vdkufwmvdkY qkd&ygvdrhfr,f/ MX7600 taeeJY scan
vkyfief;? copy vkyfief;?fax vkyfief;awGtjyif autoduplexing pGrf;aqmif
&nfeJY y&ifhvkyfief;udk aqmif&Gufay;EkdifrSm jzpfw,f/ ,lepf&JU a&SUydkif;rSm
multiformat memory - card reader wyfqifay;xm;w,f/ wpfckcsif; y&ifh
vkyfief;aqmif&Gufay;Edkifovdk network eJY csdwfqufjyD; toHk;jyKcGifhvnf;
ay;xm;w,f/ PictBridge USB ports vnf; rsufESmpmwGif&SdaejyD;
uifr&mawGu wkduf½dkufjzpfjzpf? removable USB drives av;awGu
wpfqifhjzpfjzpf vkyfukdif aqmif&GufcGifhvnf;&Sdw,f/ 1 'or 8 vufr
LCD t&G,f display av;eJY rdrdvkyfief;pOfawGudk ppfaq;Munhf½IEdkifw,f/
"mwfyHkawG text awG a&maESmyg0ifvmwJh 10rsufESmyg document twGuf
1 rdepf 46 puúefYyJMumw,f/ 4_6 vufrt&G,ftpm; "mwfyHkudk
38 puúefYeJY xkwfvkyfay;jyD; 8_10 vufrt&G,ftpm; "mwfyHkudk
1 rdepf 30 puúefYeJY xkwfay;w,f/

NEW PRODUCTS
View Sonic VP2250wb

22 vufr t&G,ftpm;udk pro image quality awG ay;Ekdifayr,fh 559 a':vm
avmufeJY &Edkifr,fh tcGifhtvrf;udk View Sonic VP 2250 wb u ay;xm;ygw,f/
b,fvkd beauty contests rsKd;rqdk tEdkif&rSmygvdkY ajymEdkifygvdrhfr,f/ xl;jcm;
jcm;em;csufwpfcku tjrifhtedrfh csdefn§dEkdifjyD; rsufESmrl&mudk MudKufovdk csdefwG,f
,lEdkifovdk vSnhfjcif;? apmif;jcif; ESpfoufovdk xm;&SdEdkifr,fh flexible stand
wyfqif yg&SdvmwmyJjzpfw,f/ Native resolution u 1680 x 1050 &Sdw,f/
ViewSonic &JU tqdkt& NTSC gamut &JU 106 &mckdifEIef;txd &&Sdapw,fvdkY od&
w,f/ .28 millimeters &JU pixel pitch wpfck yg&SdjyD; response time u 2ms eJY
pGrf;aqmifEkdifjyD; tvif;tm;u wpfrDwm pwk&ef;rSm 300 candelas tm; &Sdw,f/
Contrast ratio u 1000:1 jzpfw,f/ 1080p resolution tjynfhtxd udkifwG,f
aqmif&GufEkdifjcif;r&Sdovdk HDMI tquftoG,fvnf; ay;rxm;ay/ *&yfzpf
'DZdkif;vkyfief; vkyfolawGtwGufawmh tjynhft0 jznfhqnf; aqmif&Gufay;Edkifyg
vdrhfr,f/ ½kyf&SifawG Munhfr,fqkd&ifvnf; pdwfMudKufjzpfapEdkifygw,f/

Fanatec Porsche 911 Turbo Wheel

jydKifum;rSm wyfqifxm;wJhtwkdif; wnfaqmufxm;wmrdkY
um;jydKifyGJ*drf;udk upm;r,fqkd&if wu,fhjydKifum;udk
udk,fwkdifarmif;ESifaewJh cHpm;rIrsKd;udk &oGm;apEkdifzdkY
Fanatec Porsche 911 Turbo Wheel u aqmifMuOf;
ay;Edkifygw,f/ Windows PC *drf;awGeJY Play Station 3
*drf;awGudkawmh upm;EdkifrSmjzpfw,f/ 'Dvkdaqmhupm;wJh
ae&mrSm MudK;rJhpepfeJY csdwfquf aqmif&GufapwmjzpfwJh
twGuf upm;olawG taESmifht,Sufuif;uif;eJY vkyfudkif
aqmif&GufoGm;Edkifapw,f/ uGefysLwmrSmjzpfjzpf? PS 3 rSm
yJjzpfjzpf? USB dongle av;udk wyfqifxm;jyD; upm;&wm
jzpfw,f/ Controller udk pm;yGJrSm n§yfjzifh wyfqif,l&
w,f/ armfawmfum;armif;ESifwhJtcg toHk;jyK&wJh vufudkif
bD;? *D,m? b&dwf? uvyfeJY vDAm tm;vHk;yg0ifw,f/
*D,majcmufcsuftxd wkd;jr§ifhjyD; armif;EdkifwJhtjyif
aemufqkwfwJh*D,mvnf; ygygw,f/ owfrSwf
a&mif;cswJhaps;u a':vm 350 jzpfw,f/ tm;enf;csuf
taeeJY aps;EIef;MuD;wmyJ
ajymp&m&Sdw,fqkday
r,fh ajceif;awGu
yvwfpwpfeJY vkyf
xm;wmrdkY wpfrsKd;
wpfrnf cHpm;&apEdkifw,f/

44

uGefysLwm*sme,f

K9N2 SLI
Platinum/
K9N2 Zilent
MSI rS

aemufqHk;xkwf motherboard wpfck jzpfw,f/
vG,fvG,f&Sif;&Sif; ajym&r,fqdk&if Phenom CPU
awGtwGuf txl; &nfnTef;xkwfcJhwmvkdY ajymEdkifygvdrhf
r,f/ AM2+ Socket udk toHk;jyKxm;w,f/ AM2 +
CPU twGuf FSB/ hyper transport bus taeeJY
5200 MT/S EIef;xm;eJY yHhydk; aqmif&Gufay;rSmjzpfjyD;
AM2 CPU twGuf 2000/1600 MT/S EIef;xm;eJY yHhydk;
aqmif&Gufay;ygvdrhfr,f/ DDR2 memory udkyJ cGifhjyK
xm;ygw,f/ Memory yrmP 8GB txd cGifhjyKEkdif
w,f/ PCI - Ex16 ESpfckeJY toifhtaetxm; &Sdaeapyg
w,f/ LAN twGuf 10/100/1000*1 udk cGifhjyKxm;
ay;w,f/ USP ports ESpfckeJY audio parts awGudk
a&SUrsufESmpmukd vG,fvifwul wyfqif toHk;jyKEdkifzdkY
tqifhqifh pDpOfay;xm;jyD; aemufbufrSmvnf; USB
ports av;ck? audio ajcmufck? 1394 optional twGuf
wpfck? eSATA twGuf ESpfck? DVI wpfckwkdYudk toHk;jyK
Edkifw,f/ Case twGuf ATX form factor yJ
cGifhjyKay;xm;ygw,f/

NEW PRODUCTS
Xerox Phaser 3250 / DN
Xerox Phaser 3250 / DN uawmh
monochrome laser printer wpfvHk;

jzpfjyD; tvGefjrefqefrI &Sdapw,f?
expandable vnf; &Edkifw,f/
Feature awGuvnf; aumif;vSyg
w,f/ Wired networking twGuf
cGifhjyKxm;ay;w,f/ owfrSwfa&mif;cs
wJhaps;EIef;u 349 a':vmvdkY owf
rSwfxm;ayr,fh non-networked
version udkrl 279 a':vmeJY a&mif;cs
ygw,f/ 26 aygifomav;wmrdkY
Phaser 3250 u ayghw,fvkdY qkd&rSm
jzpfw,f/ Xerox u package eJYtwl
USB cable udk toifhxnhfay;vkduf
rSm jzpfw,f/ 'gayr,fh Ethernet
cable wpfckrQ rxnhfay;vdkufovdk
Wi-Fi qufoG,frIvnf; r&Edkifyg/
y&ifhxkwfMunfhwJhtcg pmrsufESm 30
xGufwmrdkY pmrsufESm 10 rsufESm&SdjyD;
charts awG? photo awGeJY text awG
ygwJh document wpfckudk 24 puúefY
eJY jyD;pD;oGm;Edkifw,f/ plain text
oufoufeJY pmrsufESm 20 &SdwJh
document udk y&ifhxkwfcJhygu 44
puúefYyJ Mumygvdrhfr,f/ Standard
toner cartridge udk toHk;jyKwJhtcg
pmwpfrsufESmtwGuf 2 'or 5
qifhyJ usoifhw,f/ wu,fvdkY 128
MB RAM xyfjr§ifhjyD; pm&Gufa& 250
qHhwJh paper tray udkvnf; xyfxnhf
r,fqkd&ifawmh xyfjyD; wefzkd;wuf
vmEdkifygvdrhfr,f/

46

uGefysLwm*sme,f

LaCie 324
Professional awG&JU dream monitor wpfrsKd;vdkY
qdkEdkifygw,f/ aeYpOfawGUjrifae&wJh consumer
monitor awGrSm rMuHKzl;wJh aps;EIef;eJY a&mif;cswm
rdkY tjypfqkdzG,f&m &SdEkdifygvdrfhr,f/ owfrSwfa&mif;
aps;u a':vm 1000jzpfw,f/ t&G,ftpm; 24 vufr
&SdjyD; native resolution 1920 x 1200 &Sdw,f/ 1080 p tjynhf&SdwJh Blu-ray
playback awGudk aumif;rGef crf;em;pGm wifqufay;EdkifjyD; High-Bandwidth
Content Protection (HDCP) twGuf vkdufavsmnDaxG vkyfaqmifay;Edkifw,f/
Response time u 6 ms &SdwmrdkY toHk;jyKoltwGuf vufcHavmufwJh tajctae
&Sdw,f/ Viewing angle u 178 'D*&Dtxd cGifhjyKay;xm;w,f/ 'gaMumifh tvm;
wl t&G,ftpm;&SdwJh armfeDwmawGxJrSm wpfrlxl;jcm;aeapw,f/ LaCie 324 rSm
built- in Faroudja DCDi processor wpfckygwmrdkY video playback t&nf
taoG;udk ydkrdkjr§ifhwifay;Edkifwm jzpfw,f/ Color transitions wGufcsufwJhae&mrSm
standard 8-bit armfeDwmawGxuf ESpfq &&SdoGm;Edkifw,f/

HP TouchSmart IQ506
Touch Revolution awmh

paeygjyD/ Touch technology
eJYywfoufjyD; ESpftawmfMum Labs awGxJrSmyJ&SdcJhygw,f/
'gayr,fh Apple u iPhone udk pwifrdwfqufay;
vkdufcsdefupjyD; vufawGUavmuxJudk xdxd rdrd
0ifa&mufvmwmvkdYqkd&ygvdrhfr,f/ pm;yGJ
ay:rSmjzpfjzpf? {nfhcef;rSmjzpfjzpf 'Denf;ynmudk toHk;cs
EkdifapzkdY HP u vdkif;opfxGifjyD; TouchSmart all-in-one PCs
awG xkwfvkyfvmcJhw,f/ tcktcg Touch Smart IQ 506 ukd toHk;jyKol vufxJ
1499 a':vmeJY xnhfay;zdkY MudK;pm;vdkufjyefw,f/ tjyifyef;taeeJY teufa&mif
udkawmufawmufajymifajymif zefqif;ay;xm;w,f/ Ultra-glossy trsKd;tpm;
22 vufrt&G,f LCD display eJY wefqmqifxm;wmrdkY uGefysLwm obm0tjyif
wDAGDtpm;xkd; taetxm;rsKd;eJYvnf; toHk;csEkdifw,f/ 2.16 GHz Core 2 Duo
T7400 processor wyfqifxm;jyD; 4GB-DDR2 RAM eJY integrated nVidia
GeForce 9300 M GS graphics eJY tm;jznhfay;xm;w,f/ okdrSD;yrmPtwGuf
500 GB txd &,lEdkifw,f/ Optical drive taeeJY DVD ± RW drive yg&Sdw,f/
wDADGtpm;xkd;tjzpf toHk;jyKEdkifapzdkY TV tuner wpfckudkvnf; xnhfay;xm;w,f/
vnfywfpepftwGuf Windows Vista Home Premium (64 bit) udk xnhfay;xm;
jyD; rmvfwDrD'D,m pGrf;aqmif&nfawG vkyfudkifapzdkY jznhfqnf; aqmif&Gufay;xm;
w,f/ rmvfwDrD'D,mtwGuf [mh'f0Jaqmhzf0JawG vHkvHkavmufavmuf yg&SdjyD;
tHhMop&maumif;avmufwJh touch experience udk &&SdEdkifapygw,f/ IQ 506
twGuf tm;enf;csufuawmh Blu-ray option ryg&SdwmyJjzpfw,f/ 'DtwGuf HD
potential udk uefYowfvkdufovdk jzpfoGm;apw,f/ Intergrated graphics udk
toHk;jyKxm;wmaMumifh 3D games awGtwGuf tiftm;csnfheJYovdk&Sdae&w,f/

NEW PRODUCTS IN YANGON
Toshiba Satellite L310 - N 403 notebook

Toshiba Satellite M 300-N400 notebook
Mercury silver ta&mifudk,fxnfeJYa&m Crinsen Red

ta&mifeJYyg vSvSyy'DZdkif;eJY awGUjrif&w,f/ wpfukd,fa&
entertainment twGuf toHk;csEkdifovdk REGZA - Link
udk toHk;csjyD; TV eJYvnf; qufoG,ftoHk;jyKEdkifzdkY
HDML tqifh yg&Sdvmygw,f/ FM tuner udkvnf;
bulit-in wyfqifay;xm;w,f/ vHkjcHKa&;pepftwGuf
Smart Face udk toHk;jyKxm;ay;w,f/ 14 'or 1
vufrt&G,f WXGA clearSuperView TFT display
av;uvnf; cefYcefYxnfxnf &Sdaeygw,f/ Intel Core 2
Duo T 5750 processor udk wyfqifxm;jyD; 1GB DDR
RAM wdkY? Intel GM 965 graphic wdkYeJYtwl 160 GB
hard drive udkvnf; wyfqifxm;w,f/ MudK;rJhqufoG,f
pepftwGuf WiFi 802.11 g udk cGifhjyKxm;jyD; 56 K Fax/
Modem wpfck 10/100 Ethernet LAN wpfckvnf; toifh
wyfqifay;vdkufygw,f/ Bluetooth pepfudkvnf; toifh
oHk;Edkifygw,f/ tydkaqmif;tjzpf webcam wdkY? card
reader wdkYudkvnf; jznfhqnf;ay;xm;ygw,f/ owfrSwf
a&mif;aps;u 13 odef;0ef;usif &Sdygw,f/(tvkd&Sdygu
Lucky Bird ta&mif;qkdifrSm 0,f,l&&SdEkdifygw,f/)

48

uGefysLwm*sme,f

uGefysLwmeJY vkyfudkifaqmif&GufEdkifp&mudpt
ö 00udk
aqmif&GufEdkifjyD; usyfaiG 7 odef;avmufeJY 0,f,l
&&SdEdkifr,fh notebook tvdk&SdcJhygu Toshiba Satellite
L310 - N 403 udkom 0,f,lygawmhvdkY nTef;qdk&rSm
jzpfw,f/ Intel celeron M 550 2.0 GHZ processor
eJYtwl 512 MB DDR RAM eJY Intel GL960 graphics
wdkYudk wyfqifay;xm;w,f/ 120 GB yrmP&SdwJh SATA
hard drive udk zHk;xm;jyD; optical drive tjzpf DVD RW
super yg&Sdygw,f/ Drive awGtwGuf shock absorber
wyfqifay;xm;wmrdkY awmf½Hkwef½Hk wkefcgrIawGudk
cHEkdif&nf&Sdapw,f/ 14 vufr t&G,f WXGA LCD
display eJY 1.3 MP webcam wdkY yg&SdvmwJhtjyif
Toshiba &JU xl;jcm;wJh Smart Face vHkjcHKa&;pepfudk
toHk;jyKcGifh ay;xm;ygw,f/ MudK;rJh qufoG,frItwGuf
WiFi 802.11g udk cGifhjyKxm;jyD; 10/100 Ethernet LAN eJY
56 K fax/modem wdkYvnf; toifh yg&Sdvmygw,f/
Bluetooth pepfudkvnf; toHk;jyKcGifh ay;xm;w,f/
(tvkd&Sdygu Lucky Bird ta&mif;qkdifrSm 0,f,l
&&SdEdkifygw,f/)

NEW PRODUCTS IN YANGON

MSI MEGA PR200 notebook
Professional series twGuf vSvSyy aMumhaMumh&Sif;&Sif;'DZdkif;eJY xkwfvkyfvkdufwJh notebook
jzpfw,f/ 'Red dot' design award vnf; &&Sdxm;w,f/ MSI xkwfypönf;jzpfwJhtavsmuf ,HkMunf

pdwfcs&rItjynhfeJY &SdaeapjyD; aps;EIef;uvnf; oifhavsmfwJhtqifh &Sdw,f/ owfrSwfa&mif;cswJh
wefzdk;u 820 a':vm jzpfygw,f/ Intel Core 2 Duo Mobile 1.83 GHz T5550 processor udk
oHk;xm;w,f/ Intel i965GM + ICH8 - M chipset yg0ifw,f/ DDR2 - RAM 2GB eJY Intel GMA
3100 graphic wdkYudk yl;wGJ aqmif&Gufapw,f/ SATA hard drive160GB yrmPyg&SdjyD; DVD
SuperMulti drive udkvnf; jznhfqnf;ay;xm;ygw,f/ TFT WXGA + ACV display trsKd;tpm;
12 vufrt&G,fudk wyfqifay;xm;w,f/ qufoG,f aqmif&GufrIawGtwGuf 56 K Fax/ Modem wdkY?
10/100/1000 Mbps LAN wdkY? 802.11 b/g WLAN wkdY? Bluetooth wdkYudk yHhydk;aqmif&GufEkdifjyD; Card
Reader wpfck? 1.3 Mp webcamera wpfckwdkYeJY Fingerprint system wpfck xnhfay;xm;wm
awGU&w,f/ HDML output wyfay;xm;jyD; built-in Digital TV receiver udkawmh
option taeeJY &Edkifygw,f/ (tvkd&Sdygu Smart Computer ta&mif;qkdifwGif
0,f,lEdkif&ef toifh&Sdaeygw,f/)

MSI MEGA VR420 notebook
MSI ukrÜPDu MEGA VR 420 udk bwf*suform;awGtwGuf
Value serices tjzpf xkwfvkyfay;vdkufwm jzpfw,f/

pGrf;aqmif&nfeJY pwkdifudk rQrQww 'DZdkif;jyKxm;w,f/ owfrSwfa&mif;aps;u
655 a':vm jzpfygw,f/ Intel Pentium Dual Core Mobile 1.60 GHz T2330 processor
wyfqifxm;jyD; 1 GB - DDR2 RAM wkdY? Intel GMAX 3100 grpahics wdkYeJY
120 GB SATA hard drive wdkYeJY yl;wGJ vkyfudkifaqmif&GufEkdifzdkY pDpOfxm;wJhtjyif DVD SuperMulti drive udk
optical twGuf jznfhqnf;ay;xm;wm awGU&w,f/ 14 'or 1 vufrt&G,ftpm;&SdwJh WXGA LCD display av;
wyfqifxm;jyD; display &JU abmifxdyfrSm 1.3 MP webcam av; yg&Sdw,f/ Card reader 4 in 1 udkvnf;
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(tvdk&Sdygu Smart Computer ta&mif;qkdifrSm 0,f,l&&SdEdkifygw,f/)

atmufwkdbm? 2008

49

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50

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atmufwb
kd m 2008

51

PROCESSOR-ORIENTED

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f ;kd qH;k jzwf½ykH J &Syd gawmhw,f/

atmufwb
kd m? 2008

53

uGeyf sLwmtaxGaxG
Core

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54

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awGrSm core wpfckudk cache wpfckpD
yg0ifaeapygw,f/

PROCESSOR-ORIENTED

atmufwb
kd m? 2008

55

uGeyf sLwmtaxGaxG
t&mudkrqdk a&Smif&Sm;
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56

uGefysLwm*sme,f

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w,f/ tJ'D platters tcsyf
rsm;pGmudk spindel
rSm
A[djk yK wyfqifxm;ygw,f/
Spindel txdkifrSm qDjznfh
xm;wJh bearing awG cHxm;
w,f/ spindel vnfywf
tm;udk high speed motor
u ay;ygw,f/ wpfrdepfudk
tywfa& 7ç200 (7200 rpm)
vnfywfEdkifygw,f/ Notebook uGefysLwmawGrSm wyf
qif & r,f h hard drive
awG[m t&G,ftpm;ao;Edkif
ygw,f/ Notebook uGefysL
wmawG r S m wyf q if & r,f h
hard drive awG[m t&G,f
tpm;ao;zdkY vdkwmaMumifh
platter tjym; wpfckcsif;udk
yg;vsvsjzpfatmifvkyfzdkY vdk
w,f/ 'Dvdk yg;vsvs tae

