Republic of Macedonia Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning Ozone Unit

for refrigeration service technicians

Skopje, 2006

The manual is intended for training of the refrigeration service technicians. It is developed by the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning of the Republic of Macedonia/Ozone Unit, within the frameworks of the project Terminal Phase-out Management Plan of CFCs. The project is financially supported by the Multilateral Fund of the Montreal Protocol and implemented through UNIDO, as an implementing agency. In the preparation of this Manual, as resource documents were used: 1. Training Manual on Good Practices in Refrigeration, UNEP DTIE; 2. Training Manual on Chillers and Refrigerant Management, UNEP DTIE; 3. UNEP Customs Training Manual; 4. Publications in refrigeration technique 5. Current legislation of the Republic of Macedonia.

Number of copies - 500


Table of contents
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The Ozone layer and the ozone depletion Controlled substances under the Montreal Protocol Basic elements of the refrigeration technique Good service practices Recovery, recycling and reclaim Alternative refrigerants and technologies Legislation Annexes


which follows the troposphere.1. It starts at 10-20 km above ground level and continues up to 40-50 km height. The regular oxygen molecules (O2) contained in the air we are breathing consists of only two atoms of oxygen. Figure 1 shows the different layers of the atmosphere of the earth. The layer stretches around the entire globe of the Earth like a bubble and acts as a filter for the harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B). Ground level ozone results from industry and traffic emissions in combination with specific weather conditions. Ozone molecules are created by a photochemical reaction: 3 O3 2O2 + 2 O- 2 O3 Reaction in the stratosphere Oxygen molecules react to form ozone molecules and at the same time ozone molecules react to form oxygen molecules. The Ozone layer and the ozone depletion Ozone Ozone is a gas composed of three oxygen atoms (O3). Stratosphere Ozone Layer 10 to 50 km Troposphere 10 km EARTH Figure 1. The stratosphere is that part of atmosphere. the reaction is in dynamic equilibrium. It is part of photochemical smog and as an irritating gas it may cause respiratory health problems especially for older people and young children as well as plant damage. 4 . The ozone layer The ozone layer is a term used to describe the presence of ozone molecules in the stratosphere. Ozone in the atmosphere Stratospheric ozone is different from ground level (tropospheric) ozone. UV-B radiation is a highly energetic light that originates from the Sun and which has severe impacts on human health and the environment. If the number of ozone molecules being created is the same as the number of ozone molecules being broken down.

which in many countries is major reason for blindness. The depletion of the ozone layer will lead to a reduction of its protecting capacity and thus an increased exposure to UV-B radiation. Damage would be severe in the tropical regions where the effects are enhanced by high temperatures and levels of radiation. particularly plastics and rubbers used outdoors. 5 . Tests have also shown that seeds of conifers are also adversely affected. Materials Materials used in buildings. However. Aquatic organisms Damage of aquatic organisms. shrimp and crabs-all of which from the essential base of the aquatic and marine food chain. UV-B (280-315x10-9 m) and UV-C (<280 x10-9 m). Increased UV-B also causes damage to the eyes including eye cataracts.Importance of the ozone layer Filter for UV-B radiation The ozone layer is vital to life on the surface of the planet. Types of UV radiation Scientists classify UV radiation into three types or bands-UV-A (wavelength 315400x10-9 m). paints. it is the UV-B radiation which is mainly responsible for health damages and adverse impacts on the environment. UV-B is partially filtered by the ozone layer. Effects of ozone layer depletion on human health and the environment Human health UV-B radiation is known to cause skin cancers-both non-melanoma (the less dangerous) and the virulent cutaneous malignant melanoma. aquatic plants and fish larvae. Increased UV-B radiation also reduces the quality of certain types of tomatoes. Such damages could cost billions of dollars each year. potatoes. in particular the small organisms such as plankton. Suppression of the immune system by damaging the DNA (DeoxyriboNucleicAcid) results in increased incidents and occurrence of infectious diseases. UV-C does not reach the Earth’s surface. mustard and cabbage. wood and plastics are degraded by UVB radiation. UV-A is not filtered at all by the ozone layer. sugar beets and soybeans. rubbers. The ultraviolet radiation causes changes in the chemical composition of several species of plants. UV-B exposure If ozone molecules are depleted. faster than they can be replaced by new ones that nature produces the result is what could be called on ozone deficit. It acts as a filter and prevents the harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) from reaching the Earth. Experiments on crops have shown that the ones most vulnerable to UV-B include melons. Plants Ozone layer depletion causes serious adverse effects on agricultural crops and forests.

Canada. Greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide. However. especially in the cities where vehicle and industry emissions provide a basis for photochemical reactions. they would form a layer of ozone gas of couple of millimeters thickness. the concentration of stratospheric ozone molecules is so low that if all ozone molecules were extracted from the stratosphere and spread around the Earth at ground level. and appear over populated areas of the Unites States. Ozone hole Antarctic ozone hole In the 1970s scientists discovered that the released ODS (Ozone Depleting Substances) damage the ozone layer. 6 . Arctic ozone hole Recent observations show that the upper atmospheric conditions in the Northern Hemisphere are becoming similar to those of the Antarctic. the pressure and thus the concentration of molecules in the stratosphere are already very low compared to those at the ground level. Dobson Unit This theoretical thickness of the ozone layer at ground level is used as a measure for the amount of ozone molecules in the stratosphere and measured in Dobson Units (DU). which facilitates ozone destruction. Europe and Asia. Figure 2 shows the area that may be affected by the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole. Global warming and climate change are caused by the emission of greenhouse gases. HCFCs and halons. It usually refers to a time span of 100 years (GWP 100). Concentration of ozone molecules The ozone molecules are dispersed in the stratosphere and therefore the physical thickness of ozone layer is spread on tens of kilometers. Scientist have observed declining ozone concentrations over the whole globe. This large-scale phenomenon is usually referred to as the ozone hole. CFCs. The global warming potential (GWP) is the contribution of each greenhouse gas to global warming relative to carbon dioxide whose GWP is defined as 1. Each Dobson Unit corresponds to 0. Accordingly. The alarming difference is that there are millions of people that live in the area that will be exposed to the resulting increased UV-B radiation. HFCs.01 millimeter. methane. This has its own adverse effects on human health and environment. Climate change and global warming Ozone depletion is different issue from climate change and global warming. The result of this could be formation of an “Arctic Ozone Hole” or “low ozone event” within the next 20 years. An Arctic “low ozone event” could easily be blown south by high-altitude winds.Ground level smog UV-B radiation results in increased ground level smog. therefore 300 Dobson Units correspond with a calculated thickness of the ozone layer of 3 millimeters. The ozone concentration over Antarctica diminished between the 1970s and the 1990s by up to 70% of the concentration normally found over Antarctica. which trap the outgoing heat from the Earth causing the atmosphere to become warmer. The loss of ozone and the greenhouse effect are causing the upper atmosphere to become colder.

the concentration of ozone molecules will decrease. Figure 2. a number of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) have been identified and their production and use controlled. and thereby destroying them can disturb the equilibrium.The impacts of global climate change may include sea level rise resulting in loss of valuable coastal areas and intrusion of seawater further inland as well as unpredictable effects on eco-systems and natural disasters. pressure. Therefore. for instance. Consequently. Their destructive potential is high because they react in a photochemical chain reaction with ozone molecules. Atmospheric life time of ODS The destructive lifetime of ODS may range between 100-400 years depending on the ODS properties. The process through which CFCs deplete ozone layer or molecule is illustrated in Figure 3. Other molecules reacting with the ozone molecules. After one ozone molecule has been destroyed. the equilibrium will get out of balance. If this destruction process is fast and the creation of new ozone molecules is too slow to replace the destroyed ozone molecules. energetic conditions and molecule concentrations. 7 . one molecule of ODS may destroy hundred of thousands of ozone molecules. the ODS is available to destroy further ozone molecules. Destruction mechanism Under the Montreal Protocol. Antarctic ozone hole Ozone depletion Dynamic equilibrium The dynamic equilibrium between creating and breaking down ozone molecules depends on temperature.

fluorinated or brominated hydrocarbons an include: • chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) • hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) • halons • hydrobromofluorocarbons (HBFCs) • bromochloromethan • methyl chloroform • carbon tetrachloride. and • methyl bromide.Figure 3. as propellants in aerosol applications. as fire fighting agents. as sterilants. the largest remaining sector in which ODS are still used is the refrigeration and air-conditioning servicing sector. Ozone depleting potential The ability of these chemicals to deplete the ozone layer is referred to as the ozone depletion potential (ODP). Destruction of ozone by CFC-12 and halon 1211 Ozone depleting substances (ODS) Ozone depleting substances are chemical substances that have the potential to react with ozone molecules in the stratosphere. as cleaning solvents in the electronics industry. ODS are basically chlorinated. where CFCs and HCFCs are used as refrigerants for the cooling circuits. as fumigants for pest and disease control and for feedstock applications. Common uses of ODS In most developing countries. Each substance is assigned an ODP relative to CFC-11 whose ODP is defined as 1. ODS are also used as blowing agents for foam applications. 8 .

The most common mixture contains 88% CFC-12 by weight and is commonly known as 12/88. CFC-12. R-502 (blend of CFC-115 and HCFC-22) or HCFC-22 as refrigerant. HFC refrigerants (ODP=0 but GWP>0) and hydrocarbon refrigerants (ODP and GWP=0). such as catheters and medical equipment using fibber optics. pharmaceutical products. precision cleaning and general metal degreasing during manufacture. Use as cleaning solvent CFC-113 has been widely used as cleaning solvent in electronic assembly production processes.ODS application Refrigerants ODSs are used as refrigerants in refrigeration and air-conditioning and heat pump systems. CFC-11 was the most common foam-blowing agent for the manufacture of polyurethane. CFC-11 was progressively replaced by HCFC-141b or non-ODS alternatives. and polyolefin foam plastics. CFC-11 and CFC-12 are ingredients of the lacquers. Use as blowing agent Before regulatory controls. oven cleaners. shaving foams. Many household refrigerators use CFC-12. They could be produced in highly pure form and they are good solvents. veterinary products. Other ozone depleting solvents include methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. CFC-12 or CFC-114 as refrigerants. perfumes. countries started to ban or restrict the use of CFCs in aerosol products. Many drop-in substitutes for CFC-12 refrigerants are based on mixtures containing HCFC. CFC-114. Commercial refrigeration systems used for display and storage of fresh and frozen food may use CFC-12. paints. Propellants CFC-11 and CFC-12 were widely used as aerosol propellants because they are non-flammable. Air-conditioning and heat pump systems for buildings may contain large amounts of HCFC-22. non-explosive and non-toxic. insecticides. CFC-11. The most of the old vehicles often use CFC refrigerants in their air-conditioning systems. glues. By the end of the 1970s. Foams are used in a wide variety of products and for insulation purposes. CFC-114 was used as propellant in products containing alcohol. CFC refrigerants are gradually being replaced by the less ozone damaging HCFC refrigerants (ODP and GWP>0). phenolic. Transport refrigeration and airconditioning systems used in road and rail transport containers and cargo and passenger ships may contain CFC-11. The CFC-compounds reduce the flammability and explosive risk caused by ethylene oxide presence. window cleaners. HCFC-22 or CFC containing mixtures R-500 (mixture of CFC-12 and HFC-152a) and R-502 (mixture of CFC-115 and HCFC-22). polystyrene. 9 . It is also used for dry-cleaning and spot cleaning in the textile industry. Sterilants Mixtures of CFC-12 and ethylene oxide are used for sterilization in medical purposes. CFC-113 is and has been used in aerosols for cleaning purposes. Fire extinguishers Halons and HBFC were largely used as fire extinguishers and in many cases are replaced by foams or carbon dioxide. deodorants. Ethylene oxide is particularly useful for sterilizing objects that are sensitive to heat and moisture. lubricants and oils.

• Venting and purging during servicing of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. including: • Traditional use of cleaning solvents. if all Parties of the Montreal Protocol comply with their phase-out schedule. Scientists assume that the concentration of ozone molecules in the stratosphere will reach “normal” levels by middle of this century. 10 . Releasing of ODSs into the stratosphere ODSs are released to the atmosphere in a variety of ways. ODS used for feedstock applications are usually not released into the atmosphere and therefore do not contribute to ozone layer depletion. thermodynamic effects and diffusion. Carbon tetrachloride is also used as a process agent.Fumigants Methyl bromide was widely used as a pesticide for soil fumigation in order to protect crops and to prevent from pests. Once released into the atmosphere the ODSs are diluted into the ambient air and can reach the stratosphere through air currents. • Use of methyl bromide in soil fumigation and for quarantine and pre-shipment applications. Ozone layer recovery There is no exact prediction when the ozone layer will recover. Because of their long lifetime. and • Leaking refrigerant circuits. Feedstock HCFC and carbon tetrachloride are commonly used as feedstock in chemical synthesis. It is also used for quarantine and pre-shipment applications. • Disposal of ODS-containing products and equipment such as foams or refrigerators. It is possible that the effects of global warming will slow down the recovery process of the ozone layer. Incidences of skin cancer and eye cataracts are expected to decline towards “normal” levels with a delay of 20-50 years by the end of the century. Therefore. attention should also be given to greenhouse gas emissions. paint. most ODS will reach the stratosphere at some point. fire extinguishing equipment and spray cans. This is partly due to the long lifetime of ODS and the chain reaction contributing the ozone molecules destruction. Recent research suggests that the melting ice in Antarctica will release significant amounts of ODSs and greenhouse gases.

R-500 and R-502) are also affected. 11 . The Protocol entered into force on 1 January 1989 and as of today 189 countries world-wide have committed themselves under the Protocol to phase-out the consumption and production of ODSs. four amendments and five adjustments have been agreed to ensure that the Protocol continues to reflect improved scientific and technical understanding. Developing countries still use most ODS. know-how and capital investment. The freeze and phase-out obligations for Article 5 countries (including the Republic of Macedonia). CFC-115) and 3 Halons (Annex A Group II: Halon-1211. Article 5 countries are granted with grace period to fulfill MP obligations. Controlled substances under the Montreal Protocol Twenty-five years ago. Today the importance of ozone layer protection is recognized in developed as well in developing countries worldwide and 189 countries have ratified the Montreal Protocol as of March 2006. CFC-114. The Protocol contains a list of controlled ODSs . This should allow sufficient time to provide smooth transition to non-ODS technologies. In the dynamic history of the Montreal Protocol. In 1987. Therefore. Halon-1301 and Halon-2402) and defined the control measures to reduce production and consumption of these ODSs.2. governments adopted the Montreal Protocol to reduce and eventually eliminate the emissions of man-made ozone depleting substances. Table 1 summarizes control measures and the phase-out schedule for the different ODSs. CFC-12.g. Adjustments of the Montreal Protocol itself may modify the phase-out schedules of already controlled substances as well as ODP values of controlled substances based on new research results. Amendments to the Montreal Protocol may introduce control measures for new ODS. applicable to developing and developed countries. CFC-113. take into account that developing countries usually do not have easy access to alternative technologies.5 CFCs (Annex A Group I: CFC-11. Blends containing these substances (e. Obligations for the Parties to the Montreal Protocol and its amendments The two main obligations of the Parties are complying with the ODS freeze and phase-out schedules and banning trade with non-Parties to the Protocol. in particular CFCs and halons. the world community was not aware of stratospheric ozone layer depletion and its negative effects on human health and the environment.

2016 100% reduction : January 1. 2030 100% reduction : January 1. 1995 100% reduction : January 1. 2015 Base level : 2015 consumption Freeze : January 1. 2005 85% reduction : January 1. 2002 Base level : 1991 Freeze : January 1.1. 1996 Base level : 1989 Freeze: January 1.8% of CFC consumption in 1989 Freeze: 1996 35% reduction: January 1. 1994 100% reduction : January 1. 2005 100% reduction : January 1. 2007 100% reduction : January 1. 2040 Base level : 1989 85% reduction : January 1. 2010 100% reduction : January 1. 1996 Base level : 1986 20% reduction : January 1. 1994 Base level : 1989 20% reduction : January 1. 2003 100% reduction : January 1. 2002 Base level : Average of 1995-1998 Freeze : January 1. 2001 70% reduction: January 1. 1996 100% reduction : January 1. 2003 30% reduction : January 1. 1994 100% reduction : January 1. 2004 65% reduction : January 1. 1993 50% reduction : January 1. 1993 75% reduction : January 1. 1996 Base level: HCFC consumption in 1989 + 2. 2005 CI HCFCs C II C III EI HBFCs Bromochlorome thane Methyl Bromide 100% reduction : January 1.1. 2010 Base level : Average of 1998-2000 Freeze : January 1. 2005 70% reduction : January 1. Control measures and the phase-out schedule Montreal Protocol Annex/ Group AI CFC-11 CFC-12 CFC-113 CFC-114 CFC-115 Halon-1211 Halon-1301 Halon-2402 CFC-13 CFC-111 CFC-112 CFC-211 CFC-212 CFC-213 CFC-214 CFC-215 CFC-216 CFC-217 Carbon tetrachloride 1. 1992 100% reduction : January 1. 2010 Base level : Average of 1998-2000 20% reduction : January 1. 1996 100% reduction : January 1. as developing country 12 . 2020 100% reduction : January 1. 2007 100% reduction : January 1. 2003 85% reduction : January 1.Table 1. 1995 25% reduction: January 1. 2005 100% reduction : January 1. 2005 100% reduction : January 1. 1994 100% reduction : January 1. 2010 Base level : 1986 Freeze : July 1. 1999 50% reduction: January 1. 2015 99.trichloroethane (methyl chloroform) Base level: Average of 1995-1997 Freeze : July 1. 2002 50% reduction : January 1. 2010 Base level : Average of 1995-1997 Freeze : January 1. 2002 20% reduction: January 1. 1999 50% reduction: January 1.5% reduction : January 1. 1989 75% reduction : January 1. 1996 Controlled substances (ODSs) Obligation of the countries classified according to the Article 5 of the Montreal Protocol (developing countries)* Obligation of the countries classified according to the Article 2 of the Montreal Protocol (developed countries) A II BI B II B III Base level : Average of 1998-2000 85% reduction : January 1. 2015 * Republic of Macedonia is classified in the Article 5.

However. which were pits dug into the ground and insulated with wood and straw. compression. we have a cold liquid refrigerant ready to begin the cycle all over again. to store the ice.3. utilizing a small pump to raise the combined fluids to condensing pressure. which derived its energy from an electric motor or other mechanical means like engine. distilling the refrigerant from the absorbent fluid with heat and sending the refrigerant vapor off the condenser and returning the absorbent fluid to the absorber. Carre’s refrigerators were widely used in industry. 13 . In this manner. The American business man Alexander C Twinning is generally credited with initiating commercial refrigeration in 1956. Ice was the principal means of refrigeration until the beginning of the 20th century. Most households used iceboxes that were supplied almost daily with blocks of ice from a local refrigeration plant. This is usually accomplished by an absorbent fluid capturing the vaporized refrigerant. During evaporation. reducing its volume by phase change. Absorption refrigeration system A system in which compression of the refrigerant is secured by a thermal means. The system used an air-cycle method of cooling. The American physician John Corrie to cool sickrooms in a Florida hospital invented the first practical mechanical refrigeration system in 1884. an Australian. and it is still used in some countries. heat is absorbed from the air or process to be cooled from the refrigerant and is vaporized. condensation and expansion. The high-pressure refrigerant gas goes to the condenser where it can now be returned to a liquid state by a high temperature cooling source like ambient air or cooling tower water. Refrigeration can be defined as a process that removes heat. This vaporized refrigerant is then sucked into the compressor. the cost. The compressor raises the gas pressure and thereby compresses it. Shortly afterward. people cooled their food with ice transported from mountains. Ferdinand Carre in France then developed a thermally powered ammonia absorption refrigerating system in 1859. Basic elements of the refrigeration technique History of refrigeration Before mechanical and thermal systems were introduced. packed snow and ice could be preserved for months. introduced vaporcompression refrigeration to the brewing and meat-packing industries. People who did not have ice available salted or smoked food products to preserve them. Vapor compression mechanical refrigeration The vapor compression refrigeration operating principles is simplified from can be divided into four operations: evaporation. size. The high-pressure liquid then returns to the evaporator through an expansion device where its pressure is lowered and part of the liquid is vaporized to provide cooling to the liquid refrigerant. Introduction in refrigeration The job of a refrigeration plant is to cool articles or substances down to and maintains them at a temperature lower than the ambient temperature. At this point. Wealthy families used ice cellars. James Harrison. and complexity of refrigerating system of the time prevented the general use of refrigerants in the home.

With development of the technique. new refrigerants have found their applications: Ammonia (NH3) – since 1874. through halogening of the saturated hydrocarbons with chlorine and fluorine were produced derivates. and butane forms over 1000 compounds. propane (C3H8). which are rightfully called classic refrigerants. All of these saturated hydrocarbons CmHn can from chlorofluorocarbons (CmHxFyClz. but the negative side of these fluids is the fact they are toxic and flammable. Most chemicals have ability to change from a liquid to a gas. These materials have certain disadvantages: they are burning and in contact with air form explosive blend. Ammonia still finds its application. methyl chloride (C2H5Cl) – since 1878. carbon dioxide (CO2) – since 1881. there is a need of larger facilities for cooling. In a typical vapor compression system. Because of their low molecule mass. ethane (C2H6). ethylene (C2H4). which are satisfying technical requests for refrigeration application. the refrigerant changes phase. ethane together with its isomers forms 55 compounds. 2m+2=n+x+y+z). called freons or CFC-compounds. but only a few chemicals do so in a manner that makes them good refrigerants. Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle Overview of refrigerants A refrigerant is a liquid or gas which transfers heat away from one point to another. For lower temperature (-1100C) new refrigerants have been discovered: methane (CH4). 14 . the methane forms 15 compounds. that was more suitable.Heat Condenser High pressure vapor Expansion device Work Compressor Evaporator Low pressure vapour Heat Figure 4. The formula for determination of the number of possible basic compounds is (n+1)(n+2)/2. it changes from a liquid to a gas when it absorbs heat and changes back to a liquid when it gives up heat. propane forms 332 compounds. This is. butane (C4H10) and propylene (C3 H6). First chemical used as refrigerant is ethyl ether in the piston compressors (1856) and methyl ether (1864). Later 1930s. sulfur dioxide (SO2) – since 1874. For instance.

if the number of hydrogen atoms is lower. It is recommended to not smoke in the premises where this gas is released. they are not flammable and traces of toxic gas phosgene appear. Not all halogen carbons (without hydrogen) burn and in touch with air. 15 .Criteria for election of compounds suitable for refrigerant are: larger number of fluorine atoms (those compounds are less toxic and have lower chemical activity to the metals). the flammability gets lower.

0 154.46 187.040 11700 1500 MO or AB MO.3 111.12 3.37 165.99 0.26 3.63 -57. AB.8 -33 -45.850 0. industrial process refrigeration units and refrigerated transports.39 3.02 0.000 0.2) R22/115 (48.000 5. and freezers.0 183.2 214.36 120.00 1.92 3.2 4.1 29. Ozone depleting refrigerants – most commonly used Refrigerant number Chemical Formula Common name Properties Molecular mass NBP o C tc o C pc MPa Atm. positive pressure centrifugal chillers Cold storage warehouses.8 3. dehumidifier equipment.96 3.8/26.47 -87.47 152. retail display cases.1 5.7 -4.0 112. POE Low-temperature cascade refrigeration Residential and commercial air conditioning and some very large centrifugal chillers for air conditioning and industrial process cooling MO AB – POE – tc pc - Mineral oil Alkylbenzene Polyester critical temperature critical pressure NBP – ODP – ALT GWP – Normal Boiling Point Ozone Depleting Potential Atmospheric Life Time Global Worming Potential 16 . centrifugal chillers Industrial process.0 4.66 65 640 85 300 1700 1.7 4. Life Time ODP GWP Lubricant MO or AB MO or AB MO or AB Applications Centrifugal chillers.Table 2.1 145. centrifugal chillers Commercial air-conditioning.25 86.8/51. small old stores and small blast freezers 80.2) 148.6 3.9) CHClF2 87.900 0.91 140. medium and large sized systems in commercial and industrial refrigeration.99 12. commercial ice machines.1/59.93 99. large chillers for air conditioning Turbocompressor chillers Domestic refrigerators. icemakers.6 -38.8 18.37 170.9 27.3 47. supermarket frozen food system.4 96.92 154.014 5400 12700 4800 9200 9300 90 MO or AB MO or AB MO or AB MO or AB MO or AB MO or AB Low-temperature cascade refrigeration Low-temperature cascade refrigeration Commercial or industrial air-conditioning Industrial process.7 -81.224 5490 MO or AB R-503 HCFC-22 R23/13 (40.10 4.820 2800 8100 BFC-13B1 CFC-13 CFC-113 CFC-114 CFC-115 CFC-123 R-500 R-502 CBrF3 halon 1301 CClF3 CCl2CClF2 CClF2CClF2 CClF2CF3 CHCl2CF3 R12/152a (73. a auto air-conditions CFC-11 BFC-12B1 CFC-12 CCl3F CBrCl2 CCl2F2 halon 1211 137.7 80.91 23.400 0.27 4.5 -40.100 0.14 50 20 102 1.4 12.0 -29.41 4. centrifugal chillers Industrial process.3 67.8 198.

