PhD dissertation – summary

City and Sanctuary in Hellenistic Asia Minor
constructing civic identity in the sacred landscapes of Mylasa and Stratonikeia in Karia Christina G. Williamson
University of Groningen P.O. Box 716 9700 AS Groningen The Netherlands Tel. +31(0)6 349 251 78 email:

In this research, Christina Williamson studies the phenomenon of major outlying sanctuaries which accompanied the second rise of the Greek polis in Asia Minor in the Hellenistic period. While such ‘extra-urban’ sanctuaries in the Archaic world are typically interpreted as frontier shrines marking critical borders of civic territory, Williamson argues that the situation in Hellenistic Asia Minor is much more complex, as the Greek polis model took hold in landscapes that were already highly socially articulated. Drawing on a wide range of archaeological and historical sources, she examines in detail the processes of transformation that took place at the shrines of Zeus Labraundos and Sinuri in the landscape of Mylasa, and Hekate at Lagina and Zeus at Panamara in the outer limits of Stratonikeia in Karia, as they were turned into major civic centers. Using theories taken from the cognitive, social and spatial sciences, Williamson contextualizes these transformations in light of their effect on society and interprets them with regard to polis formation. In doing so she shows that instead of their proximity to borders, it was their capacity to foster social cohesion, territorial integrity, and civic identity among hybrid and dispersed communities that made them so vital to rising poleis.

Map showing cities in Asia Minor with major outlying sanctuaries

Christina Williamson –City and Sanctuary in Hellenistic Asia Minor– PhD dissertation summary

Summary – City and Sanctuary in Hellenistic Asia Minor. Constructing civic identity in sacred landscapes
Sanctuary, landscape, and community are three intertwined strands that were affected by the wave of urbanism that spread across Asia Minor in the wake of Alexander the Great. The primary aim of this research is to discover why so many developing cities in the Hellenistic period centered their attention on cults with sanctuaries that were located far from the urban center, and how these were instrumental in creating a common civic identity. In the Archaic and Classical Greek world, such shrines are designated as ‘extra-urban’ and are typically interpreted as frontier sanctuaries, marking critical borders of civic territory. For communities in older social landscapes that were adapting to the Greek polis model, however, the situation is more complex as numerous sacred centers that initially had a local or regional appeal were drawn into the orbit of a polis and turned into major civic spaces. This research investigates this phenomenon is by intensively analyzing the development of the major outlying sanctuaries of two neighboring cities in Karia –Mylasa and Stratonikeia– which were both known to have expanded in the Hellenistic period. The sanctuary of Zeus Labraundos, 14 km north of Mylasa and that of the Karian god Sinuri, 15 km to the southeast, had both already been radically monumentalized by the Hekatomnids in the fourth century BC, but each took on a new role under the democratic city in the third century BC. Further east of Mylasa is Stratonikeia, a Seleukid foundation which began to develop in the second century BC, a time in which it embraced and monumentalized the cults of Hekate at Lagina, 8 km to the north, and Zeus at Panamara, 10 km to the south. The processes of transformation at each of these four sanctuaries are methodologically examined through the application of an analytical framework in which changes in monumental space, ritual performance, legal organization, and civic expression are observed against the wider social-geographical environment and historical background of the area. This interdisciplinary approach relies on a wide variety of sources, from inscriptions, coins, ceramics, and architecture to geographical data and satellite images, to understand the many ways in which cult and shrine were reshaped to meet the needs of the rising city, the role of the landscape in this process, and the overall impact on community. Each of these sanctuaries was located at the edges of civic territory, and while borders were certainly an issue for these expanding poleis, none of these places of cult appear to have acquired a role as a frontier sanctuary. Instead, their tightening relationship with the polis seems to have been determined by a number of other, mostly internal concerns. Drawing on theory from the cognitive and spatial sciences and network analyses, the principle triggers of change are identified as being the civic need for social cohesion, fostered among others through major festivals and the design of ritual space, territorial integrity, woven together by processional routes, visual sightlines, and collective spatial memory, and political identity, leveraged through the symbolic capital of cult combined with polis institutions, and by engaging in wider festival networks. These outlying sacred centers are seen as having a vital role in constructing civic identity by giving the polis a common focus, thereby creating a sense of internal unity among hybrid and disparate communities, and an external face that would be recognized by the Greek world at large. By analyzing in detail the processes of transformation which these shrines underwent as they were turned into major civic centers, this research challenges existing theories on ‘extra-urban’ sanctuaries while building a solid case for examining the social and political role of such sanctuaries in a new light, in order to better interpret the relationship between landscape, city and sanctuary.