96

txm;rSm zefom;eJY jyKvkyf
xm;wJh vTmcsyf[m tvsLrDeD
,HeJY jyKvkyfxm;wJh vTmcsyf
xuf ykrd kd awmifw
h if;rI &Sw
d m
aMumifh ydkrdkyg;vswJh platter
vTmcsyfawG xkwfvkyf&mrSm
zefom;udk toHk;jyKavh &Sd
w,f/ Platter wpfcsyfcsif;&JU
rsufESmjyifay:rSm actuator
arms vufwHwpfckpD &Sd
w,f/ tJ'DvufwH a&GUvsm;
rIukd pivot mechanism
u coil vQyfn§dKUtm;eJY vkyf
aqmif a y;w,f / vuf w H
tm;vHk;&JU b,f,drf;? nm
,drf; vIyf&Sm;rI[m wpfnD
wpfnmwnf; jydKifwl jzpfay:
w,f/ vufwH&JU xdyfzsm;rSm
drive head ac:wJh zwf
acgif; &Sw
d ,f/ Platter tae
eJ Y wpf r d e pf u d k tywf a &
7200 eJ Y vnf y wf a epOf

uGefysLwm*sme,f

rsufESmjyifESihf pufacgif;
tMum;rSm tifrwef yg;vTm
wJ h avxk M um;cH v T m av;
wpf v T m jzpf v mjyD ; puf
acgif;[m rsufESmjyifay:rSm
&SyfjyD; ysH0Jaew,f/ 'DjzpfpOf
oabmw&m;udk Bernoulli's Principle vdkY ac:w,f/
Platter csyjf ym;0di
k ;f &JU rsuEf mS
jyifay:rSm oHvdkuf "mwf
wkHYjyef owåd&SdwJh trIefYawG
udk tvTmyg;tjzpf okwf
vdrf;xm;w,f/ oHvdkufrIef
uav;awG&JU OD;wnf ae&m
,lyHkudk vdkufjyD; (0) eJY (1)
data awG jzpf v mw,f /
tcsuftvuf a&;oGif;wm
udk write data vdYk ac:w,f/
'Dvdk vkyfzdkY head coil xJrSm

vQyfpD;aMumif;pD;apjcif;jzifh
rsufEmS jyifay:u oHvu
kd rf eI f
awG[m vdk&mbufudk OD;
wnf ae&m,l M uw,f /
aemufq;kH ay: drives awGrmS
awmh data a&;zwf & mrS m
aemuf q H k ; ay: enf ; ynm
wpfrsKd;jzpfwhJ giant magnetoresistance

(GMR)

oHk;xm;wmaMumifh oHvdkuf
ckcHrIefuav;awGudk quantam level tm½HkcHcGJjcm;vm
Edkifw,f/ tm½HkcH &&SdvmwJh
tcsufjyawGudk pGrf;tm; csJU
jyD; drive electronics qD
ay;ydkY trSm;jyifjyD;&if data
awGudk PC-usable format
tjzpf ajymif;vJay;&w,f/
Platter rsufESmjyifrSm
rS w f Ó Pf a wG rS w f o m;zd k Y

ae&mtuGu½f u
kd w
f mudk format vkyfw,fvdkY ac:w,f/
A[dw
k l puf0ikd ;f yHpk v
H rf;aMumif;
tuGufuav;awG tracks
vdkYac:w,f/ tJ'D track
vrf;aMumif;ay:rSm tuGuf
pd w f u av; wpf c k c sif ; ud k
sectors
vdkY ac:w,f/
wpfenf;tm;jzifh track segment yJaygh/ tJ'Dvdk formatting cswkef; OS pepfu
owfrSwf em;vnfwJh sectors taetxm;udk clusters
vdkY ac:w,f/ a&;
zwfacgif;&JU {&d,m usOf;
usOf; tvkyfvkyfEdkifrItay:
rlwnfjyD; segment t&G,f
tpm;ao;r,f / Sectors
t&G,ftpm;ao;wJhtwGuf
cluster t&G,ftpm;vnf;
ao;r,f / 'gqd k drive
rsufESmjyifrSm rSwfÓPfawG
ydkrdk 0ifqHhr,f/ Platter A[dk
csufem; uyfvsufae&mudk
awmh Landing area vdYk
ac:w,f/ Head &yfem;&m
ae&maygh/ Actuator arm
vuf w H [ m acwf a [mif ;
"mwfjym;zGipfh ufvufwaH wGeYJ
wlw,f/ 'gayr,fh 'DvufwH
udk xdef;ausmif;armif;ESif
ae&ma&TUay;rIu drive rS
wyfqifxm;wJh firmware
ac:wJh y½dk*&rf twdkuav;
eJY interface vdkY jzpf
w,f/ Drive taeeJY write
or read order &vm&if
vuf w H [ m vd y f p myg
tracks vrf;aMumif;ay:udk
a&muf&SdjyD; wnfxm;w,f/
Write commend 0ifvm&if

wpfckudk track ay:u
ra&; &ao;wJh ae&mvGwf
&SmazGjyD; pwif a&;r,f/
Track rSm ae&m file
wpfc[
k m wcsKUd ae&m rqH&h if
aemufxyf ae&mvGwfwpfck
udk &SmazGjyD; qufvuf a&;
om;oGm;w,f/ 'gaMumifh
tJ'D file [m ae&mrsKd;pHkrSm
jyefYusJ wnf&Sdaer,f/ tJ'D
vdkae&mpHk jyefYMuJ wnf&Sdae
wmudk fragments vdkY ac:
w,f/ tJ'D file udk jyefvnf
&SmazGzwfEikd zf Ykd disk &JU catalogs file ae&mrSm directory
table qdkwJh vdyfpmtñTef;
wpfck jyKpkxm;zdkYvdkw,f/
wu,fvdkY read command
0if v m&if a wmh drive u
tJ'D vdyfpmudkt&if&SmazGjyD;
vufwHudk vdk&m track vrf;
aMumif;ay: a&TUay;jyD; vdk&m
ae&mu pzwfoGm;apw,f/
vdyfpmtay: rlwnfjyD;
ae&mrsKd;pHkudk ausmfvTm;zwf
½I oGm;Edkifapw,f/ 'Dvdk &Sm
azG zwf½I&wJhtwGuf wpfcg
wpfcg aESmifhaES; MuefYMumrI
awG &S d w ,f / 'gaMumif h
buffer ac:wJ h rS w f Ó Pf
Mum;cHwpfckudk xm;&Sday;&
w,f / 0if v mwJ h tcsuf
tvufeYJxu
G o
f mG ;wJh tcsuf
tvufawG[m tJ'D buffer
Mum;cHu wpfqihf tqihf
qihf jynfhpHkjyD; wpfwGJwnf;
jzpfjyDqdkrS ydkYvTwfw,f/ rSwf
ÓPf uGe;f axmufpcef;aygh/
file

OPTICAL DRIVE
1980 jynfEh pS f 0ef;usiu
f CD player Mu;D awG[m
t&G,t
f pm;Mu;D rm;jy;D "mwfjym;vnf; a&G;w,f/
'DaeYacwf optical drivesawGuawmh
vmorQ"mwfjym;tm;vk;H tay:rmS
a&;zwfvyk af y;Ekid pf rG ;f &Sv
d mw,f/
'DaeYacwfay: DVD
burner awG rSm DVD burn
zdkY avqmwpfrsKd;udk oHk;jyD;
CDs burn zdkY aemufxyf
avqmwpfrsKd;udk oHk;w,f/
Laser sled
[m
sliding rails
ac:wJ h
avQmvrf;ay:rSm &Sw
d ,f/ a&SU
wdk;aemufiif a&GUvsm;atmif
motor u armif;ESifay;
w,f/ Laser sled &JU a&GU
vsm;rI [ m disc hub
"mwfjym;vSnhftHk puf0dkif;
A[dkcsufeJY tcsif;rsOf;yHkpH
twd k i f ; a&G U vsm;w,f /
avqma&mifjcnfukd avqm
'dkiftkwftae xkwfvkyfay;
jyD; Lens rSefbDvl;u
pkqHkay;w,f/ Read and
write twGuf vdktyfr,fh
avqmjyif;tm;udk vdkovdk
twdk;tavQmh vkyfEdkifatmif
pDrHxm;w,f/ aw;oHoGif;
qdkifawGu jzefYcsdwJh rmpwm
acGvYkd ajymajymaeMuwJh rlv
CDs udk commercial pressed CD-Rom dics vdkY ac:

w,f / tvG e f r mausmwJ h
poly carbonate yvwf
pwpfjym;ay:rSm tcsKdihf&m
uav;awG yHkzd,lxm;wm/
tJ'D tcsKdihf&m uav;awGudk
pits vdkY ac:w,f/ pits
&Sdjcif; r&Sdjcif;tay: rlwnf
jyD; 1 eJY 0 bits wefzdk;awG
jzpfvmw,f/ DVD "mwf
jym;ay:u pits uav;awG&UJ
t&G,t
f pm;[m CDs ay:u
pits t&G,t
f pm;xuf trsm;
MuD; ao;w,f/ 'gaMumifh
DVD "mwfjym;[m tcsuf
tvuf 0ifqHhrIyrmP MuD;
rm;w,f/ tJ'D pits xGif;
xm;wJh polycarbonate csyf
jym;ay:rSm reflective material ac:wJh a&mifjyef
tvTmwpfck xif&w,f/ tJ'D
a&mifjyefvTmudk tvsLrDeD
,rf? aiGeJY a&T oHk;rsKd;pyfxm;
wJh owåKpyfeJY jyKvkyfavh &Sd
w,f/ tJ'Dtay:urS protective coating ac:wJh
xdcdkufcH tumvTm wyfqif
&w,f/ tJ'Dtay:rSm label

atmufwb
kd mv 2008

97

surface

ac:wJh tay:,H
rsufESmjyif &Sdr,f/
"mwfjym;ay:rSm odrf;
qnf;xm;wJh tcsuftvuf
awG zwf½IzdkY avqma&mif
jcnfudk c½kywfacGyHkpHudk
oGm;&r,f/ Pits ac:wJh wGi;f
csKdihfxJ oGm;uswJh avqm
[m tay:wnf h w nf h o d k Y
tvif; rjyefEdkifbJ ab;bD
udk jyefYMuJuek w
f ,f/ vd&k mudk
ra&muf E d k i f a wmh b l ; aygh /
wu,f v d k Y a&mif j yef v T m
tkyfxm;wJh jyifnD (lands)
eJY xdawGU&ifawmh tay:
wnhfwnfh tvif;tm½HkcH
ud&d,mqD tvif;jyefr,f/
tvif;jyefeJY tvif;rjyefwJh
taetxm;udkvdkufjyD; 0 eJY
1 wef z d k ; awG jzpf a y:vm
w,f/
yHkzdenf;eJY xkwfvkyfwJh
pressed CD-ROM tjyif
avqma&mifjcnfeYJ wdu
k ½f u
kd f
a&;Edkif? zsufEdkifwJh pD'D "mwf
jym;awGvnf; &Sdao;w,f/
tJ'D pD'cD syfukd optical drive
xJ xnfhvdkufpOf sirmwere
u dics type udk cGJjcm; od&Sd
vdkufw,f/ b,fvdk pD'Dcsyf
vJaygh/ Look-up table rSm
media's parameter tcsuf
tvufawGudk cGJjcm; em;
vnfvdkufjyD; avqm 'dkif

98

tkwfuae
csihfawmfr,fh jyif;
tm;&SdwJh avqm a&mif
jcnf xkwfvkyf jzpfay:ap
w,f/
"mwfjym;&JU A[dkcsuf
uae tjyifbufudk c½kywf
acGyHkpH avqmeJY a&;xGif;
awmhw,f/ avqmtiftm;
eJYawmh pressed CD-Rom
rSm&SdwJh pits awGudk yvwf
pwpf trmay:rSm xGi;f Edik rf mS
r[k w f b l ; / tJ ' gaMumih f
a&mifjyefvTm wpfckavmuf
cHjyD; tJ'Dtay:rSm tvif;
xdod wkHYjyefrI&SdwJh organic
dye layer tvTm wpfck vkyf
ay;vd k u f w ,f / 'D t wd k i f ;
Munf h & if a wmh a&mif c s,f
tvTm[m tvif;aygufjyD;
Munfvifaer,f/
avqmtm; jyif;jyif;eJY
xdk;vdkuf&if xdk;rdwJh ae&m
[m tvif;ydwfvTm jzpfoGm;
r,f/ olYtay: usvmwJh

uGefysLwm*sme,f

phase
change
chemical layer ac:wJh

avqm tvif ; wef ; ud k
tvif; rjyefapEdkifawmhbJ
pits wG i f ; csKd i h f u av;awG
oabmrsKd; xrf;aqmifay;
w,f/
tJ'Dtay:urS protective Layer eJY Label surfaces wdkY &Sdw,f/ CD-R eJY
DVD-R awG[m 'DvdkyHkpH
wnfaqmufxm;w,f/ wpf
MudrfyJ a&;Edkifw,f/ tMudrf
Mudrf jyefzwfEdkifw,f/
CD-RW eJY DVD ±
RW wd k Y [m tMud r f M ud r f
txyfxyf jyefa&; jyefzsuf
Edik af tmif vkyx
f m;w,f/ xl;
jcm;wmu organic dye
layer tpm; mutable

avqm a&mifjcnfjyif;tm;
tay:rlwnfjyD; taetxm;
wpfrsKd;rSm tvif;aygufvTm
jzpfr,f/
aemuf taetxm;
wpfrsKd;rSm tvif;ydwftvTm
jzpfr,f/ tvif;ydwfaewJh
ae&mudk aemufxyf avqm
jyif;tm; wpfrsKd;oHk;vdkuf&if
tvif;aygufvmT jyefjzpfomG ;
r,f/ a&;jyD;om;udk jyefzsuf
jyD; e*dktwdkif; jyefvkyfwJh
oabmyg/

CRT MONITOR
rjrif&wJh a&mifjcnf&,f? tDvufx&Geaf oewf&,f CRTawG[m
acwfuek w
f ,f xif&ayr,fh olrY mS tok;H ûyxm;wJh wcsKeUd nf;ynmawGuawmh
vufzsm;cgavmufygay&J/U
zefom;eJY jyKvkyfxm;
wJh Cathoderay tube
uufokwfa&mifjcnf rD;oD;
MuD;xJrSm av[me,fjyKxm;
w,f/ tJ'D rD;oD;MuD;aemuf
rSm electron guns ac:
wJh tDvufx&Gef a&mifjcnf

ypf aoewfoHk;vuf wyf
qif x m;w,f / Cathode
"mwfr vQyfacgif;u vGwf
xGufvmwJh tDvufx&Gef
awGudk anode vQyfzdk vQyf
acgif;u vSrf;jyD; zrf;qGJwJh
twGuf electronbeams

tDvufx&Gef vQyfr trIef
wef;tjzpf vGwfajrmuf ay:
xGufvmw,f/ rD;oD;&JU t0
usOf; xdy0f uyfvsufrmS deflection yoke
ac:wJh
tDvufx&Gef a&mifjcnfwef;
udk yHkazmf rsufESmjyifay:
tvsm;vd k u f ? a'gif v d k u f
b,fnm? xufatmuf vdk
ovdk aoGznfay;Edkifr,fh

vQyfppfoHvdkufvIdif;xkwf
uG d K if a wG u d k wyf q if x m;
w,f/ yHkazmf jyuGufay:rSm
RGB vdkYac:wJh teDuGuf?
tpd r f ; uG u f ? tjymuG u f
oH;k rsK;d oH;k zvS,f phosphor
dot
azmh p zd w f a&mif
ajymifawmufawmuf yHkazmf
pufuav;awG okwfvdrf;
um xm;w,f/ tJ'D tajccH
ta&mifoHk;rsKd; yHkazmfpuf
tay:udkusa&mufwJh
tDvufx&Gef a&mif
jcnfjyif;tm; tenf;
trsm;ay: rlwnfjyD;
usefta&mif trsKd;
rsKd; pyf[yfjzpfay:
vmw,f/
CRT yHkazmf rsufESm
jyif [ m shadow
mask eJY operature grill qd k j yD ;
pepf ESpfrsKd;eJYvm
w,f/ yHpk t
H a[mif;
CRT yHkazmfrsufESmjyif
awG r S m RGB phosphor
awG[m eDjympdrf; tvSnfhus
pDxm;wJh tpufyHkpHeJY vmjyD;
aemufydkif; yHkpHawGrSm tpuf
yHkpH roHk;awmhbJ eDjympdrf;

atmufwb
kd mv 2008

99

vdkif;uav;awG tvSnhfus
pDxm;wJh RGB stripes yHkpH
eJYyJ vmygawmhw,f/ Shadow mask ac:wJh yHk&dyfcs
ZumoH k ; wJ h CRT awG r S m
yHkazmfyHkuawmh oihfyDpD uGef
ysLwmrSmwyfxm;wJh graphics adapter u ay;ydkYvmwJh
command awG monitor udk
a&muf v mwmeJ Y tD v uf
x&Gefaoewf oHk;vufu
tDvufx&Gefwef oHk;ckudk
xk w f v T w f a y;vd k u f w ,f /
tJ'gudk detlection yoke eJY
vdk&myJhxdef;jyD; azmhpzdwf
a&mifajymifatmif okwv
f rd ;f
xm;wJh yHkazmf rsufESmjyif
aemufuyfvsuf mask
yH k & d y f c sqef c g&J U tayguf
wpfcku 0ifa&mufjyD; ouf
qdkif&m a&mifajymif;awmuf
yHkazmfvdkif; wpfvdkif;pDudk us
a&mufapw,f/ Trinitrons
'grSr[kwf Diamondtrons
monitor awGrSmawmh yHk&dyfcs
qefcgtpm; wires MudK;awG
a'gifvdkuf pDxm;wJh Aperture-grill udk toHk;jyKxm;
w,f/ 0ifvmwJh tDvuf
x&Gef a&mifjcnfwef; oHk;ck
udk triad ac: wJh Mwd*yH pkH H
eDjympdrf; tpufoHk;cktay:
twd t us usa&muf a p
w,f/
yH k & d y f t&nf t aoG ;
taetxm;tay:rlwnfjyD;
yHk&dyfwpfck&JU tao;i,fqHk;
tpdwftydkif;jzpfwJh pixel
udk triad wpfckodkYr[kwf
wpfcx
k ufyw
kd hJ ta&twGuf
eJY zGJUpnf;,lw,f/

100

tDvufx&Gef aoewf
[m yHkazmf rsufESmjyifudk
tvsm;vdkuf b,frSnm ypf
cwfjyD; wpfvdkif;jyD;wpfvdkif;
ypfcwf yHkazmf,lw,f/ ypf
csufwdkif;rSm tDvufx&Gef
a&mifjcnf tjyif;taysmh uGm
jcm;rI &SdwJhtwGuf yHkazmf
tvif;pufawGudk tvif;
enf;enf;awmuf? tvif;
rsm;rsm;awmuf jzpfay:ap
&mu yHk&dyfoP²mefawG jzpf
ay:xif[yfapw,f/
azmhpzdwf a&mifajymif;
awmuf yHkazmfpufawG[m
tvif;tm;udk Mum&Snf xde;f
rxm;Edkifygbl;/ 'gaMumifh
wpfqufwpfpyfwnf; vIyf
&Sm;aewJh yHk&dyfawG jrifEdkifzdkY
wpfpuúefYtwGif; frame 60
uae 80 tMum; ypfcwfay;
zdkY vdkw,f/ 'gudk refresh
rate vdkY ac:w,f/
'gaMumifh tvsm;vdkuf
eJY a'gifvu
kd f yHak zmfpuf ta&
twGuf 1280 x 1024 &SdwJh
Hi-det TV yHkazmfrsufESmjyif
udk wpfpuúeYf 75 frame (75
Hz refresh rate) eJY ypfcwf
yHkazmfr,fqdk&if wpfpuúefY
qdkwJh tcsdeftwGif; pixel
aygif; oef; 100 udk udkif
wG,f ypfcwf&wJh oabmyJ/

uGefysLwm*sme,f

LCD MONITOR
Thin-film transistor (TFT) LCD monitor

'grrS [kwf notebook uGeyf sLwm&JU ykaH zmf
jyuGu[
f m wu,fawmh tqifjh rifeh nf;ynmeJY
tqifh qifh xkyyf ;dk xm;wJh vTmcsyw
f pfcyk gy/J Liquid
crystal armfvu
D sL;awG [m
Mum;cHaygi;f ul;ay;olawGayg/h
LCD panel &JU aemuf
bufrSm tvif;jyefvTm&SdjyD;
tJ'DrSm rD;acsmif;vdk t&mrsKd;
eJYtvif;a&mifay;xm;w,f/
'gudk light source 'grS
r[k w f back light
vdkYac:w,f/ tJ'D&JUa&SU
eJY
rSm &Sdaewmuawmh
polarizing filter ac:wJh
tajrmif ; ajrmif ; awG y gwJ h
vIdif;oefYvTmcsyf ESpfckygyJ/
vTmcsy&f UJ wpfcek YJwpfcu
k kd 90
'D * &D axmih f r S e f u satmif
xm;ay;xm;w,f / 'D v d k
taetxm;[m tvif ;
vIdif;wpfck&JU b,fnmxuf
atmuf vT J c G i f h t m;vH k ; ud k
jzwfoef;cGifhrjyKbJ ydwfqdkY
taetxm;jzpf a ew,f /
tvif;ydwftaetxm;aygh/
tJ'DvTmcsyfESpfckMum;udk liquid crystal molecules

xnhaf y;vdu
k &f ifawmh armfvD
usL;&JU xdyfpGef;ESpfzuf[m
90 'D*&DoefYwef; jzpfaewJh
vIdif;qefYvTmcsyfrSm jzpfay:
aewJh tajrmif;eJY tjydKifus

wG,u
f yfwmrdYk armfvu
D sL;&JU
tv,facgif[m 90 'D*&D
tvdkufoihf vdrfacgufae&
w,f/ 'Dvdk taetxm;[m
tvif;ayguf taetxm;
jzpf o G m ;jyD / yxrvT m csyf
tajrmif;taygufMum;u 0if
vmwJh tvif;[m armfvD
usL; wpfavQmuf jzwfoef;
&if; 90 'D*&D vSnfhoGm;wm
aMumif h 'k w d , vT m csyf & J U
tajrmif;taygufeJY tvdkuf
oihf jydKifusjzpfoGm;jyD; quf
vuf xdk;azmuf jzwfoef;
oGm;Edik &f w,f/ wd;k vQKad yguf
jzwfoef;Edkifjcif;aygh/ Liquid crystal armfvDusL;udk
vQyfppf enf;enf;oihf&if
tacGtacguf enf;enf;ajy
oG m ;r,f / 90 'D * &D acG
acgufae&muae 60 'D*&D
avmufyJ acGacgufwmrsKd;
jzpfomG ;r,f/ 'Dvq
kd &kd if 100
&mcd k i f E I e f ; tvif ; ayguf
taetxm;uae 65 &mcdkif
EI e f ; yJ tvif ; ayguf a wmh
r,f / aemuf x yf 'D x uf