Most metals are good conductors of heat. Instead of moving faster or slower. An interesting situation occurs when a cold store door is opened. Radiation The prime example of this is the heat of the sun radiated over 150 million km. This happens because the atoms making up the molecules of these substances act in a different way to temperature. This is not used for heat transfer by the refrigeration engineer. The refrigerator does not destroy the heat. one or more of the atoms in the molecule shift their positions. . Heat causes some solids to become liquid.Radiation.Convection. but pumps it from the inside of the cabinet to the outside. or the turbulence in a pan of boiling water. Therefore. Cold is the result of removing heat. the heat of the hand is conducted always quickly. its place being taken by warmer air which rises. Note that heat is only radiated from a hot object to its cooler surroundings. Methods of heat transfer Three methods by which heat can be transferred: . or gases. in the chilling of beef it may take three days for the heat at the centre of the deep round of a side of beef to flow out to give the temperature of 70C. also very important to the refrigeration engineer for walls of cold rooms and insulation of pipes. solar radiation onto buildings and through windows figures in the heat load calculations of the air conditioning engine. Rising smoke from a fire is a good example. Convection Can only occur in fluids. Heat cannot travel spontaneously from a cold body to a hot body. There is no such thing as a “cold” radiator. . Its place is taken by warm air flowing at a high level. In a cold room or air-conditioning the air is cooled at high level so that it becomes heavier than its surroundings and falls to the lower level. Cooling will reverse the process.Conduction. the faster atom slows down a little and the slower one moves a little faster. The rate at which heat flows by conduction also affects producing cooling. its place being taken by a colder fluid. that is liquid and gases. For example. Convection occurs when a fluid is heated and expands and so become lighter than the surrounding fluid and rises to float above its surroundings. Cold Cold means low temperature or lack of heat. etc. Heat always travels from a substance at a higher temperature to a substance at a lower temperature. or liquids to become gases. 17 . although. Conduction Heat travels along the material from the warm and to the cold.Thermodynamics end expressions within refrigeration Heat Heat always flows from warmer to a cooler substance. The cold air in the room being heavier than the ambient tends to flow out at the ground level. What happens is that the faster moving atoms give up of their energy to slower moving atoms. Poor conductors of heat are called insulators. This explains why most unheated metals feel cold: when they are touched. A refrigerator produces “cold) by drawing heat from the inside of the refrigerator.

Azeotrope Mixture whose liquid and vapor phases have the same composition at a specific temperature. which is the temperature at which all heat energy. Air Conditioning Simultaneous control of temperature. Numerically. humidity. Absorption Refrigerating System A system in which compression of the refrigerant is secured by thermal means. Blends Used to describe mixtures which are zeotropes or near azeotropes. The process is characterized by a change in physical or chemical state of the components. 18 . Absorption The extraction of one or more components from a mixture of gasses when gases and liquid are brought into contact. which is sufficiently accurate for normal engineering computations. This is usually accomplished by an absorbent fluid capturing the vaporized refrigerant. two or three molecules are present versus one molecule present in a pure compound.150C. Blends are mixtures and not pure compounds. composition.Definitions Absolute Pressure Pressure above that of an absolute or perfect vacuum. 00K=-273. Brine Cooler An evaporator for cooling brine by means of the evaporation of a primary refrigerant. having a freezing point lower than of pure water. reducing its volume by phase change. distilling the refrigerant from the absorbent fluid with heat and sending the refrigerant vapor off the condenser and returning the absorbent fluid to the absorber. it is gauge pressure plus the barometric pressure (atmospheric pressure) expressed in bar. SI – Thermal Unit The heat energy necessary to rise the temperature of one kilogram of liquid water by one degree Celsius is a unit. utilizing a small pump to raise the combined fluids to condensing pressure. Numerically. A mixture can only be an azeotrope at one temperature. Absolute Temperature Temperature above the thermodynamic zero. Thus. it is Celsius temperature above –273. motion and distribution of air for the purpose of human comfort or for industrial utilization. Brine A water solution of salts. For practical (refrigeration) purposes.150C. Also any liquid which is used in the refrigeration system for the transfer of heat. Absolute temperature is normally expressed in Kelvin (K). is absent. if the change in composition of the azeotrope with temperature is small then it can be treated as a single fluid.

Coefficient of Performance The measure of efficiency of a refrigeration system. Critical Point A state point at which liquid and vapor has identical properties. polyurethane insulation from 0. Cycle A closed path in a thermodynamic system by which the working fluid is brought back after a series of changes to the original conditions of temperature. 19 . pressure and enthalpy. Dalton’s Law The total pressure of a mixture of gases in a closed vessel is the sum of the pressures that each separate gas would exert if the others were not present. Compression Refrigerating System A system in which the refrigerant gases or vapor is compressed by a mechanical device.Capacity. Thermal The amount of heat energy required rising the temperature of a mass of material one-degree. heat flows from the hot to the cold regions until the temperatures are equalized. Critical Pressure The pressure observed at the critical point of a substance. Thermal When temperature differences are present in any matter. such at the change from the solid state to the liquid state to the gas or vapor state.g. Convection The process of transferring heat by the movement of heated gas. Counter flow Heat exchange between two fluids which flow in opposite directions so that the warmest portion of one liquid meets warmest portion of the other. vapor or liquid. Condenser A vessel or arrangement or tubes in which warm vapor is cooled and liquefied by the removal of heat. Change of State The process of changing from one state of aggregation to another. the amount of heat removed from the refrigerator divided by the work expended. Thermal conductivity is expressed in λ= W/mK. Conductivity.027 W/mK. E. Numerically. Critical Temperature The temperature observed at the critical point of a substance.017-0. Conduction The process of heat transmission from molecule to molecule through a body of material.

The sum of the internal energy plus the product of pressure and volume. Heat of Condensation Or Liquefaction – Heat energy given up by pure vapor or gas during the process of changing to a liquid at constant temperature and pressure. Density Weight or mass per unit volume.3% of dry sodium chloride and freezes at –250C. which is characterized by its ability to pass from a body at one temperature only to a body at a lower temperature. Heat capacity The heat energy required to cause unit change in temperature of unit mass of material. J. 20 . Evaporator The component in a refrigerating system in which liquid refrigerant absorbs heat and is changed to vapor. Heat A basic form for energy. J. Enthalpy (Also known as heat content and total heat).Degree of Superheat The difference between the temperature of a vapor at a given pressure and the temperature corresponding to saturation at this pressure. which has no subcooling. Eutectic Calcium Chloride brines contains 29. The engineering unit of enthalpy is kJ/kg (Kilo Joule/kilogram) with “I” or normally used “H”. The engineering unit of heat energy is Joule. Flooded Evaporator An evaporator in whom the heat transfer surfaces are always wetted by evaporating liquid refrigerant. Eutectic Brine A solution composed of one or more substances dissolved in water such proportions that the lowest possible freezing point is secured. usually expressed in kg/m3.6% of anhydrous calcium chloride and freezes at –510C. The engineering units are the Joule. Flash Gas The vapor formed as a result of a reduction in pressure of a volatile liquid. Energy The capacity to do work. kcal or kWh for electrical energy. Eutectic Salt Brine contains 23. It may appear as sensible heat or as latent heat. Its particular utility is that the energy (heat or other forms) gained or lost by working fluid in passing through a piece of apparatus is the change of enthalpy of the liquid. Evaporative Condenser A condenser which is cooled by the continued evaporation of water upon the condensing surfaces.

Low Side The portion of a refrigerating system under the evaporator pressure. Horsepower A unit of power. Internal Energy Energy possessed by a body or a system of bodies by virtue of the motions and potential energy of the molecules. It is not perceptible to human senses and is thus latent.Heat Exchanger A device in which heat is transferred from a liquid at one temperature to another fluid at lower temperature. Heat Transfer coefficient Quantity of heat transferred through a body of unit length and unit cross-sectional area in unit time when the temperature gradient along the length dimension is one unit. This ratio is not dependent upon the atmospheric pressure. High Side The part of a refrigerating system which is under the condenser pressure. Phase In a physical sense. Heat. Relative The ratio between the partial pressure of water in air at a given temperature and the saturation pressure of water vapor at the same temperature.7 W Humidity. it is applied to one of the states of matter. Humidity. Usually expressed in kg of vapor/kg of dry air. 21 . Sensible Heat energy. Latent The heat energy liberated or absorbed in change of state at constant temperature and pressure of pure substance. Melting Point The temperature at which a solid substance changes to a liquid state at a given pressure. which is 1 hp=745. Usually expressed in W/m2K and letters often used are K-value or U-value. Absolute The weight of water vapor in a mixture with a unit weight of air. Heat. such as the solid. which is characterized by change of temperature and is thus perceptible to human senses. or hidden. liquid or gas phase. Partial Pressure The fraction of the total pressure of gas mixture which is awarded by one particular component.

Replacement The conversion of an air-conditioning or refrigeration system to an alternative refrigerant which requires the removal of the existing installation of a completely new. Pressure The force exerted by a fluid upon a unit area of the wall of container. engineering units. kilowatt. Power The time of doing work. Secondary Refrigerant Any liquid. Primary Refrigerant The fluid which is used in a thermodynamic cycle to remove heat from a low temperature region and convey it to a high temperature region. Polyester lubricants are typically more miscible with HFC refrigerants than mineral oils. Saturated Temperature The temperature at which the liquid phase is at the specified temperature and pressure. Quality Percent (%) by weight of vapor in a mixture of liquid and vapor. Sub-cooling The process of cooling a liquid below its condensing or saturation temperature. hp. Retrofit The conversion of an air-conditioning or refrigeration system to an alternative refrigerant. Pa. kW. Engineering units: Bar. Purge system A device used to expel air and other non-condensables from the circulating refrigerant. and torr (mm Hg). only parts of components of the existing system may need to be replaced. Saturated Vapor A vapor which is in equilibrium with its liquid phase at the specified temperature and pressure.Polyester (POE) A synthetic lubricant formed from one or more ester chains. has to be cooled to the evaporator. which is used to convey heat from what. Unlike a replacement. Push/pull method A method for recovering and recycling refrigerant from a system using a negative pressure (suction) on side to pull the old refrigerant out and pumping recycled refrigerant vapor to the other side to push the old refrigerant through the system. 22 .

Vapor This term is applied to a gas which is near its saturation temperature and pressure. In general.Sublimation The change of state of solid directly to vapor without phasing through the liquid state. enthalpy and entropy of a liquid under various conditions. Zeotrope/Non Azeotropic Mixture A mixture which shows significant changes in vapor and liquid compositions with temperature. Evaporates and condenses over range. It also called a “wide boiling mixture”. it is usually employed for gases below the critical temperature. Superheated Vapor A vapor whose temperature is higher than saturation temperature for the specified pressure. Expansion Valve which controls the flow of high pressure refrigerant to the evaporator. pressure. Thermodynamic Properties The relationship between the temperature. Valve. Calculations and unit design must take this into account. 23 . specific volume.

p. At any point between the two lines the refrigerant is in the form of liquid-vapor mixture. In the centre section. the lines of constant temperature run horizontally across the chart and parallel to the lines of constant pressure. is called the “region of phase change”. Critical point t= const Saturated vapor line Pressure Vapor to liquid Condensation. 24 . which represents the change in phase of the refrigerant between liquid and vapor states. in others worlds the amount of heat presented in one kilogram of refrigerant. At the saturated vapor line the lines of constant temperature change direction again.Refrigeration cycle on the Mollier chart Mollier Chart The conditions of the refrigerant at any thermodynamic state can be represented as a point in “Pressure-enthalpy diagram” (Mollier chart). The joint point of the saturated liquid line and the saturated vapor line is called the “critical point”. The horizontal line on Figure 5 are lines of constant pressure and the vertical lines are lines of constant enthalpy. since the refrigerant changes in state at a constant temperature and pressure. Mollier chart The chart is divided into three main areas which are separated from each other by the saturated liquid line and the saturated vapor line. and fall off sharply toward the bottom of chart in the superheated vapor region. between the saturated liquid and saturated vapor lines. t= const Liquid-vapor mixture Saturated liquid line Enthalpy Figure 5 . The area on the right side of the saturated vapor line is the “superheated region” and the refrigerant in this region is in the form if superheated vapor. t= const Liquid to vapor t= const Vaporization. At any point in the subcooled region. The temperature and pressure at this point are called the “critical temperature” and “critical pressure” respectively. Temperature of the refrigerant can be given by reading the lines of constant temperature. The lines of the constant temperature in the subcooled region are almost vertical on the chart and parallel to the lines of constant enthalpy. p. The centre section of the chart. The area and the left side of the saturated liquid line are called “subcooled region”. the refrigerant is in the liquid state and its temperature is below the saturation temperature corresponding to its pressure.

it passes horizontally from A to B (Figure 7). The distance from B to C represents the heating process of this vapor through the end of evaporator and the suction line. 25 .Refrigeration cycle The simple vapor compression refrigeration cycle consist of four main processes such as vaporization. as shown in on the Figure 6. condensation and expansion. This lines indicates the vaporization of refrigerant from liquid into vapor in the evaporator. Refrigeration cycle in Mollier chart Vaporization As the refrigerant vaporizes at the lower constant pressure. Condenser Expansion Valve Evaporator Compressor Saturated vapor and liquid Figure 6. compression. The simplify the discussion. the pressure drop between B and C is ignored. Pressure G F Expansion Condensation E D Compression Vaporization A B C Entalpy Figure 7. Scheme of refrigeration system .

26 . Domestic Refrigeration Domestic refrigeration is being concerning primarily with household refrigerators and home freezers. Typical design of vapor compression mechanical refrigeration system A refrigeration system consists principally of high-pressure side and low-pressure side.Compressor (hermetic. Current system designs are different in their use of shut off valves.Low pressure or temperature motor control. .Evaporator. . The point F represents the amount of heat the in the liquid and the pressure imposed on the liquid as it forms in the condenser. When system piping is short.Condenser (air-cooled. Classification of applications Refrigeration applications may grouped into six general categories: Domestic refrigeration. When it is compressed to D. From F to G. domestic refrigeration represents a significant portion of the refrigeration industry. note low its pressure increases rapidly and how a few kgJ (kiloJoule) of heat are added to the vapor while the compressor is considerably superheated.High pressure safety motor control. often with an oil separator. heat is reduced from the liquid while passing along the line to the refrigerant control. The cycle is now ready to be repeated.Compression Point C is the condition of the vapor when it moves into the compressors and is compressed. Because the number of units in service is quite large. . Low pressure side . the vapor has not superheat and is 100 percent saturated vapor. water-cooled. The line from E to F represents the condensation process of the refrigerant in the condenser from vapor into liquid. Industrial refrigeration. Condensation The distance between D and E represents the cooling process of this superheated vapor to the point at which it starts condenses. It will consist an automatic thermostatic expansion valve or capillary tube. The refrigerant control is at the division point between the low side and high side of the system. Commercial refrigeration.).Liquid receiver – when a thermostatic expansion valve or automatic expansion valve is used. because it is required that sections are available to be closed in cases of system failure.Liquid line – with drier. evaporative). High-pressure side . sight glass a shut off valves. . . and D represents the condition of the vapor leaving the exhaust valve of the compressor. Expansion Line from G to A represents the throttling of the liquid while passing through the refrigerant control orifice. semihermetic etc. At E.Suction line – some with filter-dryers and surge tanks. it is recommended that a suction accumulator be installed. Marine and Transport refrigeration. Comfort air-conditioning and Industrial air-conditioning. .

to be later field-installed by interconnecting piping and wiring at the job site. remotely supplied display cases. rotary or screws compressors. schools. plains ships etc. one which is HFC-134a or HC-600a. Due to the chemical differences between CFC and alternatives. automobiles. Air-conditioning applications are two types.Domestic units are usually small in size. This category includes self-stand alone equipment. installation and maintenance of refrigerant features of type used by retail stores. Owing the concern about depletion of the earth’s protective stratospheric ozone layer. The functions of industrial air conditioning systems are to: . Millions of refrigerators running on CFC are installed in people’s homes. offices. displaying. restaurants. The applications of industrial air-conditioning are almost without both in number and variety. hotels. and convenience accessories.Control the moisture content of hydroscopic materials. This does not necessarily mean that industrial air-conditioning systems cannot serve also as comfort airconditioning coincidentally with their primary function. Air-conditioning Air-conditioning is concerned with the condition of the air in some designated area or space. drink dispensers.Limit the variations in the seize of precision manufactured articles because of thermal expansion and contraction. Mobile air-conditioning (MAC) Automobile air-conditioning involves heating. public buildings. The basic fresh food refrigerator has many variations. Commercial Refrigeration Commercial refrigeration is concerned with the designing. . Any air-conditioning which does not haven as primarily purpose the conditioning of air for human comfort is called industrial air-conditioning. buses. This usually involves control not only of the space temperature but also of space humidity and air motion. Today’s new refrigerators are mostly manufactured with alternative refrigerants. and pre-fabricated walk-in cold storage rooms. the CFC refrigerants are being phased out. such as auto defrosts. filtrated air which is often essential to troublefree operation and to the production of quality products. processing and dispensing of perishable commodities of all types. Typical installations of comfort air conditioning are in homes.Govern the rate of chemical and biochemical reactions. along with the filtering and cleaning of the air. Most of this equipment is factory assembled. having power input ratings of between 35 W and 375 W and are of the hermetically sealed type. factories. icemakers. trains. . comfort and industrial. . That means that with domestic refrigerators with hermetic compressors it almost impossible to replace the CFC with alternatives without major high cost repairs. The heat required to warm the passenger compartment is usually provided by circulating warm coolant from the engine through a heater core. When a cooling effect is 27 . hotels and institutions for the storing. retail stores. The unit operating capacities broadly cover the range less than 1 kW up to several hundred kW. traditional mineral oils cannot be used in most cases and would ultimately sacrifice performance and system reliability. Refrigeration equipment ranges from single compressor units through to multi-compressor parallel system using reciprocating. cooling and dehumidification.Provide clean. etc.

Refrigerator evaporator 28 . . Evaporator The evaporator is located in the cabinet.Refrigeration system ( evaporator.Cabinet. to prevent liquid refrigerant from flowing into the compressor suction line. causing an evaporator in the plenum chamber of the system to cool the air is to be circulated through the passenger compartment. Accumulator Figure 8. .Electrical circuit. The cabinet contains and supports the evaporator and condensing unit. In some cases. The vapor moves on into suction line. compressor. Parts of Domestic Refrigerators and freezers Domestic Refrigerators The domestic fresh food refrigerator or food freezer consists primarily of three parts: . a refrigerating system is brought into operation. a motor driven fan forces air over the necessary refrigerator temperatures for the compartments. The liquid refrigerant entering the evaporator from the refrigerant flow control (usually capillary tube) is reduced to evaporator pressure. it also supplies shelving and storage space for the foods and beverages.desired. there is usually a cylinder (Figure 8. condensing unit and expansion device). Accumulator). If the entire liquid refrigerant has not vaporized in the evaporator. The remaining liquid then absorbs heat from the cabinet and is vaporized.

In domestic applications.Compressor The suction line from the evaporator extends down the wall of the cabinet to the inlet side of the compressor. As the air in contact with the fins and tubes becomes heated. Centrifugal force throws the oil and a liquid refrigerant to outer rim of the disk and flows over the motor windings.static. 29 . it rises and cooler air takes place. Hermetic compressor Condenser The condenser is usually placed in the back of the refrigerator and removes the condensation heath from the refrigerant vapor. that is warm air tends to rise. which is located in the base of the cabinet. Only the vapor refrigerant remains at the centre and is drawn into cylinders of the compressor. Figure 9.forced convection. The tubes and fins are usually made of copper or steel. • Finned . • Plate . the return suction gas is fed into a shallow disk mounted on the motor compressor shaft.static (natural convection) (Figure 10). where compressor and motor are build together as a complete hermetic unit. Static means that air circulation through the condenser tubing and fins is by natural convection. Most commonly used in domestic refrigerators is a finned type static condenser. • Wire .static. To lubricate the compressor. Refrigerators commonly use the four following types of condensers: • Finned . the hermetic compressor is used.

The capillary tube is the most common refrigerant flow control for domestic refrigerators. and the length of the line. The capillary tube is a long length of small diameter tubing. This provides a heat exchange between the capillary tube and the suction line. from 10 to 20 percent of it has vaporized. dirt. Condenser with natural convection Capillary tube Refrigerant is condensed in the condenser. capacity of the unit. by reducing the flow of refrigerant through its length. The increased volume of the vapor causes most of the pressure drop to take place in the end of the tube nearest the liquid line. Then some of the liquid starts to change in to vapor. Liquid line filter-drier It is common practice to install a filter drier in the liquid line. By the time the refrigerant reaches the end of the tube. metal. it flows through a high-side filter-drier into a capillary tube attached to a section of the suction line. The refrigerant from the capillary tube flows into the evaporator and the cooling cycle is completed. depending upon the refrigerant.Figure 10. Just enough liquid passes through it to make up for the amount that is vaporized in the evaporator as the compressor operates. It reduces the liquid refrigerant from its condensing pressure to its evaporating pressure. The tubes inside diameter may vary. There is no change in to liquid except a slight drop in pressure for about the first two-thirds of the length of the capillary tube. It reduces pressure. The tube is placed between the liquid line and the evaporator. and chips from entering the refrigerant flow control. 30 . This tank-like accessory keeps moisture.

Two principal types of motor controls are used to turn the motor on and off: . The refrigerant condenses from a high-pressure vapor to high-pressure liquid.Evaporator outlet To= -260C. Since chest-type freezers are manually defrosted. the diaphragm moves. For refrigerator with frozen food compartment recommended operating temperatures are: . as the bulb cools and the diaphragm or bellows moves the other way. Thermostats may also be electrically connected to timers for automatic defrosting of the evaporator. A hermetic motor compressor usually requires an outside electrical relay starting mechanism. The liquefied refrigerant collects in the bottom of the condenser tubing. The liquid refrigerant flows through the capillary tube and into the evaporator. They also may include an overload protector which will open the switch if the unit draws too much current. the motor must be turned off when the desired low temperature is reached and turned on again when evaporator has warmed up again to a certain temperature. they do not run all of the time. under normal use. Since it is connected to a toggle or snap action switch. which expands to increase the pressure as the bulb become warmer. the refrigerant passes to the machine compartment and through the oil cooling coil in the compressor dome. Thermostatic temperature control This motor control type has a sensing bulb connected by a capillary tube to a diaphragm or bellows. Therefore. Many controls have manual switch to permit shutting off or turning on or off the refrigeration system. Motor control All automatic electric refrigerators are designed with more cooling capacity than needed. an the cycle repeats.What is more. The hermetic compressor is located at the lower right end. it will turn this switch on (close circuit). condensate (water) is usually drained out through the bottom of the cabinet.Evaporator inlet Ti= -250C -260C. moves into capillary tube. There. Here. Then. These controls have adjustments that permit differences in operation temperatures. The compressor draws the vaporized refrigerant through the compressor and pumps it into the precooler condenser on the back wall of the freezer. it releases part of its latent heat of vaporization and sensible heat of compression. and will contact again to decrease the pressure as the bulb cools. Freezers The outer and inner shells of the chest-type freezer are metal. the drying element in the filter (usually silicagel) removes moisture. . the toggle switch will move (to open circuit). The condenser is attached to the outer shell. . To get the correct refrigeration temperature. on into the evaporator. This element is charged with a volatile fluid. 31 . evaporation of the refrigerant and cooling take place. flows into the filter-drier. From the precooler condenser.Pressure motor control (low-side pressure). which might otherwise freeze in the refrigerant flow control. The evaporator surrounds the inner liner and is attached to it. The compressed vapor then flows back to the main condenser where the heat is released to the atmosphere. As bulb cools pressure increase.Temperature motor control (Thermostatic). The capillary tube is in contact with suction line and provides superheat at the compressor inlet.

Many designs of tubing mounted piercing valve have been developed and are available from most well known refrigeration equipment manufacturers. etc.e. Figure 11.Piercing valve A way to gain access to a hermetic system is to mount service piercing valves on suction tubing. Other applications are small systems supplying vending machines for beverages and foods. food stores. commercial and institutional kitchens. Open display cabinet 32 . Figure 12. i. But many commercial systems using mechanical cycle mechanisms differ in some way from the domestic mechanism. more complex controls and piping connection etc. restaurants. A piercing valve is shown in the Figure 11. Piercing valve mounted on tubing Commercial Refrigeration Systems The majority of commercial refrigeration systems are used in food merchandising and food service applications such as supermarkets. on both or on the process tube. Figure 12 shows a typical open display cabinet system coming under the commercial category. Operation fundamentals of domestic refrigeration systems also apply to commercial systems. on the discharge tubing (tubing to condenser).