Page 2 of 10

Christina Williamson –City and Sanctuary in Hellenistic Asia Minor– PhD dissertation summary

Table of Contents
Preface List of Figures List of Tables Introduction Part 1 Theoretical Background and Research Framework Introduction Chapter 1.1 Three groundbreaking monographs on sanctuaries in Hellenistic Asia Minor 1.1.1 Pierre Debord (1982) Aspects sociaux et économiques de la vie religieuse dans l'Anatolie gréco-romaine 1.1.2 Laura Boffo (1985) I re ellenistici e i centri religiosi dell'Asia minore 1.1.3 Beate Dignas (2002) Economy of the sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor Summary Chapter 1.2 Modelling non-urban sanctuaries in the Archaic and Classical Greek world 1.2.1 City and countryside as separate categories of space 1.2.2 Frontier sanctuaries and the ‘bi-polar city’ (de Polignac) 1.2.3 Opposition: the Continuum perspective Summary Chapter 1.3 Alternative approaches from outside the box 1.3.1 Spatial memory and visual regions 1.3.2 Rational rituals 1.3.3 Network models 1.3.4 Regional identity Summary Chapter 1.4 Research strategy – goals and methods 1.4.1 Formulating the research question 1.4.2 The research framework - indicators of civic integration 1.4.3 Case Studies – criteria and selection 1.4.4 Data sources and collection Part 2 Mylasa and the sanctuaries of Zeus Labraundos and Sinuri Introduction Mylasa – historical background Chapter 2.1 Case Study 1 – Mylasa and the sanctuary of Zeus Labraundos 2.1.1 Introduction to Labraunda 2.1.2 Environment of Labraunda 2.1.3 Signs of civic integration at Labraunda 2.1.4 Interpreting the relationship between Mylasa and Labraunda Appendix 2.1 – I.Labraunda 5 Chapter 2.2 Case Study 2 – Mylasa and the sanctuary of Sinuri 2.2.1 Introduction to the sanctuary of Sinuri 2.2.2 Environment of the sanctuary of Sinuri 2.2.3 Signs of civic integration at the sanctuary of Sinuri 2.2.4 Interpreting the relationship between Mylasa via the syngeneia and the sanctuary of Sinuri Conclusion. City and sanctuary: Mylasa and the sanctuaries of Zeus Labraundos and Sinuri

Page 3 of 10

Christina Williamson –City and Sanctuary in Hellenistic Asia Minor– PhD dissertation summary

Part 3 Stratonikeia and the sanctuaries of Hekate at Lagina and Zeus at Panamara Introduction Stratonikeia – historical background Chapter 3.1 Case Study 3 – Stratonikeia and the sanctuary of Hekate at Lagina 3.1.1 Introduction to Lagina 3.1.2 Environment of Lagina 3.1.3 Signs of civic integration at Lagina 3.1.4 Interpreting the relationship between Stratonikeia and the sanctuary of Hekate at Lagina Chapter 3.2 Case Study 4 – Stratonikeia and the sanctuary of Zeus at Panamara 3.2.1 Introduction to Panamara 3.2.2 Environment of Panamara 3.2.3 Signs of civic integration at Panamara 3.2.4 Interpreting the relationship between Stratonikeia and the sanctuary of Zeus at Panamara Conclusion. City and sanctuary: Stratonikeia and the sanctuaries of Hekate at Lagina and Zeus at Panamara Part 4 Conclusions Chapter 4.1 Conclusions based on the case study results 4.1.1 Summary of the results from the case studies 4.1.2 Comparative analyses and interpretation of the case study results 4.1.3 Conclusion Chapter 4.2 Assessment of models and theories 4.2.2 Spatial memory and visual regions 4.2.3 Rational rituals 4.2.4 Network model 4.2.5 Regional identity Chapter 4.3 Final remarks and suggestions for further research Bibliography