vQyfppf enf;enf;ydkoihf&if
40 'D*&D avmufyJ acGacguf
awmhr,f/ enf;enf; ydak jzmihf
vmjyD/ tvif;aygufEIef; 35
&mcd k i f E I e f ; usef a wmh r ,f /
'gqdk tvif;ydwfbufudk
ydkeD;pyfvmjyD/ vHkavmufwJh
vQyfppfoihfap&ifawmh armf
vDusL;[m 90 'D*&D acG
acgufae&mu wpfajzmihf
wnf; jzpfoGm;wJhtwGuf
yxrvTmcsyfu armfvDusL;
xJ jzwf o ef ; wJ h tvif ;
wef ; ud k 90 'D * &D vrf ;

aMumif; ajymif; vSnrhf ay;Edik f
wmaMumifh 'kwd,vTmcsyf
tvif;0ifayguf tajrmif;eJY
90 'D*&D uefYvefYjzpfjyD;
jzwfoef;r&bJ vH;k 0 tvif;
ydwfoGm;r,f/ Black dot
aygh/ tJ'v
D kd vQyfppfoihaf pzdYk
Liquid crystal eJY 'kwd,
polarizing filter tMum;rSm
transister grid
ud k
cHay;xm;&w,f/ Transis-

ter grid &JU tvsm;vdkufeJY
a'gifvdkuf qHkrSwfwpfckrSm
&SdwJh x&efppöwmwpfck[m
sub-pixel wpfcu
k kd ud,
k pf m;
jyKw,f/Sub-pixel wpfc[
k m
eDjympdrf; (RGB) tajccH
ta&mifxJu wpfckck jzpfEdkif
w,f / Sub-pixel oH k ; ck
aygif;&if pixel wpfck jzpf
vmr,f/ Sub-pixel wpfcu
k
jzwfxu
G v
f mwJh tjzLtvif;

wef ; ud k ta&mif p pf v T m
(color filter) wpfckxJ jzwf
oef ; apjcif ; jzif h teD od k Y
r[k w f tjym od k Y r[k w f
tpdrf; tvdk&Sd&m ta&mif
wpfa&mifujkd zpfay:apw,f/
eDjympdrf; tcsKd;us aygif;pyf
rIuae vdk&mta&mif pixel
wpfcjk zpfay:vmw,f/ LCD
yHak zmfrsuEf mS jyifwpfcrk mS tJ'D
vdk yHak zmf pixel ta&twGuf
oef;eJYcsD yg0ifavh&Sdw,f/

atmufwb
kd mv 2008 101

INKJET PRINTER
Inkjet printer wpfv;kH udk armif;ESir
f ,fh control into

awG[m yDpu
D eG yf sLwm&JU driver u
vmcsi&f ifvm? rvm&if printer rSm
wpfygwnf; yl;wGJ wyfqifxm;wJh onboard
electronics awGu vmw,f/

puú L wpf & G u f a y:rS m
yHkESdyfzdkY yxrqHk; paper
tray puúLAef;xJu puúL
wpf&u
G u
f kd roller u vSrd q
hf JG
,l j yD ; printhead/cartridge assembly a&SUudk
ydkYaqmifxnfhay;xm;vdkuf
w,f /
ud k sliding
rod avQmvrf;ay:rSm wyf
qifxm;w,f/ avQmvrf;
ay:rSm b,fa&TU nma&TU udpö
twGuf printhead stepper motor eJY cg;ywf
MudK; belt wdkYu wpfqihf
vkyfaqmifay;w,f/ printhead
uav;awG [ m
tvGef tEkpw
d f ao;i,fwm
rdkY semiconductor xkwfwJh
etching process oHk; xkwf
vky,
f &l w,f/ wcsKUd printer
awGrSmawmh head eJY ink
cartridge
rif b l ; [m
wpfww
JG nf;jzpfw,f/ Head
rSm tvGefao;i,f tEkpdwf
wJh nozzles pufacgif;
uav;awG ygw,f/ Nozzle ta&twGuf[m wpf

104

'gZifuae axmif
eJYcsDvnf; &SdEdkifw,f/
ink chamber rifvTwf
cef;xJu rifawG&JU xGuf
aygufvnf; jzpfw,f/ rif
vT w f c ef ; xJ u rif a wG u d k
awmh cartridge xJu &,l
w,f/ Nozzle vTwfacgif;
wpfcku rIwfxkwfvdkufwJh
rifpufuav; wpfpuf&JU
t&G,ftpm;[m wpfvDwm
&JU tyHo
k ef;yHw
k pfyykH J &Sw
d ,f/
-12
(10 Liter) aygh/
Pump taeeJY 'Davmuf
ao;i,f v G e f ; wJ h t&G , f
tpm;udk vkyfaqmifEdkifrSm
r[k w f b l ; / Epsons u
vGJ&ifusefwJh inkjet printer
awGrSm rifvTwfcef;t0rSm
tvGefao;i,fwJh resistor
uav;awG wyf q if
xm;w,f/ tJ'Dvdk pulse
vQyfpD;wpfck jzwfpD;csdefrSm
rifvw
T cf ef;xJu rifawG[m
½kwfjcnf; tylcsdef aqmihf
wufrIaMumifh 'Dvdk ao;i,f
wJ h droplet uav;awG

uGefysLwm*sme,f

tjzpf taiGUysw
H ,f/ taiGUysH
xkxnfy&G mu tvGeMf uD;rm;
wJ h zd t m;yg jzpf a y:vm
wJhtwGuf rifpufawG[m
nozzle acgif;t0u t&Sdef
t[kefjyif;pGm xdk;xGufjyD;
puúLrsufESmjyifrSm usa&muf
pG J x if a pw,f / Epsons
inkjet printer rSmawmh tyl
ay;wJhenf;roHk;bJ vQyfppf
aMumifh t&m0w¬KwpfckrSm
jzpfay:vmwJh ½kef;jyef wif;
usH K Utm; piezoelectric
process oabmw&m;ud k
toH k ; jyKxm;w,f / Ink
chamber rifvTwfcef;xJrSm
xnfhxm;wJh crystal wpfrsKd;
tay: vQyfppf0ifapwJhtcg
½kwjf cnf; zdweG ;f rI jzpfay:jyD;
rifawGudk t&Sdefjyif;pGm rIwf
vTwfrI jzpfay:apwm jzpf
w,f/ rifvw
T cf ef;rSm rifr&Sd

awmhbJ [moGm;&if capillary action t& riftopf
awG a&mufvmw,f/ Printhead udk b,fnm twef;
vdkuf a&GUvsm; rIwfvGwfap
jcif;jzihf yHk&dyfeJY pmom;awG
udk wpfvdkif;jyD; wpfvdkif;
yHkESdyf xif[yfvmapw,f/
Ink chamber rifvTwfcef;
uav;awGrSm tylay;? ypf
vTwf? tat;cHqdkwJh jzpfpOf
awG[m tMudrfrsm;pGm quf
wdkuf jzpfay:vnfywfae&
w,f/

LASER PRINTER
oifph m;yJcG aHk y:u £ajEw
´ pfco
GJ m;eJY wdww
f w
d q
f w
d q
f w
d f [dwMf u;D [efMu;D
r&Sw
d hJ inkjet printer[m wu,fawmh ½lyaA'e,fy,f&UJ aemufq;Hk ay:
awG&Y cdS suaf wGudk ykid yf idk Ef idk Ef idk f tok;H csxm;w,f/
Laser printer awG[m
photocopier awG e J Y nD

tpfukd 0rf;uGJ awmfpyfw,f/
yDpu
D eG yf sLwmu ay;ydYk vmwJh
printing data awG[m controller circuitry
udk
0ifw,f/ tJ'DrSm printing
data awGudk translate vkyf
ay;w,f/ Raster image
processor (RIP) u image
eJY text awGudk virtual ma-

rsm;tjzpf ajymif;
vJay;w,f/
'DtxJrSm t"duusol
uawmh photo conducting
drum
ygyJ / pvif ' g
ay:rSm vQypf pf"mwf ouf0if
EdkifwJh tvTmwpfck tkyfxm;
w,f/ Chargingroller
uae tJ'Dqvif'gtay:
vQyfppftzdk"mwf odkYr[kwf
tr"mwf ouf0ifatmif vkyf
trix dots

ay;Edkifw,f/ wcsKdU printer
awGrSmawmh corona wire eJY
vQyfppf"mwf ouf0ifatmif
vk y f a y;w,f / Laser
vQyfacgif;uae jywfawmif;
jywfawmif; xkwv
f w
T af y;wJh
avqmtvif;wef;[m
routing mirror a&mif
jyefcsyfuae vQyfppf"mwf
ouf0ifaewJh drum rsufESm
jyiftay: tvsm;vdkuf nD

nmwJh vdkif;wpfwef; us
a&mufw,f/ avqmtvif;
wef; xdwJhae&mu vQyfppf
"mwf ysufjy,fwJh spots
av;rsm;tjzpf rsufESmjyif
ay: wif u sef & pf w ,f/
tvsm;vdkufwpfwef; jynfh
oGm;&if stepper motor u
aemufwpfwef;pm vSnfhay;
w,f/ tJ'DvdkyJ tvsm;vdkuf
xyf r H y pf o G m ;r,f / tJ ' D
avqm tvif;&m xifusef
&pfwhJ qvif'grsufEmS jyifu
tydkif;awG[m vQyfppf"mwf
ouf0ifaewJh aq;rifrIefY
(charged toner particles)
awG vl;uyfxm;wJh developer roller
eJY rsufESm

jyif ESpfzuftxdrSm vQyfppf
ouf0ifaewJh rifaq;rIeYfawG
[m drum &JU vQyfppf"mwf
ysuf y s,f a ewJ h avqm
tvif;xd ae&mawGudk 0if
a&muf wG,fuyfMuw,f/
rifrIefYawG wG,fuyfvdkY jzpf
vmwJh yH&k yd ef YJ pmom;awG[m
yHkESdyfyvdyfjym;rSm ajymif;jyef
ay:aewJo
h abmw&m;twdik ;f
ygyJ/ Toner hopper [m
tonner cartridge rifbl;&JU
tpd w f t yd k i f ; wpf c k y gyJ /
tJ'Duae developer roller
qDudk rifrIefYawG a&muf&Sd
vl;uyf&wm jzpf w,f/
Belt or roller assembly
uae paper
tray puúLAef;xJu puúL

wpf&Gufudk vSdrfhjyD; qGJ,lay;
r,f/ Transfer roller or
charging wire u tJ'D
0ifvmwJh puúLudk drum

atmufwb
kd mv 2008 105

ay:rS m uyf a ewJ h toner
rif r I e f Y eJ Y qef Y usif b uf
vQyfppf"mwf ouf0ifatmif
vkyfay;w,f/ 'Dvdkenf;tm;
jzifh drum ay: wG,fuyfae
wJ h rif r I e f Y awG [ m puú L
tay: ajymif;vJ wG,fuyf
oG m ;ygw,f / Cleaning
blade u drum ay:u
rvdkawmhbJ uyfusefaewJh
rifrIefYawGudk &Sif;vif; z,f
&S m ;ay;w,f / tJ ' gqd k & if
aemufxyf 'Dvdk vkyfief;pzdkY
tqifoifh &Sif;vif;jyD;om;
jzpfoGm;jyD/
Toner rifrIefYawG vQyf
ppftm;eJY uyfaewJh puúL[m
tylay; wvdrhfwHk; fuser
eJY wvdrhfwHk; pressaure
roller awGukd jzwfoef;tjyD;
rSmawmh tyl"mwfu toner
riftrIefYawGudk t&nfaysmf
jyD; puúLrsufESmjyifrSm pGJxif
uyfapw,f/ jyD; wvdrhfwHk;
eJY zdvdkufwJhtcg csyfcsyf
&yf&yf pJGjrJoGm;w,f/
Color Laser a&mifpHk
avqm yH k E S d y f p uf a wG r S m
vnf; 'Doabmw&m;twdik ;f
vkyfaqmifw,f/ 'gayr,fh
puú L taeeJ Y ta&mif u G J
color toner wpfcp
k D wyfqif
xm;wJh drum av;ckukd quf
wdkuf jzwfoef;oGm;&r,f/
wcsKdU color laser awGu
awmh puúLay: yHk&dyfMum;cH
intermediate belt wpfck
tay: color layer awG
t&ifprf;jyD;rS puúLtay:udk
ul;,l yHkESdyfw,f/

106

Wi-Fi okrYd [kwf

MudK;rJhtifwmeuf uGef&uf
Laptop wpfv;Hk ukd oGm;av&m ,l oGm;jy;D MuKd ;rJeh nf;eJY tifwmeuf uGef &ufxJ

0ifa&muf csw
d q
f ufEidk w
f ,f qdw
k m enf;enf;awmh obm0 vGeu
f jJ y;D
pdwu
f ;l ,OfrqefveG ;f ayzl;vm;/ 'gay r,fh 'Denf;ynmu wu,ft
h jyifrmS
tok;H ûyaeygjy/D
tifwmeufuGef&ufxJ
0ifa&muf csdwfquf&mrSm
net eJY csdwfqufol tMum;
Mum;cHaygif;ul; csdwfquf
ay;wJh t0iftxGuf ae&m
av;awGukd Wi-Fi hotspot
vkdYac:w,f/ wpfenf;tm;
jzifh access point (AP)vkdY
ac:wmaygh/ rSmawGY&rSm
uawmh AP built-in yg&SdwJh
router wpfckwyfjyD; MudK;rJh
Wi-Fi hotspot wpf c k
wnfaqmufxm;vkYd &w,f/
'grSr[kwfvnf; LAN uGef
&ufxJu wjcm;wpfa,muf
a,muf&JU hotspot ukd xyf
qifh Mum;cH xkwfvTifhay;wJh
router tjzpfvnf; okH;vkdY&
w,f/ AP wpfck&JU wm0ef
[m a&'D,v
kd idI ;f awGudk xkwf
vT i f h zrf ; ,l E k d i f & r,f /
Walkie-Talkie vk d a ygh /
Filber quf a Mumif ; xJ u
a&mufvmwJh data awGudk
rSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; a&'D,kd
tcsufjy (radio signel)
tjzpf ul;ajymif; xkwfvTifh

uGefysLwm*sme,f

ay;w,f/ 'Dvkd ul;ajymif;
xkwfvTifh&mrSm a&'D,kd Mudrf
EIef; 2 rsKd;ukd tokH;ûyavh
&Sw
d ,f/ 2.4 GHz (802.11 b/
g Wi-Fi standard) eJY 5 GHz
(802.11a hardware) qkdjyD;
ESpfrsKd;&Sdw,f/ 'DMudrfEIef;
ESpfckpvkH;[m tar&duefrSm
vkdifpif,lp&mrvkdwJh Mudrf
EIef;uGufawGygyJ/ AP u
xkwv
f iT w
hf hJ a&'D,dk tcsujf y
rSm jyxm;wJh
awGrSm
twk d i f ; beacon signal
uav;awG Mum;n§yf yg&Sd
w,f / 'g[m network

indentification ac:wJ h
oufqkdif&m data ukd cJGjcm;

pDppfa&G;cs,fEkdifzkdYeJY vkdif;
0if E k d i f z k d Y wjcm;vk d tyf w J h
taxmuftxm;awG yl;wJG
xnfo
h iG ;f ay;vku
d w
f o
hJ abm
yJ/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh 'gukd
service Set Indentifier
(SSID) vkdY ac:w,f/
rSm jyxm;wmuawmh Wi-Fi
enabled laptop or desktop ac:wJh MudK;rJh a&'D,kd
enf ; ynmeJ Y Wi-Fi puf

taMumif;xJ 0ifcsdwfEkdifr,fh
taxmuftxm;eJY a&'D,kd

vIdif; xkwfvTifhpdppf,lEkdif
r,fh chipset awG pkpnf;
xm;wJh card wpfck xnhaf y;
xm;w,f/ Wi-Fi card tae
eJY Wi-Fi hotsopt wpfckem;
eD ; uyf v mcsd e f r S m tJ ' D [ m
xkwfvTifhwJh a&'D,kdvIdif;
tcsufjywcsKdUukd erlem zrf;
,lMunfhjyD; tJ'D hotspot
[m oleJY csdwfqufvkdU &r&
o½kyfcJGMunfhw,f/ wu,f
vkdY csdwfqufvkdY &Ekdifw,f
qkd&if tuGmta0;ay: vkduf
jyD; rdr&d UJ xkwv
f iT rhf I tiftm;
signal strength ukd vkdovkd
csden
f jd§ yD; twiftcs vkyaf y;
Ek d i f w ,f / 'D v k d w pf z uf e J Y
wpfzuf csw
d q
f ufEidk zf Ydk aoG;
wkd;prf;ûywmukd authentification vkdY ac:w,f/ vG,f
vG,fjrifomatmif Oyrm
ay;&&ifawmh wpfzufeYJ wpf
zuf tjyeftvSef ppfaq;ae
Muwmaygh/ pdwfwkdif;usjyD?
tkad ujyDq&dk if tcsut
f vuf
ydkYvTwfrI (data transmission) pvk y f w ,f / 'D v k d
tcsuftvufawG zvS,f
xkwfvTwf&mrSm rqkdifwJh

Mum;u Mum;jzwf axmuf
vSrf;vkdY r&atmif oauFw
0S u f p epf (encryption)
ok H ; zk d Y v k d w ,f / trsm;qk H ;
tokH;ûyavh&SdwJhpepf 2 cku
awmh Wired Equivalent
Privacy (WEP) eJY olYxuf
ykdpdwfcs&wJh Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) yg
yJ/ AP eJY olYukd vSrf;csdwf?
ol Y &J U laptop Mum;rS m
oauFw0SufazmfzkdY deerypt
key wpfckukd MudKwif owf
rSwfjyD; udk,frDvufukdifûy
xm;Muw,f/ AP wpfckukd
awGU&mMuHK&m Wi-Fi enabled laptop wkdif;u wHcg;
r&Sd "m;r&Sd vSrf;csdwfvkdY&wm
r[kwfbl;/ tJ'D laptop okdY
r[kwf desktop rSm toif;
0ifuwf oabmrsKd;jzpfwJh
Media Access Control
(MAC) address vdyfpm&Sd
ygrS router u vSrf;csdwfrI

ukv
d ufcaH qmif&u
G af y;r,f/
'gaMumifh network ay:rSm
&SdorQ devices wkdif;[m
hotsopt wpfck okdYr[kwf

tjcm;wpfckrSm csdwfqufEkdif
zk d Y tJ ' D MAC address
vd y f p m&S d x m;zk d Y vk d w ,f /
Wireless router awGtaeeJY
vnf; tJ'D vdyfpm&Sdxm;wJh
pm&if ; 0if o l u k d o mvQif
vufcHcsdwfqufay;ygvdrfh
r,f/ wu,fvkdY csdwfquf
ol taeeJY AP eJY tvSrf;a0;
wmeJ YtrQ ES p f z uf tMum;
tcsuf t vuf a y;yk d Y EI e f ;
data transfer rates [m
usqif;wJhobm0&Sdw,f/
wjcm; a&'D,kdMudrfEIef;awGeJY
xyfvkdYjzpfap? a&'D,kd xkwf
vTihf ay;ykYd &m Mum;rSm twm;
tqD; tcktcHawG&Sdae&if
vIdif;tm;us tcsuftvuf
aysmufqkH;rIawG jzpfay:vm
aMumifh aysmufomG ;wJh tykid ;f
awGukd tMudrfMudrf jyefvnf
xkwfvTifhay;ae&wmaMumifh
tcsdef MuefYMumrIawG jzpf
vmjyD; tcsuftvuf a&;rI
EIef; usqif;oGm;&avh &Sd
w,f/ 802. 11b standard
rSm wpfpuúeYf tcsuftvuf
trsm;qHk; vJTajymif;EkdifpGrf;
[m 11 Mbps jzpf j yD ;
802.11g eJY 802.11a standard awGrSmawmh 54 Mbps
yrmPtxd wkd;jr§ifhay;ykdYEkdif
atmif pDpOfxm;w,f/ tck
aemufqkH;ay: hardware
awGrmS awmh multiple input,