Evaporators may be divided into two main groups: . because of customers demand great variety. D -Low-highpressure motor control. Natural convection. These systems consists a few evaporating units and common compressor-condenser. . The governing conditions are desired temperature range of the cabinet and the temperature difference between the evaporator and the cabinet. K -Drier.Usually. the products need different temperatures of storage. J -Check valve.Defrosting.Those used for cooling air. M Distributor Evaporators In commercial refrigeration. These evaporators vary from coils of tubing immersed in a sweet water bath to forced-circulation evaporators which have the air blown them or by a motor driven fan. Evaporators for cooling air are of two principal types: . C -Liquid line shutoff valve.Those submerged in a liquid such as brine or beverage. L -Sight glass. Multi evaporator system A -Water valve. Figure 13 shows a multi evaporator system. G -Liquid line solenoid valves. In natural air convection evaporators. 33 . .Frosting.No frosting The condition under an evaporator must work determines its classification. cool air descends) or thermal circulation.Forced convection. air circulated depends on gravitational (warm air rises. Because of that multi evaporator systems are in use. E-Thermostatic expansion valves. in run. H -Two-temperatures valves. .Natural convection. . B -Suction line shutoff. special evaporator designs are required for many installations. the air cools contents of the cabinet. Figure 13. air-cooling evaporators fall into three classes: .

which senses the temperature of the discharge gas next to the valve reed. A crank and a rod connecting the crank to the piston usually make this change. Excessive discharge temperatures can lead to a number of failures. Reciprocating open drive compressor Another commercial system compressor used is the open drive compressor. The original energy source is usually an electric motor.g. The complete mechanism is housed in a leakproof container called a crankcase. Evaporator Compressors Small commercial and air-conditioning plants have a hermetic compressor but some large commercial systems have semihermetic compressors.Figure 14. This system supplied by a positive displacement oil pump. working in either direction. due to loss oil lubricating properties or forming of acid and thus damage to motor and bearings. The compressors are usually equipped with an oil sight glass through which the oil quantity and its suction and discharge shut-off valves with gauge connections. If the permissible discharge temperatures are being exceeded. e. Figure 15. Refrigerantcooler motor compressors have an oil pressure lubricating system. the compressor motor will be switched off automatically. Its rotary motion must be changed to reciprocating motion. Semihermetic compressor 34 . Some compressor manufacturers have installed a sensor into the cylinder head.

Larger hermetic units use separate motors to drive the fans. condensation must occur at temperature higher that of the cooling medium. Cooling water may be too expensive or corrosive.Shell and coil. Figure 16. This condenser is built in three styles: . This usually in the range 5-6 0C higher than the cooling medium. inducted (led into).Condensers The compression process adds heat to the vapor for exactly the same reason that a bicycle pump gets warm in use. Air-cooled condenser Air-cooled condensers are quite common in commercial and air-conditioning systems. but the compression process adds much heat so that the compressed vapor leaving the compressor is highly superheated. how much heat is extracted by the condenser and the temperature of the condensing medium. Air-cooled condenser Water cooled condensers Some commercial refrigerating units use water cooled type condenser. 35 . Placing a metal shroud around it may increase the efficiency of the fan on an aircooled condenser. depending on whether air or water is used for condensing. Longer condensers may be cooled by a big fan built onto the motor or into the compressor flywheel on external drive units. The pressure at which the vapor condenses is determined by combination of how much vapor is delivered by the compressor.Shell and tube. . These condensers have fins and frequently use a double or treble row of tubes. Air fan can be drawn. Before condensation can occur the superheated must be removed and this is the first function of the condenser. Heat will flow out of condenser into the condenser cooling medium. The compressor may rise the pressure of the vapor to a level at which it easily condenses at atmospheric temperature. or forced through the condensers.Tube-within-a-tube. . followed by condensation to liquid and then a few degrees of subcooling of the liquid.

Water cooled condenser Expansion valves An expansion valve is refrigerant control operated by the low-side pressure of the system. While the compressor is running. the bulb warms up and the bulb pressure p1 raises the effecting further opening of the valve and thus widening of the cross section of passage. however. While these three pressures are balancing. Its purpose is to throttle the liquid refrigerant in the liquid line down to a constant pressure on the low-pressure side while the compressor is running. The third type uses two pipes or tubes: one inside the other. The second type also uses a shell but the water travels through the shall in coils of tubing. If the compressor in the off cycle mode is disconnected. Operation of Thermostatic expansion valve The operation is influenced by three pressure acting on the control element. Figure 17. the refrigerant vapor goes directly from the compressor into a tank or shell while the water travels through the tank or shell in straight tubes. In the closing direction of the valve evaporation pressure p0 and regulating spring (nominal value) p3 are working. but with a mist or fog. The bulb pressure p1 effects the valve opening modulating movement. A system using an automatic expansion valve is sometimes called a “dry” system. the opening position and thus the unrestricted passage area of the valve remain uncharged. If the evaporator is supplied with too little refrigerant. Falling of the evaporator pressure. the liquid refrigerant is sprayed into the evaporator. move the valve into closing directions. while the condenser water flows in the opposite direction through the inner tube. The refrigerant passes one way through the outer pipe.In the shell and tube type. The valves act like a spray nozzle. p0 36 . This is because the evaporator is never filled with liquid refrigerant. The bulb pressures vary with temperature of the vaporized refrigerant and bulb charge.

Sight glass .moisture indicator The acceptable limit of the safe moisture levels. This superheat distance reduces evaporator capacity but it is necessary for stable operation of the control valve. dry refrigerant and clean. This value is called “static superheat”. for CFC-22 is 60 ppm and for R-502 is 30 ppm.will rise since there is no compressor in operation and the valve closes (as long as the bulb pressure p1 does not exceeded the closing pressure p0 and p1). Between E and the mounting place of the bulb F. largely. on the internal cleanliness of the unit. Is control size represents the refrigerant superheat over the saturated evaporator temperature (suction line close to evaporator). is: for CFC-12 is 50 ppm. p1 – Bulb pressure. according the most authorities. Liquid filter-drier The efficient operation of a commercial system depends. The moisture indication for either of the refrigerants has a two-color indication. the refrigerant vapor is superheated – that means it is heated above its saturation temperature (increase of temperature at constant pressure). The liquid-vapor-mixture of the refrigerant enters the evaporator in A and should be vaporized completely in E. The pressure p3 of the regulating spring determines at what difference between bulb and evaporator temperature the valve will open. The dark green indicates dry and a bright yellow indicates wet. 37 . A common method of removing moisture is with a liquid line drier. dry oil should circulate in the system. p3 – Pressure equivalent of the regulating spring Superheat The thermostatic expansion valve is a proportional control. These devices (filters and water absorbents) may be in separate units or may build into a single unit. Figure 18. Thermostatic expansion valve with evaporator p0 – Evaporator pressure. Only clean.

The heat exchanger also helps prevent sweat backs or frost backs on the suction line. Refrigerant flash gas is that portion of refrigerant liquid that changes to vapor when pressure is reduced (e. If the liquid is cooled 5 to 100C at the prevailing heat pressure. Heat exchanger Liquid line heat exchanger is never used with HCFC-22 but only with CFC-12 or R502 system and is mounted in the suction and liquid line. Solenoid valve Shut off valves These hand valves and service valves must be studied and designed to undertake frequent opening and closing without leaking.It sub cools the liquid refrigerant and increases operating efficiency. This reduces the valve capacity. it can absorb more latent heat as it changes to vapor in the evaporator. because this will damage the mounting flange. These valves are designed to be fitted into liquid line.It reduces liquid refrigerant in the suction line. If there is low temperature liquid refrigerant present in the returning suction vapor. The flash gas cools the remaining liquid to the lower pressure saturation temperature. A heat exchanger provides for a heat transfer for warmer liquid in the liquid line to the cool vapor coming from the evaporator. The reduction of flash gas vapor (sometime called flash gas) is important.It reduces flash gas in the liquid line. Figure 19. before expansion device to prevent flow of refrigerant into evaporator. it will evaporate in the heat exchanger as it absorbs heat from the liquid line. . Valve stems and packing must be handled with care.Solenoid valves The solenoid valves are basically servo controlled. When power is active. the opening force lifts the diaphragm valve plate from the valve seat and holds the valve open until current is cut off. . when the system is shutoff. when pressure is reduced through a thermo-expansion valve or capillary tube). increases low-side pressure drop and reduces amount of heat each kilogram of refrigerant can absorb as it evaporates. There are three advantages: . 38 . The valve should be tight hard when in closing position.g.

The other located between the receiver and the liquid line. which is usually equipped with two service valves. Liquid receiver installed with as compressor-condensate unit 39 . Figure 21. mounted after the condenser. magnet floats or valves for determining the level of liquid refrigerant. The receiver should be large enough to hold all refrigerant in the system.Figure 20. These safety releases should never release refrigerant direct out to the air. Some receivers are provided with a device sight-glass. Receivers should have safety devices. Heat exchanger Liquid receiver The liquid receiver is a tank. One is a liquid receiver service valve mounted between the liquid receiver and the condenser. A special line should be installed a safety relief valve to the evaporator. A thermal release plug provides minimal safety to release gas in case of fire or pressure relief valve.

Oil separators Refrigeration system works better when the oil is kept in the compressor. The oil will separate because the vapor flow slows down as it arrives in the separator. flare fittings will be used less in the piping and welded or brazed connections will be required. Oil in the condenser and evaporator will reduce efficiency of the unit. The oil will collect in the separator until a certain level is reached in the oil separator crankcase. Streamline brazed connections are used to connect the fittings to the pipe. Because of the worldwide environmental focus on refrigerating systems. 40 . It is important to keep the oil from circulating in low-temperature installations. Larger systems are usually designed to use steel pipe. Oil separator installed in the system Refrigerant lines Hard drawn copper is usually used to carry the refrigerant around the system. It thickens in very low temperatures and becomes difficult to move out of the evaporator. Oil separators remove the oil from the hot compressed vapor as the vapor leaves the compressor. Figure 22.

Remote units are of two types: • Condensing unit: The evaporator is installed in the room to be conditioned or in the main duct. Figure 23. This system is applied in big truck-refrigerators and transport by containers. The area for food storage is an insulated cold room situated within the vehicle. • Compressor driven by an electric motor. truck-refrigerators. • Cabinet units. The compressor is directly driven by the electric motor. • The central air-conditioning plant. • Through-the-wall unit. These mobile refrigeration systems are different then commercial ones in view of the original energy source. The refrigeration system works only during the vehicle is in state of rest and is supplied by the regular electricity net. • Remote (controlled from distance). The power supply is provided by the generator with internal combustion engine. The alternative solution is the electric motor to be connect directly to electricity net (during the vehicle is in state of rest). They can be classified by arrangement of the mechanism: • Self-contained or unit coolers.Transport Refrigeration The food transportation is performed by special vehicles. The self-contained system includes: • Window units. 41 . Outside the cold room is fixed a air-cooled compressor-condensing unit. Truck-refrigerator Air-conditioning systems Several types of comfort systems are in common use. The cooling operation takes place only during the while vehicle engine works. There are several ways of performance: • Compressor driven by the vehicle engine. • Compressor driven by combined energy source.

in addition. The condensate (water) from the surface of evaporator is often drained to the base of the motor compressor. has an electrical resistance heating unit to furnish heat. One type cools and filters the air and has a fresh air intake. Figure 24. They vary in capacity from 6 . Inside the room. A differential of about 30C is normal. Thermostats control the system. needed in some localities because of water restrictions. must have air ducts to the outdoors for condenser cooling. Such units are often used in small commercial establishments such a restaurants.30 kW or more. and banks. A capillary tube or an automatic expansion valve refrigerant control is usually used. another fan draws air in through a filter and forces it over the evaporator. The sensitive bulb is usually mounted at the inlet of the evaporator. Outside air forced over the condenser by a fan. stores. Windows units are available in several types. the whole system is mounted in a cabinet. The two airflow fans may be driven by same motor. A third type uses a reverse cycle system (heat pump) to permit the use of the refrigerating units both for comfort cooling and heating. Another type has these same devices. Air-cooled models. The condenser is located in the section of the cabinet that is outside the building. Cabinet-package unit 42 .Self-contained systems (unit coolers) Window units Window respectively wall units may be installed on a windowsill or in special wall openings. but. Cabinet-package units In package air-conditioning. Package models may have either water-cooled or air-cooled condensing units.

Suction accumulator. 4. Chillers There are four basic types of chillers: centrifugal. centrifugal compressors). 5. air-cooled condenser. The governing of the system is usually by a remote controller.Split air-conditioning units Spilt systems are units with air-cooled outdoor condensing unit. screw. 3. Operating conditions are monitored. reciprocating. Shut off valve. filter-drier. Central air-conditioning plant In the central air-conditioning plant the evaporator are installed away from the place being conditioned. Split air-conditioning plant 1. and automatically displayed on the indoor unit indicator panel. motor and fan. which is used in an industrial process or in air-conditioning plant. Filter-drier. Sight-glass. Outdoor condensing unit. Refrigeration device which cools water. Spit system consists two main parts: indoor and outdoor unit. motors and fans. 2. Thermo-expansion valve. connected with insulated cooper pipes. 9. Figure 25. and absorption. The indoor unit consists of evaporator.g. ceiling. Several types of indoor units are in use: floor. Solenoid valve. air-filter. • Positive displacement compressors (screw. 8. The outdoor condensing unit consists of hermetic compressor (reciprocating or scroll type). duct etc. Compressor-driven chillers can be divided into two types: • Aerodynamic (e. Evaporator (indoor unit). 6. Condensing pressure regulator. thermo-expansion device. Cooled brine or water is circulated to the heat exchangers in the various spaces to be conditioned. is called chiller. package valves. 7. reciprocating). 43 . wall.

R-500. The gas flows into the compressor impeller and spun around at a very high velocity. Refrigerant in the condenser portion is generally at a pressure slightly greater than the surroundings. both low-pressure refrigerants. by far the most common source of power is an electric motor. therefore. The high velocity gas exits the impeller into a diffuser where the high velocity gas becomes a low velocity. • Positive pressure (high-pressure centrifugal chillers). • Twin screw. Centrifugal turbo-compressor chillers The centrifugal chillers can be divided in to two categories: • Negative pressure (low -pressure centrifugal chillers). Chillers with screw compressors There are two types of screw compressors: • Single screw. high pressure gas. Heat may be transferred to the air or to cooling water. In the evaporation process the refrigerant again becomes a gas. the chiller water is cooled. A piston in the cylinder moves to squeeze or compress the gas into a smaller volume. It travels to the condenser and through the same cycle described above. The basic chiller cycle is similar of any vapour compression refrigeration cycle. In a negative chiller. where gives up heat. thus increasing its pressure. This high pressure refrigerant gas is then discharged. Reciprocating compressors draw the low pressure refrigerant into a cylinder.The refrigeration cycle is similar for each. In this process. All system leaks are refrigerants out of the system. the refrigerant condenses into a liquid. The liquid refrigerant passes through a pressure reduction device. it is desirable for the refrigerant to give up as much heat as possible in as small a condenser as possible. The difference between the high pressure and low pressure gas is sometimes described as the compressor “head” or “lift”. Negative (low) pressure chillers use CFC-11 or HCFC-123. In order for the chiller to be economical. The gas leaving the evaporator goes to the compressor where the cycle repeats. all medium and high-pressure refrigerants. The high pressure refrigerant then goes to the condenser. Hence. The compressor has been designed to operate efficiently at a given input and output pressure. These systems have pressures that are higher than the surroundings. The low pressure liquid enters the chiller evaporator. absorbs heat and cools surfaces around it. These leaks are for the most part air and moisture. It is important that substitute refrigerants used in an any compressor operate at pressures similar to the original refrigerant. Positive (high) pressure centrifugal chillers use CFC-12. all evaporator lakes are leaking into system. Chillers with positive displacement compressors The most common for chiller applications are reciprocating and screw compressors. HCFC-22 or HFC134a. leaks in the condenser will go outward. the evaporator is at a pressure lower than the surroundings. 44 . While these compressors can be powered in a number ways including gas engines. which will interfere with the efficient operation of chiller and result in internal corrosion if not removed. In turn. only the compression device differs.

The condenser is mounted ahead of the car radiator. The twin screws compressor uses two interlocking rotors to reduce the volume and increase the refrigerant pressure. moisture (condensate) formed on the evaporator surfaces collects much of the dust and pollen. 45 . Operation A cooling unit for automobiles is the compressor mounted on the engine and is driven by a belt. Water cooled screw chiller Mobile air-conditioning (MAC) Function The automobile air conditioning uses a refrigerant system driven by the car’s engine (some cars have direct driven compressor) to furnish the cooling action desired. Most mobile air conditioners are driven directly from the vehicle’s engine by means of a belt drive mechanism. which driers and filters it. liquid refrigerant flows from the condenser to the liquid receiver. The mechanism and controls of a factory installed air conditioning system are designed to ease the task of selecting and controlling car temperature. In addition. Figure 26. The vaporized refrigerant flows back through the suction line to the compressor. The liquid refrigerant travels through a refrigerant control to the evaporator where it is vaporized and heat is absorbed. The compressor is disengaged from the engine when it is not required by means of a clutch mechanism that is typically electronically engaged. These entrapped particles are carried away by the condensate as it drains from the evaporator underneath the car.The single screw compressor uses single cylindrical main rotor that works with a pair of gate rotors. When operating the air conditioning. In most cases. warm water from the engine cooling system is used for heating purpose. the humidity of the air inside the car is reduced. In operation.

46 . . the pistons are caused to reciprocate in the cylinders.Flared fitting. piston and cylinder and .Compressor There are two types of compressors in use: . Their purpose is: . Swash plate compressor Refrigerant lines Special flexible refrigerant lines are used in automobile air-conditioning applications.To carry vapor refrigerant from the receiver-drier to the evaporator to compressor. connecting rod. Double acting pistons are fitted over the swash plate.Swash plate type. Figure 27.Conventional reciprocating type with crankshaft. which use a different reciprocating piston and cylinder arrangement.To carry liquid refrigerant from the condenser to the liquid receiver-drier (on some units).To carry liquid refrigerant from receiver-drier to the evaporator expansion valve. The swash plate compressor has a straight shaft and a “swash plate” mounted at an angle to the shaft. . As the shaft and swash late revolve.O-ring fitting. These hoses are constructed to be flexible and vibration proof and made of steel and cooper.Hose clamp fitting. .To carry hot compressed vapor from the compressor to the condenser. . The hoses are commonly covered with a braid to protect them against injury. . Hoses are fastened to the system parts in various ways: .

Scheme of mobile air-conditioning installation 47 . Mobile air-conditioning installation Figure 29.Figure 28.

the system must be tested for leaks. filling or purging cycles). The rate of change of pressure has different effects on the various components in the systems. misalignment of seals. The causes of leakage All refrigerant leakages are caused by material failure. 48 . and differential expansion and contraction. Refrigeration systems must be inspected and maintained regularly. If refrigerant emissions are reduced.4. and refrigerant contained in the latter must be transferred either within the system. • Emissions due to transfer (emptying. To eliminate leaks. and the main refrigerant losses may be split in to 3 categories: • Intrinsic leaks. Any leakage detected must be repaired immediately.. the corresponding system section must be isolated. Adding refrigerant will not permanently correct the difficulty. Good service practices The intent of the improvement of service practices is to reduce the amount of refrigerant lost to the atmosphere. Always checks area with a leak detector. Additional savings will probably also occur since a well-maintained refrigerant system will run more efficiently and is less likely to require costly repairs. the refrigerant and oil must be transferred with as little loss as possible. To minimize emissions. then repaired and recharged. If it is has been determined that a system is low on refrigerant. The mechanism that creates the material failure is normally attributable to one or more the following factors: Vibration Vibration is a significant factor in material failure and is responsible for “work hardening” of cooper. A reduction in CFC consumption can only be achieved by reducing refrigerant loses from existing systems. • Accidental leaks. a related benefit is that equipment operators will drastically reduce the cost of replacing expensive refrigerant. Reducing emissions of refrigerants should be a goal for all service technicians. or into a service container for refrigerant. Attempt to pinpoint the leak before recovering the refrigerant. but does not let this be the determining factor. The presence of oil around tubing joint usually indicates leaks. because of poor service procedures. to avoid contaminating the surrounding air with refrigerant from a newly open system. loosening of securing bolts to flanges etc. Every effort must be made to prevent the emissions of CFCs that are presently held in refrigeration systems. It is a not environmentally sound solution to add refrigerant without first locating and repairing leakage. All service technicians have an obligation to protect the environment against CFC emissions. Refrigerant leaks The refrigerant in a refrigerating system is never used up. which results in material stress. Pressure changes Refrigerating systems depend on the changes in pressure for their operation.

differing materials. with leaks found being marked for restriction. It should be noted that traditional “Halon lamps” could not be used with HFCs such as R-134a as they require the presence of chlorine to produce a colored flame. changes in vibration. Incorrect material selection In a number of cases. certain types of flexible hoses have a known leakage rate. Detection can be made electronically. where invariably materials form a junction. Many of these are inexpensive when compared to the value of the refrigerant. Equipment to prevent refrigerant loss Many products have been developed to help reduce refrigerant emissions. 49 .g. Accidental damage These are rare occasions and care should always be taken to protect pressurized systems from accidental damage. They are able to measure refrigerant vapors in the atmosphere at very low concentrations.Temperature changes Refrigeration systems frequently consist of different materials. Friction wear There are many cases of frictional wear causing material failure. They are relatively easy to use a can detect very small leaks of CFCs. vapor from carbon tetrachloride or other solvents which may give a false reaction. Special electronic leak detectors available can be used. and different thickness. which can save. Poor quality control Unless the materials used in the refrigeration system are of a high and consistent standard. Electronic halide detectors Electronic leak detectors are widely available and accepted. and materials that are known to fail under conditions of vibration and transient pressure and temperature changes are used. electronic detectors can only be used in clean atmosphere not contaminated by a refrigerant vapor. Leak methods and detection equipment It is important to use the most accurate leak detection method available to locate any system leaks. Mechanical joints The most likely source of leakage is at mechanical joint. They are accurate to leak rates as small as 15 grams per year. The sensors have been tuned to measure chlorine or fluorine. and they vary from poorly fixed pipework to shaft seals. Leak detection When a system is through to have a leak the whole system should be checked. HCFCs or HFCs. smoke. materials are selected that are inappropriate e. Rapid changes in temperature result in material stress and differential expansion and contraction. Because of extremely sensitivity. pressure and temperature will cause failure.

then the system can be examined visually with an ultraviolet light for any evidence of leaks. Figure 31.Figure 30. Electronic leak detector Ultrasonic leak detectors Ultrasonic leak detectors use sophisticated sensors to “listen” for the high frequency sounds made by a leaking gas. Ultraviolet fluorescent leak detector 50 . Fluorescent dyes If small concentrations of fluorescent dye is placed in the refrigerant and allowed to disperse throughout the system. This method will only be effective on high pressure lines (points) of the systems. They require a low level of background noise and some experience on the part of the service technician to interpret the results correctly.

this can be used to detect lakes. lubricant oil leaks out as well. Much experience may be needed to develop the skill necessary to find small lakes with halide torch. but it doesn’t evaporate rapidly and remains on the outside of the equipment and pipes. The flame of this propane powered torch changes color when refrigerant gas is passing trough it (small amount of refrigerant has a bright green color. Soap solution Soap solutions work well in leak testing specific areas of the system. large amount – violet). They are more useful as a safety device. The soap bubble method will not detect very small leaks or leaks located in inaccessible areas. It is very important to have a refrigerant monitor present in the equipment room for safety and code reasons. Refrigerant monitors today are very sensitive and can detect very low levels of refrigerant in the atmosphere. but if a leak is large enough to detect. identifying the leaks area. but not its location. The soap solution will indicate a leak when it is placed directly on an area. Figure 32. However. The torch must not be used in the presence of explosive fumes or gases. it has poor sensitivity. Oil stains A trained service technician can identify a badly leaking refrigeration system by the presence of oil stains on the outside of the equipment. The vapor leaking past the soap causes bubbles to form in the area of the leak. 51 . Detection by soap solution Halide torch A halide torch can also be used as a leak testing option.Refrigerant monitor If the equipment room where the system is located has a refrigerant monitor. If refrigerant leaks out. they can point out the existence. which is leaking refrigerant vapor.

