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: M. SAMEERA & M. VAISHNAVI : II BCA : 9940042537 :

Mobile cloud computing is the usage of cloud computing in combination with mobile devices. Cloud computing exists when tasks and data are kept on the internet rather than on individual devices, providing on-demand access. Applications are run on a remote server and then sent to the user. Because of the advanced improvement in mobile browsers thanks to Apple and Google over the past couple of years, nearly every mobile should have a suitable browser. This means developers will have a much wider market and they can bypass the restrictions created by mobile operating systems. Mobile cloud computing gives new company chances for mobile network providers. Several operators such as Vodafone,[1] Orange andVerizon have started to offer cloud computing services for companies. Alibaba Group launched cloud computing-based operating system Aliyun on 29th July 2011. The Aliyun operating system will feature cloud services such as email, Internet search and support for web-based applications. Users are not required to download or install applications onto their mobile devices. Keywords: "Cloud computing, Mobile cloud computing, smartphones, mobile applications


1. Introduction 2. General-Purpose MCC Solutions 3. Application-Specific MCC Solutions

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3.1 Mobile Service Clouds 3.2 Elastic Weblets

4. Mobile Server Cloud Computing


4.1 Map-Reduce Frameworks

5. MCC Concerns

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6. Application 7 Mobile Commerce 8 Mobile Learning 9 Mobile Healthcare 10 Mobile Computing 11 References

Cloud computing is defined as the trend in which resources are provided to a local client on an on-demand basis, usually by means of the internet. One of the main benefits of cloud computing is reducing downtime and wasted expenditure for servers and other computer equipment. A given company is required to purchase the minimum amount of hardware necessary to handle the maximum points of stress on their system. Given situations where the strain and traffic are highly variable this leads to wasted money. For example,, a pioneer in cloud computing, at times used as little as 10% of their capacity so that they would have enough capacity to deal with those rarer high strain times. In the case of mobile cloud computing an additional significant benefit is brought to the table. Many mobile devices have significant constraints imposed upon them because of the importance and desirability of smaller sizes, lower weights, longer battery life and other features. This often severely constrains hardware and software development for these devices. Cloud computing allows devices to avoid these constraints by letting the more resource intensive tasks be performed on systems without these constraints and having the results sent to the device. Thus, cloud computing for mobile devices is a very appealing and potentially lucrative trend. Several methods exist by which this trend can realize itself. First, methods have been proposed which aim to construct general systems for utilizing the cloud to

help boost phone performance. This family of solutions can be referred to as general-purpose mobile cloud computing (GPMCC). Second, many individual applications used today with mobile devices such as smart phones employ cloud computing to a greater or lesser extent. There are multiple methods used and proposed by which the cloud can be leveraged. This can be referred to as application-specific cloud computing (ASMCC). Each of these two approaches has advantages and disadvantages and they are not mutually exclusive. In addition to mobile cloud computing where mobile devices serve as the client and non-mobile devices serve as the server or mainframe, several papers have been written proposing an opposite model. In this model, mobile devices serve as the cloud that can be drawn upon. This paper will outline some work done in this area. Finally, this paper will consider privacy and other concerns related to cloud computing, often specifically to MCC. These issues could cause a barrier to widespread use of mobile cloud computing and methods for resolving these issues could accelerate its adoption.


This paper makes a distinction between general-purpose (GPMCC) and application-specific MCC (ASMCC). Cloud computing is a very broad term and can feasibly apply to a wide variety of practices. All that is necessary to gain the label is for a mobile device to utilize the internet in order to use a specific resource in an on-demand manner. There are multiple individual applications which do that today. However, there is also the possibility of a more generalpurpose use of these resources in order to help alleviate the limited computational power of mobile devices. It is feasible to develop systems in which tasks that are usually performed locally on the mobile device are outsourced to the cloud as they happen. This can leverage the computing resources of remote computers seamlessly without requiring applications specifically developed for that purpose.

Specifically I will consider a proposed model in which this type of generalpurpose cloud computing is done for smart phones.


In contrast to GPMCC, application-specific MCC involves developing specific applications for mobile devices which use cloud computing. While both can potentially allow a mobile device to perform more intensive operations than it could using only local execution, ASMCC has the added benefit that it allows for uses of cloud computing which require more than simply increased computational power. For example, chat or e-mail clients require ASMCC because the internet is used as a communication resource and not simply for storage or additional computational power (although such applications may leverage these resources as well). Several methods and systems have been proposed which aim to specifically facilitate mobile cloud computing for applications. In this section we will cover them.


Researchers from Michigan State University have developed a system called Mobile Service Clouds. This system is designed to offer easy and automatic service configuration to create services which can be used by mobile consumers. Given that cloud computing relies heavily on the client-server model, a development like this makes it much easier to create services which can work with applications

Researchers from Pennsylvania State University have developed a system for elastic applications intended to be used on mobile devices. Their elastic application framework divides a full application into pieces called weblets. These weblets have the important feature of portability. Any given weblet can be switched between both mobile and stationary devices. One significant difficulty with this type of application is the requirement of security for these weblets,

which they have a solution for. They believe that some aspects of their system could even be applied to other, non-mobile, cases of cloud computing . These systems and methods outlined can help developers of MCC applications more easily leverage the resources of the cloud. Since specific cloud-leveraging applications provide many of the unique benefits of MCC these techniques will be of significant importance in the development of MCC.