Page 4 of 10

Christina Williamson –City and Sanctuary in Hellenistic Asia Minor– PhD dissertation summary

Chapter overview
The introduction to this volume briefly sketches the phenomenon of outlying civic sanctuaries in Asia Minor, listing the over 30 cities in this period known to have had monumental sanctuaries in the wider regions of their chora, and how the majority of these were either new, such as colonies, or underwent some kind of considerable reorganization as they adapted to the model of the Greek polis. This volume is then essentially divided into four parts. The first part introduces the question of outlying sanctuaries in Hellenistic Asia Minor, discusses a number of alternative theories that will be used to interpret the phenomenon, and presents the methodological framework used to analyze such sanctuaries. This methodological framework is then applied in the second and third parts to a number of case studies, sanctuaries that were of particular relevance to Mylasa and Stratonikeia respectively. The fourth part of this volume presents a comparative analysis, while providing an assessment of the alternative theories used to interpret the relationship between city and sanctuary, ending with an overall conclusion. Part 1 Theoretical Background and Research Framework Part 1 discusses the context of major outlying sanctuaries against this background. Chapters 1.1 and 1.2 argues the need for new approaches; Chapter 1.1 shows how current views on sanctuaries in Hellenistic Asia Minor tend to neglect the spatial dimension as they focus on social, economic or political aspects,1 while archaeological based theories on ‘extra-urban’ sanctuaries, discussed in Chapter 1.2, primarily explore the Archaic-Classical periods in mainland or western Greece.2 Chapter 1.3 introduces four alternative approaches that provide important insights into this phenomenon. The first discusses cognitive approaches to landscape and its spatial impact on memory.3 The idea of ‘visual regions’, i.e. the lumping together all of the points and features that are seen within a single view (i.e. a viewshed) creates a strong association and sense of belonging that are much closer to our perceptions of space than are ‘cognitive maps’. The second approach focuses on ritual action and the shape of ritual space as major factors in generating social cohesion, using the concept of ‘rational rituals’ as developed by game theorist Michael Chwe.4 The third approach includes network models, both Latour’s Actor-Network Theory as it pertains to collective memory,5 but also Social Network Analyses and its tangents.6 The fourth approach employs the social-geographical model of regional identity and its developmental stages of territorial and symbolic shaping, institutionalism, and external recognition, applying this as an overarching model for developing poleis.7 Chapter 1.4 discusses the need for a close examination of the transformations at such outlying shrines in order to understand their significance to their associated poleis. The selection of case studies is motivated, and the way in which they will be analyzed is laid out. Compiled from the data and issues discussed in the previous sections, a general framework is presented which illumines the critical factors at each of these sanctuaries. The table below gives an overview of this analytical framework.

1 2

Debord 1982; Boffo 1985; Dignas 2002. E.g. de Polignac 1995, the contributions in Alcock and Osborne 1994. 3 On ‘visual regions’ and ‘cognitive collages’ with regard to spatial perception and memory, see esp. Tversky 1993 and Ellard 2009, 126-128. 4 Chwe 2001 –Chwe uses this concept to explain how public ceremony and ceremonial space serve to generate common knowledge through joint attention, the basis for joint action and ultimately group identity; see also McCauley and Lawson 2002. 5 Latour 1987; 2005. 6 Especially Ma 2003, and more broadly e.g. Brughmans 2010; Malkin 2011; Knappett 2011. 7 Developed by the Finnish social geographer Anssi Paasi; Paasi 2009.