52 . detachable product is formed. Corrosion Moisture can also induce corrosion. Moisture can be classified as a visible and invisible. because they usually contain acids they corrode whatever they ceiling to. Heat increases the rate of corrosion due to acids because at higher temperatures the acid-forming process is accelerated. Moisture in form of water alone can cause rust after a period. Water changed into acid emulsifies with refrigerant lubricants. accelerating damage. fine powders. Refrigeration lubricant presents another caused by moisture. granular solids or strictly solids and causes a variety of problems. The most effective way to eliminate moisture from a system is through the use of a high vacuum pump and the key point is the level of vacuum. This acid attacks all the materials it contacts the rate of corrosion of the individual materials being determinate by their corrosion-resistant qualities. can be seen with the aye. Corrosion becomes troublesome from the operating standpoint when the metallic surface is eaten and a solid. Refrigerant such as CFC-12 containing chlorine will slowly hydrolyze with water and form hydro-choleric acids. As the expansion valve warms. the two forming an intimate mixture of exceedingly fine globules. Polyol ester (POE) refrigerant lubricant is an exemption to the rule that “oil and water don’t mix”. This acid greatly increases the corrosion of metals. Its content in the air is expressed in term’s relative humidity. This formation is commonly known as “sludge”. Moisture in the system The moisture within a system can freeze-up and stop refrigerant flow. Moisture and acid Moisture is the cause of several operating problems in vapor compression systems. Moisture can get to a system easily but is hard to get out. This type of refrigerant lubricant has a hygroscope affinity for moisture and will absorb it rapidly if left open to the atmosphere. This effect is called “slugging” of the oil and greatly reduces its lubricating ability.Contaminants in the refrigeration systems The main problem areas in vapor compression refrigerant or air conditioning systems are presence of moisture and dirt (contaminants) in the system. problems with the lubricant and leak of refrigerant. This level of vacuum must be maintained for 10 minutes without the help of a vacuum pump. They can plug fine strainers. Steel will generally corrode at lower moisture levels than cooper or brass. Another method is changing filter dryers. “Invisible” moisture is low concentration water and cannot be seen with the aye (vapor). the ice melts and moisture returns to the expansion valve and once more generates an intermittent cooling. moisture plus the refrigerant creates much more corrosions problems. Sludge exists as slimy liquids. Liquid water is found in systems but this is rather unusual. Mineral lubricants do not mix with water in the same range as POE lubricants. due the lack of refrigerant. expansion valves and capillary tubes. However. and is in liquid form. “Visible” moisture is high concentration of water. The recommended level of evacuation is of 1 milibar absolute (100 Pa) to achieve the evacuation of moisture. Moisture will generally be picked up by the refrigerant flow a can become entrained in the liquid line near the expansion device and freeze causing a restriction or even block flow. In addition. To eliminate moisture problems it is necessary to take precautions and actions which will ensure a moisture-free system.

The quick plugging of open lines is necessary for the prevention of this danger as well as the elimination of air. when the blockage has disappeared. where it may solidify into mobile particles of varying sizes. The dust seen to accumulate on outer surfaces in evidence of that can be taking place inside if permitted to do so. If this occurs on the compressor suction theirs is a real danger of these particles causing serious damage. In any case.Symptoms when moisture is present Moisture in the refrigerating system will affect the oil and could cause the unit to malfunction and a hermetic compressor to burn out. and should be removed after a day or so of operation. blocking flow into the evaporator. fill-ins may be allowed to enter copper tubing when cleaning the tube ends before flaring. To prevent this. it is still good practice to insert cloth filters into the compressor suction to collect any debris remaining before it can enter the compressor. 53 . during system shutdown. Purging Purging is term used to describe the process of removing unwanted air. valves and other parts. These filters must not be left permanently since they restrict refrigerant flow. Icing closes the opening. Should the system then begin to work properly. one warms the refrigerant control device whit a safe resistance heater. vapors. The moisture forms ice in the refrigerant control device. forcing unwanted air and vapors out. Even with every precaution having been taken. The main sources for moisture to enter the system are when there is leakage to the ambient. the ice will melt. Another possibility is that of solder used excessively following through the join into the tube. either by filling with tube and facing downwards or where is not practicable. has disappeared. pressure becomes normal again. Then. But only for a while until ice again forms at the refrigerant control. • If. there is definitely moisture in the refrigerant. obstruction filter may result. For example. Again this possibility exists particularly where renovations are taken place or when new premises are being built. by plugging the tube with clean rag. This abnormal cycle will keep repeating. the unit will work properly again. A neutral gas such as Nitrogen is allowed to flow through the refrigerator part or tubing. or during service and repair. • Another symptom is decreasing pressure. Foreign matter Another risk is the introduction of foreign matter through carelessness. a wisp of oxygen-free dry nitrogen (white spot) should be introduced within the piping whilst brazing. Dirt A danger to the system is also particles of dirt. which means any solid matter allowed to enter open pipes. which caused the blockage. The suction pressure gauge shows a steady decrease even to a vacuum. dirt’s or moisture from the system. This condition can be recognized by several observations: • The system will completely defrost. this removes the oxygen and prevents scaling. when filters or lubricant is changed. Internal scaling During the process of brazing. After while time. since the icing. Obviously precautions must be taken to prevent this happening. internal scaling may take place which will become dissolved when refrigerant passes through. again causing possible obstruction.

Its presence contributes to higher the normal head pressures and resultant higher discharge temperature. a small amount will be circulated into the rest of the refrigerant circuit. Motor oils cannot be used in system with CFC12 or HCFC-22 compressors. Chemically inert gases in the system. 54 . Refrigerant oil When hermetic systems. lubricants and other materials during operation. Transport properties are essential to ensure minimal system hold up and lubricant return to the compressor. Used oil absorbs moisture from the air. such as hydrogen chloride. Gases found in hermetic refrigeration units include nitrogen. The quantity of inert non-condensable gas that is harmful depends on the design and size of the refrigerating system and nature of the refrigerant. Separation of wax from the refrigeration oil mixture may plug refrigerant control orifices. The combined properties of viscosity. the same brand should be used. the lubricant is in intimate contact with the electrical motor windings. The oil must therefore provide good. attack other components in the refrigerant system. carbon monoxide. and only dry vessels may be used for filling. The brand of oil originally supplied is often specified on an oil data plate and is suitable for the relevant operation conditions. but also affect film characteristics on heat transfer surfaces and subsequently energy efficiency performance.) leaks. oxygen. • Non-condensable gases are formed from chemical reactions between refrigerants. material compatibility and have high thermal stability properties. methane and hydrogen. • Non-condensable gases are disrobed from various system materials or formed by decomposition of gases at elevated temperatures during system operation. Although the majority of the lubricant remains in the compressor pump. carbon dioxide. thereby avoiding the extreme condition of compressor oil starvation. Avoid mixing different brands of oil. If has been added. The properties of a good refrigeration lubricant are: • Low wax content. These gases infiltrate sealed systems in the following manner: • Non-condensable gases are present during manufacture and remain due to incomplete evacuation. surface wetting characteristics and refrigerant solubility (to keep oil fluid at a low temperature) not only contribute to lubricant circulation. Chemically reactive gases. The oil should be stored in a closed air-tight container in dry surrounding. nor can used oil be applied even when it is reclaimed.Non condensables Gases other than refrigerant are contaminants that are frequently found in the air conditioning and refrigeration systems. which do not liquefy in the condenser. reduce the cooling efficiency. Oil in the system Special oils are used for lubricating the refrigerant compressors. • Non-condensable gases enter through low side (below atmospheric pressure – low pressure chillers etc. The lubricant must be able to withstand both the high temperatures at the compressor discharge valves and the low temperatures at the expansion device.

They saturate at approximately 1000 ppm from atmospheric moisture. There should be little or no chemical reaction with the refrigerant or materials normally found in systems. Low viscosity. The lubricants have been tested with many refrigerant gases and found miscible with most CFCs. Ability of the oil to remain in a fluid state at the lowest temperature in the system. Low pour point. HCFCs and HFC-134a. 55 . It should not form hard carbon deposits and spots in the compressor (such as valves of discharge port). to provide a good lubricating film at all times. Miscibility with HFC refrigerants Lubricant manufacturers have developed a wide range of new polyol ester (POE) lubricants that have been specifically synthesized to provide miscibility (ability of two liquids or gases to uniformly dissolve into each other) with HFCs and HFC134a.• • • • Good thermal stability. Hygroscopy The POE lubricants are more hygroscopic than naphthenic mineral oils. Good chemical stability. The POE lubricants are considerably less hygroscopic than polyalkylene glycol lubricants (the first generation of oil dissolved for use with HFC-134a) which saturate in excess of 1% water (10.000 ppm) condition. This is the ability of the lubricant to maintain good oiling properties at high temperatures and good fluidity at low temperatures. compare to about 100 ppm for mineral oils.

to prevent possible slippage of the wrench.Service practices Review of safety The term safety. Designed for cutting sizes from 1/8” to 1 1/8”. Cutter for hard and soft copper. Most refrigerating mechanisms are electrically driven and controlled. Always use leg muscles when lifting anything objects. some specific tools are needed to do the job professionally. On top of the cutters. Monel. Observe the operation temperatures to provide safe conditions. or using wrong size wrench. When working on electrical circuits. This design is for use tight quarters where other cutters will not fit. flaring. This can usually be accomplished by opening the switch at the power panel. Always wear safety goggles when working with refrigerants. be sure the flywheel and pulley are in alignment that guards are in place. there is relatively little danger to the operator. which could cause rounded corners on nuts and bolts and possible injury to hands. thin wall steel. Before operating open compressors. never the back muscles. which should be used whenever cutting pipes. reamers. may have three different applications. benders etc. Refrigeration hand tools In service refrigeration jobs. A hoist is recommended for fitting anything weighing over 13 kg. which a service technician should have the necessary knowledge to use to prevent system leakage because of bad flaring and connections. Safety of the contents Safety of the contents of the refrigerant space depends entirely on the accuracy and care given the installation and adjustment of the various parts of the system. 56 . Perfect for instrument panels. there is also a reamer. steel titanium and other tubing. make sure that the circuit is disconnected from the power source. stainless. control cabinets. not tightening them in the correct order. Machinery room ventilation should be switched on when operators are working in such room. It may apply to: Safety of the operator When refrigerant and air conditioning equipment is properly handled. Cutters. freezers. Safety of the equipment Many parts of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment are quite fragile. Parts may be ruined by over tightening nuts and bolts. Make certain that all connections are tightened before operating a compressor. as applied to any refrigerating or air conditioning activity. brass. are general tools. aluminium. Make certain there is no oil or water on the floor. Always pull on a wrench (instead of pushing). refrigeration units etc.

Figure 29. Flaring tool Reamers for use both inside and outside edges of tubes. Flaring tools will be used when mew connections are needed or old pipes connections are damaged or leaking. Figure 30. Must be used whenever cutting pipe at installation or flaring. Cutters Flaring tool rolls out 450 flares above die block then automatically burnishes flare face. To prevent copper or other piping material remaining loose in the pipe or blocking the pipe opening. 57 .

brass. Figure 32.Figure 31 . Makes piping and installation look better and gives better refrigerant flow inside the tubing. aluminium. stainless steel and other materials. Bend to 1800. steel. Benders 58 . Reamer Tube benders for bending soft copper.

• be a two stage design. for practical purposes. the following natural low must be understood.3 kPa (760 mm Hg column). heat lamps or water. Vacuum pump Evacuation A refrigerating system must contain only the refrigerant in liquid or vapor state along with dry oil. To understand how water behaves and how to dry out a system. Normal atmospheric pressure is 101. in order to remove all unwanted moisture. Pressures lower than atmospheric are called partial vacuums. gauges are often calibrated at 100 kPa for atmospheric pressure. Zero on the absolute pressure scale is at a pressure. pressures are expressed in kPa (kilopascals). and liquids must be removed. These substances can be removed best by connecting the system to vacuum pump to run continuously from some time while a deep vacuum is drawn on the system. All other vapors. The relationship between absolute and gauge pressure is also important to understand when performing a vacuum procedure. The boiling point of water varies depending on pressure. Gauges are normally calibrated to read zero at the atmospheric pressure (but not always).Evacuation of the systems Vacuum The refrigerant is sensitive to moisture in the system. is used for measuring high vacuums. rather than kilopascal. In SI units. Vacuum pump To be able to properly evacuate a system a good vacuum pump is needed. • have high pumping efficiency. • have gas ballast eliminating condensation of vapor within the pump intake and exhaust filter. It some times necessary to warm the parts to 490C while under a high vacuum. which cannot be further reduced. 59 . gases. The Pascal. Figure 33. Vacuum pump should: • have a flow rate suitable for the system to be evacuated. A perfect vacuum is zero Pa. heat the parts using warm air. However. Never use a torch.

• The system has no refrigerant.L 2. • The refrigerant is contaminated.4 2 B at and opposite manifold Connect as shown Open to begin purge H.L Crack open off back seat If gauge shows pressure. evaporator etc. Figure 34. condenser.3 Connect as shown 1.C.3 Open Crack open off back seat H Open to mid position L Open and regulate flow B A H. • The refrigerant lubricant is charged.3.4 . When system uses tire valve access fitting (if refrigerant compressor type have not assembled with inlet/outlet valves) connect end of hoses to access fittings.B Closed B C.B. Instructions for service manifold To purge hoses To evacuate and charge Closed A.D Open Connect as shown but not tightened 1.D Closed Open C 1. Charging Manifold Using an evacuating and charging manifold is good practice when performing system evacuating or charging.2.D Open A. complete Purge System before proceeding Open Open to mid position Connect as shown Start pump and complete evacuation Close and stop pump A Crack open back seat H 60 To charge refrigerant into suction side A.Always evacuate the system when: • Replacing a compressor. 4-valve manifold Table 3. drier. according the Figure 34 below.

Charging of refrigerant can now begin.D Closed Connect to manifold and direct 1. Charging refrigerant with service manifold 61 . Allow time for diffusion of water vapor and air.D To purge system Closed A. blow out the N2. Use a service manifold with gauges. the circuit is correctly evacuated and dry. Open all valves. When the system is found free from leakage. and see if gauge changes. - - Figure 35.D 1. Connect a proper vacuum pump to both suction side and discharge side of compressor. keep pressure over a period of time. either direct to the high-pressure liquid side or charging into the suction side when the compressor is running.L A B Close Open and regulate flow To observe operation pressure Connect as shown C. When satisfactory vacuum has been reached (100 kPa) stops the pump and leaves it for a few hours to see if the gauge moves towards atmospheric pressure. If so happens there could be two reasons for it. Pressurize the system with nitrogen (N2). also solenoid valves. Leak tests. free of leakage. before filling with refrigerant. If the pressure (vacuum) remains substantially the same over a period.3 Connect as shown opposite end to vent Crack open off back seat Open to begin purge H. there is either a leak or still moisture in the system.3 4 H.B Open C.L Crack open of back seat and read gauges Evacuate and charging To evacuate and dehydrate a system.

Oil pump method Many service technicians have ether made up or purchased a small oil pump for adding oil to compressors. Adding oil to a semihermetic or open compressor Open system method If the compressor is equipped with an oil fill hole in the crankcase. Stop the compressor and close the compressor discharges valve. When the compressor is in operation. The addition of oil to an operating compressor is trough the service port if necessary. or compressor is open for repairs. drain the oil. while excessively high oil. If however. an oil heater could be installed. and pour or pump the necessary oil in. close the compressor suction valve and reduce the crankcase pressure to approximately 7 or 14 kPa. the pump check valve prevents the loss of refrigerant. if the amount of oil lost is small and can be reasonably calculated.Oil changing Most welded hermetic compressors have no means of determining the oil. • Drain the oil into appropriate and marked vessels. The oil level may vary considerably on initial start-up if liquid refrigerant is present in the crankcase. the service technician must remove the compressor. Check the instruction manual for correct charge. assembled. The exact amount of oil must be clear before recharging is starting. 62 . no special precautions are necessary other than the normal measures of keeping the oil clean and dry. and the oil must be drained out from the suction line stub by tilting the compressor. the simplest means of adding oil is to isolate the compressor crankcase. level may result in oil slugging and possible damage of compressor valves or excessive oil circulation. or it can be used to add oil directly to the crankcase where space may not permit a gravity feed. A possible procedure would then be: • Operate the oil heater. In case of leak. and add the correct measured charge before replacing the compressor. an alternative can be to install an oil heater or use a recovery unit before opening the oil connection. if necessary with the help of nitrogen. If the system contains no refrigerant. this amount is added to the compressor. This type of compressor is primarily designed for installation in factory designed. An abnormally low oil level may result in a loss of lubrication. Semihermetic and open type compressors are normally equipped with crankcase sight-glasses. there is major loss of oil. since the system should be evacuated before start up. and charged systems where the oil charge is accurately measured into the system at the time of original assembly. • Exhaust the gaseous refrigerant (recovery unit). and the oil level should be check with the compressor running after having reached a stabilized condition. the compressor must be removed from the system. Recharge oil to a hermetic compressor The recharge with a measured amount of oil. If the compressor contains a charge of refrigerant. To avoid too much mixture of refrigerant in the oil and to avoid emission of refrigerant. Some refrigerant will always be absorbed in the oil and to avoid emission of refrigerant. while allowing the service technician to develop sufficient pressure to overcome the operating suction pressure and add oil as necessary. the oil level should be maintained at or slightly above the centre of the slight-glass while operating.

oil manufacturers have been develop a new series of HFC miscible lubricants. oil may be drawn into the compressor through the suction service valve. Use of a conventional immiscible lubricant in conjunction with HFC-134a adversely affects the efficiency of the refrigeration unit. In some cases. Extreme care must be taken to insure that no air will be drawn into the compressor. the immiscible oil will settle on the bottom of the evaporator tubes causing further degradation in flow and heat transfer. the immiscible oil separates in congealed masses from the refrigerant within the condenser and thus impedes flow especially through expansion devices (capillary tubes or expansion valves) often causing “superheating”. In such case. 63 . Once through the expansion device. which are not compatible with normal oils.In an emergency where an oil pump is not available and the compressor is inaccessible. Impact of the lubricant on recovery measures Since the advent of new non-ozone depleting HFC refrigerants. lack of oil to the compressor can promote component wear and eventual failure through lubricant starvation.

Servicing domestic refrigerators and freezers
Tools When servicing a hermetic domestic system, the following tools are available to be able to perform a good service job without unnecessary release of refrigerant: 1. High vacuum pump; 2. 1 pc.3/8” dia. By 1,5 m vacuum hose; 3. Recovery/recycling unit; 4. Service cylinder for refrigerant; 5. 1 purging line 1/4” dia. by 1 m equipped with hand shut-off needle valve and check valve; 6. Capillary tube cleaner; 7. Capillary tube sizing kit; 8. Soldering-brazing torch, either LP fuel-air, oxyacetylene; 9. Hand vacuum cleaner 10. Gauge manifold 11. Process tube adapters; 12. Bending springs; 13. Leak detector. Changing filter drier When moisture or dirt is present in a system, it may be removed by fitting a drier in the liquid line. This is basic procedure to follow: 1. If no connection valve, install piercing valve; 2. Install gauge manifold; 3. Remove the refrigerant with a recovery unit to a recovery cylinder; 4. Dry and clean filter connections; 5. Apply flux; 6. Heat connections; 7. Braze connections; 8. Install new drier; 9. Pressurize and test for leaks; 10. Evacuate system; 11. Charge system with virgin or recycled refrigerant. Use a charging cylinder for correct charge; 12. Warm the control enough to melt ice. The drier will absorb this moisture as it circulates; 13. Install new drier after some hours running Burn out filter Special “Burn out” suction cleaning filter dryers are available for cleaning, decontaminating and thoroughly controlling pollution of liquid refrigerant circuits. Recommended for “Burn out” function and circuit cleaning operation after compressor burn out. High head pressure is one of the most frequent reasons for motor burnout. This pressure creates very high temperatures as the gas passes the discharge valves of the compressor. The high temperature increases chemical action, adding to or creating new carbon and sludge. If the discharge line to the compressor reaches excessive temperatures, oil breakdown will take place.


Clean up after motor burnout When a motor begins to burn out, is overheated. The overheating will cause the refrigerant to break down, and if moisture is, present, to form hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid. Oil in this condition is said to be “acidic”. The acid will cause insulation on motor windings to deteriorate and increase the motor temperature. Eventually, the motor windings will short circuit and burn out. If system has a motor compressor burnout, refrigerant controls should be repaired or replaced. Flush the system with the same refrigerant used in the system. Do not release the refrigerant to the atmosphere. Do not touch the oil from a burnout compressor, as it will cause a severe acid burn. Wear goggles and rubber gloves. Charging with portable charging cylinder or digital scale A charging cylinder, with glass tube liquid level indicator, allows a technician to transfer refrigerant into a system and measure the amount on a scale. Some cylinders are electrically heated to speed up the evaporation and maintain pressure in the cylinder. This process of electrically heating cylinder is usually done with an electrical insert. In some cases, the compressor itself is heated, using a heat gun so the refrigerant and oil will circulate and be purged more easily. In both cases, it is extremely important that a pressure control relief valve and thermostat be used to provide the required temperature and pressure safety controls. The system has a pressure gauge and hand valve on the bottom for filling the charging cylinder liquid refrigerant into a system. It also has valve at the top of the cylinder. This valve is used for charging refrigerant vapor into the system. The following steps are recommended for use of a portable-charging cylinder after evacuation. Wear goggles and follow these steps: 1. Attach a line from the charging cylinder to the centre of the gauge manifold and purge with the fitting loose at the centre part of the gauge manifold. See Figure 36. Tighten this connection; 2. Open the piercing valve or valve adapter and gauge manifold valve; 3. Crack the charging cylinder valve and allow the refrigerant to enter the system. Know what the new scale reading on the tube must be to put in the correct charge; 4. When the correct amount of refrigerant has entered the system, close the cylinder valve. The amount can be checked by reading the scale on the charging cylinder; 5. Close the piercing valve or the valve adapter and the gauge manifold valves; 6. Use the pinch-off tool and close off the process tube between the compressor and the adapter. Leave pinch-off on tube until tube end has been brazed; 7. Remove the piercing valve or the valve adapter; 8. If a piercing valve was used, cut off the part of tubing with hole in it. Use a pipe cutter. 9. Crimp the end of process tube; 10. Braze the end of the process tube; 11. Check the system for leaks.


Figure 36. Portable charging cylinder installed

Servicing commercial systems
To perform a quality service on commercial system some major tools are required. The tool list below covers mostly all service tasks, but we describe only how to charge a commercial system to avoid release of refrigerant. Service equipment Two major items of concern are: 1. Obtain and use a high quality tools; 2. Keeping complete records of each job. Most companies provide a panel truck or pickup equipped with major items such as: - Vacuum pump, recovery&recycling unit; - Tubing and piping; - Combination soldering, brazing, and welding outfit; - Supply of replacement parts and materials - Controls - Fittings - Oil - Refrigerant - Leak detectors (electronic tester); - Electrical testing instrument. Charging commercial system When charging a system, the quantity of charged refrigerant must always be weighted, and refer to the manufacturers directions if they are available. The manufacturer has designed and tested the products under various operating conditions and has developed specific charging procedures.

even the bearings and rods. may cause oil pumping. causing considerable damage. which are too low. As the compressor runs. Figure 37. be ruined if the compressor should pump liquid. charging small quantities of refrigerant into commercial systems is similar to charging domestic machines. there are two basic methods used to charge a system: 1. Too high a pressure may overwork the compressor. In the low-side method. the storage cylinder should be attached to the gauge manifold. Connections must be tested for leaks prior to the actual charging operation. To charge a commercial external derive system equipped with service valves. 67 . the principle of operation is to use the service cylinder as a temporary evaporator in the system. High-side method Low-side In the low-side method. Charging may be speeded up by partly closing the suction service valve to reduce flow from the regular evaporators and speed the evaporation from the service cylinder. this method can be used to put initial charge into a system. which may rupture the lines. Charging into the low side (vapor method) usually does it. A service cylinder must not be left connected into a system. The liquid is not compressible and the compressor valves. However. It is very important that liquid refrigerant is not allowed to reach the compressor. Low-side method 2.In general. The compressor should not run while not run while this charging is being done. some service technicians do put liquid refrigerant into the highpressure side of the system. Charging lines must be clean and evacuated to get the air and moisture. The low-side pressure should be kept at normal levels. Although it is not usually recommended. Hot water may apply to the service cylinder to help speed the evaporation. it will remove refrigerant vapor from the cylinder as well as from the evaporator. Low-side commercial system charging High-side Larger systems are equipped with a liquid charging valve on the receiver. if done very carefully. This is a dangerous practice because dynamic hydraulic pressures are possible. Pressures.

it means that the cylinder has been emptied. 5. If the unit is air-cooled. increasing its pressure. liquid refrigerant will be forced into the system. pressure in the refrigerant drum must be increased. If the unit is water-cooled. High pressure on the surface of the refrigerant in the cylinder will force liquid into the system. 4. will be sufficiently below that of the pressure in the cylinder to permit opening of the two valves after the charging line has been evacuated. This may be done using the compressor to pump vaporized refrigerant into the cylinder. Turn the discharge service valve part way out. The pressure difference will force refrigerant from the cylinder into the system. Run the compressor for a few revolutions with the discharge service valve turned all the way until a pressure of 242 to 311 kPa above the condenser pressure id built up in the cylinder. a gurgling sound may be heard. this method is follows: 1. If this sound stops abruptly. High pressure side charging 68 . It may explode. liquid may enter the compressor cylinder and damage the compressor when started. Figure 38. While the liquid is flowing into the high side. Connect the refrigerant cylinder to gauge manifold with a flexible charging line. Invert the refrigerant cylinder (be careful not injure the line). Stop the compressor. the pressure in the liquid receiver.In one inverts a cylinder and it has a higher pressure than the system. Never use a disposable container here. Use this method only if all refrigerant has been removed from the system. 2. with the water flowing. 3. One reason this practice is discouraged is that if the compressor exhaust valve is leaking. In detail.

if the refrigerant cycle remains sealed. 7. The compressor in the outdoor unit or inside the cabinet of the package unit is mounted on rubber isolators. It is important to check the refrigerant charge. Never operate the compressor with the shipping brackets still attached. 5. the compressor motor cannot be used again. A regular maintenance schedule is necessary if the owner is so receive long and satisfactory service from the air conditioning system. Only cleaning and discharge temperature should be done to avoid too high pressure. input. cleaning the fan motor and oiling it (unless it has sealed bearings). This should be removed by vacuuming. 4. Electrical equipment: Inspect working voltage. Outdoor condenser: Inspect and remove any accumulated dirt from the coil at regular intervals. The presence of hot refrigerant oil in the refrigerant circuit will result in problems. and the water flow. and cleaning the drain pan and drain tube. Maintenance and servicing split AC units Maintenance The unit should be periodically inspected in order to ensure dependable operation and long life. Check for faulty contact caused by loosened terminal connections. Compressor: No maintenance work is required for the hermetic compressor. Indoor fan: Inspect and remove any dent or crack and remove any accumulated dirt from the fan. Panels must be removed to work on internal parts of the unit. The setting pressure should be no less approx. the operation of the thermostatic expansion valve. Periodic maintenance duties include replacing the filter of cleaning it. power factor and phase balance. Outdoor fan: Inspect abnormal sound or any dent or crack and remove any accumulated dirt from the fan. oxidized contacts. 12 kPa. Air filter: The air filter cleaning work should be done by end user when filter indicator is turned on or (if no indicator) at regular intervals. Should be given attention to: 1. 8. 69 . which can only be corrected by changing the compressor (Burn out). 3. and is rigidly held during the shipment by shipping bolts and brackets. Servicing package units In servicing water-cooled package system. If the hot refrigerant oil is left the circuit. the difference to note is the water flow through condenser. 6. 2. If new unit is installed.Servicing air-conditioning systems Small air-conditioning systems A number of conditions may cause the refrigerant oil inside the compressor to become hot. The inner lining of the cabinet sometimes gathers lint. amperage. foreign matter and other items. Other obstacles restricting airflow should be removed. When city water is applied. cleaning the evaporator and fins. Indoor evaporator: Inspect and remove any accumulated dirt from the coil at regular intervals. be aware of the shipping brackets. Condensate drain pan and drain piping: Inspect and clean the condensate drain piping at least twice a year. a water flow regulator should be installed to maintain a constant condensing pressure.