STATS

yDpDay:rS AD'D,dk
Munf½h o
I l &mcdik Ef eI ;f
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

uGeyf sLwm(yDp)D jzifh ½ky&f iS ?f
AD',
D ?kd 'DA'GD D ? wDAt
GD pDtpOfEiS hf
vIy&f mS ;rIzikd rf sm; Munf½h o
I l
&mcdik Ef eI ;f
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

uGeyf sLwm(yDp)D jzifh
wpfvvQif 6 Murd x
f uf ydík
AD',
D kd Munf½h o
I l &mcdik Ef eI ;f
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

wDAGcD sw
d q
f ufrI
r&Sad omaMumifh tGev
f ikd ;f
ay:ro
S m AD',
D kd Munf½h o
I l
&mcdik Ef eI ;f
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

multiple output (MIMO)
technology xnf h o G i f ;

wnfaqmufxm;wmaMumifh
wpf ûydief uf xkwv
f iT v
hf ufcH
zrf;,lrI &meJYcsDukd vufcH
aqmif&u
G Ef idk pf rG ;f &Sv
d mw,f/

rdom;pkEiS t
hf wl r[kwb
f J
uGeyf sLwm (yDp)D toH;k jyKí
AD',
D kd Munf½h o
I El eI ;f

atmufwb
kd mv 2008 107

uGeyf sLwmtaxGaxG

13. Browser

wD;ay;wJh oabmyJ jzpfwJhtwGuf firefox &JU (Ctrl+N)
command eJY qifwlygw,f/

Google Chrome &JU vQKd 0U u
S cf suf 30

pufwifbmvtwGif;rSm google uae web browser
wpfcu
k kd pwifrw
d q
f ufay;cJyh gw,f/ 'chrome' vdYk trnf&wJh
tJ'D browser &JU vQKdU0Suf csuf uav;rsm;udk azmfjyvdkuf&yg
w,f/
1/'Chrome' xJrSm zGihfxm;wJh pmrsufESmwpfckudk desktop eJY
start menu ay:udk ac:wifjyD; shortcut wpfcktaeeJY
zefwD;Edkifygw,f/ udk,ftoHk;rsm;wJh web pmrsufESmwpfck
(Oyrm tm;jzifh Gmail qdyk gawmh) t&ifq;kH zGijfh yD; tvG,f
wuleJYyJ pm&GufyHk options rSm &SdwJh 'creat application
shortcuts' button udk uvpfESdyfvdkuf½HkygyJ/

2/ Ctrl eJY Shift key awGukd zdxm;jyD; tu©&m 'N' udk ESyd v
f u
kd f
r,f qd&k ifawmh (incognito) qdw
k hJ window wpfcu
k kd zefw;D
ay;rSm jzpfygw,f/ 'g[m Windows topfwpfckudk zef

108

uGefysLwm*sme,f

3/Alt eJY home button udk wGJzufjyD; ESdyfcJhr,fqdk&ifawmh
google chrome &JU rl&if; home page udk jyefa&muf
oGm;rSm jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D homepage rSm user wpfa,muf
toHk;rsm;wJh pmrsufESmawGudk 'thumbnail' pDpOf ay;xm;
wmudk awGU&ygr,f/
4/'Ctrl eJY T' udk wGzJ ufEydS &f ifawmh 'new tab' udk ac:qdak y;rSm
jzpfygw,f/ wu,fvYkd Tab wpfcu
k kd drag qGcJ sr,f qd&k if
window topfwpfcktaeeJY zGihfvSpfay;ygvdrhfr,f/
5/"icongnito window'
topf w pf c k taeeJ Y
home page ay:rS m
tumbnail icon awGudk
Right Click ES d y f j yD ;
zG i h f v S p f v d k Y v J &Ed k i f y g
w,f/

uGeyf sLwmtaxGaxG
6/'Ctrl, Shift eJY T' wdYkukd wGzJ uf ESyd v
f u
kd &f ifawmh t&ifwpfcg
oHk;pGJoGm;jyD; ydwfoGm;cJh wJh tab awGudk jyefacgif;aqmif
zGihfvSpfay;rSm jzpfygw,f/ rD;ysufvdkYyJjzpfjzpf? ½kwfw&uf
'save' rvkyv
f u
kd rf w
d hJ web pmrsuEf mS aumif;aumif;awGukd
jyefvnf rSwfrdzdkYtwGuf odyftoHk;0ifygw,f/ Google
chrome [m tedrhfqHk; tab (10) cktxd rSwfrdaeygw,f/
7/Tab awG wpfckeJYwpfcktMum;udk ckefausmf jzwfoef;zdkY
twGufuawmh Ctrl key udk zdESdyfxm;jyD; keyboard &JU
tay: bm;wef;rSm&SdwJh 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . number awGeJY
a&m,Suf zdESdyfvdkY &ygw,f/ Oyrm pmrsufESm ig;ckajrmuf
udk oGm;csifwJhtcgrSm (Ctrl +5) udk wGJzuf ESdyf&ygr,f/
8/pmrsufESmawGudk ac:,lpOfrSm loading vkyfwJh pwdkif[m
IE8 eJY qifwljyD; puf0dkif;uav; vnfywfaewJh yHkoP²mef
&Syd gw,f/ 'Ctrl' eJY 'Tab' udk wGzJ ufEydS v
f u
kd &f if tJ't
D csed rf mS
vwf wavm loading ac:,laewJh page (tab) qDudk
a&mufygr,f/
9/(Ctrl+Shift+Tab) awGudk wGJzuf ESdyfr,fqdk&ifawmh Ctrl
+Tab eJY qefYusifbuftajzudk &&SdrSmjzpfjyD; ,cif loading ac:,ljyD;cJw
h hJ page qDukd jyefvnf a&muf&ydS gvdrrfh ,f/
10/Firefox browser rSm oHk;cJhovdk udk,fMunfh½IaewJh pm
rsufESmawGudk pdwfMudKufae&mcsjyD; txm;todk a&TUajymif;
zdkYtwGuf mouse udk zdxm;jyD; drag qGJ,l&ygr,f/
11/odyfMudKufwJh pmrsufESmwpfckudk awGU&wJhtcgrSmawmh
rSwfom; bookmark vkyfxm;zdkYtwGuf 'Ctrl eJY D' udk
ESdyf&ygr,f/ tJ'DurS ay:vmwJh edit box xJrSm udk,fh
pdwfMudKuf trnfay;wmeJY folder wnfaqmufwmawGudk
vkyfaqmifEdkifygw,f/ Address bar rSm &SdaewJh Mu,fyGihf
t0ga&mifuav;udk click ESdyfjyD;&if bookmark vkyfEdkifyg
w,f/

12/'Ctrl eJY B' udk wGJzufESdyfvdkufwJh tcg rSmawmh bookmark bar udk cP azsmufay;xm;ygw,f/ jrifuGif; us,f
us,u
f kd Munfv
h o
kd al wGtwGuf toH;k 0ifwhJ shortcut wpfck
ygyJ/
13/Bookmark bar rSm &SdwJh 'back' (taemufudkoGm;wJh button) av;udk Right click ESy
dv
f u
kd w
f t
hJ cgrSm ud,
k f Munf½h cI hJ
wJh pmrsuEf mS awG&UJ pm&if;udk wpf&ufcsi;f tvdu
k f rSww
f rf;
&&Sdygvdrhfr,f/ tJ'D&JU atmufqHk;rSmawmh 'full story' qdw
k hJ
pmom;udk click ESdyfvdkufwJhtcg new tab zGihfvSpfay;jyD;
ud,
k hf web pmrsuEf mS udk tjynft
h 0 jyefvnf&&Syd gvdrrfh ,f/

14/History pmrsuEf mS udk tjrefq;kH enf;eJY a&muf&cdS si&f ifawmh
Ctrl eJY H udk wJGzufESdyf&ygr,f/
15/Instory pmrsufESm[m install vkyfjyD; pwifoHk;pGJcJhcsdefu
pvdkY aeYpGJ wpfckcsif;pDtvdkuf rSwfom;ay;xm;rSm jzpfwJh
twGuf rvdt
k yfwmeJY toH;k ruswmawGukd pdwMf udKuf zsuf
ypfjyD; vdktyfovdk zGJUpnf;jyifqifxm;Edkifygw,f/

16/'Ctrl eJY J' udk wGzJ ufEydS w
f t
hJ cgrSm 'dowload' vkyw
f hJ page
udk zGihfvSpfay;ygvdrhfr,f/
17/'download' page udk &Sif;vif; csifw,fqdk&ifawmh link
wpfckcsif; tvdkuf Right ESdyfjyD; ay:vmwJh box xJu
'Remove' udk a&G;cs,fvdkuf½HkeJY udpjö ywfygw,f/

18/'Ctrl eJY K' 'grSr[kwf 'Ctrl eJY E' 'D shortcut uawmh
address bar ay:rSm &SmazGzdkY jzpfygw,f/ [dkt&ifwkef;u
&SmazGzYkd twGuf 'google .com' qdw
k mudk t&if½u
kd jf yD;rS tJ'D

atmufwb
kd mv? 2008 109

uGeyf sLwmtaxGaxG
xJuae wpfqihf &SmazGcJhMu&w,f r[kwf
vm;/ tckawmh tJ'DrSm&SdwJh tqihfwpfck jyKwfoGm;ygjyD/
Address bar rSmudk wef;jyD; udk,f&SmazGcsifwJh text udk
½dkufjyD; Enter acgufvdkufwmeJY google &JU search engine udk csdwfqufrdoGm;jyD; tajzudk wef;jyD; azmfjyay;rSm
jzpfygw,f/ 'D command ESdyfvdkufpOfrSm address bar
rSm "?" yHkpHav; ay:vmygvdrhfr,f/
search box

19/Window &JU xdyfem;rSm Right Click ESdyfvdkufjyD; 'Task
manager' udk a&G;cs,fvdkufwJhtcgrSmawmh zGihfxm;wJh tab
(pmrsufEmS wpfcck sif;tvdu
k )f awG&UJ memory oH;k pGaJ eyHu
k kd
azmfjyay;rSm jzpfygw,f/ tJ'DtcgrSm udk,fh PC twGuf
b,fpmrsuEf mS [m memory udk odoo
d mom oH;k pGaJ eovJ
qdkwmudk odEdkifjyD; y,fzsufEdkifwJhtwGuf surfing vkyfwJh
tcgrSm jrefqefvmwmudk &&Sdygvdrfhr,f/
20/'Shift eJY Escape' cvkwfawGudk wGJzufESdyfwJhtcgawmh
chrome browser &JU Task manager xJukd tjrefq;kH qdu
k f
a&mufygvdrhfr,f/

about: cache
about: dns

23/'about: crash' udk address bar udk ½dkufvdkufwJhtcgrSm
awmh crash jzpfwJh tab awGudk awGU&Sd&ygvdrhfr,f/
24/Windows XP wpfckwnf;rSmom tvkyfvkyfwJh easter
egg vdkYac:wJh aysmfp&muav;wpfckuawmh "about:
internets" jzpfygw,f/ address bar rSm tJ'Dvdk ½dkufvdkuf
wJhtcgrSm udk,fh&JU screen saver av;awGudk azmfjyay;yg
vdrhfr,f/
25/crome uae web page wpfck&JU source code awGudk
vG,fvihfwul ul;,lzdkYtwGuf webpage rSm right click
ESdyfjyD; view source code uae wpfqihf ul;,lvdkY &yg
w,f/ tJ'Daemuf "inspect element" qdkwmuawmh tJ'D
webpage udk jyifqifa&;om;zdkYyg/ Developer awG
twGuf tvGeftoHk;0ifwJh tool wpfck jzpfygw,f/

21/add-ons udak wmh chrome rSm plug-ins vdYkyJ vwfwavm
rSm ac:qdkygao;w,f/ address bar rSm 'about: plugins'
qdkjyD; ½dkufvdkufwJhtcgrSm b,fvdktrsKd;tpm; plugins
awGudk install vkyfxm;ovJqdkwmudk od&SdEdkifygw,f/
22/Address bar rSm ½dkufEdkifwJh wjcm; command awG &Sdyg
ao;w,f/
about: stats
about: network
about: histograms
about: memory

110

uGefysLwm*sme,f

26/Google chrome udk ud,
k hf PC twGuf default browser
taeeJY xm;csifw,fqdk&ifawmh 'tools' button uae
options udk a&G;vdkufyg/ tJ'D box xJrSm &SdwJh 'Basics'

uGeyf sLwmtaxGaxG
tab udk click ESdyfjyD; 'Make Google chrome my default
button' udk click ESdyfvdkuf½HkygyJ/

27/tEÅ & m,f & S d w J h
cookies awG u d k
zsufcsifw,fqdk&if
awmh nmbufrSm
&S d w J h Tools>
options>under
the hood udk a&G;

cs,fyg/ atmufudk
qif;vdkufjyD; 'security section' udk
a&G ; yg/ tJ ' D r S m

'show cookies' udk click ESdyfyg/ 'DxJurS individual
cookies udk click ESdyfjyD; zsufypfEdkifygw,f/

28/History, cache eJY browse vkyfxm;cJhwJh wjcm; tcsuf
tvufawGudk ypfcsifw,fqdk&if tools icon atmufrSm &Sd
wJh 'dear browsing data' udk click ESdyfjyD; zsufypfEdkifyg
w,f/
29/wjcm;aom a&muf&SdoGm;vmcJhwJh webpage awGeJY rSwf
wrf;awGudk zsufcsifw,fqdk&ifvnf; 'clear browsing
data' udk click ESdyfjyD; zsufypfEdkifygw,f/
30/Browser history awGudk clear vkyfjyD; zsufypfcJhayr,fh
toHk;rsm;wJh? tzdk;wefwJh google udk,füu ,HkMunfwJh
page awGudkawmh jyefvnf ac:,lvdkY &ygw,f/

Gmail
Gmail twGuf script ig;ck
Enhance Gmail
Gmail box twGif;rSm vuf&Sd &SdaewJh mail box tjyif
google calendar udkyg aygif;xnfhay;rSm jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D
twGuf ud,
k hf Gmail xJuaewpfqihf vkyif ef;vkyu
f ikd f aqmif

&Gufp&m &SdwmawGudk a&;jyD; rSwfom;xm;vdkY &Edkifygr,f/
'ghtjyif tckcsdefrSm toHk;r0ifawmhwJh 'invites' box udk
z,f&Sm;ay;r,fh scripts wpfck jzpfygw,f/
http://userscripts.org/scripts/show/13727
Gmail account multi-login

FB Gmail

'D script uav;udk install vkyfvdkufwmeJY udk,fh&JU
browser uaewpfqihf &Sd&SdorQ Gmail awGudk tvG,fwul
0ifa&muf Munf½h EI ikd jf yD jzpfygw,f/ pmrsufEmS [db
k uf'b
D uf
0ifa&mufMunfh½IEdkifwJhtwGuf Gmail account ESpfck? oHk;ck
&SdolawGtwGuf toHk;0ifygw,f/ nmbufaxmihfrSm ay:
vmwJh box xJrSm aygif;xnfhvdkuf½HkygyJ/ atmufrSm wpfqihf
csif; jyay;xm;ygw,f/

Facebook oH;k pGw
J hJ user awG twGuf facebook twGi;f
rSm a&muf&Sdvmr,fh owif;awGeJY wjcm; today;rIawGudk
Gmail box twGif;uae vG,fvihfwul od&SdEdkifrSm jzpfyg
w,f/

http://userscripts.org/scripts/show/1634i

Gmail twGi;f udk a&muf&v
dS mwJh pmawGrmS wGcJ sw
d f yg0if
vmwwfwhJ attachment awG[m ,HMk unf&ovm;/ tEÅ&m,f
uif;&Sif;&JUvm; qdkwmudk b,folrS rodEdkifygbl;/ 'D script
uav;uawmh 0ifa&mufvmwJh mail awG&JU attachment

http://www.userscript.org/script/show/2419
Attachment Reminder

atmufwb
kd mv? 2008 111

uGeyf sLwmtaxGaxG
zdkif extension awGudk azmfxkwf today;rSmjzpfwJhtwGuf
pmrzwfcif attachment udk click rvkyrf cd ifrmS tvGef toH;k
0ifwJh tEÅ&m,f owday; script wpfckyg/

qDudk ydkYr,fh mail rSmvnf; vufrSwfeJYtwl ½kyfyHkuav;awG
csdwfqufatmif vkyfxm;vdkY &&SdEdkifwJh script wpfck jzpfyg
w,f/

http://www.userscripts.org/scripts/show/2419

http://www.userscripts.org/scripts/show/16839

Gmail insert HTML signature

- script awGudk install vkyfzdkYtwGuf userscript account
wpfck&,f? greasemonkey add-ons manager &,f vdktyf

wcsKdUudk,fhqDudk a&mufvmwJh mail awG&JU atmufajc
vufrw
S af e&mawGrmS ½kyyf akH v;awGeYJ wGcJ sw
d f yg0ifwwfwmudk
jrifzl;rSmaygh/ tJ'DvdkrsKd; udk,fhqDuae wjcm;vlwpfa,muf

13. Blog
Blog ra&;cif odoihw
f hJ tcsuf (10) csuf
udk,fh&JU pdwfcHpm;csufuav;awG udk tifwmeufxJu
oli,fcsif; taygif;toif;awGqDudk rQa0zdkY MudK;pm;Munfhcsif
aejyDvm;/ Blog pjyD; ydYk zYkd qH;k jzwfjyD;jyDvm; cPav; aevdu
k f
ygOD;/ a[m'D ar;cGe;f av;awGukd t&ifzwfMunfjh yD;rS ud,
k yf ikd f
blog uav; wpfckudk tjypftemtqm uif;uif;eJY wnf
aqmufMu&atmif/
D m;/
1/ browser rsK;d pHek JY prf;oyfjyv
udk,fa&;om;xm;wJh blog [m browser rsKd;pHk IE, opera, flock firefox, safari, chrome, gecko pwJh browser
rsKd;pHt
k ay:rSm wifjyD; uJjG ym; jcm;em;wmawGukd ppfaMumMunfh
rd&JU vm;/ 'g[m blogger orm; tawmf rsm;rsm;&JU t"dueJY
trsm;qHk; usL;vGefwwfwJh trSm;wpfckygyJ/ rsm;aomtm;jzifh
vlwpfa,muf[m oltm;oefwhJ browser ay:rSmom prf;oyf
avh &SdMuygw,f/ tJ'DrSmajym&&if browser wpfckcsif;&JU
image eJY text twGuf vufcHrIcsif;[m rwlnDygbl;/ 'g
aMumifh browsershots.org vdkrsKd; service awGeJY multiple
browsers awGay:rSm prf;oyfoHk;pGJjyD;rS blog udk vlodapwm
[m ydjk yD; aumif;ygw,f/ EdYk rYkd q&kd if jzpfavhjzpfwwfwt
hJ wdik ;f
banner awG&JU width eJY height awG tcsKd;tpm; rwlnDwm
awGupvdkY trSm;awG awGUvm&ygw,f/
2/ Feed awG tvkyv
f yk &f v
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udk,fh&JU blog.com/feeds tJ'Duaewpfqihf udk,fh blog
xJrSm&SdwJh owif;topfawGudk jzefYcsd&rSm jzpfygw,f/ Sub-

112

uGefysLwm*sme,f

ygvdrhfr,f/

f m;cJjh yD; mail
scriber awGuvJ feed awG twGuf Email csex
box uaeom access vkyfrSm jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumihf Feed
awG tvkyfvkyfzdkY odyfta&;MuD;ygw,fvdkY "www.feedburner.com" udk oHk;pGJr,f qdk&if yxrqHk;taeeJY udk,fh&JU
Feed udk ud,
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news awG u d k feed taeeJ Y ud k , f u vuf c H & jyD q d k j yD ;
tqifajyygjyD/ aemufjyD; feed button udk blog atmufajcrSm
ae&mrcszdkY tMuHay;yg&ap/ taumif;qHk;ae&mu nmbuf
acgif;pOfeJY reD;vGef;? ra0;vGef; &Sd&r,fhae&maygh/
wcsKdUawG uawmh banner tay:rSmudk ae&m csavh&ydS gw,f/
sidebar

3/ sitemap wdus&v
UJ m;/
Sitemap uvJ ta&;MuD;wJhae&mrSmudk &Sdygw,f/
Search engine awGrSm &SdwJh &SmazGa&; ,EÅ&m;awG[m tJ'D
sitemap awGuaewpfqihf olwdkY&JU engine xJudk tcsuf
tvuf pkaqmif; jznfhqnf;wmrsKd; jzpfygw,f/ SEO eJY
ranking twGuf b,ft&mu ta&;MuD;qHk;vJqdkwmudk avh
vmEdkifovdk vdktyfwJh tultnDawGvJ &EdkifwJh ae&mwpfck
&Sdygw,f/ http://www .google.com/webmasters jzpfyg
w,f/
4/ 'About' eJY 'contact' &JU tvkyv
f yk yf kH aocsm&Jv
U m;/
Blogger wdkif;vdkvdk about eJY contact udk vspfvsL½Ird
wwfMuygw,f/ trsm;tm;jzifh 'default' page taeeJYyJ xm;
vdkufjyD; ta&;rMuD;vdkY ,lqxm;MuyHkygyJ/ Default about
page [m rjynfr
h 0 rulnED ikd yf gbl;/ 'g[m blogger twGuf
a&;Edkif&if a&;Edkifoavmuf 0ifaiG&&SdEdkifr,fh pmrsufESmESpfck
jzpfygw,f/ wu,fvdkY about eJY contact rSmom blogger

uGeyf sLwmtaxGaxG
&JU pmrsufESmwcsKdU &Sdraebl;qdk&if wjcm; advertising
aMumfjim&SifawGqDuae b,fvdkrsKd; 0ifaiG &&SdEdkifygawmhrvJ/
5/ Link awG tukev
f ;kH udk ppfaq;jy;D jyD qdw
k m aocsmovm;/
Blog udk vTww
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kd m[m vG,u
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udk,fhrSm&SdwJh blog xJrSm csdwfqufxm;wJh link awG tvkyf
vkyfzdkYqdkwmuawmh odyfudk ta&;MuD;ygw,f/ about, contact eJY wjcm; ta&;MuD;wJh link awG[m blog twGif;rSm
csdwfqufjyD; tvkyfvkyfwm rSefuef&JUvm; rvdkvm;tyfwJh
ae&mawGudk a&mufaeao;ovm;qdkwm ta&;MuD;ygw,f/
6/ Technorati vdk social bookmarking awGrmS aMumfjimEdik rf mS
vm;/
blog wpfck[m b,fvdkenf;ynmrsKd;eJY taumif;qHk;
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qdkwm[mvnf; udk,hf blog udk vlodapzdkY vdkygw,f/ tck
aemufydkif;rSm acwfpm;vmwJh social network eJY bookmarking site awGrSm register vkyfjyD; aMumfjim&ygr,f/
Stumple upon, delicious eJY Technorati wdkY[m olwdkY
udk,fwdkifawGvJ blog tvkyfudkvkyfovdk bookmarking
tvkyaf wGuykd g ulnD vkyaf qmifay;avh &Syd gw,f/ 'gaMumihf
blogger [m olY&JU blog [m b,fvdk zGJUpnf;xm;jyD; b,fvdk
taMumif;t&mrsKd;awG yHkrSefyg0ifaeygw,f qdkwmudk oGm;
a&mufjyD; aMumfjim armif;cwf&ygw,f/
7/ rmwdum &S&d v
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Content zJGUpnf;yHkaumif;raumif; qdkwm blog eJYwif
oufqdkifwm r[kwfbJ wjcm;jyify subject awGeJYyg ouf
qdkifygw,f/ vkyfief;wpfcktwGuf tajccH tkwfjrpfjzpfwJh
'managment' &SdzdkY vdktyfovdk tGefvdkif;*sme,fjzpfwJhtwGuf
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r,f/ Oyrmtm;jzifh enf;ynm (technology) bavm*f qdyk g
awmh? yg0ifoihfwJh acgif;pOfi,fawG[m (google, apple,
web2.0, tips, trids pojzifh yg0ifoihjf yD;awmh gmail twGuf
qdk&if google acgif;pOfatmufuae jyefvnf cJGxkwfay;
&ygr,f/