Page 5 of 10

Christina Williamson –City and Sanctuary in Hellenistic Asia Minor– PhD dissertation summary

Table 1. The Research Framework, highlighting the factors of civic involvement at outlying sanctuaries
CIVIC INTEGRATION Historical Historical relationship Environment Physical natural phenomenon, natural geographical borders, landscape type, availability of water proximity to polis, but also to roads, other shrines and villages, boundaries, economic resources geographical data, cartography, satellite images historical topography geographical data, cartography, satellite images, literary sources, geographical data, cartography, satellite images architecture DATA SOURCE TYPE overview of area prior to polis involvement, rise of the polis, development of relationship with the sanctuary, critical events (turning moments), individual actors literary sources, inscriptions, numismatics LOOKING FOR... DATA SOURCE TYPE

Social-geographical location


viewshed of the sanctuary, visual dominance over the environment/ city territory LOOKING FOR...

Monumental and ritual space visual prominence and representational status, stylistic associations concentric space: open spaces in/near the sanctuary for gatherings (festivals, banqueting) and monuments, visual and kinetic linear space: paths, gateways, doors, sightlines, framed views kinetic linear space: connectivity (paved?) between polis and sanctuary, topographical features showing a spatial ‘continuum’, i.e. monuments, shrines, settlements, tombs, but also farms and fields, landscape types architecture, monumental art inscriptions, spatial design architecture, inscriptions, ceramics (all kinds) historical topography, geographical data, ancient roads


Public space

Processional routes


Ritual performance bond with polis, ritual focus and joint attention, degree of ‘spectacle’, frequency, involvement of the wider community participants, ritual actions, formal and informal banqueting facilities (stoas), water supply, tableware events, location, facilities, participants, (pan-Hellenic?) competitions & involvement of the wider community architecture, inscriptions ceramics (votives) architecture, inscriptions ceramics (tableware) architecture, inscriptions

Festival rituals


Games C.

Legal administration and organization degrees of local autonomy and civic institutionalism, controlling parties over the sanctuary and its resources local settlement at/near the sanctuary, evidence for community-based administration, status as separate community or citizens of the polis financial base for sanctuary, festival, and priests, integration in landscape via sacred lands, or emporion-function (in a network of trade?) inscriptions, numismatics domestic architecture/tombs ceramics, inscriptions

Administration and priesthoods Local community

Economic resources D. Civic expression


Scope and network

multiple communities at the sanctuary, relationships based on syngeneia (kinship), recognitions of asylia (inviolability), presence of theoroi (delegations), athletic participation, diverse coinage public documents, dedications, decrees, grants of asylia, commemoration of specific events deity as emblem of state, evidence of worship beyond the sanctuary

inscriptions, numismatics inscriptions, monumental art numismatics, inscriptions monumental art

Civic communication Cult iconography in civic contexts

Page 6 of 10

Christina Williamson –City and Sanctuary in Hellenistic Asia Minor– PhD dissertation summary

Parts 2 and 3 present the application of this framework to the major sanctuaries in the landscapes of Mylasa and Stratonikeia in Karia, respectively. Inland Karia was a complex system of nested communities, often clustered around hilltop sanctuaries.8 These sanctuaries played an important role as each polis developed its own solution for adapting these communities and their surrounding landscapes towards the polis model.

Map showing southwest Asia Minor and the areas of the case studies.