Ensure charging of correct volume by using the charging cylinder or a weight scale. and valves. Connect the gauge manifold by charging hoses with a vacuum pump. It must be clean and dry. it will drain out. turn the discharge service valve in all the way. Vibration Before servicing a MAC system. Run the compressor until the compound (low-side) gauge reads zero Pa. Evacuate the lines. Owner’s complaints received most commonly are: 1. The check system oil. it is important to check the oil level each time a unit is serviced. Abnormal low side and/or high side pressures or noise will signal the need for service. Never use a manifold set which has been left open to the air after the manifold and lines have been cleaned a dried. Servicing MAC system Servicing an automobile air conditioner is about the same as servicing a standard air conditioning system and commercial systems. If too 70 . Leak tests the system. and check the oil level.Evacuation and charging 1. Excess or a shortage of refrigerant is the main cause of trouble to the units. Check for any gas leakage at the flare nut connection. Turn suction service valve in all the way. Some compressors are fitted with gauge openings at both the suction service valve and the discharge service valve. Too much oil cause oil pumping. Servicing usually starts with customer’s complaint or during an annual check of the system. Cooling intermittently 4. No cooling 2. For hot systems. 11. Charge the required refrigerant by setting the remote control switch at “Cool” and by operating the unit. 10. Attach s gauge manifold to the automobile air conditioning system before braying to service it. Noise 3. 5. Check to ensure that the stop valves for outdoor unit are completely closed. Fully open the liquid line stop valve after refrigerant charged. Operate the vacuum pump until the pressure decreases to less than pressure of 100 kPa in vacuum. Shut off the engine and install a gauge. Always check the system thoroughly to find the correct cause. piston rings. Fitting the gauge into the automobile system should be done as normal procedure as with any other refrigerating systems. Check date plate on outside unit. 7. 500-viscosity refrigerant oil is best. 6. Fully open the gas line stop valve. Remove the oil level plug. It will also cause scoring of the shaft seal. Too little oil will cause rapid wear of the compressor bearings. 9. install the gauge manifold. know what performance to expect from the unit. reducing the efficiency of the system and possibly causing damage to the compressor valves. If the oil is too high. Connect the indoor unit and outdoor unit with field-supplied refrigerating tubes. Slightly open the liquid line stop valve. a refrigerant charging cylinder and nitrogen cylinder to the check joint of the liquid line stop valve. 2. Than. by utilizing nitrogen gas to increase the pressure inside the tubes. 8. Adding oil to system The compressor must have the correct amount and type of oil. 4. Therefore. 3.

Residual air in the cooling cycle results in increased high pressure. 4. It must lubricate whether it is very cold or very hot and it must be dry. If gauge indicates normal pressure.If abnormal pressure: Check the pipes and missing O-rings.low. Connect the gauge with one hose to the high-pressure side on compressor. To minimize the release of refrigerant. Start drawing vacuum for 15 minutes. charge through the low side with cylinder upright. Some compressors must be removed from the system to check the oil level. Remove air from the cooling cycle thoroughly whenever disconnecting the cooling cycle line. Vacuum drawing A common failure on MAC systems is caused by vibration. 8. . Charging the system The system is charged by means of the service manifold. 6. corrosion to the metallic part. Specially prepared oil should be used in the refrigerating system because the oil circulates throughout the system with the refrigerant but most of it stays in the compressor. Connect the manifold to the system. If only a small amount of refrigerant is to be added. The wire dipstick is inserted through a bolt hole in the compressor crankcase to check the oil level. If the complete charge of the cylinder is to be put in the system and if the system is under vacuum. This operation is called vacuum drawing. and clogged expansion valve. Then connect the charging cylinder to the manifold and evacuate the hoses. and vacuum pump valve (or vacuum pump stop valve when the 2 – valve manifold gauge is connected). Others require a hand-made dipstick. Leak test. Open the high-pressure valve. Operate the vacuum pump until the low pressure gauge indicates 700 mmHg or more. which causes leakage. Leak test. low-pressure valve. add oil by siphoning it into the compressor with the compressor crankcase at a partial vacuum. Check the gauge. charge the refrigerant into the high side in liquid form. 3. charge accurate refrigerant quantity. 2. 7. charge should always be carried out correctly. Connect the charging hose to the air purge valve and refrigerant gas bottle. Use either a vacuum pump or the compressor to create this vacuum. Vacuum drawing procedure: 1. 71 . 5. Tightening the pipes or replace them. Stop drawing and wait for 5 min.If normal pressure: Charge a small quantity refrigerant. . Performance test. Check service manual procedures if in doubt.

into the refrigerant or air-conditioning system with the mist infuser. The leak must be located and corrected before completing the vacuum operation for drying out the system. The additive remains in the system. tubing. commercial. It can be used on any type of refrigerant. electronic leak detector. red discoloration on the metal surfaces will revel the source of the leak. Most frequently. coils or compressor. or whenever it may be. 72 . Some technicians will put into the refrigerant collared with reddish dye. Avoid breathing fumes when leak testing a MAC system with a torch type tester. there is a leak in the system. Then. a mist infused tool. depend on type of refrigerant system. shut off the vacuum valve on the manifold. With the vacuum pump running. If there is refrigerant vapour in the air sample. Then the lamp is used to pinpoint the leaks in the fitting. and specially formulated fluorescent additives to find the smallest possible leaks in the system. CFC-12 or HFC-134a. It uses a high-intensity ultraviolet lamp. the flame will turn green. Charging typical MAC system Leak testing Check for refrigerant leaks by using a trace chemical. When CF-12 is burned. and automotive systems. or pressure rise method. Pressurizing the system and the using the leak detectors doe's detection. The technician inserts a premeasured amount of fluorescent additive. leaks are found with the halide torch leak detector. very poisonous phosgene gas is produced.Figure 39. allowing leak inspection with the ultraviolet lamp on a system. The fluorescent leak detection system is used on residential. If the vacuum gauge needle starts to creep back toward zero. soap solution.

Servicing central air-conditioning plant Chillers Maintenance and service procedures Common source of refrigerant losses is during routine chiller maintenance and major service procedures. Service technicians must be even more diligent than in the past. do not let the refrigerant escape too fast. systems were opened for service or repair without first recovering the refrigerant. and then open it to the atmosphere for service. recover the refrigerant from the entire system. Sometimes the compressor binds during storage. If only liquid refrigerant is removed from the chiller before opening it for service. should be avoided today. When tightening or loosening a fitting. Now refrigerants should be recovered from the system poor to repair. When servicing chiller. the vapour must be recovered for both environmental and economic benefit. This procedure results in as much as 10 percent of the refrigerant charge being lost. cap all open fittings. Common practice in the past was to simply vent the vapour. MAC start up When vehicle equipped with an air conditioning system is stored for long period. the vapour must be properly recovered for reuse in the system. For instance. venting the remaining vapour charge. When discharging the system. which were common just short time ago. New service procedures Venting of any refrigerant should be strictly avoided. If will not run. If the belt starts slipping. during oil filter changes. This indicates that the compressor is turning with difficulty or is “frozen”. the conditioner should be started very carefully. Some examples are: • • In the past. In used to be acceptable to pump the liquid refrigerant out of a chiller. Responsible practice dictates that refrigerant-contaminated components be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. but today. and motor replacement or for any other reason. Many practices. and plug any open pipes immediately. that means opening of the chiller tubes. When disconnecting any lines. do not remove the caps or plugs until just before the lines are reconnected. remove it at once for reconditioning. stop the engine at once. a large fraction of the charge will typically be lost. Try to “free” the compressor by slow and careful turning. oil filters and open oil lines. Keep moisture and dust out of the system. it will draw the compressor oil out of the system. Emissions can also occur when vent lines for purge and rupture disk are opened for any reason. Today. compressor repair. we have another source of refrigerant loss. This is a substantial loss for the owner.Service tips Always disconnect the negative cable from the battery whenever servicing air conditioner parts. use two wrenches to support the nuts of the lines. so they do not vent to the atmosphere. 73 • . It is best to raise the hood and watch the compressor and belt while turning on the air conditioning. refrigerant vaporizes from exceeded oil.

Don’t let leaky chillers “get by” by popping off the charge. For manual purge units. High efficiency purge units can be added on to existing chillers. Below is a list of the important elements. Refrigerant has been used as common parts cleaner. limit the run time to only one-hour per week. If the chiller needs more than one hour per week purge time. scheduled basis at regular intervals. a good rule-of-thumb is the following: operate the purge manually for one hour and monitor the purge pressure. The presence of non-condensables. tube fouling or excessive purging is some of the possible indicators of refrigerant loss. This practice should be stopped. fix it. These tools should be used. This technique requires unnecessary purging cycles to remove the nitrogen. if leak is suspected. Service technician should not pressurize low-pressure chillers with nitrogen to leak test the chiller. Nitrogen should not be used to push the charge from one location to another. which should be recorded. it is leaking excessively and should be repaired. This is hard on the chiller and is not energy efficient. capacity loss. in the chiller log: • • • • • • • Refrigerant monitor reading Oil pump level and temperature Purge run time Condenser temperature Condenser pressure Chilled water entering temperature Chilled water leaving temperature Leak detection (with an electronic leak detector) for high-pressure chillers must now be performed regularly on a schedule.• • • • The casual opening of refrigerant drums should be stopped. If no air is purged during that period. 74 . To prevent unnecessary refrigerant loss. For example: • • • • Chillers should not run overcharged or undercharged with refrigerant. Chiller logs Complete and regular chiller log reports are an important tool to be used in diagnosing system conditions that may indicate or result in refrigerant loss. not just. refillable cylinders should be used for refrigerant recovery. Purge operation Older purge systems on most existing low-pressure chillers provide no information on the amount of non-consensables which are actually purged. If it leaks. New service tools are available to minimize emissions when doing this. greatly reducing emissions from the purging unit. Nevertheless. which used to be commonplace and have been followed for many years must now be changed. Do this only if oil analysis dictates it to be necessary. Perform leak tests on high-pressure chillers on a routine. The technician should not change the oil and filter on a scheduled basis. allow the purge to operate only as long as absolutely required by the chiller. Do this manually each week to minimize emissions. Chiller operating procedures. Leaks can be detected on low-pressure chillers by monitoring purge run-time.

Otherwise. Any refrigerant vapour that outgases from the oil should be discharged back into the chiller. 75 . filter changes and oil sample analysis. if possible. Servicing lubrication system Chiller lubrication systems require regular service such as oil changes. One modification.To facilitate purge maintenance. is the installation of permanent oil filter isolation valves and an oil sample port. permanent access and isolation valves should be installed on the purge system if they are not already present. re-sellable container. the oil should be disposed of to an airtight. Oil and filter changes should be made only when oil analysis results indicate that the change is needed. Annual chiller oil changes are no longer recommended on direct drive (nonhermetic) chillers. The manufacturer should be contacted for the details on the best options for modifications. Waste oil should be disposed of properly. Contaminated oil should be pumped from the chiller sump into an evacuated tank. which should be made to the system to keep emissions at minimum during oil system service. Gear drive chillers may require yearly oil changes for reliability.

Identification of refrigerants Is very important to know which refrigerant is in a system in order that correct refrigerant can be used when work is carried out on the system. Test refrigerant for contamination Refrigerants can be tested for water/oil contamination and acidity whit an test kit. Recycling: The process of reducing the contaminates in used refrigerant by oil separation. This term usually implies the use of process or procedures available only at a reprocessing or manufacturing facility. With the change to alternative refrigerants. The identification of used refrigerants requires chemical analyses. 76 . • Thermostatic expansion valve – for specific refrigerant. reclamation or transportation. • Standing pressure. Refrigerants may be identified by the following methods: • Refrigerants stamped on unit data plate. Recycling and Reclaim Definitions According ISO 11650 standard. Any mixed refrigerants have to be destroyed (do not vent to the atmosphere). by means which may include distillation. R-502 cannot be re-processed by manufacturers as it is a mixture but may cleaned using a reclaim rig for reuse. acidity and particulate matter.5. has come need for new lubricants. noncondensable removal and core filter-dryers which reduce moisture. Recovery. Chemical analysis of the refrigerant will be required to determine that appropriate product specifications are met. Recovery: The process of removing a refrigerant in any condition from a refrigeration system and storing it in an external container without necessary testing or processing it in any way. these definitions are: Recovered refrigerant: A refrigerant that has been removed from a refrigeration system for purpose of storage. Reclaim: To process used refrigerant to new product specification. in many cases. recycling. The manufacturers for re-processing will accept only unmixed refrigerants. Where retrofit procedures call for the removal of mineral-based oil and replacement with ester lubricants. it is necessary to reduce the mineral lubricant to minimal level. which are specified in national or international standards for new product specifications. These test kits provides simple methods of determining the level of residual mineral oil in an ester lubricant mixture.

Test oil contamination It is possible to test the oil in some systems for acidity. Acid in the oil indicates that a burnout or partial burnout has taken place, and/or that there is moisture in the system, which can cause a burnout. To carry an oil test it is necessary to remove a sample of oil from the compressor without undue release of refrigerant. The procedure for this will vary depending on the arrangement of shutoff valves and access to the oil available on the unit. The refrigeration oil acid test kit is one-bottle (one step) test, and is the fastest way of determining if compressor oil is safe or acidic. Simply by filling oil into line on bottleneck and shacking. If test remains purple, the oil is safe. If it turns yellow, it is acidic. Ultra-sensitive color change guarantees an accurate test.

Recovery of refrigerants
Decanting refrigerants into service cylinders is hazardous practice. It should always be carried out using the method prescribed by the refrigerant manufacturer. Special care should be taken: • Not overfill the cylinder; • Not to mix grades of refrigerant or put one grade in a cylinder labeled for another; • To use only clean cylinders, free of contamination by oil, acid, moisture; • To visually check each cylinder before use and make sure all cylinders are regularly pressured tested; • Recovery cylinder has a specific indication depending on the country in order not to be confused with virgin refrigerant container; • Cylinders should have separate liquid and gas valves and be fitted with a pressure relief device.

Figure 40. Recovery cylinder

Disposable and returnable refrigerant containers
Refrigerants are packed in both disposable and returnable shipping containers, commonly called “cylinders”. Disposables are manufactured in sizes from 0,5 to 25 kg capacities. They are considered pressure vessels, and in most countries therefore are subject to state law regulations. Disposable cylinders indicate very bad practice: those containers are generally discharged after usage and a lot of refrigerant is released in the atmosphere due to disposal cylinders. Their usage is not recommended and is forbidding their reusage (do not sold/braze adapter port valves). Containers designed for pressurized gases are labeled to contain liquid refrigerants. CFCs shipped in ISO containers include liquids and compressed gases. IMO 1 containers contain liquid refrigerants such R-11 and R-113. IMO 5 containers hold compressed gases such as R-12 and R-114. Some refrigerants are gases at room temperature, transported, and stored as liquefied compressed gases in pressurized cylinders. Other refrigerants are liquids at room temperature and contained in drums, barrels or other standard containers as they are used for all types of liquid chemicals. In the next Table 4, indicates examples of liquefied compressed gases which are liquid at room temperature. Their physical state at room temperature is indicated by their international Chemical Safety Cards or can be deducted from the temperaturepressure charts (see Annexes). Table 4. Examples of liquefied compressed and liquid refrigerants
Examples of liquefied compressed and liquid refrigerants Physical state Temperature/pressure Examples Liquefied At room temperature, the vapor R-12, R-13, R-22, R-115, compressed pressure is above the standard R-134a gas atmospheric pressure at sea level At room temperature, the vapor R-11, R-113, R-123 Liquid pressure is below the atmospheric pressure at sea level

Flammability of refrigerants
HC refrigerant cylinders should be marked flammable and CFC refrigerants not flammable. Any refrigerant cylinder labeled as HC refrigerant without a warning that may contains flammable gases. Refrigerant cylinders containing flammable gases are equipped with left-hand valves. Any cylinder labeled as HC refrigerants or flammable gases should be equipped with left-hand valves.

Cylinder valves
Mobile air-conditioning (MAC) systems have different access valves depending on the type of refrigerant used. There are no international standards and the valve types used may differ region to region. Pressure relief safety with realizing pressures pre-set to highest vapor pressure anticipated with R-502 is installed on every cylinder manufactured. They are the frangible (rupture) disc style, or spring-loaded relief integrated into the valve stem.

Neither of the types is adjustable or is to be tampered with. US manufacturers use standard access and the following Table 5 specifies which access valves are used for which type of refrigerant. Table 5. Valve types used in the US Valve type for US cylinders ¼” right hand flare fitting (clock wise) ½” right hand flare fitting (clock wise) Quick fittings ½” or other left hand flare fitting Refrigerants CFC-12 HCFC HCFC HFC-134a HCFC Retrofitted Hydrocarbon (flammable)

Labeling of refrigerant cylinders
Refrigerant cylinders as well as drums, tanks, cans and bottles are labeled with a company-specific label (or international standards) of the outer shield of the container, with necessary data for end user. This may include chemical name, trade name, weight of container (tare) and product. In the US and many other countries, US standards are used to label specifically refrigerants and refrigerant containers (ARI color assignments for refrigerant containers). ASHRAE (American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Airconditioning Engineers) also provides a system of classifying refrigerants into different safety groups according to their flammability and toxicity.

Chemical names
Chemical names provide an indication of the molecular structure of a substance and type, number and position of the atoms contained. Often, is it more practical to use short formulas, which may still indicate the structure of a molecule, or formulas, which only indicate the type and number of atoms contained. In these short formulas, “C” stands for carbon atoms, “F” for fluorine atoms, “Br” for bromine atoms and “H” for hydrogen atoms. The subscript numbers indicate the number of each type of atom contained in the molecule.

The ASHRAE numbers
The ASHRAE number for refrigerants is defined in ASHRAE standard 34-1997 on “Number Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants”. The number designation of hydrocarbon and halocarbon refrigerants is systematic and allows the determination of the chemical composition of the compounds from the refrigerant numbers. Single component refrigerants have an “R-“ designation of two or three numbers, which reflect its chemical composition: • The first digit (of refrigerant with three numbers) is one unit lower than the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. If the molecule contains only one carbon atom, the first digit is omitted.

The designation ends with a letter to differentiate. When formulated in those proportions these refrigerants take on the characteristic of a single refrigerant. between compositions of the same chemicals. R-502 is composed of 48. such as in R-401A. 80 . Therefore.8% (by weight) of HCFC-22 and 51. ASHRAE safety groups for refrigerants The ASHRAE safety groups for refrigerants standard classifies commonly used refrigerants depending on their toxicity and flammability. A zeotrope is also sometimes referred to as a blend. Azeotropes are designed by a three digit number beginning with the number “5”. B2 and B3 where “A” signifies lower toxicity. For example: R-134a (C2H2F4 – chemical formula) 1 – One less than the number of carbon atoms (there are 2-1=1) 3 – One more than the number of hydrogen atoms (there are 2+1=3) 4 – Number of fluorine atoms (there are 4 fluorine atoms) a – Indicates an isomer (different arrangement of the same atoms) Refrigerant mixtures Some refrigerants however are comprised of two or more chemicals. zeotropes boil over a range of temperatures determined by the boiling points of their individual components. “B3” signifies a refrigerant with higher toxicity and higher flammability. which boil at a single temperature. and “3” higher flammability. For example. (see Annex B).2% CFC-115.• • The second digit is one unit greater than the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule. “B” higher toxicity. Zeotropes are designated by the three digit number beginning with the number “4”. Example of trade names is Freon-12. The standard defines 6 safety groups – A1. Trade names Trade names are the names that companies call their products. Combinations of chemicals that maintain some of their original characteristic are called zeotropes. “2” lower flammability. “1” signifies no flame propagation. A2. unlike single refrigerants and zeotropes. R-500 and R502 are two examples. ASHRAE safety groups for the most common ozone depleting refrigerants are included in Annex E. The ASHRAE number of a certain chemical often appears in the trade name like 11 or 12. The third digit is equal to the number of fluorine atoms in the molecule. Combinations of chemicals that act as single refrigerant are called azeotropes. B1. A3. Generon-11 and Algofrene-11. this means that they are CFC-11 or CFC-12.

There is no longer any acceptable reason or excuse for releasing fluorocarbon refrigerants to the atmosphere. recovery units will work much more efficiently if connection hoses are kept as short and large in diameter as possible. not being able to get a recovery unit close to a system is not an acceptable excuse for not using one. the military may have different color codes for refrigerants than industry.high pressure refrigerants. Recovery technologies Since a recovery unit wills remote more fluorocarbon refrigerant from a system than any other practicable method. The color codes used for marking refrigerant containers vary from country to country. only vapor or it will break due to hydraulic lock. Some of them can handle refrigerants in both liquid and vapor form and many have onboard storage vessels. A 3/8” diameter hose should be the minimum size used and ½” is preferable. Containers used for storage of flammable refrigerants should also have a red colored band around its top shoulder or cap. As defined in ARI Guideline N (can be found in Annex D in the Manual). However. These are defined as follows: 81 . There are three types of recovery apparatus available. and • Class IV – flammable refrigerants. the refrigerant classes are: • Class I – low pressure refrigerants • Class II – medium pressure refrigerants. Using recovery units Recovery units are connected to the system by available service valves or line tap valves or line piercing pliers. Containers used to store recovered refrigerants do not fall under the scope of ARI Guideline N. If long hoses have to be used all that will happen is that recovery will take longer.ARI color codes The ARI color assignments for refrigerant containers are described in more detail in ARI Guideline N. For example. Color codes often vary within the country. • Class III . As with vacuum pumps. The color for all refrigerant recovery containers is grey with yellow top shoulder or cap as specified in ARI Guideline K. The same color may be assigned to different refrigerants provided those refrigerants are in different classes. These are self-contained. Take care not to be let the compressor suck in liquid refrigerant. their use should be regarded as the norm and not the exception. Refrigerant container color assignment assist in quickly distinguishing refrigerants within containers. ARI Guideline N is a voluntary US industry guideline for the uniform assignment of colors for containers used for new or reclaimed refrigerants that meet ARI Standard 700 purity specifications. system dependent and passive. Examples of the color assignments can be found in Annex C in this Manual.