So far in this paper, we have only discussed instances of MCC where the mobile device serves as a client and (assumedly) some collection of non-mobile devices act as the server, the provider of resources. It is possible to invert this pattern and let mobile devices serve as the resource rather than the consumer. We will call this mobile server cloud computing (MSCC). In this section we will consider a particular approach to this using Map Reduce.


Map Reduce is an algorithm which dissolves larger problems into smaller pieces that can be solved in parallel with multiple machines. Google created and publicized Map Reduce. Given the large number of smart mobile devices connected to the internet, it seems possible to leverage these devices using Map Reduce. The limited computational power of an individual device can be compensated for by the relatively small size of many of the tasks. Researchers at the University of Colorado have considered this idea. They have created a system for leveraging mobile networked devices to solve problems. In designing this system they had to solve problems in several areas. First, they had to develop a system by which smart phone users could opt in to this program while staying aware of the effects. Second, they had to develop a system by which problems could be split over this device pool and the results could be aggregated. Finally, they had to make sure results could be transmitted to the requesting party

and to make sure this could be done fairly quickly (difficult given the sometimes weak reliability of smart phones and their networks).


Cloud computing as opposed to standard computing has several issues which can cause reluctance or fear in the user base. Some of these issues include concerns about privacy and data ownership and security. Some of these concerns are especially relevant to mobile devices. In this section, the paper discusses some of these issues, including both incidents involving them and techniques used to combat them.

Mobile applications are a rapidly developing segment of the global mobile market. They consist of software that runs on a mobile device and perform certain tasks for the user of the mobile phone. As reported by World Mobile Applications Market, about 7 billion (free and paid) application downloads were made globally in 2009 alone from both native and third-party application stores, generating revenues of $3.9 billion in the same year. The global mobile application market is expected to be worth $24.4 billion in 2015, growing at a CAGR of 64% from 2009 to 2015. Apple is a typical example for the explosion of mobile applications. Apple with a whopping more than 4 billion downloads to date commanded more than 90% of the application market share in 2009. The success of Apples App Store has not only established the scalability of mobile applications, but has also shown that the best of these offer the potential to generate enormous revenues.

The explosion in the use of electronic commerce (e-commerce) by the business sector has been tremendous since its inception only a few years ago. E-commerce is known as: buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. From governments to multinational companies to one-person start-ups, e-commerce is increasingly viewed as a key business modality of the future. Ease of transaction, widening markets, and decreased overheads are factors that make e-commerce solutions more and more attractive, as evident with the growth of on-line sales.

Mobile learning today is becoming more popular as there are many people using mobile devices to enhance their learning. Mobile learning (m-learning) is not only electronic learning (e-learning) but e-learning plus mobility. It is clear that learning via mobile brings many benefits for mobile users. It brings the convenience for them since they can learn anywhere they want in any convenient time from a portable device. However, there is some research pointing out

restrictions of traditional mobile learning such as: expensive mobile devices, high cost of network, poor network transmission rate, and limited educational resources. As a result, it is difficult for mobile learning to take full advantage and to be popular as well.

The development of telecommunication technology in the medical field helped diagnosis and treatment become easier for many people. This can helps patients regularly monitor their health and have timely treatment. Also, it leads to an increase accessibility to healthcare providers, more efficient tasks and processes, and the improvement about quality of the healthcare services. Nevertheless it also has to face many challenges (e.g., physical storage issues, security and privacy, medical errors). Therefore cloud computing is introduced as a solution to address aforementioned issues. Cloud computing provides the convenience for users to help them access resources easily and quickly. Besides, it offers services on demand over the network to perform operation that meet changing needs in electronic healthcare applications.

The analysis of the impact of mobile computing on the various services shows how the mobile computing has changed each service. As mobile computing has become more popular over the past decade, it has been under continuous development with advances in hardware, software and network. Mobile computing has various applications in our everyday life. Use of this technology has become a fundamental skill. With mobile computing we can check our email messages, our bills, our bank accounts and our other private information just by using a mobile phone or laptop anywhere. All the functionalities obligate each exchange data to make it safe and immune from any attack. Mobile computing services have simplified our lives. Every day we get attached to a new device that includes a lot of functionalities and is based on mobile computing, as examples, iPhone from Apple, Net-Book, etc.

1. s/connecting_tothecloud.pdf 2.

The concept of cloud computing comes from the network diagrams illustrating the Internet as a cloud, where it is not possible, or not important, to know the information path. While the main reasons for adopting services based on cloud computing are cost saving, flexibility and start-up speed, there are still doubts about the security guarantees and the portability and integration options offered by this model of services. During 2010 and 2011 and with the aim of clearing up some of these doubts, Safe layer led the TaaS Trust as a Service: Trust Services in and for the Cloud project. Partially funded by Programa AVANZA (ref. TSI-020100-2010-482), this project is being undertaken in collaboration with the Group of Analysis, Security and Systems of the Complutense University of Madrid.