Part 2 Mylasa and the sanctuaries of Zeus Labraundos and Sinuri Part 2 first discusses the historical development of the ancient Karian town of Mylasa as it became a major Hellenistic polis. Central to this development is the transition from the Hekatomnids, the satraps of Karia under the Achaemenids, to the Hellenistic rulers and the shift of the civic government towards the Greek democratic system – this would impact the sanctuaries of Zeus at Labraunda and the Karian god Sinuri. Chapter 2.1 analyzes the relationship between Labraunda, the sacred and political center of the Hekatomnids, and Mylasa which began to assert itself more and more at the sanctuary after the midthird century BC, even contesting the authority of the resident priests. Several signs point to the way in which the polis exploited the symbolic capital of Zeus Labraundos and the associations with the Hekatomnids at the monumental sanctuary, with its majestic panorama across southern Karia, to legitimize its own position in the region and among its populace. Chapter 2.2 discusses a completely different kind of sanctuary, that of the Karian god Sinuri. This sanctuary had also been monumentalized by the Hekatomnids, when it was apparently autonomous,

Debord 2003.

Page 7 of 10

Christina Williamson –City and Sanctuary in Hellenistic Asia Minor– PhD dissertation summary

but by the Hellenistic period it had changed hands to a new community which was clearly under the authority of Mylasa. While this monumental sanctuary, tucked away in a valley southeast of Mylasa, was not one of the central shrines of the polis, it does reveal how the popular identity of the Mylasan population continued to reside at the local level, and how at the same time such sanctuaries functioned as civic mirrors, as polis institutions and decision-making bodies were reflected at this local level. Part 2 concludes with a discussion of the nested identities in the citizen body of Mylasa, and how these sanctuaries met the needs of the polis at different scales. Polis religion at Mylasa appears to be an inversion of that in Classical Athens9 – at Mylasa the root level of popular identity was the local tribe and its gods, such as Sinuri, while Zeus Labraundos was engaged to represent the greater abstract ideal of the polis and to legitimize its position in the region. Part 3 Stratonikeia and the sanctuaries of Hekate at Lagina and Zeus at Panamara Part 3 assesses the ways in which outlying sanctuaries were even more clearly used to establish and consolidate civic territory and to create social cohesion among widely dispersed and previously autonomous communities. Founded by the Seleukids, Stratonikeia was soon immersed in a politically grey zone under shifting rule until it was declared free by Rome in the second century BC. This is when it begins to emerge in the archaeological and epigraphic record, drawing several surrounding communities into its orbit. Chapter 3.1 analyzes the role of the sanctuary of Hekate at Lagina in creating and consolidating community. This local Karian goddess appeared on the first issues of the coinage of Stratonikeia in the mid-second century BC, and by the end of that century her sanctuary had been radically transformed into an enclosed urban setting where civic festivals were held. After the Mithridatic wars, Stratonikeia obtained the privilege of asylia from Rome for Lagina and forged wider panhellenic ties and recognition through festival networks. Chapter 3.2 shows how the sanctuary of Zeus at Panamara may initially have been exploited by Stratonikeia to expand its territory, as the polis gained control over the strategic hilltop sanctuary in the second century BC. By the first century, however, the focus certainly shifted towards the population – festivals were held here which celebrated the entire community, regardless of social standing. The attack on Panamara by Labienus in 40 BC testifies to this, and the famous epiphany of Zeus as a result became a kind of charter myth for the polis. Part 3 concludes with an analysis of the significance of both sanctuaries for Stratonikeia. The authority of both cults was used to create network ties for the polis. Furthermore, both sanctuaries were blocked off from Stratonikeia by mountains – turning these sanctuaries into civic space clearly expanded the visual region of the polis. The processions enhanced this even further as they connected sacred and urban areas; the civic festivals of both deities in fact culminated in a procession which moved from the sanctuary into town, making the polis the focal point of the social landscape. Part 4 Conclusions – landscape, sanctuary and civic identity Part 4 opens with a comparative analysis in which the results are laid out by side by side and compared with one another. Chapter 4.2 provides an overall assessment of the models and theories used interpreting these sanctuaries, while Chapter 4.3 presents directions for further research. In short, this study shows that there were a number of different reasons for a polis to promote a local or regional sanctuary in its wider chora, and that even though most of the sanctuaries were probably

As expressed by Sourvinou-Inwood 1988 & 1990.