Self-contained recovery unit Methods of refrigerant recovery The methods of recovery depend upon the type of refrigerant being recovered. where the boiling point of the refrigerant is between –500C and 100C at atmospheric pressure and low pressure where the boiling point is above 100C at atmospheric pressure. Highpressure refrigerants include CFC-12. System depended: System-dependent recovery equipment. It requires no assistance from any component in the system that is being recovered. while low-pressure refrigerants are CFC-11. relies upon the compressor in the appliance and/or the pressure of the refrigerant in the appliance to assist in recovery of the refrigerant. 82 . HCFC-113. This is usually divided into two general groups. Recovery that uses only a chilled recovery tank falls this category.Self-contained: A self-contained recovery unit has its own compressor (or other transfer mechanism) to pump refrigerant out the system. Figure 41. high pressure. HCF-134a and HCFC-22. which is used to store small amounts of refrigerant near or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Passive: Passive recovery refers to a deflated bag on an activated charcoal canister. HCFC-123 etc. on the other hand.

Compressor would be damaged Figure 42. The recovery cylinders must have two ports and two valves. then liquid can be removed from a system using two recovery cylinders and recovery unit.Liquid transfer In the recovery unit does not have a built-in liquid pump (system depending) or is otherwise not designed to handle liquid. The second cylinder is used to collect the refrigerant from the recovery unit as it draws it from the first cylinder. this may not be necessary. thereby reducing the cylinder pressure. The recovery unit will pull the liquid refrigerant from the disabled unit when decreasing the pressure in the recovering cylinder. Connect one cylinder liquid port directly to the refrigeration system at a point where liquid refrigerant can be decanted. If you have access to a recovery cylinder. If the recovery unit has adequate onboard storage capacity (self-contained recovery unit). and the recovery cylinder liquid valve to the liquid side on the disabled unit as shown in Figure 42. Push-pull liquid transfer 83 . more common that described previously called “Push and Pull” method. Note: Do not connect liquid line to transfer unit. which will cause liquid to flow from the refrigeration system in to the cylinder. Connect the same cylinder vapor port to the recovery unit inlet. one each for liquid and one each for vapor connections. the procedure will be successful if you connect the recovery cylinder to the recovery units vapor valve. Use the recovery unit to draw vapor from the cylinder. Push-pull liquid recovery There is another method for liquid recovery. The care as this can happen quite quickly. Vapor pulled from the recovery cylinder by the recovery unit will than be pushed back to disabled unit’s vapor side. Once the entire liquid refrigerant has been recovered from the refrigeration system. It may be found convenient to fit a liquid sight glass within the transfer line. the connections can be relocated and the remaining refrigerant recovered in vapor recovery mode.

systems and recovery cylinders should be kept as short as large a diameter as practicable. It may be possible to pump the system down in the normal way and then decant the refrigerant into a cooled recovery cylinder. i.e. (Note: Used refrigerant put into a new system may void equipment warranties). On larger refrigeration systems. it is possible to use the compressor to recover the refrigerant. Figure 43. Refrigerant from a unit with a burn-out hermetic compressor is reusable providing it has been recovered with a recovery unit incorporating an oil separator and filters. Connection hoses between recovery units. 84 . depending upon the reason for its removal and its condition.Vapor transfer The refrigerant charge can also be recovered in vapor recovery mode as shown in Figure 43. To check the acid content of any reclaimed oil is necessary to use a refrigeration oil test kit. this will take appreciably longer than if liquid is transferred. Push-pull vapor transfer Using the system’s own compressor If the refrigerant in system is to be moved and the system has a working compressor. Reuse of refrigerant Recovered refrigerant may reused in the same system from which is was removed from the site and processed for use in another system. or it may only be possible to use the cooled recovery cylinder as both condenser and receiver by installing it at the compressor outlet. the level and types of contaminants it contains.

Figure 45. Time is not reliable measure of how well the refrigerant has been reconditioned. Figure 44. the refrigerant is transferred into storage cylinder. The other is a multiple pass. Single pass The single pass recycling machines process refrigerant through filter-dryers and/or distillation.Recycling technologies Recycling has always been a part of refrigeration service practice. Figure 45 shows a typical multipass system. After a certain period of time or number of cycles. Multipass filtering 85 . because the moisture content varies. Single pass filtering Multiple pass Multiple pass machines recirculate the recovered refrigerant many times through filter-dryers. to cleaning burned out refrigerant with filter-dryers. Two types of equipment are on the market. The first is referred to a single pass. Various methods range from pumping the refrigerant into a receiver for minimal loss. It makes only one trip from the recycling process through the machine and then into the storage cylinder.

Acid is a product of decomposition. at high temperature. 3. This allows the vapor. 5. Other refrigerants: Which can affect the performance of the system. Particulates: Which accelerate wear and plug small openings in the system. avoid the possibility of contact through use of adequate gloves and long sleeved shirts/cover. Within the chamber. which are at room temperature. 3. both hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid can be produced. freeze up. to rise. an evaporator assembly lowers the liquid approximately 560C to a sub-cooled temperature 30 – 40C. Purpose of refrigerant recycling a reclaim is to reduce contaminants. 4. The distilled vapor passes into the air-cooled condenser and is converted to liquid. 86 . The liquid passes into the on-board storage chamber. Wear protective gear. Refrigerant vapors can harmful if inhaled.Reclaim technologies Reclaiming is defined as the reprocessing of a refrigerant to the level of purity of virgin refrigerant specification as verified by chemical analysis. gloves. That the complete set of analysis has to be done and the reclaim refrigerant must be reprocessed until specifications of virgin refrigerant are met. Read the Manufacturer manual and apply all prescribed methods in instruction every time equipment is employed. Chilling the refrigerant also facilitates the transfer to any external cylinders. and acids. contaminants drop to the bottom of the separator to be removed during the “oil out” operation. 5. Extreme care must be taken to prevent oil spills of refrigerant vapors from making contact with skin and clothing surfaces when servicing contaminated equipment. 2. The refrigerant being recovered could come from badly contaminated system. High boiling residues (oil): Which inhibit heat transfer and can plug evaporators Acceptable levels of contaminants (under the ARI 700-93) are shown in Annex F to the Manual. Chlorides: Indication of presence of acids. long pants. These include: Water: Which can lead to corrosion. A replaceable filter-drier in this circuit removes the moisture while it continues the cleaning process to remove microscopic contaminants. Reclaim unit This type of system can best be described as follows: 1. Safe handling of recovery refrigerant 1. safety hat or hard hat. and shirts wits long sleeves. such as safety glasses and shoes. 4. In order to accomplish this. Non-condensables: Which will affect system pressures and general performance. 2. Acid: Which promotes corrosion and further refrigerant degradation. Avoid ingestion and always provide low-level ventilation. the machine must meet the ARI 700-93 standards. Refrigerant then enters a large unique separator chamber where the velocity is rapidlically reduced. During this phase. Liquid refrigerants can case severe frost bite. The refrigerant is accepted into the system as either vapor or liquid. 6.

with proper identification. Ensure that all power is disconnected and disabled to any equipment requiring recovery. 87 . Ensure that all cylinders are in safe condition. Label the cylinder or container as specified regulations. 12.6. Make sure they are properly firmly attached. 10. Never roll a cylinder on its base or lay it down to rolls it. Place hose sensibly. When moving a cylinder. 7. Disconnect and lock out any power supply with an approved locking device. based upon net weight. 11. Never exceed the cylinder’s safe liquid weight level. Maximum capacity of any cylinder is 80% by maximum gross. Use top quality hoses. 8. 9. capped as necessary. use an appropriate wheeled device. Hoses and electrical extension cords can be trip hazard. where risk is minimized.

6 Bar or lower. Be sure that all service/shut off valves are open to avoid “locking” refrigerant. The cylinder’s vapor side should be connected to the recovery inlet (suction) side. only vapor recovery is needed. The push-pull method is recommended. connect the suction hose from recovery unit to the gas pipe on air-conditioning system. Recovery from air-conditioning system Liquid transfer Air-conditioning installations normally have service stop valves installed in the pipe lines. Line-tap valves should never be left permanently in place. From the recovery cylinders vapor side (use a drier). Discharge side recovery unit should be connected to the suction pipe on the airconditioning system. To transfer all refrigerant to the recovery cylinder. Recovery discharge/outlet side connected to the recovery cylinder’s vapor side. Vapor transfer When liquid transfer is completed. The system’s liquid pipe should be connected to the recovery cylinder’s liquid side. 88 . Liquid flows now from the liquid side of the air-conditioning system and into in the cylinder. It has recommended to install tap-valves on both and low pressure side. When there is no more liquid transferred through the sight glass. the recovery unit discharge side could be connected here as well. which has no service valves. The recovery unit will keep the pressure inside the cylinder lower than in the air-conditioning system and keep up the liquid flow. including solenoid valves. this indicates there is no more refrigerant left in the system. and a recovery unit used to remove the refrigerant from the unit via the line-tap as with the larger system.Recovery from a domestic refrigerator It is possible to recover refrigerant from a hermetically sealed system. connect the hoses from the recovery unit suction/inlet side to the compressor low or high-pressure side. liquid should be transferred first because the quantity can be rather large. To control liquid flow. Connect the recovery unit discharge outlet hose to the recovery cylinder’s vapor side. Vapor transfer When liquid transfer is completed there will still be some refrigerant vapor left in the system. connect hoses to both high and low pressure side (use service manifold). Recovery from commercial cold room system Liquid transfer Connect the recovery cylinder’s hose to the system’s outlet stop valve on the condenser/receiver. Because of the small charge of refrigerant. install a sight glass to the hose and cylinder. but removed after use if placed on the process tube. For better recovery. Run recovery unit until the suction gauge reads –0. All system’s stop valves have to be opened. When recovering refrigerant from such a system. Run the recovery unit and keep an eye on the sight glass. A line-tap valve (piercing valve) should be fitted to the system. Outlet/discharge side of the recovery unit goes to the system’s high-pressure side at inlet condenser or compressor high-pressure stop valve. If there are available valves on the systems receiver (highpressure side).

The refrigerant charge on such system is rather small and therefore only vapor transfer is required. Connect the hose from the recovery unit’s suction/inlet side to the air-conditioning system’s compressor low-pressure side and the discharge hose to the vapor valve on the recovery cylinders. Connect another hose to the system’s high-pressure side and complete the recovery. Recovery from an MAC system 89 . Run the recovery unit until pressure gauges read 0. Figure 46.6 bar.Recovery from the mobile air-conditioning system Vapor transfer Mobile air-conditioning systems are normally equipped with service valves on compressor’s high and low-pressure side. Run the recovery unit for 3 – 5 min.

fluids that can be substituted into an existing system without any work being required apart from vary minor servicing such as the replacement of a refrigerant filter dryer. Alternative refrigerants Before any alternative refrigerant can be mass-produced. These are: Drop-ins . Non-retrofittable fluid – liquids that cannot be used in existing equipment even with major modifications. individual companies are researching other possible alternatives. and consequently some modifications to the system are likely to be necessary. The regulatory and record keeping requirements further emphasize the need for a focused approach to terminal refrigerant management plans. CFCs refrigerants are a limited resource and have a steadily increasing value. In addition. such as substitution of a new type of lubricating oil or a modification of compressor speed. Retrofittable fluid – fluids that can be substituted into an existing plant but only after certain changes are made. organized manner. it must first pass exhaustive toxicity and environment acceptability tests. Several significant alternative refrigerants are examined. There are three categories into which replacement fluids can fall. and changes that accompany the alternative refrigerants involve additional service practices that must be followed. 90 . The changes of a “drop-in” being available with exactly the same properties as the refrigerant it replaces are fairly remote. new blends and combinations of existing chemicals. and areas are: • Drier • Expansion valve • Lubricant compatibility and miscibility • Compressor swept volume and input power Thus. retrofittable fluids are the more likely option. because of different operating pressures and materials incompatibility. the air conditioning and refrigeration industry has been engaged with the chemical community for more than two decades establishing refrigerant substitutes and alternative technologies. the implementation a new refrigerant option is best accomplished in a methodical. The basic refrigeration cycle still applies. In the following Table 6 below are given common use refrigerants. Alternative refrigerants and technologies The Montreal Protocol requires the eventual cessation of all CFCs and HCFCs and therefore. and their replacements (alternatives) and applications. After all the alternative refrigerant decisions have been made.6. Every system has unique operating conditions. It is important to remember that all current practices for refrigeration system service still apply with alternative refrigerants.

Medium temperature. Light ambient AC R-408A HCFC MO or AB R-402A HCFC MO or AB R-402B HCFC MO or AB R-22 (HCFC)replacements R-407C HFC POE R-410A HFC POE R-13 (CFC). walkin coolers Positive displacement refrigeration equipment. new and retrofit Positive displacement refrigeration equipment. R-12 transport refrigeration equipment R-502 (CFC/HCFC) replacements R-404A R-507 HFC HFC POE POE New equipment and retrofit for commercial refrigeration. appliances. automotive AC. Commercial refrigeration. walk-in coolers Closest performance match to R-500. Existing residential and commercial/light AC. Always consult OEM for guidance Residential and commercial air conditioning and some very large centrifugal chillers for air conditioning and industrial process cooling New and existing centrifugal (below –400C) applications. R-502 transport refrigeration Existing commercial refrigeration equipment Existing commercial refrigeration equipment Ice machines and other selected applications Positive displacement AC equipment. supermarket systems. New commercial and light commercial AC. R-23 (CFC). R-12 (CFC) replacements R-134a R-401A R-409A HFC HCFC HCFC POE MO or AB MO or AB R-500 (CFC/HCF) replacements R-401B HCFC MO or AB Best retrofit choice for R-12 freezers. R-503 (CFC/HFC) replacements R-508B HFC POE R-11 (CFC) replacements R-123 R-124 HCFC HCFC MO AB R-114 (CFC) replacement MO – mineral oil AB – alkylbenzene POE – polyester OEM – Original Equipment Manufacturers 91 .Table 6. supermarket systems. R-502 transport refrigeration New equipment and retrofit for commercial refrigeration. Common use refrigerants and replacements ASHRAE # Type Lubricant Applications Domestic refrigeration. Cascade refrigeration systems New and existing centrifugal chillers Consult OEM Industrial refrigeration and AC. medium temperature.

Ammonia is ozone friendly. because of its toxicity and flammability. canteen fridge’s etc. It use could be extended to encompass R-12 uses in cold stores. Figure 47.propane) are ozone friendly (ODP=0. The refrigerant vapor migrates from the evaporator. At the present time. tools and safety measures when servicing refrigerators. The absorbent fluid goes from the generator back to absorber. The refrigerant then goes to the condenser where it is liquefied and returned to the evaporator to begin the cycle again. changes state as it absorbed into an absorbent. which may 92 . Their main disadvantage is their flammability. it has not been considered a viable long term alternative in the commercial field.isobutane) and R-290 (C3H8 . and increasing attention is being focused in as an environmentally begin substance that could yet be explored in a number of applications. Absorption cycles have been successfully applied to refrigerator. residential air conditioners and large water chillers. Absorption Absorption cycles have been used since the mid 1800s. absorbent fluid. it is mainly used in industrial applications. The driving force is the heat added at the generator. R-600a (C4H10 .Existing alternative refrigerants Hydrocarbons (HC) – Isobutane and propane Both of the se gases have sound thermodynamic properties. pumped to the generator and separate from the absorbent fluid by adding heat. For these refrigerants are developed new service procedures. HC charging tools Ammonia –NH3 R-717 – has been used as a refrigerant for many years. Absorption chillers replace the compressor and its driver with an absorber chamber. GWP=0). A good option for domestic and commercial applications such as shop display cases. a small pump and a generator. However.

they need to be handled with care before being used. Lubricants for alternatives Polyol ester oils must be used with HFC refrigerants. HCFC-22 and R-502. Refrigerant/absorber combinations today are ammonia/water for systems under 10 tons and water/lithium bromide for water chillers above 10 tons. Polyol ester synthetic oils are backwards compatible. replacing it. the filter-dryers need to be frequently checked. Current experience dictates that for HFC-134a systems the concentration of residual mineral oil in the POE lubricant must be no more than 5% by weight to achieve miscibility equivalent to CFC-12 with mineral oil. and running the system with the new lubricant and the old CFC refrigerant. a larger filter drier may require in a system. System charged with retrofit refrigerant can lead to early system failure due to chemical reaction between the chlorine from CFC and lubricating oils. CFC-12. Therefore. This is important because enough mineral oil is not removed. Another important difference between mineral oils and POEs is the fact that POEs tend to absorb water. Is strongly recommended that the manufacturer-specified lubricant be used to ensure that it is compatible with all the components. The miscibility of HFC-134a with the POE is satisfactory (with mineral oil is very poor). they are acceptable for use with. steam. A lubricant flush consists of removing as much oil as possible from the system. about the same as the CFC-12 and mineral oil. Therefore. it can deposit on the evaporator heat exchanger surfaces. hot water or waste heat. severely degrading performance. Using CFC-12 as the flushing fluid would allow mineral oil removal without introducing a new chemical into market. which it is in contact. because of chemical incompatibilities between the refrigerants and lubricants. Therefore. 93 . Many recycling units can be modified at relatively low cost to perform the additional function on flushing with refrigerant. Because of the increased water which may present in the system. Current retrofit procedures for refrigeration systems could require up to three or more lubricant changes (flushes) with POE to reach the required levels.come from direct firing with natural gas. POEs dissolve materials that CFCs or mineral oil did not. Existing systems will require oil flushing procedure. Flushing method A major problem with retrofits is removing the residual mineral oil. which has been retrofitted to POEs to make sure that all of the excess water is removed.

2. Evaporator and condenser capacities. Establish the necessary system component changes for the HFC-134a application. compressor. hoses. The working fluid must allow for satisfactory refrigerant performance and adequate lubricant solubility/circulation to lubricate the compressor while. In many cases. Expansion valve or capillary lube sizing. a retrofit must result in a refrigeration system durable enough to satisfy customer expectation. 94 . Ultimately. and O-rings. Flushing by recovery unit Retrofit of CFC-12 with HFC-134a Domestic and air conditioning system components that need to be compatible with any new working fluid (refrigerant/lubricant combination) include the filter-dryer. The general guidelines for retrofit of CFC-12 with R-134a are: 1. 5. 4. Note quantity of oil removed to see if residual mineral oil has returned. Run the system with CFC-12 and POE oil than drain the ester oil and replace with fresh charge. not deteriorating system materials. measure the quantity and compare with recommended oil charge to determine the quantity of oil left in the system. Drain the existing mineral oil charge. This oil charge procedure – flushing method should be repeated 3 times. 3.Figure 48. Typical system concerns are: 1. Replace the mineral oil with the recommended charge of POE. Compressor sizing. at same time. 3. The general chemical stability of the system as also important. 2. Acceptable residual mineral oil must be between 1% and 5%. Establish existing system operating performance. system controls will require changing to maintain acceptable performance. Check the entire system for leaks and make necessary repairs.

11. Charge the system with HFC-134a. Check the system after 48 hours again. Caution should be taken not overcharge – 80% to 90% of the CFC-12 charge as a starting point. Use a recovery unit and acceptable recovery cylinder. Evacuate the system. Break the vacuum with HFC-134a vapor. Dryers should be selected for use with HFC-134a. 12.6. 10. 95 . 9. Remove the existing charge of CFC-12. 7. It is recommended that the dryers be changed when retrofitting. The superheat sittings should always be checked to ensure proper evaporator operation. Filter-dryer media All current retrofit candidates are known to chemically incompatible with the existing filter-dryer media and would therefore require a component change to replace the desiccant with one compatible with the working fluid. 8. Start-up the system and monitor for performance.

91/2004). Freezers and Other Cooling and Freezing Devices Containing Substances of Annex A Group I of the Montreal Protocol and Gradual Reduction and Elimination of the Substances of Annex A Group I of the Montreal Protocol (CFC-11. trade and use of certain products and substances or to restrict and control the export and import of certain substances and products. In the case of the ODSs and ODS containing equipment. and quantity and volume of the imported refrigerators. No. No.1998 import of the equipment (new and used refrigerators.) containing ODSs is allowed only with permit issued by the Ministry of Environment and Physical The above mentioned subsidiaries enable reduction.7. CFC-114. the tax depends of the type (ODP value) and quantity of imported ODSs. control and inventory of the imported ODS quantities. . National legislation Immediately after the start of the country action on ODS reduction and elimination in 1997. 96 . CFC-115). heat pumps etc.ozoneunit. prescribes that every natural or legal person who imports certain used products or produces/imports hazardous products and goods or products and goods containing hazardous substances to the environment and nature is obliged to pay tax defined by the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning of the Republic of Macedonia. The Law on Environment (Article 21 and 22) gives possibility the Minister on Environment to ban the production. The Instructions are available to the public (www. the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning/Ozone Unit established a legal framework for the Montreal Protocol implementation. freezers.As of 12. The Ozone Unit prepared special database for creation of complete inventories of the annual ODS import and consumption which gives clear picture of the country situation concerning this issue. 53/2005. CFC-12. Few years later (December 2004) the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning prepared Instructions for Special Data to be Submitted for Issuing Permit for Goods Imported-Exported under D4 (Official Journal of the Republic of Macedonia.1997 import of the Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs) is allowed only with permit issued by the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning. cooling equipment. freezers and other used cooling devices respectively (Article 164 of the Law on Environment). This Order foresees prohibition of the import of the used refrigerators. Chapter XVIII – Financing. Following this direction the Ozone Unit has prepared Draft-Order on Ban of Import of Used Refrigerators. CFC-113.03. freezers and other cooling and freezing devices containing substances of Annex A Group I of the Montreal Protocol.06. eliminating the possibility of unnecessary import of the equipment potentially containing CFCs. This act defines all necessary data and information (documents and information) that should be provided for ODSs/ODS containing equipment import/export. 81/2005). Law on Environment (Official Journal of the Republic of and is extremely useful for the companies-importers of the ODSs/ ODS containing equipment. The ODS/ODS containing equipment import restrictions have been realized according the following schedule: .As of 01.

the import of the ODSs classified in Annex A Group I of the Montreal Protocol (CFC-11. CFC-12. from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2007. from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2004. CFC-114.000 kg. 10. 97 . from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2008. The implementation of this document will mean not only fulfilling of the Montreal Protocol provisions. but undertaking big step ahead towards complete elimination of the ODSs of Annex A Group I by 2010.000 kg.000 kg. from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2005 15. 5. 25.000 kg.According to the reccomendations and tasks identified in the project "Terminal phase-out management plan".000 kg. CFC-113. CFC-115) is going to be eliminated as follows: 35. Zero kg from 1 January 2009. from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2006.

Annexes Annex A: Definition Annex B: Blends and their composition Annex C: ARI Refrigerant color assignment stored by ASHRAE number Annex D: ARI refrigerant container color assignments sorted by PMS number Annex E: International Chemical Safety Cards Annex F: Maximum contaminant levels of common refrigerants Annex G: Trouble shooting Annex H: Best Service Practices Annex I: Mollier charts 98 .8.

