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topic ~ carbon compound (fav spm) bab 2 form 5

alkane - CnH2n + 2 (n = 1,2,3,....)


alkene - CnH2n (n = 2,3,4,....)
alchohol - CnH2n + 1 OH (n = 1,2,3,....)
carboxylic acid - CnH2n+1 COOH (n= 0,1,2,3...)
esters - CmH2m+1 C00CnH2n+ 1(m = 0,1,2,...) (n = 1,2,3...)
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WAJIB HAFAL

warna2 metal
Cu - brown
Cu0 - black
Zn0 - when hot : yellow , when cold : white
Mg0 - when hot : brown , when cold : yellow
Pb0 - when hot : brown , when cold : yellow
Fe2+ ~ pale green
Fe3+ ~ brown / pale yellow

* all metal shiny grey but/ except Cu !!!


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WAJIB TAU !

CATION

KALAU - K+ (POTASSIUM)
NAK - Na+ (SODIUM)
KAWIN - Ca2+ (CALCIUM)
MESTI - Mg2+ (MAGNESIUM)
ADA - Al3+ (ALUMINIUM)
ZAKAT - Zn2+ (ZINC)
FITRAH - Fe2+ (IRON)
SUPAYA - Sn2+ (TIN)
PERKAHWINAN - Pb2+ (LEAD)
HALAL - H+ (HYDROGEN)
CUKUP - Cu2+(COPPER)
ASYIK - Ag+ (SILVER)

ANION
FAIZOL - F- (FLUORINE)
SOLEH - S04 2- (SULPHURIDE)
NOK - N03 - (NITROGEN)
CARI - Cl- (CLORINE)
BINI - BR- (BROMINE)
ISTERI - I- (I0DINE)
ORG - 0H- (HYDROXIDE)
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BAB 7 - ACID N BASES FORM 4

ACID

WEAK ACID - CH3COOH


which ionises partially to form lower concentration of H+

STRONG ACID - H2SO4 , HCl , HNO3


which ionises completely to form higher concentration of H+

ACIDIC PROPERTIES
~ PH <>~ BLUE LITMUS PAPER TURNS RED

ACID + BASE ------> SALT + H20


ACID + METAL ----------> SALT + H20
ACID + CARBONATE ------------> SALT + H20 + C02

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ALKALI

WEAK ALKALI - NH4+


which ionises partially to form lower concentration of 0H-

STRONG ALKALI - KOH , NaOH


which ionises completely to form higher concentration of OH -

ALKALINE PROPERTIES
~ PH > 7
~ RED LITMUS TURNS BLUE
ALKALI + ACID ------------> SALT + H2O
ALKALI + METAL ION -----------------> METAL HYDROXIDE
ALKALI + AMMONIUM SALT --------------> SALT + H20 + NH3

Posted by lya at 10:46 AM