Page 8 of 10

Christina Williamson –City and Sanctuary in Hellenistic Asia Minor– PhD dissertation summary

located along the perimeters of a city’s territory, marking territorial frontiers was not the main concern. The locations of sanctuaries do appear to have been critical for other reasons, especially at Labraunda, Lagina and Panamara. The wide vistas, or visual regions, which they possessed, would have been an important factor in developing a sense of its territorial integrity as they expanding the visual reach of the polis. Rituals greatly enhanced this feeling through their community building processes en route to these sanctuaries. Many of the issues that arise from the case studies relate to internal social cohesion, showing how the sanctuary, its festivals and its ritual space functioned as ‘rational rituals’, fostering a sense of unity among a diverse constituency which already held the sanctuary in great esteem.10 A third factor in the transformation of local or regional sanctuaries was their native capacity to engage external networks of communities through ties of cult. A polis could clearly turn this to its advantage, sometimes by exploiting events (such as epiphanies) or ancestral relations (through syngeneia, or kinship), to oblige the wider Greek world to take part in its civic and pan-Hellenic festivals.11 This aspect may especially have been critical to rising poleis seeking to establish or validate their political position. In these case studies, civic identity is shown to be a prime driver in the developing relationship between city and sanctuary. Older and regional sanctuaries were critical to territorial shaping with their cult authority and perceived power of place, combined with rational rituals which engendered social cohesion and political networks through inter-poleis festivals. This research thus shows alternative ways to consider such outlying sanctuaries, while laying the groundwork for a dynamic framework which may be used as a tool to further analyze other kinds of relationships between cities and sanctuaries in general. Select bibliography
Alcock, S.E. and R. Osborne, eds (1994) Placing the Gods. Sanctuaries and Sacred Space in Ancient Greece. Oxford. Boffo, L. (1985) I re ellenistici e i centri religiosi dell'Asia minore, Pubblicazionni della Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia dell'Università di Pavia 37, Dipartimento di Scienze dell'Antichita. Florence. Brughmans, T. (2010) 'Connecting the dots. Towards archaeological network analysis', Oxford Journal of Archaeology 29.3: 277-304. Chaniotis, A. (2006) 'Rituals between norms and emotions. Rituals as shared experience and memory', in Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World, Kernos Supplément 16, ed. E. Stavrianopoulou. Liège: 211-238. ---------- (2009) 'Extra-urban sanctuaries in Classical and Hellenistic Crete', in The Aegean and its Cultures. Proceedings of the First Oxford-Athens Graduate Student Workshop organized by the Greek Society and the University of Oxford Taylor Institution, 22-23 April 2005, eds D. Galanakis & Y. Galanakis. Oxford: 59-67. ---------- (2012 (in press)) 'Processions in Hellenistic cities. Contemporary discourses and ritual dynamics', in Cults, Creeds and Identities in the Greek City after the Classical Age, Groningen-Royal Holloway studies on the Greek city after the Classical age, Vol. 3, eds R. Alston, O.M. van Nijf & C.G. Williamson. Leuven. Chwe, M. Suk-Young (2001) Rational Ritual. Culture, Coordination, and Common Knowledge. Princeton. Cohen, G.M. (1995) The Hellenistic Settlements in Europe, the Islands, and Asia Minor. Berkeley. Connerton, P. (1989) How Societies Remember, Themes in the social sciences. Cambridge. de Polignac, F. (1984) La naissance de la cité grecque. Cultes, espace et société VIIIe-VIIe siècles avant J.-C. Paris. ---------- (1995) Cults, Territory, and the Origins of the Greek City-State. Chicago. Debord, P. (1982) Aspects sociaux et économiques de la vie religieuse dans l'Anatolie gréco-romaine, Etudes préliminaires aux religions orientales dans l'Empire romain t. 88. Leiden. ---------- (2003) ‘Cité grecque-village carien. Des usages du mot koinon', Studi ellenistici 15: 115-180.