The number designation of hydrocarbon and halocarbon refrigerants is systematic and allows determining the chemical composition of the compounds from the refrigerant numbers A constant-boiling mixture. fluorine and carbon. They are automatically binding for all countries. sterilants. These countries are permitted a 10 year grace period for most substances compared with the phase-out schedule for developed countries The ASHRAE number applies to refrigerants and is defined in ASHRAE standard 34-1997 on “Number Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants”. aerosols. Parties are not bound by these changes to the Protocol unless and until they ratify the Amendment. Adjustments have to be ratified in the chronological they were agreed. solvents cleaning and variety of other 99 Amendment Annex A substance Annex B substance Annex C substance Annex D product ARI color assignments Article 5 countries ASHRAE number Azeotrope Beijing Amendment Cataract Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) . 114 and 115 Group II: Halons 1211. 2402 Ozone depleting substances listed in Annex B of the Montreal Protocol: Group I: ten “other CFCs” (most of them not in commercial use) Group II: carbon tetrachloride Group III: 1. Countries. the listing of bromochloromethane as a controlled substance. or new Obligations. which have ratified the Protocol. such as adding new substances to the list of controlled substances. 113. Adjustments can change the text of the Protocol. and less than 0. and the reporting of methyl bromide uses for the exempted quarantine and pre-shipment applications Damage to the eye in which the lens is partially or completely clouded. These fully halogenated substances are commonly used in refrigeration. or the relevant amendment. A unique mixture of two or more chemicals that distils at certain constant temperature and has a constant composition at a given pressure. will be considered as a non-Party with regard to new substances or obligations introduced by that amendment. An azeotrope behaves like a pure liquid Refers to the amendments decided by the Eleventh MOP which introduced HCFC production controls. Ozone depleting substances listed in Annex A of the Montreal Protocol: Group I: CFCs 11. 1301. impairing the vision and sometimes causing blindness. which have not ratified a certain document.2 kg per capita of the controlled substances in Annex B.Annex A: Definitions Adjustment Adjustments are changes to the Montreal Protocol with regard to the phase-out timetable for existing controlled substances as well as ODP values of controlled substances based on new research results. which introduced the controlled substance. 12.1. In addition. the Parties can also take Decisions. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation can cause cataracts A family of organic chemicals composed of chlorine.3 kg per capita of the controlled substances in Annex A.1-trichlorethane (methyl chloroform) Ozone depleting substances listed in Annex C of the Montreal Protocol: Group I: 40 HCFCs (some 5-10 in commercial use) Group II: 33 HBFCs (most of them not in commercial use) Group III: bromochlomethane (added by Beijing Amendment in 1999) List of products containing controlled substances specified in Annex A of the Montreal Protocol which may mot be imported from countries that are not Parties to the Protocol ARI Guideline N is a voluntary industry guideline for the uniform assignment of colors for containers used for new or reclaimed refrigerants that meet ARI Standard 700 purity specifications Developing countries which are Party to the Montreal Protocol with an annual calculated level of consumption less than 0. foam blowing. which do not change the text but interpret the text Amendments are other more significant changes to the Montreal Protocol.

and therefore do not deplete ozone layer Used for bulk liquid shipments. propylene (C3H6. making HCFCs less damaging than CFCs in the longer term A family of chemicals related to CFCs. ODS have ozone-depleting potential grater than 0 and can deplete the stratospheric ozone layer 100 . Most Article 5 countries are importing all ODS which is used in the country Refers to amendments decided by the fourth meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol in Copenhagen 1992 whereby controls on Annex C and E substances were added. Although they are used as refrigerants. The global warming potential (GWP) is the relative contribution of each greenhouse gas to global warming relative to carbon dioxide whose GWP is defined as 1. and their use may be restricted or prohibited in some areas. Hydrocarbons are volatile organic compounds. The hydrocarbons have an ODP of zero. At this meeting. leading to a reduction in its concentration Any substance which is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. whereby. bromochloromethane and methyl bromide. The hydrogen reduces their atmospheric lifetime. but no chlorine. At some meeting. Has adverse effects on human health and the environment A chemical compound consisting of one or more carbon atoms surrounded only by hydrogen atoms. fluorine and carbon. requirements on import and export licensing systems were introduced. which contain hydrogen. CFCs have the potential to destroy ozone molecules in the stratosphere and are one of the main causes of ozone depletion The Montreal Protocol defines the consumption of a controlled substance as a production plus imports minus exports. HC-600). CFCs. which contain hydrogen. At this meeting. HCFCs. whereby controls on Annex B substances were added. fluorine and carbon. their highly flammable properties normally restrict their use as low concentration components in refrigerant blends A family of hydrogenated chemicals related to CFCs. Greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide. rail and ship Refers to amendments decided by the second MOP.. as well as chlorine. phase-out schedules for methyl bromide were accelerated The Protocol to the Vienna Convention. methyl chloroform. signed in 1987. HC-1270) and butane (C4H10. It usually refers to a time span of 100 years (GWP 100) A gas that traps heat in the Earth’s atmosphere. contributing to global warming Photochemical pollution. Examples of hydrocarbons are propane (C3H8. HCFCs and Halons. ODS include CFCs. HCs are commonly used as substitute for CFCs in aerosol propellants and refrigerant blends. the phase-out schedules for Annex A and B substances were also accelerated Global warming & climate change is caused by the emission of greenhouse gases that trap the outgoing heat from the Earth causing the atmosphere to become warmer. carbon tetrachloride. Halons. hydrobromofluorocarbons. reducing and phasing-out the production and consumption of controlled substances The process by which stratospheric ozone molecules are destroyed by man-made chemicals. inter alias. which commits Parties to take concrete measures to protect the ozone layer by freezing. HC-290). ISO container provides the flexibility of using various transportation modes such as truck. methane.Consumption Copenhagen Amendment Global warming Greenhouse Gas Ground level ozone Hydrocarbon (HC) Hydro chlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) ISO container London Amendment Montreal Amendment Montreal Protocol (MP) Ozone depletion Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) applications. the phase-out schedules for Annex A substances were also accelerated and the Interim Multilateral Fund was established to assist developing countries in their efforts in phasing out ODS Refers to amendments decided by the Ninth MOP in Montreal. car and industry emissions provide the basis for photochemical reactions.

stability. Drop-in replacements do not require major modifications A region of the upper atmosphere between the troposphere and the mesosphere. such as chlorine and bromine. replacement of expansion device or compressor. This procedure usually requires modifications such as change as lubricant. ranging from about 10-20 up to 40-50 km above the Earth’s surface Radiation from the sun with wavelengths between visible light and X-rays. All ODPs are based on the reference measure of 1 for CFC-11 Molecules containing three atoms of oxygen. including equipment whose continuous functioning relies on the use ODS A term used to describe the presence of ozone molecules dispersed in the stratosphere. liquid or mixed with other substance) from a system and store it in an external container Reduction of contaminants in used refrigerants by separating oil. which follows the troposphere. Chemical analyzes of the refrigerant is required to determine that the appropriate specifications are met. The stratosphere is that part of the Earth’s atmosphere. air-conditioning and heat pump plants with non-ODS refrigerants. acidity and particulate matter The procedure when replacing CFC-refrigerants in existing refrigeration. removing condensables and using devices such as filter dryers to reduce moisture. Removal of a refrigerant in any condition (vapor. and whose presence in the stratosphere constitutes the ozone layer When the production and consumption of a controlled ODS is zero. reactivity and content of elements that can attack ozone. Its start at 10-20 km above ground level and continues up to 40-50 km height. Re-processing used refrigerant to the product specification of new refrigerant. A measure of a substance’s ability to destroy stratospheric ozone based on its atmospheric lifetime.ODS-based product/ equipment Ozone layer Product or equipment which contains ODS. UV-B (280-320 nm) is one of three bands of UV radiation and increased exposure to UV-B radiation can cause damage to human health and the environment Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Ozone molecule Phase-out Reclaim Recovery Recycling Retrofitting Stratosphere Ultraviolet radiation 101 . The ozone layer acts as a filter against the ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) coming from the Sun and protects life on Earth from the damaging effect of increased UV-B exposure.

Annex B. Blends and their composition
Zeotrope mixtures Refrigerant Component 1 Number (Trade name)
R401a (MP 39) R401b (MP 66) R401C (MP 52) R402a (HP 80) R402b (HP 81) R403a (69S) R403b (69L) R405a (G2015) R406a (GHG-12) R408a (FX55) R409a (FX56) R409b (FX57) R411a (G2018A) R411b (G2018B) R412a (TP5R) R414b (Hotshot) HCFC-22 HCFC-22 HCFC-22 HFC-125 HFC-125 HC-290 HC-290 HCFC-22 HCFC-22 HFC-125 HCFC-22 HCFC-22 HC-1270 HC-1270 HCFC-22 HCFC-22 53% 61% 33% 60% 38% 5% 5% 45% 55% 7% 60% 65% 2% 3% 70% 50%

Component 2
HFC-152a HFC-152a HFC-152a HC-290 HC-290 HCFC-22 HCFC-22 HFC-152a HC-600a HCF-143a HCFC-124 HCFC-124 HCFC-22 HCFC-22 FC-218 HCFC-124 13% 11% 15% 2% 2% 75% 56% 7% 4% 46% 25% 25% 88% 94% 5% 39%

Component 3
HCFC-124 HCFC-124 HCFC-124 HCFC-22 HCFC-22 FC-218 FC-218 HCFC-142b HCFC-142b HCFC-22 HCFC-142b HCFC-142b HFC-152a HFC-152a HCFC-142b HCFC-142b 34% 28% 52% 38% 60% 20% 39% 42,5% 41% 47% 15% 10% 11% 3% 25% 9,5%

Component 4





Azeotrope mixtures Refrigerant number R500 R501 R502 R503 R504 R505 R506 R507 R509

Component 1
CFC12 HCFC22 HCFC22 HFC23 HFC32 CFC12 HCFC31 HCFC124 HCFC22 74% 75% 49% 40% 48% 78% 55% 50% 44%

Component 2
HCFC152a CFC12 CFC115 CFC13 CFC115 HCFC31 CFC114 HCFC143a FC218 26% 25% 51% 60% 52% 22% 45% 50% 56%

Unnamed mixtures Trade Component 1 name
FX-20 FX-10 Di 36 Daikin Blend FRIGC Free Zone GHG-HP GHG-X5 NARM-502 NAF-S-III NAF-P-III HCFC-125 HCFC-22 HCFC-22 HFC-23 HCFC-124 HCFC142b HCFC-22 HCFC-22 HCFC-22 HCFC-22 HCF-134a 45% 60% 2% 39% 39% 19% 65% 41% 90% 82% 10%

Component 2
HCFC-22 HCFC-142b HFC-124 HFC-32 HFC-134a HFC-134a HCFC-142b HCFC-142b HFC-152a HCFC-123 HCFC-123 55% 40% 47% 59% 59% 79% 31% 15% 5%
4,7 %

Component 3

Component 4

HC-600a HC-600a HC-600a Lubricant HC-600a HCF-227ca HFC-23 HCFC-124 HCFC-124

3% 70% 4% 2% 4% 40% 5% 9,5% 32% HC600a C10H16 HC 4% 3,75% 4% 102


Annex C. ARI refrigerant container colour assignments sorted by ASHRAE number
(Source: ARI Coolnet at

ASHRAE Number R-11 R-12 R-13 R-13B1 R-14 R-22 R-23 R-32 R-50 R-113 R-114 R-115 R-116 R-123 R-124 R-125 R-134a R-141b R-142b R-143a R-152a R-170 R-218 R-225 R-236fa R-245fa R-290 R-401a R-401b R-401c R-402a R-402b R-403a R-403b R-404a R-405A R-406a R-407a

PMS Number 021 2975 177 124 352 428 *F *F 266 302 * 424 428 335 465 2975 * *F *F *F *F * * * * *F 177 124 3268 461 385 * * 021 * *F 368

Assigned colour (ARI Guideline N) Orange White Light Blue (Sky) Pinkish-Red (Coral) Yellow-Brown (mustard) Light green Light Blue-Grey Unassigned Unassigned Dark Purple (Violet) Dark Blue (Navy) Unassigned Dark Grey (Battleship) Light Blue-Grey Deep Green (DOT Green) Medium Brown (Tan) Light Blue (Sky) Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Pinkish-Red (Coral) Yellow-Brown (Mustard) Blue-Green (Aqua) Light Brown (Sand) Green-Brown (Olive) Unassigned Unassigned Orange Unassigned Unassigned Lime Green

ASHRAE Number R-407b R-407c R-407e R-408a R-409a R-409b R-410a R-410b R-411a R-411b R-412a R-413a R-414a R-414b R-416a R-500 R-501 R-502 R-503 R-504 R-505 R-506 R-507a R-507b R-508a R-508b R-509 R-509a R-600 R-600a R-717 R-1140 R-1150 R-1270

PMS number 156 471 * 248 465 * 507 194 226F 326F *F *F * 2995 381 109 * 251 3268 * * * 326 * * 302 * * *F *F *F *F *F *F

Assigned colour (ARI Guideline N) Cream Medium Green Unassigned Medium Purple Medium Brown (Tan) Unassigned Rose Maroon Dark Purple (Violet) Blue-Green (Teal) Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Medium Blue Yellow-Green (Lime) Yellow Unassigned Light Purple (Lavender) Blue-Green (Aqua) Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Blue-Green (Teal) Unassigned Unassigned Dark Blue (Navy) Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned Unassigned

Notes: * These refrigerants are not produced in sufficient quantities to qualify own color or a producer has not requested a color assignment. Containers with these refrigerants are assigned PMS#414 (light green-grey) F These refrigerants are flammable. Containers for flammable refrigerants should also be painted with a red band around its top shoulder or cap ASHRAE – The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA PMS – color codes are following the Pantone® Matching System

Bold/grey – these are or contain ODS

Annex D: ARI refrigerant container colour assignments sorted by PMS number
(Source: ARI Coolnet under

PMS Number
None Black C 021 109 124 156 177 185 194 248 251 266 302 326 335 352 368 381 385 413 424 428 450 461 465 468 471 507 2975 2995 3268

Assigned colour
White Black (Print Black) Orange Yellow Yellow-Brown Cream Pinkish-Red (Coral) Red (DOT Red) Maroon Medium Purple (Purple) Light Purple (Lavender) Dark Purple (Violet) Dark Blue (Navy) Blue-Green (Teal) Deep (DOT) Green Light Green Lime Green Yellow-Green (Lime) Green-Brown (Olive) Light Green-Grey Dark Grey (Battleship) Light Blue-Grey Dark Brown (Chocolate) Light Brown (Sand) Medium Brown (Tan) Light Tan Medium Brown (Brown) Rose Light Blue (Sky) Medium Blue (Blue) Blue-Green (Aqua)

Class I

Class II

Class III

Class IV

R-11 R-500 401b R-401a

R-14 R-407b R-13B1 Note 1 R-410b R-408a

R-502 R-113 R-114 R-508b R-507a R-124 R-407a R-416a Note 2 R-123 Note 2 R-402b Note 2 R-116 R-23 R-407d R-402a R-125 R-407c R-410a R-13 R-503 Note 2 R-411a R-411b


R-409a Reserved R-134a R-414b R-401c

Notes: 1. Reserved for red band marking of containers for flammable refrigerants. Containers for flammable refrigerants (Class IV) should also have a red band painted around its top shoulder or cap. 2. Reserved for refrigerants that are not assigned a colour. Bold/Grey – these are or contain ODS


105 . Exposure could cause cardiac arrhythmia and asphyxiation. ICSC#0126.7. In case of fire: keep drums. Cool. Frigen 11. NEVER direct water jet on liquid. The vapour is heavier than air and may accumulate in low ceiling spaces causing deficiency of oxygen. INHALATION RISK: On loss of containment this liquid evaporates very quickly causing supersaturation of the air with serious risk of suffocation when in confined areas. ICSC#0283). with characteristic odour. magnesium and sodium. First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes EYES (remove contact lenses if easily possible). or breathing respiration if indicated. hydrogen fluorine. See notes. PHYSICAL STATE. The odour warning when the exposure limit value is exceeded is insufficient. such as aluminium. Ventilation along the floor. Reacts violently with metals and various powdered metals. calcium. Relative vapour density (air=1): 4. SPILAGE DISPOSAL: Ventilation. allow to evaporate. ON FROSTIBITE: rinse LIQUID: with plenty water. Ventilation. Safety goggles. cool by spraying with (see Chemical Dangers). Annex E1: TRICHLOROFLUROMETHANE CFC-11 TYPES OF HAZARD/ EXPOSURE FIRE ACUTE HAZARDS/ SYMPTOMS Not combustible. phosgene ICSC#0007. EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM OR REPEATED EXPOSURE: Repeated or prolonged contact with skin may cause dermatitis.. PHYSICAL DANGERS: The gas is heavier than air. Halon 11 are trade names. CHEMICAL DANGERS: On contact with hot surfaces or flames this substance decomposes forming corrosive and very toxic fumes (hydrogen chloride. Gives off Irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire PREVENTION FIRST AID/FIRE FIGHTING In case of fire in the surroundings: all extinguishing agents.Annex E: International Chemical Safety Cards (Source: World Health Organization and the European Union) These safety cards may not reflect in all cases all the detailed requirements included in national legislation on the subject. High concentrations in the air cause a deficiency of oxygen with the risk of unconsciousness or death. Freon 11. Turn leaking cylinder with the leak up to prevent escape of gas in liquid state. Check oxygen content before entering area. Pain. APPEARANCE: Colourless gas or highly volatile liquid. than take to a doctor. barium. water. or during welding. The user should verify compliance of the cards with the relevant legislation in the country. Risk of fire and explosion EXPLOSION etc. local Fresh air. kPa at 200C: 89. Unconsciousness. STORAGE: Separated from metals (See Chemical Dangers). protection. ENVIRONMENTAL DATA: This substance may be hazardous to the environment. exhaust. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: Vapour pressure. Refer for chemical attention Redness. Confusion. Drowsiness. EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE: The liquid may cause frostbite. do NOT SKIN FROSTIBITE remove clothes. ON CONTACT WITH Cold-insulating gloves.0. Refer for medical attention. ROUTES OF EXPOSURE: The substance can be absorbed into body by inhalation. ICSC#0163. If in liquid form. NOTES: To physicians: adrenergic agents are contraindicated. rest. chlorine. Do NOT use in the vicinity of a fire or a hot surface.4. Artificial INHALATION Shortness of breath. special attention should be given to water and air. Relative density of the vapour/air-mixture at 200C (air=1): 4.

106 . Confusion. with characteristic odour. Cool. local exhaust. The odour warning when the exposure limit value is exceeded is insufficient. ICSC#0283). ICSC#0163. calcium. ICSC#0126. STORAGE: Separated from metals (See Chemical Dangers). EYES PREVENTION FIRST AID/FIRE FIGHTING In case of fire in the surroundings: all extinguishing agents allowed. Refer for chemical attention First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible). Attack magnesium and its alloys. PACKAGING & LABELLING: Special insulated cylinder. or breathing protection.Annex E2: DICHLOROFLUROMETHANE CFC-12 TYPES OF HAZARD/ EXPOSURE FIRE ACUTE HAZARDS/ SYMPTOMS Not combustible. kPa at 200C: 568. ROUTES OF EXPOSURE: The substance can be absorbed into body by inhalation. Freon 12. Gives off Irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire. Ventilation along the floor. chlorine. NEVER direct water jet on liquid. SKIN Safety goggles. Unconsciousness. do NOT remove clothes. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: Vapour pressure. Cold-insulating gloves. ENVIRONMENTAL DATA: This substance may be hazardous to the environment. Check oxygen content before entering area. Turn leaking cylinder with the leak up to prevent escape of gas in liquid state. NOTES: To physicians: adrenergic agents are contraindicated. or during welding. than take to a doctor. PHYSICAL DANGERS: The gas is heavier than air and may accumulate in low ceiling spaces causing deficiency of oxygen. SPILAGE DISPOSAL: Ventilation. Reacts violently with metals such as potassium. See notes.2. Frigen 12. ON FROSTIBITE: rinse with plenty water. phosgene ICSC#0007. Relative vapour density (air=1): 4. this gas can cause suffocation by lowering the oxygen content of their air in confined areas. sodium. Risk of fire and explosion (see Chemical Dangers). CHEMICAL DANGERS: On contact with hot surfaces or flames this substance decomposes forming corrosive and very toxic fumes (hydrogen chloride. Shortness of breath. Exposure could cause cardiac arrhythmia and asphyxiation. special attention should be given to air. Halon 12 are trade names. Drowsiness. Fresh air. rest. Refer for medical attention. Do NOT use in the vicinity of a fire or a hot surface. EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE: The liquid may cause frostbite. Artificial respiration if indicated.2 PHYSICAL STATE: APPEARANCE: Colourless compressed liquefied gas. hydrogen fluorine. UN Hazard class 2. zinc and powdered aluminium. Pain. High concentrations in the air cause a deficiency of oxygen with the risk of unconsciousness or death. ON CONTACT WITH LIQUID: FROSTIBITE. magnesium. EXPLOSION INHALATION Ventilation. INHALATION RISK: On loss of containment. In case of fire: keep cylinder cool by spraying with water. Redness.

Ventilation. ROUTES OF EXPOSURE: The substance can be absorbed into body by inhalation. In case of large spillage. Exposure could cause cardiac arrhythmia and asphyxiation. remove clothes. Check oxygen content before entering area. Frigen 13. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: Relative vapour density (air=1): 3. or breathing respiration if indicated. or during welding. 107 . Headache. ON CONTACT WITH Cold-insulating gloves. special attention should be given to its impact on the ozone layer. SPILAGE DISPOSAL: Ventilation. FCC 13. with characteristic odour. Heating will cause rise in pressure with risk of sting. than take breathing protection. Dizziness. Incompatible with certain metal powders (aluminium. PHYSICAL STATE. PACKAGING & LABELLING: UN Hazard Class: 2. to a doctor. Physician should give special attention to the drugs used in treatment because of the effects of the substance on cardiac rhythm. ENVIRONMENTAL DATA: This substance may be hazardous to the environment. EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE: The liquid may cause frostbite. FIRST AID/FIRE FIGHTING In case of fire: keep cylinder cool by spraying with water. zinc.2. or eye water for several minutes EYES protection in (remove contact lenses if combination with easily possible). hydrogen fluorine and phosgene. CHEMICAL DANGERS: The substance decomposes on burning or on contact with hot surfaces producing toxic and corrosive fumes including hydrogen chloride. extra personal protection: complete protection with self-contained breathing apparatus. Arcton 13. INHALATION RISK: On loss of containment this liquid evaporates very quickly causing supersaturation of the air with serious risk of suffocation when in confined areas. Refer for medical attention. See notes. Do NOT use in the vicinity of a fire or a hot surface. do NOT SKIN FROSTIBITE. PREVENTION No contact with hot surfaces.6. PHYSICAL DANGERS: The gas is heavier than air and may accumulate in low ceiling spaces causing deficiency of oxygen. local Fresh air. beryllium). Freon 13. NOTES: High concentrations in the air cause a deficiency of oxygen with the risk of unconsciousness or death. NEVER direct water jet on liquid. APPEARANCE: Colourless liquefied gas. face First rinse with plenty of shield. Artificial Confusion. Safety goggles. ON FROSTIBITE: rinse LIQUID: with plenty water.Annex E3: CHLOROTRIFLUROMETHANE CFC-13 TYPES OF HAZARD/ EXPOSURE FIRE EXPLOSION ACUTE HAZARDS/ SYMPTOMS Not combustible. Refer for chemical attention (See Skin). INHALATION exhaust. Genetron 13 are trade names. protection. rest. STORAGE: Fireproof if in building.

hydrogen fluorine. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire. with characteristic odour. INHALATION RISK: On loss of containment. Unconsciousness. PACKAGING & LABELLING: Special insulated cylinder. Attacks magnesium and its alloys. Relative vapour density (air=1): 3. Fresh air. Exposure could cause cardiac arrhythmia and asphyxiation. chlorine. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: Vapour pressure. Halon 22 are trade names. The odour warning when the exposure limit value is exceeded is insufficient. Check oxygen content before entering area. Refer for medical attention. ROUTES OF EXPOSURE: The substance can be absorbed into body by inhalation. NEVER direct water jet on liquid. NOTES: To physicians: adrenergic agents are contraindicated. Ventilation. ICSC#0163. ON CONTACT WITH LIQUID: FROSTIBITE Redness. Safety goggles. High concentrations in the air cause a deficiency of oxygen with the risk of unconsciousness or death.2. PREVENTION FIRST AID/FIRE FIGHTING In case of fire in the surroundings: all extinguishing agents allowed In case of fire: keep cylinder cool by spraying with water. PHYSICAL DANGERS: The gas is heavier than air and may accumulate in low ceiling spaces causing deficiency of oxygen. or during welding. First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible). Pain. Turn leaking cylinder with the leak up to prevent escape of gas in liquid state. Reacts violently with powdered metals such as aluminium and zinc. ENVIRONMENTAL DATA: This substance may be hazardous to the environment. phosgene ICSC#0007. See notes. 108 . than take to a doctor. ON FROSTIBITE: rinse with plenty water. EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE: The liquid may cause frostbite. local exhaust. or breathing Cold-insulating gloves. Cool. Risk of fire and explosion (see Chemical Dangers). SKIN EYES SPILAGE DISPOSAL: Ventilation.Annex E 4: CHLORODIFLUROMETHANE Monochlorodifluoromethane: HCFC-22 Cylinder TYPES OF HAZARD/ EXPOSURE FIRE EXPLOSION INHALATION ACUTE HAZARDS/ SYMPTOMS Not combustible. ICSC#0283). CHEMICAL DANGERS: On contact with hot surfaces or flames this substance decomposes forming corrosive and very toxic fumes (hydrogen chloride. ICSC#0126. Confusion. APPEARANCE: Colourless liquefied gas. kPa at 200C: 908. rest. causing fire and explosion hazard. this gas can cause suffocation by lowering the oxygen content of their air in confined areas. Ventilation along the floor.0. special attention should be given to the air. Drowsiness. Do NOT use in the vicinity of a fire or a hot surface. Freon 22. PHYSICAL STATE. STORAGE: Separated from powdered metals such as aluminium and zinc. UN Hazard Class: 2. do NOT remove clothes. Artificial respiration if indicated. Frigen 22.

Frigen 113. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: Vapour pressure. ICSC#0283). 109 . chlorine. APPEARANCE: Colourless volatile liquid. resulting in lowering of consciousness. Fresh air. Drowsiness. Ventilation.Annex E 5: 1. First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact EYES lenses if easily possible). Risk of fire and explosion (see Chemical Dangers). Cool. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire. Relative vapour density (air=1): 6. Pain. Redness. Reacts violently with powdered metals such as aluminium beryllium. ICSC#0126. Safety goggles. Confusion. zinc and magnesium. The substance may cause effects on the central nervous system in high concentrations. or breathing Protective gloves. ENVIRONMENTAL DATA: This substance may be hazardous to the environment. ICSC#0163. ROUTES OF EXPOSURE: The substance can be absorbed into body by inhalation.2 -TRICHLORO1.0.1. rest. cool by spraying with water. High concentrations in the air cause a deficiency of oxygen with the risk of unconsciousness or death. PHYSICAL STATE. or smoke during work. Exposure could cause cardiac arrhythmia and asphyxiation. local exhaust. The odour warning when the exposure limit value is exceeded is insufficient. Halon 113 are trade names. Remove contaminated clothes. SKIN Do not eat.2 –TRIFLUROETHANE/ Trichlorotrifluoroethane: CFC-113 TYPES OF HAZARD/ EXPOSURE FIRE EXPLOSION INHALATION ACUTE HAZARDS/ SYMPTOMS Not combustible. etc. Cough. Unconsciousness. Refer for medical attention. phosgene ICSC#0007. self-contained breathing apparatus). with characteristic odour. Attacks alloys containing more than 2% magnesium. INHALATION RISK: On loss of containment. NOTES: To physicians: adrenergic agents are contraindicated. SPILAGE DISPOSAL: Collect leaking and spilled liquid in sealable containers as far as possible. Refer for medical attention.2. INGESTION Redness. Pain PREVENTION FIRST AID/FIRE FIGHTING In case of fire in the surroundings: all extinguishing agents allowed In case of fire: keep drums. kPa at 200C: 36. Absorb remaining liquid in sand or inert absorbent and remove to safe place (extra personal protection. Rinse mouth. Relative density of the vapour/air-mixture at 200C (air=1): 3. than take to a doctor. STORAGE: Separated from metals and alloys (see Chemical Dangers). EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM OR REPEATED EXPOSURE: Repeated or prolonged contacts with skin may cause dermatitis. Rinse skin with plenty water or shower. hydrogen fluorine. this gas can cause suffocation by lowering the oxygen content of their air in confined areas. special attention should be given to water. EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE: The substance irritates the eyes and the respiratory tract. causing fire and explosion hazard. Artificial respiration if indicated.. CHEMICAL DANGERS: On contact with hot surfaces or flames this substance decomposes forming corrosive and very toxic fumes (hydrogen chloride. Refer for medical attention.5. or during welding. Do NOT use in the vicinity of a fire or a hot surface. drink. Freon 113. PHYSICAL DANGERS: The gas is heavier than air and may accumulate in low ceiling spaces causing deficiency of oxygen.

Turn leaking cylinder with the leak up to prevent escape of gas in liquid state. Relative vapour density (air=1): 5. Refer for medical attention.2. and Refrigerant 115 are trade names. STORAGE: Fireproof if in building. (Extra personal protection: chemical protection suit including self-contained breathing apparatus). APPEARANCE: Odourless. Refer for medical attention. CHEMICAL DANGERS: On contact with hot surfaces or flames. ENVIRONMENTAL DATA: This substance may be hazardous to the environment. Artificial respiration if indicated. PHYSICAL STATE. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire. do NOT remove the clothes. Genetron 115. NOTES: High concentrations in the air cause a deficiency of oxygen with the risk of unconsciousness or death. special attention should be given to its impact on the ozone layer.Chloro. kPa at 200C: 797. Kaltron 115. PREVENTION FIRST AID/FIRE FIGHTING In case of fire in the surroundings: all extinguishing agents allowed In case of fire: keep cylinder cool by spraying with water. than take to a doctor. EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE: Rapid evaporation of the liquid may cause frostbite.2. SKIN Safety goggles or eye protection EYES combination with breathing protection. INHALATION Suffocation (See notes) ON CONTACT WITH LIQUID: FROSTBITE See Skin Cold-insulating gloves. 110 . Frigen 115. PHYSICAL DANGERS: The vapour is heavier than air and may accumulate in low ceiling spaces causing deficiency of oxygen. Freon 115. SPILAGE DISPOSAL: Ventilation. Cool. PACKING & LABELLING: UN Hazard Class: 2. this substance decomposes forming toxic fumes including hydrogen chlorine and hydrogen fluorine. INHALATION RISK: A harmful concentration of this gas in the air will be reached very quickly on loss of containment. compressed liquefied gas. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: Vapour pressure.2.2. Heating will cause rise in pressure with risk of bursting. rest.Annex E 6: CHLOROPENTAFLUORORTHANE 1. Check oxygen content before entering area. colourless. NEVER direct water jet on liquid. FIRE EXPLOSION Ventilation.1.3.1. ON FROSTBITE rinse with plenty water.pentafluoroethane: CFC-115 TYPES OF HAZARD/ EXPOSURE ACUTE HAZARDS/ SYMPTOMS Not combustible. First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible). Fresh air. ROUTES OF EXPOSURE: The substance can be absorbed into body by inhalation.

5 1.50 10 3 1.5 N/A 1.01 pass 0.50 10 3 1.0 0.01 pass 0.01 pass 0.5 1.0 0.0 0.01 pass 0.0 0. Max % by weight N/A 1. Pure refrigerants R-11 R-12 R-13 R-22 R-23 R-32 R-113 R-114 R-123 R-124 R-125 R-134a R-143a Impurities Vapor phase Contaminants Air and other non-condensables (in filled container).0 0.0 0.5 1.5 N/A 1.01 pass 0.0 0.01 pass 0.50 10 3 1.01 pass 0.0 0.01 pass 0.50 20 3 1. Maximum contaminant levels of common refrigerants (ARI Standard 700 –93) Table 1.50 10 3 1. (Max % by volume) at 240C Liquid phase Contaminant water – ppm by weight Chlorine ion Max ppm by weight Acidity Max ppm by weight High boiling residue Max % by volume Particulates/solids Visually clean to pass All other organic impurities including refrigerant.Annex F.5 1.03 pass 0.0 0.5 1.50 10 3 1.50 10 3 1.5 1.50 111 .01 pass 0.0 0.01 pass 0.0 0.5 1.5 20 3 1.01 pass 0.05 pass 0.50 10 3 1.50 10 3 1.0 0.50 10 3 1.50 20 3 1.50 10 3 1.0 0.

6/ 25.5 1.01 pass 0.5/32-34 R-401 (61/11/28) R22/152a/124 61/11/28 59-63/9.50 10 3 1.8-51.0 0.9 39-41/ 59-61 R-402 R125/290/22 60/2/38 58-62/1-3/3640 R-402 R125/290/22 38/2/60 36-40/1-3/5862 Refrigerant components Nominal components.50 112 .5/27-29 R-500 R-502 R22/115 48. weight % Allowable components.2 72.01 pass 0.1/59.513. (Max % by volume) at 240C Liquid phase Contaminant water – ppm by weight Chlorine ion Max ppm by weight Acidity Max ppm by weight High boiling residue Max % by volume Particulates/solids Visually clean to pass All other organic impurities including refrigerant.0 0.50 10 3 1.50 10 3 1.8-74.0 0.50 10 3 1.5 1.05 pass 0.2 R-503 R23/13 40.8/ 47.5 1.511. Max % by weight 1.0 0. Mixtures R-401 (53/13/34) R22/152a/124 53/13/34 51-55/11.50 10 3 1.5 1.0 0.2-27.50 10 3 1.8/26.0 0.01 pass 0.2-55.2 44.5 1. weight % R12/152a 73.2 Impurities Vapor phase Contaminants Air and other non-condensables (in filled container).01 pass 0.5 10 3 1.Table 2.01 pass 0.0 0.8-52.05 pass 0.5 1.

3. Replace motor compressor. Remove obstruction. 2. Jumper across terminals of control. Overloading of shovels. Replace heater. Trouble shooting Annex G1. Check relay. Refrigerator section too warm. Freezer fan nit running properly. blocking normal air circulation in cabinet. Instruct user. install autotransformer. replace control. Freezer section grille not properly positioned. Interior light stays on. Broken overload. Poor door seal. If control inoperative. Common cause Blown fuse. Broken lead to compressors. Check overload. Warm or hot foods placed in cabinet. if no circuit and current are indicated at outlet. Replace control. Broken relay. Replace fan. replace if necessary. Air duct seals not properly sealed or positioned. Check compressor. Broken airflow heater. Check air-flow heater. Reposition grille. If unable to remedy any other way. not allowing unit to operate often enough. Level cabinet. or defective wiring. Check and reseal or put in correct position Turn control knob to warmer position. Trouble shooting of domestic refrigeration systems Trouble 1. Turn knob to colder position. Defective service cord. . Repaired door openings. Repair or replace broken leads. Check light switch. Remedy Replace fuse Check outlet with voltmeter should check 220V plus or minus 10 %. replace if necessary. either reduce load or have electrician install separate circuit. Broken compressor.Annex G. replace if necessary. Check with test light and replace if necessary Instruct user. timer or cold control. Check with test light at unit. replace control. Broken timer. Refrigerator section too cold Cold control knob seat at too warms a position. Unit will not run. If circuit overloaded. If unit runs and connections are all right. Broken motor or temperature control. damper should open. Defective intake valve. Broken airflow control. Check if control knob to colder position. Refrigerator section airflow control knob turned to coldest position. fan switch. replace or repair. Airflow control remains open. adjust door seal. Instruct user to allow foods to cool to room temperature before placing in cabinet. Refrigerator section airflow control. With door open. if faulty replace. Check if damper is opening by removing grille.

Broken cold control. Remedy Check and replace fan motor if necessary. Relocate cabinet or provide clearances to airflow sufficient circulation. Move tray – place on Styrofoam pad if necessary. Move tubing. adjust door seal. repair. Check and replace if necessary. replace control. Dirty condenser or obstructed condenser ducts. Compressor mechanically grounded. Shortage of refrigerant. Freezer section and refrigerator section too warm. replace motor compressor 5. Check outlet with voltmeter. Defective light switch. Refrigerant charge. 9. Noisy operation Loose flooring or floor not firm. Replace relay. Low voltage. Room temperature too warm. Excessive door openings. Underloaded voltage should be 220 V plus minus 10%. Fan hitting liner or mechanically grounding. Not enough air circulation around cabinet. Explain to customer that heavy loading causes long running time. Tighten clamp or position. Cabinet not levelled. Turn knob to warmer position. Cold control capillary not properly claimed to evaporator. or heavy loading after shopping. No enough air circulation around cabinet or air circulation is restricted. if allows unit to operate all time. Broken relay. Finned evaporator blocked with ice. Check defrosts heater thermostat or timer. Check control. Check control. evacuate and recharge system. Cold control knob improperly set. Move fan. Freezer section too cold 6. Replace if necessary. Poor door seal. Instruct customer. Instruct customer. Relocate cabinet or provide proper clearances around cabinet – remove restriction. Replace motor compressor. Check compressor faulty for any reason. replace motor compressor. 8. Level cabinet.Trouble 4. Stuck motor compressor Broken valve. Insufficient oil. Replace overload protector. Clean the condenser and the ducts. Unit cycles on overload Poor compressor. Overheated compressor. Check and make necessary adjustments. if still not operate. Undercharge or overcharge – check. replace motor compressor. Unit runs all time 7. Replace compressor mounts. Check for several appliances on same circuit or extremely long/undersized cord being used. Check if light goes out. Replace switch if necessary. Common cause Fan motor not running. Freezing large quantities of ice cubes. 114 . evacuate and recharge with proper charge. Weak overload protector. If compressor faulty for any reason. Drip tray vibrating. Either one of these could cause this condition Check for leak. Ventilate room as much as possible. Too many door openings. Add oil. Cold control set too warm or broken. recover. Tighten flooring or balance floor. Poor door seal. Tubing contacting cabinet or outer tubing. Level cabinet. Cold control.

Replace thermostat. Defective defrost heater. temperature normal 13. Place control bulb in contact with the evaporator surface. Wax build-up in capillary tube. Install drier in liquid line. 17. cracked or hardened. 18. Freezer works then warms up.Trouble 10. 12. Freezer runs all the time. Use alternate gasket or install new one. Faulty gasket seal. Remedy Check with test light and replace if necessary Replace heater. Faulty electric gasket heater. Frost or ice on finned evaporator 11. Rapid ice builtup on the evaporator 16. brittle or worn. melt ice and dry insulation. Temperature too warm. Check thermostat – test and replace if necessary. Inspect and check gasket. Moisture in refrigerant. If worn. Freezer runs all the time. Use capillary tube cleaning tool or replace capillary tube. Replace heater. Leaky door gasket. Check door gaskets – replace if necessary. replace it. Unit runs all time. Ice builds up on the evaporator. Common cause Broken timer. Faulty thermostat. Replace door gasket if cracked. stop unit. Door on freezer compartment freezes shut. 115 . Ice built-up in insulation. Remove breaker strips. Adjust door hinges. seal outer shell and joints and then assemble. 15. Defective thermostat. Control bulb on thermostat not in contact with evaporator surface. Temperature too cold 14. Gradual reduction in freezing capacity. Ice in drip catcher. Defective drip catcher heater.

Erratic operation 2. Replace if defective Check fuses overload. Trouble shooting of commercial refrigeration systems Open compressor trouble diagnosis chart A. repair them and add refrigerant Reset Reset Open Check and clean tubing Repair or replace Remove excess refrigerant 116 . Re-start Push reset button With no refrigerant. Check wiring and rewire if necessary Check and replace if defective Check for burned out holding coil. Compressor Dirt or restriction in tubing to continually cycles on pressurestat dual pressure-stat Faulty pressurestat Condenser capacity reduced by a refrigerant over-charge accompanied by a high discharge pressure Check leaks. Start up Check fuses. It may be too high High pressure switch contacts opened by high pressure No charge of refrigerant in system B. overloads and controls.Annex G 2. Staring troubles Observation 1. Repair leaks and re-charge system Check tubing to switch to see if clogged. there is insufficient suction pressure to close low pressure switch. Compressor will not start Possible cause Power off Thermostat set too high Thermal overloads switch open Oil safety switch Dirty contacts Loose electrical connections or faulty wiring Compressor motor burned out Solenoid valve closed Evaporator fan off Evaporator condenser or cooling tower fan or pump not operating Remedy Check main switch. Check setting of switch. Compressor cycles intermittently Low pressure switch erratic in operation Insufficient refrigerant in system Capacity control setting incorrect Thermostat differential to narrow Suction valve closed or throttled 3. fuses and wiring Reset Reset manually Reset manually Clean the contacts and all switches and controls Tighten connections.

Readjust water regulating valve 2. Flooding 7. Increase quantity by adjusting water regulating valve 2. Belt slack should be at the top Tighten bolts Provide sufficient right angle bends in piping to absorb vibration and support firmly with hangers C. System noises 8. Obtain source of colder water 1. Compressor noisy Loose or misaligned coupling Insufficient clearance be tween piston and valve plate Motor or compressor bearings worn Loose or misaligned belts Loose foundation belts or hold down bolts Foundation improperly isolated 117 . Clean condenser Open valves Purge Check and start 1. Low discharge temperature 6.Insufficient water flowing through condenser or clogged condenser Discharge or suction shutoff valve not fully open Air in system Water pumps not operating Adjust water regulating valve to condenser. Increase water supply main to condenser Clean tubes Open the valve Remove excess Purge Adjust water regulating valve Open the valve Pump down. remove the cylinder head. repair them and add refrigerant Reset expansion valves Check alignment and tightness Replace worn parts Replace bearings Check alignment and tension. Operating pressures too high or too low 4. examine valves seats replace if necessary Replace if worn Reset to 5-6 0C superheat Check for leaks. High discharge pressure Condenser inlet temperature too high Insufficient water following through condenser Plugged or scaled tubes in condenser Discharge shut-off valve partially closed Too much refrigerant Air in the system Excessive water flow through condenser Suction shut-off valve partially closed Leaky compressor suction valves Worn piston rings Defective or improperly set expansion valve Insufficient refrigerant in system Excessive superheat 5. Low suction pressure D.

Check unloaded fork for alignment 3. Check setting of expansion valve 2. Check thermal bulb for looseness and correct location 3. Replace stuck filter pins 2. Check expansion valve for floodback 1. Leakage of oil at tube connection to power element 118 .Slugging due to floodback of refrigerant Hydraulic knock due to excess of oil in circulation Noise level varies with unloading due to defective valve lifter mechanism 1. Loop suction lines to prevent floodback on “off” cycle 1. Remove excess oil 2. Check power element for stuck piston 4.

Check the air flow quantity. 2. Check the operation of the outdoor fan. repair leakage. Exchange the check valve Remove refrigerant 1. 5. Check valve does not move Check valve does not move Air to outdoor heat exchanger is extremely cold. High discharge pressure (heating operation). See “high suction pressure”. Check the ambient temperature. Purge air from the cycle. Check discharge and suction air circulation. Faulty discharge or suction valves in the compressor Check/Corrective Action 1. 2. See “high discharge pressure”. Check the ambient temperature. Suction pressure is lower than standard. Check the operation of the indoor fan 2. Check the ambient temperature. 2. Low discharge pressure (cooling operation). 4. . Check compressor input. Remove refrigerant. Suction pressure is lower than standard. if any. Exchange check valve. Check the suction pressure. 2. Air is in the refrigerant cycle Suction pressure is higher than standard. Add refrigerant. 2. 119 6. Check discharge and suction air circulation. See “high suction pressure”. Intake air is extremely hot or excessive air flow exists through the outdoor and indoor coil. 2. Exchange the check valve. See “low suction pressure”. or there is insufficient air through the outdoor coil. Faulty discharge or suction valves in the compressor. Insufficiently charged refrigerant or leaks. Check the operation of the outdoor heat exchanger. repair leakage. 2. Remove refrigerant. 1. Low discharge pressure (heating operation). Exchange the check valve. Clean the outdoor heat exchanger. Purge air from the cycle. High suction pressure (heating operation) Check compressor input.Annex G 3. Exchange the check valve. 3. Check compressor input. Check compressor input. 1. Trouble shooting of air-conditioning systems Fault 1. Check the operation the outdoor heat exchanger. 1. Check the suction pressure Add refrigerant. Insufficiently charged refrigerant or leaks. Faulty discharge or suction valves in compressor. 1. Faulty discharge or suction valves in compressor. 1. Low discharge pressure (cooling operation). Air to the indoor heat exchanger is extremely hot or there is insufficient air through indoor coil. Check valve does not move Refrigerant is overcharged. if any. Clean the indoor heat exchanger. Check the operation of the indoor heat exchanger. Indoor heat exchanger is cooled Air is in the refrigerant cycle Suction pressure is higher than standard Check valve does not move Refrigerant is overcharged Air to the outdoor heat exchanger is extremely cold. 2. See “low suction pressure”. 1.High discharge pressure (cooling operation) Cause Air to the out door heat exchanger is extremely hot. Check valve does not move Air to the indoor heat exchanger is extremely cold. Outdoor heat exchanger is clogged. Check valve does not move Intake air is extremely hot or excessive air flow exists through the indoor coil. Check the ambient temperature.

add refrigerant. See “low discharge pressure”. 2. Check voltage and phase imbalance. Pressure switch. 11. Exchange the check valve. Check electric resistance among the motor terminals and the terminals to ground. if any. 2. where necessary. 1. Check electric resistance among the fan terminals and from the terminals to ground. High or low voltage. Exchange corrects piping. 9. Insufficient fuse size. Refrigerant is shortcharged or leakage exists. Check power supply line. Single phase running (for three phase unit). Blown fuse. High or low voltage. Check the fuse size with the nameplace amperage. or phase imbalance. See “high suction pressure”. high pressure switch. overcurrent relay. thermostat and other switches. Refrigerant shortcharged or leakage. Check electric connections. Refrigerant piping diameter is smaller or refrigerant piping is longer. Faulty fan motor. Internal thermostat 10. 1. Over current relay for compressor. Noisy fan. Outdoor fan motor. Check electric the wires and connection. Check the electric connections. Loose connections. See “low suction pressure”. Cut-off 16. Faulty motor. Low suction pressure (cooling operation). Check for short cycling air. Cut-off 13. Single phase running (for three phase unit). if any. Discharge pressure is extremely high. Check the contacts in the magnetic contactor. Check the power supply line and contactor. Repair leaks.Insufficiently charged refrigerant or leaks. Faulty compressor motor. Add refrigerant. Runner knocks in the casing. Check the airflow quantity. add refrigerant. Check the outdoor coil for frosting. See “discharge pressure” or “high suction pressure”. 17. Suction pressure is lower than standard. Check the capillary tube and the strainer. 120 . Switch is incorrectly set. Check the ambient air temperature. Check the setting pressure or the contact. if any. repair leakage. or faulty contact. Restricted liquid or suction line. 12. 15. Intake air is extremely cold or insufficient air flows through the outdoor coil. Check electric resistance among the compressor terminals and from the terminals to ground. Faulty contact. Check the runner and fix properly. or phase imbalance. Low suction pressure (heating operation). Discharge pressure and suction pressure are extremely high. Disconnection. 4. Check the power supply line and the contactor. Check the contactor holding oil. Exchange check valve. Loose connections. 8. Check voltage and phase imbalance. 14. 3. Check valve does not move 7. Cut-off Discharge pressure is lower than standard. Check valve does not move Single phase running (for three-phase unit). Repair leak.

Heavy frosting to the indoor heat exchanger (cooling operation). See “low suction pressure”. Worn bearings. Check for insufficient air flow. Check the sensor of the defrosting thermostat. Replace the compressor. Check electric resistance among the fan motor terminals and from the terminals to ground 19. Check to see if the intake air temperature is extremely cold. 1. Faulty auxiliary relay. Check electric resistance among the terminals and from the terminals to ground. Faulty discharge and suction valve. See the installation guide. 22. Remove the shipping bolts and brackets. Faulty remote control switch. Other noises. 121 . No start of cooling heating operation.18. Check for refrigerant overcharge. Heavy frosting to the outdoor coil (heating operation). Tighten the screws all parts. 20. 2. 21. Exchange the capillary tube. Replace the compressor. Compressor shipping bolts and brackets are not removed. Weak foundation installation. Loose fixed screw. Suction pressure is lower than standard. Capillary tube is clogged. Noisy compressor Liquid refrigerant is flooding back from the suction line. 3. Faulty contact of sensor of defrosting thermostat.

Install charging valve quick connects. Install service isolation valves to limit refrigerant losses during servicing and purge operations. Install external oil filters. Do not mix refrigerants. Never heat a refrigerant storage or recovery tank with an open flame. Inspect for abnormal vibration. Follow and use recommended procedures and equipment for handling refrigerants. Add refrigerant carefully to avoid overcharging. Replace and tighten all seal caps on all valves after servicing. 122 . Confirm overall leak tightness by using a standing vacuum test. Before beginning any type of refrigerant recovery it is always necessary to known the type of refrigerant. nitrogen. and storing refrigerants. Best Service Practices DO: Think CFC conservation and safety. Cool refrigerant drums to atmospheric pressure before opening. Use industry accepted tools/equipment for leak testing. Eliminate unnecessary mechanical joints. Recover vapor and liquid refrigerant from charging hoses. Run auxiliary oil pump weekly to flood oil seals on open-drive systems. Leak test all charging hoses and refrigerant handling equipment.Annex H. Install more efficient purges that reclaim exhaust vapor. evacuate and dehydrate to a minimum 757 mm Hg using deep vacuum or triple evacuating method. Calibrate controls with air. Implement an effective water treatment control. Excessive superheat is one indicator of leak in high-pressure refrigeration system. Install alarm system to warn of excessive machine pressure during shutdown. After major service. always use a pressure regulator and never charge with liquid nitrogen. Establish proper leak testing routines. Use welded or brazed joints. charging. Follow the published leak test procedures. Elevate oil temperature before service work. Never overfill containers. Use non-CFC gas as tracer gas when conducting leak tests. Shut down system and make repairs when leaks exist. Recover all refrigerant for recycling/reclaiming. Use purge compressor or portable evacuation device to recover refrigerant liquid/vapor from refrigerant cylinders. Use closed loop refrigerant transfer equipment when removing. Depose of used refrigerant containers properly Retrofit or convert ODS using refrigeration and AC systems to alternatives. When pressurizing a refrigeration system with nitrogen. Install refrigerant sensors on/near all refrigerant systems. Use only approved cylinders for storing refrigerant. or control calibration sets.

oils. or other materials. cylinders. Blow off refrigerant “empty” tanks.DON’T: Use refrigerants as cleaning solvents Open the refrigerant side of system unless absolutely necessary. Substitute alternative refrigerants into old systems without approval. Contaminate recovered refrigerants with other refrigerants. Refill disposable cylinders. Exceed manufacturers recommended pressure when leak testing. Throw away any refrigerant. Operate equipment with leaks. Vent/blow off air (non-condensable gases/refrigerants) to the atmosphere. Blow off vapor still in refrigeration system after liquid refrigerant removal. Use CFC tracer gas for leak test. solvents. 123 .

Annex I1 124 .

Annex I2 125 .

Annex I3 126 . 127 .mk of Macedonia tel/fax: ++ 389 2 3066929 E-mail: ozonunit@unet.Republic of Macedonia Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning Ozone Unit Drezdenska 52 1000 Skopje.

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