8/ azmfjyr,fh taMumif;t&mawG tqifoihf &Sjd yv
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azmfjyr,fhtaMumif;t&m tqifoihf &Sd? r&Sd qdkwm[m
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axmifhtjrifrS wifqufxm;w,f/ yl;
aygif; vkyaf qmifvsuf&adS om collaborating objects rsm;xuf owif;pum;
messages rsm;&JU a&SUaemuf tpDtpOf
sequence udk ydkjyD; tav;ay;w,f/
Messages awG&JU tpDtpOfudk pm&Guf
ay:rSm taetxm;eJY ay:vGiaf tmif a&;
qGJjyw,f/ tcsdef[m tpDtpOf[m

atmufwb
dk m? 2008 119

uGeyf sLwmtaxGaxG

Statechart diagram erlemwpfck

tay:rSatmufoYkd oGm;w,f/ Collaboration diagram eJY sequence diagram
ESpcf pk vH;k udk interaction diagrams vdYk
&nfñTef;Muygw,f/
Application requirements
twGufoHk;wJh aemufqHk; diagrams u
awmh statechart digram jzpfygw,f/
Object wpfcc
k sif;pD&UJ tajctae states
eJY tjyKtrl behaviour udk jyw,f/
Object class wpfckpDrSm statechart
wpfck&Sdw,f/ Statechart xJrSm aemuf
qHk;ü tjyD;owfpepf&JU logic awG jzpf
vmr,fh vkyfaqmifrI azmfjycsuf action statements awG ygw,f/ xdk
class wpfcc
k sif;pD&dS logic components
tpdwftydkif;awGudk methods awGvdkY

ac:ygw,f/
ck a ecgrS m xd k diagrams rsm;
tm;vHk; wpfckeJYwpfck rnfodkY qufET,f
aeonfudk rSwfrdzdkY MudK;pm;r,fhtpm;
atmufyg yHpk t
H wdik ;f yJ rSwrf ad tmif vkyf
yg/ OO requirements = Event Table + Class diagram + Use Case diagrams + Interaction Diagrams (collaboration and/ or sequence dia-

120

uGefysLwm*sme,f

grams) + statechart Diagrams.
jynfhpHkaom requirements azmfjy
csuf ay;EdkifzdkY&m xdktrsKd;rsKd;aom diagrams awG wpfce
k YJwpfck axmufyyhH rkH sm;

a&SUqufazmfjyoGm;ygr,f/
'Dae&mrSm xyfí ajymcsifwmu
tpOftvm structured approach eJY
object oriented approach tMum;

jcm;em;csufu development enf;
vrf;rSm r[kwfygbl;/ toHk;jyKwJh model rsm; tpkwGifom uGmjcm;wmyg/
csOf;uyfenf;wpfckpDtwGuf SDLC u
wlnaD om phases tqifrh sm;&Syd gw,f/
Planning, analysis, design eJY implementation awG jzpfygw,f/ Phase
tqihw
f pfcpk t
D vdu
k f vkyaf qmifz,
G &f m
activities rsm;onfvnf; twlwlygyJ/
toHk;jyKwJh models rsm; tpkonfyJ
uGmjcm;jcif; jzpfygw,f/ Activities
twGi;f tvkyw
f m0ef task wpfcck sif;u
awmh models wnfaqmufzdkY&m tm½Hk
pdkufvdkY uGJjym;&ygw,f/ Oyrmtm;jzifh
DFD udk aqmufr,hftpm; Analysts
[m interaction diagrams eJY statecharts awG wnfaqmuf&r,f/ Object-oriented csOf;uyfenf;twGuf
yHkwltMudK prototyping jyKvkyfrI yrm
PeJY tqihfuawmh uGmjcm;Edkifw,f/
'gayr,fh b,fcsO;f uyfenf;twGurf qdk
prototyping vk y f a qmif z G , f & m[m
SDLC &JU wpfpdwfwpfydkif;jzpfygw,f/
yHkrSm structured csOf;uyfenf;eJY

uGeyf sLwmtaxGaxG
object-oriented csOf;uyfenf;ESpfck
pvHk;twGuf requirements diagrams
udk jyKvkyfay;wJh trsKd;rsKd;aom diagrams awG jyefí azmfjyay;xm;yg
w,f/ ERD eJY class diagram [m rwl
wJh trSwftom; notation oHk;ayr,fh

azmfjyzdkY&m oHk;wJh diagrams odkYr[kwf
models awG tawmfMuD; uGmjcm;Muwm
ygyJ/ ,ck use cases, interaction
diagrams eJY state chart awG b,fvdk
wnfaqmuf&r,fqdkwm qufí avh
vmMuygpdkY/

bHw
k n
l aD om oabmt,lawG a0rQ ydik f
qdkifxm;w,f/ Method ESpfcktMum;
t"du jcm;em;csuf process 'grSr[kwf
system activities awG udk,fpm;jyK

An Object-Oriented Use Case/
Scenario View
Event wpfckudk wHkYjyef&if; sys-

azmufonfu w,fvzD ek ;f jzifh trSm ûyvkyo
f nf scenario

tem u vkyfaqmifwmudk object-oriented csOf;uyfenf;rSm use case qdkwJh

tac:ta0:eJY oHk;w,f/ &nf&G,f&m
udp&ö yfwpfcktwGuf system udk toHk;
jyKwJh udpö case odkYr[kwf tajctae
situation udk use case wpfcktjzpf
awG;MunfhEdkifw,f/ Oyrmtm;jzifh pmpD
pmjyK word processing system wpfck
udk pOf;pm;Munfhyg/ ¤if;udk use case
analysis vkyf&mrSm letter wpfapmif
a&;onf/ odkYr[kwf newsletter udk
y&ifhxkwfonf ponfuJhodkY trsKd;rsKd;
aom use cases awG owfrSwf azmf
xkwf&ygw,f/ 'D analysis rSm ta&;
MuD;wJh concepts ESpfck yg&Sdw,f/ (1)
vlyk*dK¾ vfwpfOD; yg0ifjcif;? (2) vlyk*dK¾ vf
u system udk toH;k jyKjcif;jzpfygw,f/
UML rSm yg0ifwJh vlyk*d¾Kvfudk actor
vdkY ac:w,f/ Actor [m system &JU
tvdt
k avsmufvyk af qmifrI abmifuv
em; automation boundary &JU tjyif
bufrSmyJ tjrJ&Sdw,f/ Actor udk awG;
MunhfzdkY&m tjcm;enf;u yg0if&wJh
tcef; role jzpfw,f/ Word Processing OyrmrSm tufaq;wpfyk'fa&;zdkY
word processor oHk;wJh student actor wpfO;D &SE
d ikd w
f ,f/ aqmif;yg;wpfy'k f
udk wnf;jzwfzdkY word processor udk
oH;k wJh editor actor vnf; &SEd ikd yf gw,f/
vlyk*d¾KvfwpfOD;wnf;u roles rsm;pGmrS
yg0ifEdkifw,f/ Student, editor, publisher ponfrsKd; jzpfygw,f/ Oyrm
taeeJY RMO &JU create new order
use case rSm ta&mif;udk,fpm;vS,fxH
azmufonfu zke;f eJYwpfqihrf mS Mum;wm
yg0ifEdkifw,f/ tJ'Dtcg sales representative u actor jzpfw,f/ tjcm;
wpfzufrSm azmufonfu tifwmeuf
ay:u wdkuf½dkuf atmf'grSmwmqdk&if
customer u actor jzpfvmygw,f/
yHkrSm use case wpfckudk rSwfwrf;

atmufwb
dk m? 2008 121

uGeyf sLwmtaxGaxG
tions" awG ygEdkifw,f/ xdkwpfqihfcsif;

azmufonfu 0ufbt
f rSm ûyvkyo
f nf scenario
wifyHk jyxm;w,f/ ½dk;pif;aom wkwf
acsmif;yHk vl½yk ef YJ actor ud,
k pf m;jyKw,f/
xdv
k ½l yk yf rkH mS actor yg0ifwhJ tcef;u@
role udk rSnfhac: trnfay;xm;w,f/
Use case udk,fEIdufudkawmh txJrSm
¤if;&JU trnfeJY bJOyHk azmfjyxm;w,f/
Actors eJY use cases awGMum; rsOf;
vdkif;uawmh b,f actors awG? b,f
use cases awGrSm yg0ifovJ ñTefjyyg
w,f/
Scenarios
Use case wpfck[m actor wpfOD;
u uGeyf sLwm system jzifh wHYk jyef quf
oG,í
f business activity aqmif&u
G yf kH

122

uGefysLwm*sme,f

udkom azmfjyw,f/ Use Case wpfck
[m tay:tqihf tao;pdwfrusaom
vTr;f jcHKrdonfh azmfjycsujf zpfw,f/ Use
case wpfck jyD;ajrmufapzdYk &m tpOfvu
kd f
vkyfaqmif&wJh oD;jcm;tqihfuav;
awG yg0ifEdkifw,f/ xdkwpfqihfcsif;udk
ZmwfaMumif; jyefajymjywJhtaeeJY flow
of activities vdkY ac:Muw,f/ Use
case wpfcktwGif; twGif;ydkif;tqifh
internal steps 'grSr[kwf activities
awG azmfjyw,f/ "Create new Order"
use case twGuf t"dutqihfawGu
"Record customer information",
"Record order", "Process order
transaction" eJY "Produce confirma-

pDudk xyfrHí owfrSwfazmfjyEdkifao;
w,f/ Flow of activities qdkwm use
case wpfcktwGif;u steps tqihfawG
&JU taxGaxG azmfjycsufygyJ/ udpö
trsm;pkrSm xdkazmfjycsufudk ydkíyif
tao;pdwf xyfusatmif csJUxGifzdkY vdk
w,f/ rMumcPqdo
k vdk use case wpf
ckrSm a&G;p&m tpDtpOf enf;aygif;
rsm;pGmeJY twGif;ydkif; vkyfaqmifzG,f internal activities awG yg0ifEdkifw,f/
Oyrmtm;jzifh system eJY wHkYjyef quf
oG,faewm[m customer vm;? clerk
vm; qdkwmtay: rlwnfjyD; "Create
new order" use case rSm vkyf&rnfh
tasks tpDtpOf twdtusu uGJjym;
oGm;Edkifw,f/ wlnDaom use case rSm
rwlwJh sequence &Sdaer,f/ xdkrwl
aom sequence awGudk Zmwfvrf;pOf
scenarios vdkY ac:ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh
scenarios qd k w m use case wpf c k
twGi;f oD;oefYvrf;aMumif;cGJ wpfcjk zpf
aom internal activities rsm; tpkudk
owfrSwfazmfjyxm;jcif; jzpfygw,f/
Use case wpfcktwGif; oD;jcm; udk,f
ydkifvrf;aMumif;wpfckudk udk,fpm;jyK
w,f/ RMO OyrmrSm 'Create new
order' use case twGuf tenf;qHk;
Zmwfvrf;pOf scenarios ESpfck&Sdw,f/
Scenario wpfckudk ]]azmufonfu
w,fvDzkef;jzifh trSmjyKvkyfonf}} jzpf
EdkifjyD; tjcm;wpfckudk ]]azmufonfu
0ufbftrSmjyKvkyfonf}}[k ac:Edkif
w,f/ atmufrSm Zmwfvrf;pOf ESpfck&JU
tao;pdwfudk jyxm;w,f/
azmufonfrS w,fvzD ek ;f trSm
jyKvyk jf cif;twGuf flow of activities
Main Flow

azmufonfu RMO odkY zkef;ac:
um trSmpma&;ESifh pum;ajymonf/

uGeyf sLwmtaxGaxG
trSmpma&;onfh azmufonf\ owif;
tcsufrsm; rSef rrSef ppfaq;onf/
tu,fí yxrqHk;tMudrf azmufonf
jzpf v Qif customer record topf
zefwD;onf/ azmufonfu atmf'g
trSmtwGuf yxrqHk; item trnf
awmif ; cH o nf / þonf u order
topfzefw;D zdYk &m cvkwjf zKwfay;onf/
pma&;onf xdk items u stock vuf
usef&Sdao;vm; ppfaq;jyD; trSm ta&
twGuf awmif;cHonf/ azmufonfu
items wpfcp
kq
D ufí awmif;cHjyD; pma&;
u ppfaq;um order wGif aygif;xnfh
onf/ aemufqHk;wGif azmufonfu
ay;acs&rnfh tcsufrsm; payment information udk awmif;onf/ pma&;u
ppfaq;onf/ Order udt
k oih[
f k trSwf
tom;jyKjyD; scenario jyD;qHk;onf/
Exception Conditions
Item u vufusef stock

wGif
r&SdvQif azmufonfonf ¤if;udk rrSm
awmh&ef a&G;Edkifonf/ azmufonf\
Credit u ,HkMunfzG,f raumif;vQif

vufcHr&rcsif; order qdkif;iHh
xm;&onf/
check

azmufonfrS 0ufbftrSmjyKvkyfjcif;
twGuf flow of activities
Main Flow

azmufonfu RMO &JU homepage odYk qufo,
G o
f nf/ Order page
\ Link odkY ESdyfum oGm;onf/ azmuf
onftopftaeeJY jzpf&if customer
page topfoYkdomG ;jyD; vdt
k yfwhJ owif;
tcsufawG jznfhoGif;onf/ vQKdU0Suf
password vnf;ygonf/ aemuf system u catalog pmrsuE
f mS odYk links jzifh
ydkYay;onf/ azmufonf[m catalog
udk category eJY item tvdkuf &Smonf/
rSmp&mawGUwJhtcg "Add to shopping
cart" button udk ESdyfjyD; item udk cart

odkY aygif;xnfhonf/ tm;vHk; aygif;
xnfhjyD;wJhtcg rSmxm;wJh items awG
jyefvnf ½Ijrif oHk;oyfzdkY display jyefjy
ay;onf/ azmufonfu b,f item
rqdk ajymif;Edik af o;onf/ 'Daemuf system u aiGay;acszdkY&m form jyonf/

azmufonfu aiGay;acsrI information a&;oGif;onf/ trSmudk vufcHjyD;
wJhaemuf tusOf;csKyf 0ufbfpmrsufESm
jyonf/ tusOf;csKyf tD;ar;vfudkvnf;
azmufonfxH ydkYonf/ System [m
oufqikd &f m items trsK;d tpm; vdik ;f t&
vnf; order udk aqmufonf/
Exception condition

wpfcg rSmzl;jyD; azmufonfjzpfí
password arhaecJhvQif billing information topfeJY customer account
topf zefwD;&rnf/ Credit card u
tusHK;0if rSefuefrI Validation udk
rausmfvTm;EdkifvQif check udk vufcH
r&rcsif; order udk qdkif;iHhxm;&rnf/
azmufonf[m 24 em&DtwGif; order
qD jyefoGm;jyD; jyifcsif&m jyifEdkifonf/
Use Case Diagram
Use case diagram
tors eJY use cases awG

qdkwm actaMumif;
owif;tcsufawG tusOf;½Hk; azmfjy
aom yHkjy model jzpfw,f/ Use case
analysis jyKvkyfzdkY&m system udk wpfck
vHk;taejzifh Munfh&jyD; pepfudk t"du
toHk;jyKrIrsm;tm;vHk; owfrSwf azmf
xkwfzdkY&m MudK;pm;&w,f/ xdktjyKtrl
awG[m yHkrSeftm;jzifh event table
twGif; owfrSwfcJhaom business
events awGrS qif; ouf vm w,f/
Use case yHkjyum;csyfudk tjcm; wpf
enf; vSnfhawG;Ekdifwmu pepfwpfckvHk;
&JU vkyfaqmifrI functional azmfjycsuf
jzpfygw,f/ System topfu axmuf
yHah y;&r,fh vkyif ef;aqmifwm function
udk owfrSwf azmfxkwfay;ygw,f/
aemufvrSm Use case diagram
taMumif; tao;pdwf qufí wifjy
ay;oGm;ygr,f/
Modula-2

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RA3 xGufzdkY eD;uyfvmcsdef xkwf
vkyfolGreg Kasavin eJY awGYqHkum
Gamespot u rocket launchers eJY
sonic disruptors tMum; jcm;em;rI
aqG;aEG;jzpfcw
hJ ,f/ jyD;awmh Jenny Mc
Carthy eJY o½kyfaqmifrIeJY tem*wf&JU
okwfoif owfjzwfa&; assassins

taMumif;rsm; yg0ifw,f/
RTS *dr;f awG[m wrif oufouf
aES;atmifvkyfxm;wJh *E¦0if turnbrsed strategy *drf;awGudk ydkjrefjyD; ydkí
csufcsif;vufiif; ta&;ay:jzpfwJh awGY
MuHKcHpm;rIjzpfatmif MudK;yrf;jcif;rS
pwifcJhw,f/ &if;jrpfawG &dwfodrf; pk
aqmif; vnfywf vkyaf qmifzYkd &m tajc

pdu
k f pcef;awG tprSaejyD; wnfaqmuf
&efoal wGacsrIe;f zdYk &m army udk wwfEidk f
orQ jrefjrefvrdS x
hf w
k &f w,f/ ESprf sm;pGm
MumvmwJt
h cg ydí
k yifjrefvmjyD; action
tjynfh jzpfvmw,f/ tMuD;qH;k eJY tpGr;f
txufqHk; armies rsm;jzifh upm;
olrsm;tMum; oGuv
f ufaom ,SOjf ydKifrI
tjrJjzpfcw
hJ hJ oufawmf&n
S f Command
& Conquer pD;&D;&JU xnfh0ifrI aus;Zl;
awG trsm;MuD; yg&Scd w
hJ ,f/ C & C vkid ;f
&JU aemufvmr,fh*drf;Red Alert 3 rSm
action-packed game play tpOf
tvm qufí o,faqmifvmqJrSm
twefi,f enf;y&d,m,fygaom methodical pace yg&Sv
d mvdrrhf ,f/ ajrjyif

tajcpkduftjyif a&aMumif; ppfrsufESm
jyifyg xnfhoGif;xm;wJhtwGuf upm;
ol[m todÓPf&Sd&Sd uif;axmufaezdkY
vdkjyD; a&xJqif;zdkY qHk;jzwfxm;ol jydKif
bufudkoGm;í rwkdufEkdifjcif; risk rSm
a&Smif&mS ;zdYk &mvdak ew,f/ RA pD;&D;xH;k pH
yHkpHus xHk;wrf;r[kwfaom ,lepfawG
(avxD;eJYckefqif;wJh0uf0HwkdY? oabFm
qGEJ pS w
f hJ uif;rGew
f Ykdukd pOf;pm;Munfah v)
pGr;f tm;MuD;vufeufeYJ &,farm aysmf&iT f
p&m [morsm;vnf; qufvufyg&Sv
d m
w,f/
Soviets bufvnf; jrifc&hJ jy/D Japanese
bufvnf; jrifc&hJ jy/D tck Allied faction
u Red Alert 3 odkY bmawG aqmif,l

ay;vmrvJ ajymjyygvm;/ ckjrif&wJh owd?å
rsK;d csppf w
d ef YJ yDjyifoyf&yfwhJ Munfah umif;rI
awG tjyifayg/h
Allies bufu RA3 urÇmudk pdwf
oabmxm; &ifhusuf rQwrI ay;xm;
w,f/ olwdkYu Soviet war machine
eJY Empire of the Rising Sun rS 0g;rsKd
oGm;rIukd a&Smif&mS ;zdYk &m MudK;pm;wJh urÇm
vH;k qkid &f mtiftm;pkukd uk,
d pf m;jyKw,f/
Freedom twGuf wku
d cf u
kd zf Ykd&m pkpnf;
rdaom ppfrSefwJh global faction jzpf
w,f/ 'gayr,fh yHkpHusuvDa&S;jzpfae
wJh "good guy" faction rjzpfatmif
awmh a&SmifMuOfxm;w,f/
tjynfjynfqkdif&m nGefYaygif;tzGJY

124

uGefysLwm*sme,f

Mo*kw?f 2008 124

Preview
vdk pGrf;tm;MuD;
,lepftopfawGvnf; awGY&r,f/
Century Bombers

C & C *drf;awG&JU mission rsm;tMum;
Mum;jzwf½kyf&Sif cut scenes rsm;pGmrSm

a[mvd0k'ftqifh&Sd o½kyfaqmifrI orkdif;
aMumif;MuD; &SdcJhw,f/ t&if Jenny Mc
Carthy u uGerf ef'kd Tanya tjzpf jyefygO;D
rSmvm;/ ajymjyprf;yg/ [kww
f ,fvyYkd J Mum;
csiw
f ,fAsm/
[kwfygw,fwJhAsm/ Jenny Mc
Carthy u RA3 eJY tone eJY style t&
tHus0ifaew,f/

jzpfwmeJYtnD tawmfav; ½IyfaxG;
tqifhjrifhwJh enf;ynmjzifh qif,if
jc,foxm;w,f/ Faction oHk;ckxJrSm
ukdifwG,f xdef;ausmif;&wm ynmom;
ygjyD; open-ended combat tactics
awG yg0ifw,f/ pGrf;tm;jyif; wpfrl
xl;wJh powers eJY txl; pGrf;aqmif&nf
awGygw,f/ Defensive approach
MudKufwJholawG jydKifbufxuf ydkí om
vGefaom ,lepfrsm; udkifwG,fvdkolawG
u Allies udk MudKufMuvdrfhr,f/ MuD;
rm;wJh uke;f a&ESpaf xGom; wdu
k o
f abFm
MuD ; awG ? tmumoywf v rf ; xJ u
satellite defense networks 'grS
r[kwf tajymaumif; smooth-talking
pykdifu &efoludk vmbfxdk;jyD; 0wfpHk
ajymif;0wfwmrsKd;awG yg&Sdw,f/

tay: atmifyGJtm; tcsnf;ESD;jzpfapcJhjcif;
tjyifayg/h
t&omysufoGm;rSmpdk;vdkY trsm;
MuD;awmh xkwfrajymcsifbl;/ ouf
a&mufru
I Allies udk cHppfbuf a&muf
oGm;apw,f/ topfjzpfjyD; rwljcm;em;
aom Allied Technologies tjzpf ¤if;
&J U tusKd ; quf xif & S m ;ay:xG u f c J h
w,f/
xl;qef;wmu tcsdefc&D;oGm;[m
Allies awG & J U taumif ; qH k ; vuf
eufawG zsuq
f ;D ypfEidk cf w
hJ mawmh r[kwf
bl;/ RA y&dowfrsm;tMudKuf Attack
Dogs eJY Aircraft Carriers awG qufí
yg&Sdvmr,f/ Athena Cannons eJY

Einstein u Allies awG twGuf wDxiG rf I
awG ray;urf;Ekid af wmhwt
hJ cg Allies awG
pdwMf uKd uo
f ;kH zdYk units topfeYJ ,mOfawGu

bmawG jzpfvmrvJ/
Allies awG[m Einstein rygay
r,fhvnf; xl;uJaom units topf
rsm;pGm yg&Sdygw,f/ Assault Destroyers awGu {&mr ppfoabFmMuD;awG
jzpfjyD; ukef;ay:armif;wufum &efol
awGukd ypfEidk w
f ,f/ Black-hole armor
tumtuG,zf iG jhf yD; ypforQ pky,
f 0l g;rsKd
Ekdifw,f/ tumtuG,f tm;enf;wJh
Hdyrofoils av;awGudk umuG,fay;
xm;Ekdifw,f/ 'DaumifawGu vsif
jref j yD ; zsuf t m;MuD ; antiaircraft
vufeufeJY &efolawG rypfEkdifatmif
vkyfwJh weaponjammer device yg

Soviets bufu tcsdefc&D;oGm; assa
sins udk twdwfodkYvTwfjyD; Einstein udk
z,f&Sm;ypfcJhw,fqdkawmh Allies tay:
b,fvkd oufa&mufapcJo
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hJ hJ Soviets

atmufwb
dk m? 2008 125

Preview

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usKHUoGm;r,fhtoH rSef;qMunfhyg/
Dawn of War II eJY Company of
Heroes vdk RTS *dr;f awGu oif,
h el pf awG
vIyf&Sm;upm; atmifEkdifav upgrades
jr§ifhay;av jyKvkyfay;wJh roleplaying
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cHpm;rIeJY wG,jf iv
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126

uGefysLwm*sme,f

p&m wGJzuf co-Commander Zmwf
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w,f/ upm;wJh campaign tay: rl
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Preview
yg/ Soviet Dread-nought rS {&mr
rocket launchers oHk;ckygw,f/ Rising Sun &JU Shogun Battleship rS
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aumifawGvnf; jzpfw,f/ Navy buf
tom;ay;wJh RTS *drf;awGu enf;
vGef;w,f/ jyD;awmh naval units rS
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awmif enf;OD;r,f/ Soviet Akula
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pdw0f ifpm;p&m taumif;qH;k vkyaf y;wJh
rsufESmpm[m coorperative play ywf
vnfrIwnfjzpfyGm;wJh mission design
ygyJ / &rf ; a&mf rS e f ; qrI a wG t pm;
vufawGYazmfaqmifMunfhjyD; tusKd;
&v'fMunfhzdkY&m tcGifhtvrf;rsm;pGm
yGifhusvmcJhw,f/

pD;&D;&JU campaigns awGu ydkí
ouf0ifvIyf&Sm;vmjyD; pdwfvIyf&Sm;p&m
jzpfvmw,f/ RTS *drf;rSm urÇmudk
u,fzdkY MudK;pm;&if; MuHKawGY&avh&SdwJh
xbDrEkdif y0grEkdiftjzpfrsKd; avsmhap
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tcg ESpfa,mufwpfzGJY two-on-two
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solo rSm oifu uGJjym;aom co-Commander Zmwfaumif udk;OD;rS wpfOD;eJY
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tay:rlwnfjyD; tcsKdUu oifhrdwfaqG
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olru Tanya r[kwb
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ol&JU wDxGif zefwD;ÓPf creativity
&Sd&if &Sdoavmuf reward ay;jyD; jyef
upm;csifp&m replayability udk ay;
urf;xm;ygw,f/

atmufwb
dk m? 2008 127

1989 ckEpS f Jordan Mechner &JU rlv Prince of Persia rSmwke;f u tvGeq
f ;kH
ajymEkid v
f S tcsed ef m&Djzifh tajy;jyKd i&f wJh side-scrolling, platforming action rQomyg/
aemufwpfq,fah v;ESpt
f Mum Ubisoft &JU csKyu
f idk fMu;D pk;d rI atmufü Prince of
Persia udk opfvGifvwfqwfaom pdwfvIyf&Sm;p&m pGefYpm;cef; *drf;odkY

ajymif;ay;cJhw,f/ PoP [m r,HkEkdifp&m uRrf;bm;tpGrf; acrobatics tcsdefudk
aemufjyefoGm; EdkifpGrf;ESifh jyif;xef Murf;wrf;aom wkdufyGJrsm;[k xyfxljyK
em;vnfvm&w,f/ Sands of Time rS onf pD;&D; oH;k ckwidk cf yhJ gw,f/

Preview
pD;&D;&JU a&yef;pm;rIeJY atmifjrifrIudk
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&if;jrpf xdef;xm;qJrSm vHk;0wpfrluGJwJh
qef;opfazmufxGufrI vdkvdrhfr,f/ E3
2008 rSm demo ay:xGufcJhpOfrSmawmh
xkv
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k ef if;
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ydkif;rSm vHk;0tptqHk; jyKjyif ajymif;vJ
xm;ayr,fh upm;olrsm; &if;ESD; tom;
usjyD; wlnaD om PoP universe xJrmS yJ
tajcwnfxm;w,f/ Prince rjzpf
ao;aom Prince jzifh ZmwfaMumif;
topfwnfxm;ygw,f/
arQmfvifh apmifhpm;p&mtjzpfqHk;
tajymif;tvJu pdwfMudKuf vSnhfvnf
oGm;vmEkid w
f hJ Free-roaming environment ygyJ/ upm;oltm; bmawGudk
b,ftpDtpOfeJY vkyf&rvJqkdwm a&G;
cs,fcGifhay;xm;w,f/ ywf0ef;usifudk
cJ&mcJqpf vrf;aMumif;&Sm oGm;&wm
tckxufxd PoP &JU aysmaf rGUzG,&f m tjrJ
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aom prince u olY freeroaming vSnfh
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ysKdav;uvnf; *drf;wpfavQmuftazmf

130

uGefysLwm*sme,f

Preview
vdu
k v
f may;ygOD;r,f/ Puzzle-solving
vrf;aMumif;&Sm oGm;vmjcif;eJY wkdufyGJ
awGrSm tvGeftrif; toHk;0ifwJh NPC
qkdwm awGU&r,f/ Open-ended rSm
jzpfwwfwhJ vrf;aysmufreI YJ MuHKawGU&&if
Elika u oifh objective &SmawGUEkdif&ef
vrf;jy tdrfajr§mif compass wpfck
jzpfvmvdrhfr,f/ todÓPfvnf; &Sdyg
w,f/ oifh&JU a&TUuGuftwkdif; wkHYjyef
vIyf&Sm;vdkY oifhoGm;vrf;rSm uefYvefYcH
aewmrsKd; b,fawmhrQ &Srd nf r[kwyf g/
vHk;vHk;MuD; zGifhxm;wJh sand box
adventure awmh r[kwfao;yg/ 'DpD;&D;
rSm tjrJausmMf um;cJw
h hJ crf;em;vSpmG aom
acrobatic a&TUuGuaf wG&UJ tusK;d tjrwf
&zdkY&m tasks awGu &nf&G,fxm;wJh

twkdif;twmtxd linear tpOfvdkuf
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tpydik ;f rSm &efoal wGeYJ wku
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&ygr,f / twd k u f t cd k u f y H k p H o pf r S m
AsL[majrmuf wpfOD;csif; one-on-one
duels yHkpHjzpfr,f/ wpfOD;csif;pD[m
'boss' fight ozG , f jzpf v mr,f /
tonf;toeftm;xkwrf eI YJ yg;eyf csuf
csmrI vdkw,f/ ywf0ef;usifudk enf;AsL
[majrmuf oH;k zdYk vdyk gw,f/ ,cif PoP
awGu cvkwu
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PoP udk topfvGifqHk; jzpfatmif
vkyfay;wmu tEkynmajrmuf yef;csD
um;ozG,f yHkazmfay;xm;jcif;yg/ Developer tzGJUu illustrated style vkdY
ac:w,f / 'pö a e;&J U cel-shaded
umwGef;qefqef/ aocsmwmu realistic udk unrealistics eJY yHkazmfay;ovdk
yJ/ pwdkifus cel-shaded udk realism
eJY a&mpyfx
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w,f/ eufeJ odrfarGUwJh *&yfzpf effect awGvnf; ygvmw,f/ teufa&mif
jymawG avxJviG yhf g;aeyH?k ajrjyiftay:
oJ? zkefrIefYawG jzwfajy;yHk? tvif;
awmufyHkrsm;u ywf0ef;usifurÇmrSm
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yHkazmfay;aeovkdygyJ/ oabFmom;
qif;bwf? pwm;0g;pf [efqkdvdkwkdYESifh
wlaom Zmwfaumifopf pGeYf pm;avvGihf
ol[m 0dkif? rdef;reJY aumfaZmay:u
pnf;pdrfcsrf;omaemuf &SmyHkawmf zGifh
&if;rS Prince jzpfvmyHk ZmwfaMumif;
azmfxm;ygw,f/

atmufwb
dk m? 2008 131

uGeyf sLwmoifcef;pm

Creating a Good Picture in Picture
,ckoifcef;pmwGif Frame wpfckudk Title window xJwGif
pdwfwkdif;uszefwD;jyD; video file twGif;xnfhum yHkwpfck
ay:wGif yHw
k pfcx
k yfí vkyaf qmifEidk af om Effect yHpk u
H kd jyKvkyf
oGm;rSmjzpfygw,f/
1/ 1. Adobe premiere pro 2.0 xJoYkd0ifí project topf
wpfck ,lxm;ay;yg/ File > New > Title <F9> udk
a&G;yg/ Title dialog box usvmygu "Frame title"
emrnf½dkufxnfhay;yg/ Rectangle tool udka&G;í
screen tjynfhqGJay;yg/ atmufygwefzdk;udk Title
properties panel wGif ½dkufxnfhay;yg/

#BOA272) Inner Stroke rS Fill ae&mwGif Bevel udk

a&G;jcif;tm;jzifh oH;k zufjriftem;vkid ;f yHpk H &&Sv
d mygrnf/
tvif;tarSmif ta&mifrsm; twdtus&&eftwGuf
HSB (H : Hue, S: Saturation, B: Brightness) Color

udk toHk;jyKjcif; jzpfygw,f/
3/ Stroke wefzdk;rsm;xJrS lit pmom; check box udk
trSefjcpf jzKwfay;yg/ tem;vkdif;tpGef;rsm;wGif ydkrdk
vif;vmonfudk awGY&ygrnf/

Width = 648, Height = 480
Position : 324 X , 240 Y
Opacity : 100 % , Rotation : 0. 0

2/ 2. Title styles panel xJwGif Fill pmom;a&SU&Sd Check
Box wGif trSefjcpf jzKwfay;yg/ Stroke a&SU&Sd jrm;wGif
ESdyfí inner stroke xnfh&ef Add button wGif click
ESdyfyg/ Inner stroke wefzdk;rsm;udk azmfjyygtwkdif;
½dkufxnfhay;yg/
Type : Edge , Size : 40 , Fill Type : Bevel , Highlight Color : 47, 35,100 (HSB, Golden Color # FFE
CA6)
Highlight Opacity :100
Shadow Color : 47, 35, 69 (HSB, Brown Color

132

uGefysLwm*sme,f

4/ Frame tem;vkdif;rsm; azmif;<uyHkpHjzpfcsifygu Tube
wGif trSefjcpfudk xnfhay;yg/

5/ Title > Templates <Ctrl +J > udka&G;yg/ Title template dialog box usvmygvdrfhrnf/ Arrow button
menu wGif click ESdyfí save frametitle as Template

uGeyf sLwmoifcef;pm
udk a&G;yg/ Template emrnfwpfckowfrSwfí OK
wGif click ESdyf/ User Templates folder atmufwGif
Title Template wpfck&&Sdvmygvdrfhrnf/ txufyg
vkyfaqmifcsufjzifh custom Template rsm;udk zefwD;
Ekdifygonf/ Close button wGifESdyfí Template xJrS
xGufay;yg/

6/ Close button wGif xyfESdyfí Title panel xJrS
xGufxm;ay;yg/ File > Import jzifh toHk;jyKvdkaom
video file wpfckudk project panel xJodkY ac:xnfh
ay;yg/ Video file udk video 1 Track wGix
f m;í Frame
Title udk video 2 track xJoYkd qGx
J nfah y;yg/File >Save
jzifh odrf;ay;yg/ Play button ESdyfí preview Munfhay;
yg/

7/ File > New > Sequence udka&G;í Sequence topf
,lay;yg/ Sequence 02 taejzifh &&Sdvmygrnf/ File
> Import jzifh toHk;jyKvdkaom video file wpfckudk
ac:xnfhay;yg/

8/ ac:xnfhxm;aom video file ukd video 2 track xJodkY
qGJxnfhay;yg/ Project panel xJrS Sequence 01 udk
video 1 track xJodkY qGJxnfhyg/

9/ Video 2 track rS Sequence 01 file udk click ESdyfí
select vkyfay;yg/ Effect Controls panel xJrS Motion udka&G;yg/ Scale wefzdk;udk 40 % ½dkufxnfhay;yg/
Position udk 530 ESifh 123 ½dkufxnfhay;yg/ tay:
nmbufaxmifhwGif &&Sdvmygvdrfhrnf/

10/ Effect > video Effects > Perspective > Drop
shadow effect udk video 2 track &Sd sequence 01
ay:odkY qGJxnfhay;yg/ azmfjyygtwkdif; wefzdk;rsm;udk
effect controls panel rS Drop Shadow wGif ½du
k x
f nfh
ay;yg/ Preview Munfhay;yg/ Color : Default Distance : 46 Black Opacity: 45 Softness : 40 Direction : 135

atmufwb
kd m? 2008 133

uGeyf sLwmoifcef;pm
11/ vIyf&Sm;rIwpfckudk qufvufjyKvkyfyg/ Video 2 track
rS Sequence 01 file udk select vkyfay;yg/ Home
key ESdyfí Edit line udk a&SUodkY a&TUxm;ay;yg/ Effect
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12/ Timeline xJrS Duration ae&mwGif 300 ½dkufxnfhí
Edit line udk 3 second ae&modkY a&TUay;yg/ Scale
wef z d k ; ud k 25 % ½d k u f a y;yg/ Keyframe auto
xnfhoGm;ygvdrfhrnf/ End key ESdyfí Edit line udk
aemufqHk;odkY a&TUay;yg/ Scale wefzdk;udk 0 ½dkufay;yg/
MuD;&mrS wjznf;jznf; ao;oGm;ygvdrfhrnf/

13/ Edit line udk 3 second ae&modkY jyefa&TUay;yg/ Rotation a&SU&Sd Toggle animation button wGif click ESdyfí
keyframe xnfhay;yg/ End key ESdyfí Edit line udk
aemufqHk;odkY a&TUay;yg/ Rotation wefzdk;udk 180º
½dkufxnfhay;yg/ Preview Munfhí odrf;ay;yg/

134

uGefysLwm*sme,f

14/ DVD format taejzifh Export jyKvyk Mf unfyh gr,f/ File
> Export > Export to DVD udk a&G;yg/ Burn DVD
dialog box wGif setting 3 rsKd;&Sy
d gr,f/ DVD acGtjzpf
xkwfvkdygu Burn to ae&mwGif Disc udka&G;í pufxJ
wGif odrf;xm;vkdygu Folder udk a&G;csjyD; Image
taejzifh odrf;xm;vkdygu ISO Image udk a&G;ay;&yg
r,f/ pufxJwGif DVD format (VOB) taejzifh Export vkyfMunfhygr,f/ Burn to ae&mwGif Folder
udka&G;yg/ Folder Name udk emrnfwpfck owfrSwfí
odrf;rnfhae&mtwGuf Browse button wGifESdyfjyD;
vrf;aMumif;wpfck owfrSwfay;yg/ Burn button wGif
click ESdyfí Export xkwfay;yg/ Export xkwfjyD;ygu
owfrSwfxm;aom folder atmufwGif VOB format
jzpf DVD file udk jrifawGY&ygr,f/

rsK;d rif;xGe;f

Word Annoyance

pdwt
f aESmift
h ,Sujf zpfp&m Word jyóem
tcef; (4) tykid ;f (2)
Real Indents

ESit
hf wl Spaced

Indents

rsm;udk

jyef x m;,l j cif ;
Annoyance

rdwfaqGwpfOD;u paragraph wpfckpD\ tpwkdif;wGif
space av;ck csxm;vkyfudkifavh &Sdonf/ vufESdyfpuf ½kduf
vmcJah om tavhtusiw
hf pfc[
k k xifjrif ,lq&onf/ rnfoYdk
yif jzpfap tqkdyg space rsm;ae&mwGif first-line indent
wpfcjk zihf tpm;xk;d xm;&Sv
d ydk gonf/ odYk&mwGif rnfoYkdvyk u
f ikd f
,l&rnfukd tajz&Smr&cJhay/
Fix
Double replace tvkyfwpfckjzifh tvm;oP²mefwlae
onf/ ^P tpm;xk;d jcif;ESihf space av;cktwGuf ^P tpm;xk;d
jcif;wdkYtjyif uGJjym;jcm;em;apaom distinctive string wpfck
wkYd yg&Sad eonf/ Oyrm ^P firstlineindent uJo
h Ykd jzpfaeonf/
¤if;aemuf firstlineindent (odkYr[kwf rnfonfhtcgwGifjzpf
ap) Avmewd¬jzifh tpm;xkd;ay;onf/ odkYaomf paragraph
formatting vkyf&ef vkdtyfonf/ "Replace with box" \
contents rsm;udk z,fxkwf,ljyD; format drop-down list rS
Paragraph udk a&G;ay;um indentation level udk cs,l&
onf/ jyD;vQif OK udk click vkyfay;vkduf&onf/ xkdYaemuf
Replace All udk ESdyfay;vdkuf&rnf/ wjcm; enf;vrf;tae
jzifh whitespace udk z,fxkwfxm;&SdjyD; (^P udk tpm;xkd;jcif;
ESifh spaces av;cktwGuf ^P tpm;xkd;jcif;) firstline indent udk toHk;jyK&ef style wpffckudk toHk;jyKjyD; paragraphs
tm;vHk;udk vkyfay;Edkifonf/ aemufydkif;wGif styles ESifh ywf
oufí tao;pdwf wifjycsufrsm; awGUjrifvm&ygvdrfhrnf/

Formatting
Annoyance

ESifh

Codes

rsm; zGifhcsjcif;

tpOfwpdu
k f wordperfect toH;k jyKvmcJo
h nfo
h jl zpfaom
aMumifh word rSm rnfoYkd formatting vky&f rnfukd tcuftcJ
jzpfae&onf/ Reveal Codes Option bmaMumifh rygoenf;
qkdonfhtcsufudk odvkdygonf/
Fix

oDtkd&Dt&rl Reveal Codes options udk word twGif;
oH;k &ef rvdt
k yfay/ Formatting udk ppfaq;jcif;twGuf tjcm;
enf;vrf;rsm; &Sdaeygonf/
Ä Font formattting udk ppfaq;&eftvdkYiSm Format u
wpfqifh Font okdY oGm;í Font dialog box twGif;rS
settings udk ppfaq;,l&onf/ (odkYr[kwf formatting
toolbar ay:rS controls rsm;\ status wGifvnf; Munhf
Ekdifonf/)
Ä Paragraph formatting udk ppfaq;&eftvdkYiSm Format
u wpfqifh Paragraph okdY oGm;í Paragraph dialog
box twGif;rS settings udk ppfaq;,l&onf/ (Alignment uJhokdYaom settings twGuf Formatting toolbar
ay:wGiv
f nf; buttons rsm;udk ppfaq; Munhf½IEdkifygao;
onff/)
Ä Tab Formatting udk ppfaq;&eftvdYk imS ruler udk Munh&f
rnf/ odkYr[kwfu Format uwpfqifh Tabs odkYoGm;í
Tabs dialog box twGif;rS setting udk ppfaq;,l&
onf/
Ä Style udk ppfaq;&eftvdkYiSm document window av;
\ b,fbuf&Sd style area display udk Munhf&onf/

atmufwkdbm? 2008 135

uGefysLwmoifcef;pm
(Tools rS Options odkY oGm;í View tab udkESdyfum oifh
avsmfaom width wpfckudk csdefay;&onf/ qkdMuygpkdY/
''Style area width'' box xJrS 1 udk a&G;ay;Ekdifonf/
Style area onf Normal view twGi;f om &Edi
k yf gonf/

vuf

wkYd

t

nTe;f

rdrdtaejzifh style area display ESihftwl vkyfudkifcJhygu
style udk tvkt
d avsmuf a&G;cs,fay;xm;whJ style dialog
box yGifhvmap&ef style area twGif;rS style trnfwpfck
udk double-click vkyfjcif;jzifh &Edkifonf/

rdwfqufay;xm;cJh&onf/ What's This? qdkonf feature
jzpfonf/ Help udk a&G;cs,fjyD; What's This ukv
d nf; &,lEikd f
onf/ okdYr[kwf Shift + F1 udk yl;ESdyf&rnf/ ar;cGef;trSwf
tom;wpfckESifh arrow wpfckudk mouse pointer u jyay;
onf/ Figure 4-4 wGif jrifawGU&onfhtwkdif; ¤if;\ formatting tao;pdwf azmfjyay;ap&ef paragraph wpfckudk
click vky,
f &l onf/ tvk&d o
dS nft
h avsmuf aemufxyf paragraph rsm;udkvnf; click vkyf&jyD; pointer udk restore
vkyf&ef Escape udk ESdyfay;vdkuf&onf/ tqkdyg vkyfief;pOf
onf jyD;cJhonfh Option xuf ydkaumif;ygonf/

Ä Language udk ppfaq;&eftvkdYiSm Tools rS Language
odkY oGm;um Set Language udk ac:,l&onf/ Language dialog box twG i f ; &S d settings rsm;ud k
Munhf½Ippfaq;&onf/
Ä Page Setup udk ppfaq;&eftvdYk imS File rSwpfqifh Page
Setup odkY oGm;um Page Setup dialog box twGif;&Sd
Settings rsm;udk Munhf½Ippfaq;,l&onf/
wpffenf;qkd&aomf Settings rsm;udk ae&mwkdif;rSmvdkvkd
&Sad eonf/ Formatting information \ tpdwt
f ykid ;f rsm;udk
twdtus avhvmEdik af &;twGuf rnfoYkdziG ,
hf &l rnfukd odxm;
&ef vdktyfonf/
Word 2000 twGuf rausreyfajymqkdcsufrsm; 10 ESpf
avmuf jyefvnfajzMum;ay;ae&onfh tawGUtMuHKrsm;t&
formatting information &&Sda&;twGuf tjcm; option udk

Figure 4-5
Word \ Reveal
Formatting pane onf
Word-Perfects \
Reveal Codes feature

twGuf tpm;xk;d Ekid jf cif;
r&Sad omfvnf; Word
taejzifrh l taumif;qH;k
tcGit
hf a&; ay;ygonf/

Figure 4-5 wGif jrifawGU&ouJhodkY Reveal Formatting task pane rsm;ESifhtwl Word 2003 ESifh Word XP
wGif ydkrdk wkd;wuf aumif;rGefvmonf/ Format uwpfqifh
Reveal Formatting udk oGm;Ekdifonf/ tqkdyg task pane
rS font rsm;? paragraph rsm;ESifh section formatting rsm;udk

Figure 4-4
What's This qko
d nfh Formatting pop up onf Word
2003 ESihf Word XP wk\
Yd Reveal Formatting task pane
\ precursor jzpfonf/

136

uGefysLwm*sme,f

cGJwrf;cs aqmif&GufrItwGuf yHhydk;aqmif&Gufay;onfhtjyif
tjcm; relevant formatting wpfckckudkvnf; aqmif&Gufay;
ygao;onf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh table wpfcktwGif;u a&G;cs,frI
jzpfcJhvQif table formatting &Ekdifonf/ tao;pdwf ykdjyD;vkyf
udkif&eftwGuf relevant dialog box odkY a&muf&Sd&ef Links
wpfckudk click vkyf,lEdkifonf/

tu,fí Reveal Formatting task pane wGif rnf
onfh formatting udk toHk;jyKEdkifrnfudk tao;pdwf vHkvHk
avmufavmufjyrvmcJyh gvQif Levit ESihf James wkYd\ Cross
Eyes udk prf;oHk;Mu&rnf/ (http:www.levitjames.com/
crosseyes/CrossEyes.html). Figure 4-6 wGif CrossEyes
u formatting tao;pdwftm;vHk;udk jyay;onf/ Document \atmufajc&Sd pane wpfcw
k iG f yHyh ;kd aqmif&u
G af y;onf/

mended option for" settings onf Options List twGi;f rS
oifhavsmfonfh boxes rsm;udk word vdk ppfaq;,laponf/
WordPerfect document tqkdyg settings rsm; ae&m

wusjzpfjyD;aemuf xyfrí
H zGiMhf unh&f ygrnf/ jyóemt&if;cH
udk cGJjcm; odjrifvQif Option dialog box udk aemufwpfMudrf
jyefac:jyD; check trSwftom; odkYr[kwf uncheck trSwf
tom;udk jyKvkyaf y;&onf/ prf;oyf avhvmcsuw
f pfck jzpfae
apygvdrfhr,f/ vkyf&vG,fulcJhygu okdYr[kwf rdrdajymif;xm;
aom WordPerfect document udk ydkjyD; udkifwG,fEdkifvQifyif
prf;oyfavhvm&usKd; eyfoGm;apygvdrhfrnf/

Figure 4-6
CrossEyes rS rnfonfh formatting jzpfonfukd twdtus
uGuw
f jd zpf&jcif;onf document wpfc\
k rnfonfh tpdwf

tydik ;f udk toH;k jyKxm;onfukd azmfjyay;onf/
WordPerfect rS Conversion udk adjust vkyjf cif;
Annoyance
rdr&d UJ WordPerfect document udk Word twGi;f zGi,
hf l

aomtcg aMumufp&maumif;avmufatmif ½kyyf sufqif;ysuf
jzpfoGm;cJhonf/

Figure 4-7
Word \ Compatibility options onf wjcm; format
wpfco
k Ykd document udk rSeu
f efpmG import vkyEf idk af &; twGuf

tultnDay;Ekid o
f nf/ od&Yk mwGif taumif;qH;k &v'f wpfc&k &ef
manual settings rsm;jzifh csed n
f §d xkw,
f El ikd &f ygrnf/

Fix
WordPerfect twGuf conversion abmiftwGif; adjust vkyf&ef vdktyfonf/ Tools rSwpfqifh Options okdYoGm;
um Figure 4-7 wGif jrifawGU&onfhtwkdif; Compatibility
tab udk click vkyf&onf/ jyD;vQif ''Recommended options for" udk drop-down list twGi;f rSqaD vsmfonfh WordPerfect version udk a&G;ay;&onf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh ''WordPerfect 6.x for Windows" [k a&G;ay;&onf/ "Recom-

wpfae&modYk ykaYd qmifrnhf
wG , f u yf a y;jcif ;

document

wGif

Fonts

rsm;

Annoyance
rdr\
d family newsletter udk formatting vkypf Of jynfph kH

rI&adS p&eftwGuf tcsdeaf y;cJ&h onf/ odYk &mwGif vufc&H &So
d u
l
ol\uGefysLwmwGifzGifhMunfhaomtcg fonts rsm;tm;vHk; vGJ
rSm;aeawmhonf/ tpm;xk;d xm;onfh fonts rsm;ESihf a&maESmae

atmufwkdbm? 2008 137

uGefysLwmoifcef;pm
Formatting vkyif ef;pOfwiG f Word ESihf WordPerfect

rnfonfh twGuaf Mumifh jiif;qefrI &Sad e&oenf;/
Word ESihf WordPerfect rsm;xJrS version trsm;pkonf
formatting udp&
ö yfrsm;tay:wGif oabmuGv
J rJG aI wG &Sad ecJyh g
onf/ taMumif;rSm formatting twGuf toH;k jyKonfh marking rsm; uGJjym;jcm;em;aeMuvdkYyifjzpfonf/ WordPerfect
taejzifh document wpfckudk tprStqHk; characters rsm;udk

pOfqufrjywf pD;qif;ap&efom pOf;pm;ay;onf/ tqkdyg
pD;aMumif;twGif; oifhavsmfaom ae&mrsm;wGif formatting
J yfay;cJo
h nf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh WordPerfect
codes rsm;udk wGu
wpfct
k wGi;f u Word wpfcu
k kd bold jzifh &Sad eapcJv
h Qif blodon code wpfck? pum;vHk;\ pmvHk;rsm;ESifh bold-off code
wkYdtm;vH;k onf text stream wpfcw
k nf;twGi;f rSm &Sad eaprnf
jzpfonf/
Formatting wGif Word taejzifh rwlnDonfhtjrifrsKd;
&Sdaeonf/ Word twGif; document wpfckpDonf section
vdkuf? paragraph tvdkufESifh character ,lepftvkduf wnf
aqmufxm;onf/ Word document wpfck\ text onf
plain text taejzifh ykí
d aomfvnf;aumif;? avsmí
h aomfvnf;
aumif; saved vkyx
f m;jyD; jzpfonf/ Default section break
twGif;&Sd property table wpfckwGif file \ atmufydkif;
wpfae&mpDtwGuf formatting vkyf odr;f xm;onf/ (tu,f
í document wpfckonf Section rsm;jzifh cGJjcm;xm;cJhygu
Section wpfckpD\ property table onf Section \ tqHk;
owfwGif rSwfom;xm;aom section break twGif; odrf;
qnf;xm;wwfygonf/) Formatting \ ae&mcsxm;rIonf
text twGi;f oifah vsmo
f nfah e&mrsm;wGif pointers udk toH;k jyK
í odrf;qnf;xm;onf/ rnfuJhodkYaom taMumif;aMumifh
jzpf&oenf;[lrl Word document wpfco
k nf ysupf ;D ,d,
k iG ;f
vmjyDqkdygu formatting onf odom xif&Sm;pGm a&GUvsm;
oGm;wwfouJhodkY tm;vHk; twlwuG aysmufuG,fívnf;
oGm;Ekdifygonf/
Property tables rsm;onf formatting txajrmufjcif;
twGuf ydkíxda&mufrI jyKay;Edkifaponf/ odkYaomf document stream wGif ½dk;½dk;yHkpHjzifh rjrifEkdifay/ Code jzifh xnhf
xm;onfhyHkpHtaejzifhom awGU&rnf/ Word ESifh WordPerfect wdYk wi
G f formattings enf;vrf;wpfcpk u
D kd tjcm;enf;vrf;
odkY bmomjyefay;r,fhvkyfief; vkyfay;Edkifonfh converters rsm; yg&Sdonf/ odkY&mwGif tifrwef ½IyfaxG;onfh formatting udpr
ö sm;udkrl rukdifwG,fapay/

138

uGefysLwm*sme,f

onf/ tqdk;qHk;rSm Layout tajctaeyg ysufjym;jcif;jzpf
onf/
Fix

yxrqHk; rnfonfh trSm;t,Gif;aMumifhenf;[k &SmazG
rdaumif; &SmazGxm;rdygvdrrfh nf/ vufczH wf½o
I \
l uGeyf sLwm
wGif rdrdtoHk;jyKxm;onfh font r&Sdojzifh tjcm; font rsm;
tpm;xkd; zGifhjyonfvm;[k tajz&SmMunhfwmrsKd;udk qkdvkdyg
onf/ tpm;xdk;onfhudpt
ö wGuf rwlnDaom space twkdif;
twmrsm; &SdcJhyguvnf; Layout tajctaeajymif;vJoGm;
Ekdifygonf/ ESpfckpvHk;aMumifhvnf; ydkjyD; aomua&mufapEdkif
ygonf/
tqkyd gudpt
ö wGuf ESpcf v
k yk Mf unhEf ikd yf gonf/ yxrwpfck
rSm rdrdtaejzifh vufcHolxHwGif rdrd fonts rsm; r&Sdavmuf[k
wGufqjyD; fonts rsm;yg toifhxnhfay;vdkufjcif; jzpfonf/
Oyrmtaejzifh Arial, Time News Roman ESifh Tahoma
uJhodkY fonts rsm;rSmrl vlwkdif;wGif &SdaewwfjyD; usef fonts
trsKd;tpm;rSm raorcsm &Sdaewwfonf/ 'kwd,wpfckrSm
embed vkyfay;onfhenf; jzpfonf/
1/ Tools udk a&G;í Option udk oGm;um Save tab udk
click vkyy
f g/
2/ rdrd document wGiftoHk;jyKonfh TrueType fonts rsm;
tm;vHk;\ character set tjynfhtpHkudk embed vkyf&ef
' Embed TrueType fonts' ukd ppfaq;Munhfyg/
3/ Character sets tjynht
f pHk embed vkyjf cif;tm;jzifh file

vuf

wkYd

t

nTe;f

WordPerfect document wpfcu
k kd Word version tjzpf
ajymif;,lxm;cJhvQif conversion options rsm;udk n§pf

xkwf,ljyD;aemuf vufcHavmufonfxuf avsmhenf;pGm
&SdaeqJjzpfjyD; WordPerfect odkY access vkyfqJ jzpfae
apum WordPerfect twGi;f document udk zGijhf yD; Rich
Text Format (RTF) jzpfaomfvnf;aumif;? HTML format jzifhaomfvnf;aumif; save vkyfxm;ay;onf/
Word onf tqkdyg formats rsm;udk ydkí wdwdusus
zwfEkdifpGrf;&Sdaumif; &Sdygvdrhfrnf/ odkYaomf rdrdtaejzifh
WordPerfect \ advanced formats rsm;ESifh features
rsm;awmh RTF odkYr[kwf HTML twGif; qHk;½IH;oGm;Edkif
p&mtaMumif; &Sdonf/

size u

tqrwef MuD;oGm;Edkifygonf/ rdrd document
udk zwf½Ioltaejzifh wnf;jzwf,lrnfh vkyfief;&SdrSom
jyKvkyfoifhonf/ "Embed Characters in use only"
box wGif check trSwftom;vkyfjyD; omreftqifhjzifh
vkyfaqmifjcif;onf azmif;yGrI avsmhusoGm;aponf/ rdrd
taejzifh Word 2003 okdYr[kwf Word XP udk toHk;jyK
cJhvQif Do not embed common system fonts box
wGif trSwftom;vnf; jyqkdvkdygvdrhfrnf/ þenf;jzifh
rdrdrdwfaqGwGif tqkdyg fonts &&SdoGm;apEdkifonf/
4/ OK udk ESdyfyg/
5/ Document udk Save vkyjf yD; rdrt
d ;D ar;vfuwpfqifh rykYd rD
file t&G,ftpm;udk ppfaq;Munhf½Iyg/ tu,fíom
fonts wpfyHkwpfyif toHk;jyKxm;jyD; toHk;jyKorQudk embedded vkyfay;vkdufrnfqkdygu MuD;rm; av;vHjyD;
tD;ar;vfwGif o,faqmif&ef tcuftcJ &SdoGm;Ekdifapyg
onf/

rdrd\

fonts tm;vHk;udk Word rS cif;usif;ay;jcif;
Annoyance
Fonts tajrmuftjrm; install vkyfxm;cJhonf/ odkY&m
wGif Word rS drop-down lists ESifh font dialog box rS 10
cpi, 12 cpi ESifh 17 cpi [lí t&G,ftpm;oHk;rsKd;twGif; Device Font om cGifhjyKvmygonf/ rdrdtaejzifh cpi qko
d nfrmS
character per inch [k t"dyÜm,faygufygonf/ odkYaomf
þodkYjzpfrvmay/ rdrd fonts rsm;udk word jzifh rnfodkY quf

oG,af qmif&u
G rf jI yKap&efneT Mf um;&rnfukd rodjzpfaeygonf/

Figure 4-8
Font drop-down list wGif fonts rsm; aysmufaecJv
h Qif
omreftm;jzifh tqkyd g udpo
ö nf Generic/Text Only printer
jzifh install vkyx
f m;onf[k t"dymÜ ,foufa&mufaeaponf/

Fix
Word onf Genenic/Text Only printer wpfcE
k iS t
hf wl
y&ifx
h w
k &f ef wpfenf;enf;jzifh set vkyx
f m;avh&o
dS nf/ Figh Ykd tvm;wl tusK;d quf &&So
d mG ;
ure 4-8 wGif jrifawGU&ouJo
cJhjcif;jzpfonf/ Dotmatrix printer wpfckvdk uefYowfrI

tajctae&So
d nfh y&ifwmrsK;d qkyd gu ydí
k tcuftcJ&EdS idk o
f nf/
File rSwpfqifh Print odkY oGm;í Print dialog box
twGif;&Sd Name drop-down list udk click vkyf,ljyD; wjcm;
printer wpfckudk a&G;,lvdku close udk ESdyfay;vdkuf&onf/
Document qDodkY jyefoGm;jyD; Font drop-down list udk
jzpfap? Font dialog box ukjd zpfap zGiphf pfaq;Munfyh g/ rdr\
d
fonts rsm; tm;vHk; jyef&aejyD; jzpfygvdrhfrnf/

vuf

wkYd

nTe;f

t

wjcm;toHk;jyKol odkYr[kwf macro wpffck r&SdcJhvQif Generic/ Text Only printer odYk r[kwf Word twGi;f Limited printer udk a&G;xm;jyD; &Sdaewwfonf/ tcGifhtvrf;
rSm ydpD\ default printer taejzifhom wnf&Sdaeaprnf
jzpfonf/ default printer udk ajymif;&ef Start rSwpfqifh
Printers and Faxes okdY oGm;jyD; oufqkdifonfh printer
udk right-click vkyfjyD; Set as Default Printer tjzpf
a&G;cs,fay;&efom &Sdonf/

Print dialog box twGif;rS Name drop-down list
onf wjcm; printers rsm; ryg&SdcJhygu Start rSwpfqifh
Printers and Faxes odkY oGm;um Add a Printer udk Printer
Task List twGi;f wGif &Smí ESy
d ,
f &l onf/ (tu,fí Printer
and Faxes item udk start menu wGif r&SdcJhygu Start rS
wpfqifh Control Panel odkYoGm;jyD; Printer and Other
Hardware udk ESdyfum Printer and Faxes qkdonfhae&mudk
click vky,
f &l rnf) Add Printer Wizard rS rnfonfh printer
trsKd;tpm;udk rqkd vufcHxnhfoGif;ay;rnf jzpfonf/
tu,fí odkYwkdif fonts rsm; rjyvmao;cJhygu Fonts
Folders udk taotcsm ppfaq;,l&awmhrnf/ tvG,fqHk;
enf;vrf;rSm Start rSwpfqifh control panel odkY oGm;í
Appearance and Themes udk a&G;um Fonts udk ESdyf,l&yg
rnf/ tu,fí xkdae&mwGifyif fonts rsm; aysmufqHk;vsuf
&Sdaeyguvnf; jyefí install vkyf&efom &Sdawmhonf/

qufvufazmfjyygO;D rnf/

atmufwkdbm? 2008 139

uGeyf sLwmoifcef;pm

Photoshop Tutorial
Web 2.0 Style Menu zefw;D jcif;
tqifh (1)
'D icon av;udk
website &JU
menu twGuf

400 x 150 px canvas zGifhjyD; pygw,f/
Layer topf vkyy
f gw,f/ 0kid ;f pufaeaom
puf0dkif;yHk&zkdY elliptical marquee tool eJY drag
qGJ a&;qGJpOf shift ukd ESdyfxm;&ygr,f/ teuf
a&mifeJY jznfhygw,f/ Selection jzKwfygw,f/

omru tjcm;
zefpD application
awG&UJ button
tjzpfvnf;
oH;k vdYk &ygw,f/
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172

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Java Developer Guide

Chapter (7)
7.1 EVENT LISTENERS IN JAVA LANGUAGE
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toHk;jyKjyD;awmh Program awG wnfaqmuf&mrSm jyD;cJhwJh
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awGeJY tvkyfvkyf&rSmygyJ/ Events Listeners qdkwm bmvJ/
Event Listeners : If a Class wants to respond to a
user event under the Java 2 event
handling system, it must implement
the interface that deals with the
events. These interface are called
event Listeners.
Event Listeners vdkYqkd&mrSmtrsKd;rsKd;aom events awG
udk xdef;csKyfEdkifzdkYtwGuf events awG tajrmuftjrm; &Sdyg
w,f/ 'Dawmh avhvmMunhfMu&atmifvm;/ Event Listeners Interface xJrSm yg0ifwJh Listeners awGudk a&;jyxm;

• AdjustmentListener

-

• ForcusListener

-

• Itemlistener

-

• KeyListener

-

• MouseListener

-

• MouseMotionListener -

ygw,f/ avhvmMunhfyg/ uJ atmufrSm a&;jyxm;wm[m
Interface_Name awGygyJ/ aoaocsmcsm rSwfxm;aemf/
• ActionListener

- Action events, which are
generated by a user taking an action on a com-

• WindowListener

-

ponent, such as a click on
a button.
Adjustment
events,
which are generated
when a components is adjusted, such as when the
knob of a scrollbar is
moved.
Keyboard focus events,
which are generated
when a components such
as a text field gains or
loses the focus.
Item events, which are
generated when an item
such as a check box is
changed.
Keyboard events, which
occur when a user enters
text on the keyboard.
Mouse events, which are
generated by mouse
clicks, a mouse entering
a component's area, and
a mouse leaving a components's area.
Mouse movement events, which track all
movement by a mouse
over a component.
Window events, which
are generated by a win-

atmufwkdbm? 2008 173

uGeyf sLwmoifcef;pm
dow (such as the main
application window) being maximized, minimized,
moved or closed.

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jyKr,fq&dk if atmufygtwkid ;f code_line udk a&;om;jyD;awmh
toHk;cs&rSmygyJ/

Sample
(1)

public

class Class Name extends
TextListener {
// .......
}

JFrame

tck a&;om;jycJhwJh event listeners awGukd ac:,ltoH;k
csr,fqkd&if java.awt.event package xJrSm yg0ifwJh event
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twkdif; declare vkyf&rSmygyJ/
import java.awt.event.*;

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class_type sample &,f? import declare package vkyw
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&,fukd pmzwfot
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apcsifygw,f/ jyD;cJhwJh Chapter (3), Chapter (4), Chapter(5) tp&SdwJh oifcef;pmawG yg0ifwJh Java Developer
Guide Volume -I udk avhvmjyD;cJ&
h if tJ'D oifcef;pmawG[m
Swing & AWT Components awGudk Demonstrate vkyfjy
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pmuae tpjyKjyD;awmh program [m user udk Responsed
jyefvkyfay;EkdifzdkYtwGuf ydkYcsay;wmygyJ/

implements

ActionListener,

nents
addItemListener( )method-JButton, JCheckBox,
JComBox, and JRadioButton
• addKeyListener ( ) method - All Swing Components
• addMouseListener ( ) method - All Swing Components
• addMouseMotionListener ( ) method - All Swing
Components
• addWindowListener ( ) method - All JWindow
and JFrames Components
uJ tcka&;jycJhwJh method ( ) awGeJY ywfoufjyD;awmh
sample code_line av; a&;MunhfMu&atmif/ JButton qkd
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listener method eJYwGJjyD; atmufygtwkdif; toHk;csa&;om;&

rSmygyJ/ avhvmMunhfyg/

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class udk ac:,l toHk;csr,fqkd&if component awGeJY quf
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'grSomvQif oufqidk &f m components eJY ywfoufwhJ event
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ygyJ/ avhvmMunhfyg/

Sample
(2) JButton Zap = new JButton ("Zap");
Zap.addActionListener (this);
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MunhfMu&atmif/ oufqkdif&m add Listener method ( )
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'gaMumifh JButton twGuf a&;om;&mrSm Object_Name.
addActionListener (this); vdkY a&;om;xm;wmyJ jzpfyg

w,f/

• Setting Up Components


addActionListener ( ) method -JButton, JCheckBox, JComboBox, JTextField, JRadio Button and
JMenuItem components
addAdjustmentListener ( ) method - JScrollBar
Component
addFocusListener ( ) method - All Swing Compo-

174

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• Event - HandLing Methods

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jrif&rSmyg/
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(4) public Void actionPerformed (ActionEvent evt){
object src = evt.getSource ( );
}

'DtcgrSmawmh object [m getSource ( ) method t&
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atmufrSma&;jyxm;wJh Sample Code_Line [m actionperformed ( ) method xJrSm a&;om;&r,fh yHkpHrsKd;yJ jzpfyg
w,f/

Sample
(3) public Void actionPerformed (ActionEvent evt) {
// handle event here
}

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getSource( );

'D method uawmh component udk event taeeJY
vIyf&Sm;atmifvkdY qHk;jzwfay;&wmygyJ/ 'Dawmh Sample

Sample
(5) public Void actionPerformed (ActionEvent evt){
object src = evt. getsource ( ) ;
if (src = = quitButton)
quitButton ( ) ;
else if (src = = sortRecords)
SortRecords ( );
Note : 'g[m wyfqiftoHk;jyKxm;wJh Swing & AWT
components awGudk trSefwu,f vIyf&Sm; touf0ifatmif

a&;om;&wJh tcef;u@yJ jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh jyD;cJhwJh
Chapter (1), Chapter (2) u Code_Line a&;om;rIyHkpHukd
om em;vnfoabmaygufrI r&SdcJhbl;qkd&ifaygh/ JFrame
ay:rSm wyfqifxm;wJh Swing & AWT components awG[m
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line rSmqkd&if else-if statement udk toHk;jyKxm;wmudk awGU

jrif&rSmyg/
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components toD;oD;twGuf uGJjym; jcm;em;wJh methods

awGeJY zefwD; tvkyfvkyfay;Ekdifygw,f/
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Edkifygw,f/ atmufrSm a&;jyxm;wJh sample code_line rSm
qdk&if textfield wpfckeJY Button wpfckudk Program rSm xnhf

atmufwkdbm? 2008 175

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event taeeJY generate vkyfay;xm;ygw,f/
Sample
(6) void action Performed (ActionEvent evt) {
Object src = evt.getsource ( );
if (Src instanceof JTextField)
calculateSource ( );
else if (src instanceof JButton)
quitProgram ( );
}

uJ tckqdk&if Sample code_line taeeJY a&;jycJhwm
(6)ckwdwd &SdoGm;jyDqkdawmh pmzwfol[m tajccHavmufawmh
user bufu awmif;qkdwmukd program bufu Respond
vkyaf y;Ekid af tmif a&;om;&wJh program taMumif;udk oabm
aygufavmufygjyD/ &Si;f jywmudk vH;k 0em;rvnfbeJ YJ rsufpx
d J
rSm ray:wmvnf; jzpfEkdifygw,f/ 'gaMumifh smaple
code_line awGeJY EIdif;,SOfjyD;awmh a&;jyyghr,f/ tay:u
&Si;f jycJw
h hJ tcsuftvufawGukd odyjf yD;awmh em;r&Si;f &if tck
a&;jywJh yHkpHukd aoaocsmcsm avhvmMunfhyg/
1.
2.
3.

4.

5.

6.
7.

import javax.swing.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*; // event Handling udk
toHk;jyKrSmjzpfaomaMumifh rygrae& // xnhfoGif; a&;
om;&jcif; jzpfygonf/)
public Class_Name extends JFrame implements
ActionListener {
// Class_Name [m rdrd wnfaqmufr,fh program
trnf? wpfenf;ajym&&if Class_Name.java
// taeeJY save vkyf&r,fh primary Class_Name ygyJ/
'g[m Sample (1) taeeJY a&;xm;wJh
// code_line udk xnhfoGif; toHk;cswmygyJ/ Components awGudkvnf; 'DtxJrSm Declare vkyfcJh&ygr,f/
Oyrm a, a2 taeeJY Object_Name ay;cJhygr,f/
public constructor ( ) function {//Class_Name eJY
trnfwl function
// . . . . code_line rsm;
// . . . . code_line rsm;
a1.addActionListener (this); // tay:rSm zefwD;cJhwJh
components udk ac:oHk;wmyg/
a2. addActionListener (this); // Sample (2) taeeJY

a&;om;xm;wmudk ac:oHk;jywmygyJ/

176

uGefysLwm*sme,f

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

} // Close brace for constructor function
public static void main (String [ ] arguments) {
// Class create the object
}
public void actionperformed (ActionEvent evt) {
// Sample (4) wGif a&;aom code_line yHkpH/
13. Object src = evt. getSource ( ); // Sample (5),
Sample (6) wGif a&;om;
14. if (src = = quitButton); // aom code_line yHkpH
15. quitButton ( );
16. else if (src = = sortRecords)
17. sortRecords ( );
18. }
19. }
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Sample taeeJY a&;jycJhwJh code_line av;awGudk pkpnf;jyD;
awmhrS program yHkpHjzpfatmif a&;jyxm;wmygyJ/ pmzwfol
taeeJY ta&SUu a&;jycJhwJh Sample awGudk em;rvnfcJh&if

tck a&;jycJhwmawGudk aoaocsmcsm jyefjyD;awmh avhvmap
csifygw,f/
tcka&;jycJhwmawGudk em;vnfrSomvQif program [m
trSefwu,f tvkyfvkyfjyD;awmh Respond vkyfay;Ekdifygvdrfh
r,f/ 'Dawmh tck oifMum;ydkYcsay;cJhwJh code_line awGudk
tajccHjyD;awmhrS Listing 7.1 Demonstrate the User Response qkdwJh oifcef;pmudk a&;om;ydkYcsay;xm;ygw,f/
avhvmMunhfyg/
Listing 7.1 Demonstrate the User Response
1 . import java.awt.event.*;
2 . import javax.swing.*;
3 . import java.awt.*;
4.
5 . public Class ChangeTitle extends JFrame
implements ActionListener {
6 . JButton b1 = new JButton ("Rosencrantz");
7 . JButton b2 = new JButton ("Guildenstern");
8.
9 . public ChangeTitle ( ) {
10. Super ("Change the Title Bar Demonstrate");
11. SetDefaultClose Operation(JFrame.EXIT_
ON_CLOSE);
12.
b1. addActionListener (this);
13.
b2. addActionListener (this);
14.
JPanel pane = new JPanel ( );
15.
pane.add (b1);
16.
pane.add (b2);
17.
setContentPane (pane);

uGeyf sLwmoifcef;pm
18.

Pack ( );

19.

SetVisible (true);

20.

}

uJ tJ'D class xJrmS rS JButton (2) ckukd b1, b2 qdjk yD;awmh
trnfay;jyD;awmhrS zefw;D ygw,f/ vkid ;f eHygwf (6)eJY vdik ;f
eHygwf (7)rSmyg/

21.
22. public Static void main (String [ ]
argument) {
23.
JFrame Frame = new ChangTitle ( );
24.
}
25.
26. p u b l i c
void
actionperformed
(ActionEvent evt) {
27.
Object Source = ext.getsource ( );
28.
if (source = = b1)
29.
setTitle ("Rosencrantz");
30.
else if (source = = b2)

JButton b1 = new JButton("Rosencrantz")
JButton b2=new JButton("Guildenstern");

31.

setTitle ("Guildenstern");

32.

repaint ( );

uJ JButton ay:rSm yg0if&r,fh Caption Name awGudk
vnf; pmzwfol owdjyKrdjyDaemf/ jyD;awmh tJ'D JButton
awGukd constructor function xJrmS xnho
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constructor function xJrSmawmh atmufyg code_line
awGudk a&;om;ay;xm;ygw,f/ Super ( ) method udk
toHk;csjyD;awmhrS-

33.

}

super

("Change

the

Title

Bar

Demon-

34. }

strate");

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code_line awGudk tajcjyKjyD;awmh a&;jycJhwm jzpfygw,f/
'gaMumifh pmzwfoltaeeJY 'D program udk tvG,fwul avh
vmvdkY&atmifvdkY Analysis vkyfMunhfMu&atmifvm;/

vdYk a&;om;ygw,f/ 'g[m 'D program run vkyjf yDqw
dk m
eJY tJ'D TitleText eJYtwl Program [m azmfjyay;xm;
rSmyg/ jyD;awmh SetDefaultCloseOperation ( ) method
udk ac:,ltoH;k csxm;ygw,f/ jyD;awmh Object_Variable
Name awG ukd toHk;jyKjyD;awmhaddActionListener (this) method eJY ,SOfwGJjyD;awmh
toHk;csxm;ygw,f/
vkid ;f eHygwf (14)rSmawmh Jpanel class udk Object_Name
pane vkdY ay;jyD;awmh ac:,lvdkufygw,f/ jyD;awmh add
( ) method udk toH;k csjyD;awmh JButton awGukd xnho
f iG ;f
ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh -

Analysis
1/ 'D program rSmawmh java &JU package file
Declare vkyfxm;ygw,f/ 'Dae&mrSm -

(3) ckudk

import javax.swing.*;
import java.awt.*;

tp&Sw
d hJ package files awGuawmh jyD;cJw
h hJ oifcef;pmawG
rSm toHk;jyK avhvmcJhjyD;om;yg/ tck topfyg0ifvmwJh
package file uawmh import java.awt.event.*;

qkdwJh package file yJ jzpfygw,f/ 'g[m java &JU event
handling awGudk ac:,ltoHk;jyKrSmjzpfwJhtwGuf import
& Declare vkyfxm;wmygyJ/
2/ tJ'DaemufrSmawmh ChangTitle qkdwJh primary class udk
a&;om;ygw,f/ 'D primary class udk a&;om;&mrSm
JFrame Class udk extends vkyfxm;ygw,f/ 'g[m
swing package xJrSm yg0ifwJh JFrameclass udk extends vkyfxm;wmaemf/ jyD;awmh ActionListener udk
implements vkyfxm;ygw,f/ 'g[m ActionListener
Interface udk ta&SUrSm a&;om;ay;cJhovdkrsKd;ygyJ/ Implements vkyfxm;wmygyJ/ 'gqkd&ifawmh Event Listener awGtaeeJY ac:,ljyD;awmh toHk;csvdkY &jyDayghaemf/

pane.add(b1);
pane.add(b2);

vdYk a&;om;xm;ygw,f/ 'g[m JButton awGukd wyfqif
xm;vdkufwmygyJ/ usefwJh vkdif;eHygwf (17)(18)(19)rSm
a&;om;xm;wJhsetContentpane(pane);
Pack ( );
setVisible(true);

tp&SdwJh method awGuawmh &Sif;jyp&m rvkdawmhygbl;/
jyD;cJw
h hJ oifcef;pmawGrmS &Si;f jyjyD;om;rdYk xyfr&Si;f jyawmh
ygbl;/ tjrJwrf;toHk;csaewJh method awGygyJ/ 'Dawmh
'D constructor method xJrmS yg0ifwhJ txJu r&Si;f vif;
wm r&Sdawmhbl;aemf/
3/ vdkif;eHygwf (22)rSmawmh main ( ) function ukd a&;om;
xm;ygw,f/ tJ'DtxJrSmawmh ChangeTitle class udk

atmufwkdbm? 2008 177

uGeyf sLwmoifcef;pm
JFrame class eJY nd,
§ yl gw,f/ 'g[m main ( )function
xJrSm a&;om;xm;wJh code_line av;ygyJ/ 'Dawmh 'Doif
cef;pmeJY ywfoufwhJ Respond to user taeeJY zefw;D ay;
wJh code_ line & function awGudk avhvmMu&atmif

vm;/ tJ'guawmh tckoifcef;pm&JUtprSm a&;om; &Si;f jy
cJhwJh actionPerformed ( ) method yJ jzpfygw,f/ 'D
method( ) &JU Sample_Type udak wmh ta&SUrSm a&;jyay;
xm;ay;cJhjyD;om;yg/ 'Dawmh tJ'D actionPerformed ( )
method udk avhvmMu&atmifvm;/ vkdif;eHygwf (26)rSm
a&;om;xm;ygw,f/ 'D method [m tay:u ChangTitle ( ) method xJrmS a&;om;cJw
h hJ addActionListener
( ) method eJY qufET,faeygw,f/ 'Dawmh avhvmMu&
atmifvm;/ 'D method &JU Parameter_arguments
ae&mrSm ActionEvent udk evt vdYk Object_Name ay;jyD;
awmh xnhfoGif;xm;ygw,f/ a&;xm;wJh Code_ Line
awGukd avhvmMunhMf u&atmifvm;/ Object Source [m
evt.getSource ( ) method eJY nDw,f/ if wu,fvdkYrsm;
source [m b1 (JButton 1) eJY nDchJr,fqkd&if ay:&r,fh
Title pmom;[m RosencrantZ vkdY ay:ay;&ygr,f/
else if r[kwfcJh&ifawmh source [m b2 (JButton2) eJY
nDcJh&ifawmh ay:&r,fh setTitle [m
Guildenstern vkdY ay:ay;&ygr,f/
jyD;awmh tJ'DvdkrsKd; jyefjyD;awmh azmfjyay;EkdifzdkYtwGuf
repaint ( )method udk toH;k csay;xm;ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh
tJ'D code_line awGudk azmfjyay;EkdifzdkYtwGufobject source = evt.getSource( );
if (Source = = b1)
SetTitle ("Rosencrantz");
else if (Source = = b2)
SetTitle ("Guildenstern");
repaint ( );

vdkY a&;om;xm;wmyJ jzpfygw,f/ 'Dawmh program [m
tckvuf&dS a&;om;xm;wJh actionPerformed ( ) method
xJu code_line awGtwkdif; Respond jyefay;rSmygyJ/
uJ program code_line awGudk Analysis vkyfjyD;oGm;
jyDqkdawmh uRefawmfwkdYtaeeJY vufawGUa&;om;jyD;awmh avh
vmMuwmayghaemf/ uJ t&ifq;kH code_line awGukd Notepad
xJrSm oGm;jyD;awmh a&;om;yg/ tJ'Dvkda&;om;yHkudk Figure
7.1 taeeJY a&;om;azmfjyay;xm;ygw,f/ avhvmMunhfyg/

178

uGefysLwm*sme,f

Figure 7.1 Write the Program code_line in the
Notepad, ChangeTitle.java

uJ tck a &;om;azmf j yay;cJ h w J h code_line awG u d k
Notepad xJrSm azmfjyyg yHkpHtwkdif; a&;om;jyD;oGm;jyDqkd&if
awmh tJ'D Code_File udk pmzwfol[m C:\j2sdk1.4.1_01\bin atmufrSm oGm;jyD;awmh save vkyfyg/ Save vkyf&r,fh
File_Name uawmh ChangeTitle.java qkdjyD; ay;&rSmygyJ/
Note : pmzwfol[m uRefawmfh&JU pmtkyfeJYtwl ygvmwJh
CD acGukd toH;k jyKr,fq&
dk ifawmh Chapter (6)Folder xJrmS
yg0ifvmwJh code_file awGtm;vHk;udk select vkyfjyD; copy
ul;,lvdkufyg/ jyD;awmh pmzwfol&JU computer xJu C:\
j2sdk1.4.1_01\bin atmufxJudk oGm;jyD;awmh paste cs
xm;vdkuf½HkygyJ/ tJ'Dtcgus&ifawmh Code_File awGudk a&;

om;p&m rvdkawmhbl;ayghaemf/
uJ jyD;&ifawmh pmzwfol[m Start → Programs →
Accessories →Command Prompt udk zGifhvdkufyg/ tJ'D
txJrSm atmufyg command line eJY Directory path udk
change vkyv
f u
dk yf g/ 'grSom java compiler eJY Run vkyv
f Ykd
&EkdifrSmudk;/

uJ 'gqkd&ifawmh j2sdk1.4.1_01\bin atmufxJudk
a&mufoGm;jyDqkdawmh atmufyg command awGeJY Compile
& Run vkyfMu&atmifvm;/
javac ChangeTitle.java ↵
java ChangeTitle ↵
tJ'Dvdk command_line awGeJY Compile & Run vkyfvdkufjyD
CD C:j2sdk 1.4.1._01\bin

uGeyf sLwmoifcef;pm
qkd&ifawmh program udk wnfaqmufzefwD;ay;vdkufygjyD/
tJ'v
D rdk sKd; Compile & Run vkyx
f m;yHu
k kd Figure 7.2 taeeJY
a&;om;azmfjyay;xm;ygw,f/

Figure 7.4 Press the Rosencrantz Button, Change
the Title Text

uJ'gqk&d if tJ'D program xJrSm yg0ifwJh Guildenstern
qkdwJh JButton udk ESdyfvdkuf&ifa&m b,fvdkjzpfoGm;rvJ/ tJ'D
JButton rSmyg0ifwJh pmom;twkdif; Title Bar rSm yg0ifwJh
pmom;[m ajymif;vJoGm;rSmyg/
Figure 7.2 Compile & Run of the ChangeTitle.java

uJ Compile & Run vkyfvkdufwJh tcgrSm t&ifqHk;
azmfjyay;vmwmuawmh Figure 7.3 taeeJY azmfjyay;xm;wJh
Figure tkyfpkawGxJu (a) twkdif;ygyJ/ avhvmMunhfyg/
'DtcgrSm tJ'D Run aewJh ChangeTitle program rSm
Rosencrantz qkdwJh Button eJY Guildenstern qkdwJh Button awG yg0ifaewmudk awGUjrif&rSmyg/ avhvmMunhfyg/

Figure 7.3 Running the ChangeTitle.java

uJ tckazmfjyxm;whJ program xJu Rosencrantz qdw
k hJ
JButton udk ESdyfvdkuf&if vuf&Sd Run aewJh program &JU
Title Bar rSm yg0ifwJh change the Title Bar Demo qkdwJh
pmom;tpm; JButton rSm yg0ifwJh Rosencrantz qkdwJh pm
om;tjzpf ajymif;vJoGm;wmudk awGUjrif&rSmygyJ/ avhvm
Munhfyg/

Figure 7.5 Press the Guildenstern Button, To
Change the Title Text

uJ 'gqkd&ifawmh pmzwfol[m Listing 7.1 taeeJY a&;
om;azmfjyay;xm;wJh program [mqkd&if user udk Respond
ay;EkdifatmifvdkY actionPerformed ( ) method awGudk
toHk;csjyD;awmh ActionEvent awGeJY tqifajyatmif a&;
om; azmfjyay;xm;wmygyJ/ 'gaMumifh oifcef;pm&JU tpydik ;f u
aejyD;awmh pepfwus avhvmoif,lygvdkY tMuHÓPf ay;csif
ygw,f/ uJ user awmif;qdkwJhtwkdif; program uae Respones vkyfay;EkdifwJh Sample.program awGudk qufvuf
avhvmMu&atmifvm;/

KYAW ZAYAR LAY [ IT ENGINEERING ]

uGefysLwm*sme,f
197 (c)? yxrxyf? 33 vrf; (txuf)?
ausmufww
H m;jrKd eU ,f? &efuek /f
atmufwkdbm? 2008 179

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