10 11

Chwe 2001. Ma 2003 discusses the various keywords, such as asylia (inviolability) and syngeneia (kinship ties), found in decrees that act as signs of inter-poleis networking in the Hellenistic period.

Page 9 of 10

Christina Williamson –City and Sanctuary in Hellenistic Asia Minor– PhD dissertation summary

Dignas, B. (2002) Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor, Oxford Classical Monographs. Oxford. Ellard, C. (2009) You are Here. Why We Can Find Our Way to the Moon, But Get Lost in the Mall. New York. Gauthier, P. (1984) 'Les cités hellénistiques. Épigraphie et histoire des institutions et des régimes politiques', in Praktika tou E' Diethnous Synedriou Hellenikes kai Latinikes Epigraphikes, Athena, 3-9 Oktovriou 1982, ed. A.G. Kalogeropoulou. Athens: 82-107. ---------- (1987-1989) 'Grandes et petites cités. Hégémonie et autarcie', Opus 6-8: 187-202. Knappett, C. (2011) An Archaeology of Interaction. Network Perspectives on Material Culture and Society. Oxford. Latour, B. (1987) Science in Action. How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society. Cambridge, Mass.. ---------- (2005) Reassembling the Social. An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford. Malkin, I. (2011) A Small Greek World. Networks in the Ancient Mediterranean. Oxford. McCauley, R.N. and E.T. Lawson (2002) Bringing Ritual to Mind. Psychological Foundations of Cultural Forms. Cambridge. Mileta, C. (2009) 'Überlegungen zum Charakter und zur Entwicklung der neuen Poleis im hellenistischen Kleinasien', in Stadtbilder im Hellenismus, eds A. Matthaei & M. Zimmermann. Berlin: 73-93. Paasi, A. (2009) 'The resurgence of the 'Region' and 'Regional Identity'. Theoretical perspectives and empirical observations on regional dynamics in Europe', Review of International Studies 35: 121-146. Polinskaya, I. (2006) 'Lack of boundaries, absence of oppositions. The city-countryside continuum of a Greek pantheon', in: City, Countryside, and the Spatial Organization of Value in Classical Antiquity, Mnemosyne, Bibliotheca Classica Batava. Supplementum 279, eds R.M. Rosen and I. Sluiter. Leiden: 61-92. Savalli-Lestrade, I. (2005) 'Devenir une cité. Poleis nouvelles et aspirations civiques en Asie Mineure à la basse époque hellénistique', in Citoyenneté et participation à la basse époque hellénistique. Actes de la table ronde des 22 et 23 mai 2004, Paris, BNF, organisée par le groupe de recherche dirigé par Philippe Gauthier, de l'UMR 8585 (Centre Gustave Glotz), École Pratique des Hautes Études, IVe section. 3 Hautes études du monde gréco-romain 35, eds P. Fröhlich & C. Müller. Geneve: 9-37. Sourvinou-Inwood, C. (1988) 'Further aspects of polis religion', Annali dell'Istituto universitario orientale di Napoli, Dipartimento di studi del mondo classico e del Mediterraneo antico, Sezione di archeologia e storia antica X: 259-274. ---------- (1990) 'What is polis religion?', in The Greek City from Homer to Alexander, eds O. Murray & S. Price. Oxford: 295322. Tversky, B. (1993) 'Cognitive maps, cognitive collages, and spatial mental models', in Spatial Information Theory. A Theoretical Basis for GIS, eds A.U. Frank & I. Campari. Berlin: 14-24. van Nijf, O.M. and R. Alston (2011) 'Political culture in the Greek city after the classical age. Introduction and preview', in Political Culture in the Greek City after the Classical age, Groningen-Royal Holloway Studies on the Greek City after the Classical Age, 2, in O.M. van Nijf & R. Alston. Leuven: 1-26.

Page 10 of 10

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful