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by Tomas Ireman

Department of Aeronautics Kungliga Tekniska Hgskolan (Royal Institute of Technology) SE-100 44 Stockholm Sweden

PREFACE

The work presented in this doctoral thesis was carried out between January 1991 and October 1998 at Saab AB and at the Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Aeronautics. The work was carried out on part time basis. The thesis consists of ve separate papers, of which two were a part of my licentiate thesis presented in December 1994. The work was nancially supported by Saab AB and the Swedish National Aeronautical Forum. First I would like to thank my supervisor, Dr. Ingvar Eriksson, for his support and encouragement throughout this study and Professor Jan Bcklund for giving me the opportunity to carry out this work within the department. I also want to thank all my colleagues at Saab AB, and especially my former heads Lars Sjstrm and Hans Ansell for their support and Christina Altkvist, Anders Bredberg, and Tonny Nyman for their helpfulness and for many hours of stimulating discussions. Finally, I thank my wife Christina Bradley Ireman and my children Emilie, Amanda, and Wilhelm for their patience and support during the course of this study.

Tomas Ireman

ABSTRACT

This thesis is concerned with stress analysis and strength prediction in composite laminates containing bolt holes and open holes. It covers both two- and three-dimensional analyses, and experiments have been carried out to determine criteria parameters and to validate the analysis methods. The objective of the work on two-dimensional analysis methods has been to develop accurate and cost-efcient stress analysis and failure prediction methods valid for complex loading conditions. Both the nite element method and a method based on Lekhnitskiis complex stress functions have been used to determine the stress distribution around the hole. In the case of bolted laminates, the frictionless contact between the bolt and the hole has been taken into account. Different failure criteria, including the Point Stress Criterion (PSC) and the Damage Zone Criterion (DZC) have been used to predict the strength of test specimens subjected to complex loading conditions. In the case of bolted laminates, simple failure criteria for preliminary design are proposed. The validity of these criteria is demonstrated on multifastener tension- and shear-loaded test specimens. A comprehensive test programme was carried out to establish criteria parameters and to generate data to validate the stress analysis and strength prediction under complex loading conditions. A special test xture was designed for this purpose. Good agreement was found between predicted and measured results. The objective of the work on three-dimensional methods has been to develop tools for threedimensional stress and failure analyses and to study the effect of various factors on the strength of single-lap joints. An experimental programme was conducted to characterize the failure mechanisms and to measure deformation, strain, and bending effects. A threedimensional finite element model of a bolted single-lap joint has been developed to determine the non-uniform stress distribution through the thickness of the laminate in the vicinity of the hole. The model was validated against measured strains and displacements from the experimental programme. The agreement between predicted and experimental results was generally good. In the failure characterisation part of the experimental programme, it was found that the failure of the joints was dominated by kinking. A failure analysis procedure for the prediction of bearing failure dominated by kinking has been developed. In this procedure, failure is predicted using a quadratic failure criterion evaluating fibre stress and transverse shear stress at a characteristic distance from the edge of the bolt hole. Experimental results were used to validate the analysis procedure and good agreement was found between predicted and experimental failure loads. The analysis procedure were then used study the effect of eight different parameters which affect the strength of bolted composite laminates. The parameters studied were: laminate thickness, lay-up, bolt diameter, bolt configuration (countersunk or protruding head), friction, clamping force, clearance and lateral support. The parametric study was organised as a reduced two-level factorial test. The results from the parametric study show that laminate thickness, friction, clamping force and bolt configuration are the parameters which have the strongest influence on the strength of the joints.

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CONTENTS

PREFACE .......................................................................................................................... i ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................... ii CONTENTS.....................................................................................................................iii DISSERTATION.............................................................................................................. iv INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 1 1 2 2.1 2.2 3 3.1 3.2 4 Background ............................................................................................................. 1 Stress analysis.......................................................................................................... 3 Laminates with open holes ................................................................................. 4 Bolted laminates ................................................................................................. 5 Failure prediction..................................................................................................... 9 Failure prediction in laminates with open holes ................................................. 9 Failure prediction in laminates with bolted joints ............................................ 13 Design methods ..................................................................................................... 15

SUMMARY OF APPENDED PAPERS......................................................................... 17 DIVISION OF WORK BETWEEN THE AUTHORS................................................... 19 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................... 20 PAPER A................................................................................................................ A1-A33 PAPER B.................................................................................................................B1-B37 PAPER C.................................................................................................................C1-C46 PAPER D................................................................................................................ D1-D35 PAPER E ................................................................................................................. E1-E28

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DISSERTATION

PAPER A:

Ireman T., Nyman T. and Hellbom K., On Design Methods for Bolted Joints in Composite Aircraft Structures, Revised version of paper with same title, published in Composite Structures, Vol. 25, pp. 567-578, (1993). The original paper was presented at the Seventh International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS/7), 9-11 July 1993 in Paisley, where it received the Elsevier Composite Structures Award. Ireman T. and Eriksson I., Strength of Composite Laminates Containing Holes and Subjected to Complex Loading Conditions, Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 31, pp. 1214-1248, (1997). Ireman T., Ranvik T. and Eriksson I., On Damage Development in Mechanically Fastened Composite Laminates, To be submitted for publication in Composites Part B. Ireman T., Three-dimensional Stress Analysis of Bolted Single-lap Joints, Accepted for publication in Composite Structures. Ireman T. and Purin P., Ranking of Factors Affecting the Static Strength of Bolted Composite Laminates, Extended version of the paper Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Design of Bolted Composite Laminates which has been accepted for presentation at the international conference Joining and Repair of Plastics and Composites 16-17 March 1999, IMechE HQ, London and publication in the Conference Transactions.

PAPER B:

PAPER C:

PAPER D:

PAPER E:

iv

INTRODUCTION

1 Background

A composite material consists of two or more materials mixed together to give a material with good properties. A typical composite material consists of a material with high mechanical strength and stiffness (reinforcement), for example unidirectional or woven bres, embedded in a material with lower mechanical strength and stiffness (matrix). To tailor the properties of the composite material, a laminate is formed by stacking on top of each other layers of reinforcement oriented in different directions. Composite materials have an old history. Composites are often found in nature itself. For example, wood is a unidirectional composite material where cellulose bres are embedded in a lignin matrix, and this material has been used by humans in all times in different types of applications. The rst composite laminates were made by bonding together thin plies of wood with different bre orientations. This type of laminate is known under the name ply-wood and has been used in many different applications. The classical laminate theory was originally developed for ply-wood. Composite materials such as glass-, aramide-, boron- and carbon-bre-reinforced plastics have been used for a few decades, especially in the aircraft industry. At Saab, composites were introduced in the ghter aircraft J35 Draken which was developed in the beginning of the fties. The Draken has parts of the air inlets made of glass-bre-reinforced epoxy resin. The use of composites has since then been gradually increased. On the JA 37 Viggen, the n and landing gear doors are honeycomb sandwich constructions with skins of carbon-reinforced epoxy resin. The denite breakthrough for composites came with the JAS 39 Gripen in which about 20% of the structural weight is composites. The use of composites in JAS 39 Gripen is shown in Fig. 1. The major composite structural parts are: the wing, n and canard.

Radome

Composite materials, if properly used, offer many advantages over metals. Examples of such advantages are: high strength and high stiffness-to-weight ratio, good fatigue strength, corrosion resistance and low thermal expansion. Nevertheless, conventional composites made of pre-impregnated tape or fabric also have some disadvantages, such as poor transverse properties, inability to yield and sensitivity to moisture and high temperatures, which must be accounted for in the design. Among the most important elements in aircraft structures in general and in composite structures in particular are mechanically fastened joints. Improper design of the joints may lead to structural problems or conservative design leading indirectly to overweight structures and high life-cycle cost of the aircraft. Typical examples of mechanically fastened joints in composite aircraft structures are: the skin-to-spar/rib connections in e.g. a wing structure, the wing-to-fuselage connection and the attachment of ttings etc. Examples of such joints in the JAS 39 Gripen aircraft are shown in Fig. 2.

CFC-skin

CFC-skin

CFC-spar

CFC-skin

AL-tting

Fig. 2. Examples of bolted joints in the JAS 39 Gripen. Aircraft structures also include a large number of open holes and cut-outs e.g. holes for electric wires and hydraulic pipes or holes required for assembly or maintenance. This is exemplied in Fig. 3, where a typical wing spar from JAS 39 Gripen is shown. This is a typical example of a case where a laminate containing open holes is subjected to shear loading i.e. a

two axial loading case. To avoid the problems due to improper design mentioned above, and to fully utilize the material, the design methods must be applicable to general in-plane loading cases.

Fig. 3. Typical wing spar from the JAS 39 Gripen. This study can be divided into two parts. The rst part, is focused on design methods for laminates containing bolt holes and open holes subjected to multi-axial loading conditions. The second part is focused on three-dimensional effects in bolted composite single-lap joints. The objective of the first part of this study was to develop accurate and cost-efficient methods for the stress and failure analysis of composite laminates containing bolt holes and open holes subjected to multi-axial loading conditions. The objective of the second part of this study was to characterize experimentally the bearing failure mode in single-lap joints, to develop tools for three-dimensional stress and failure analyses and to study the effect of various factors on the strength of single lap joints. 2 Stress analysis

Design methods for laminates containing bolt holes and open holes require a detailed knowledge of the stress distribution in the vicinity the hole. This stress distribution can be determined by analytical methods and numerical methods such as the Finite Element Method (FEM), depending on the degree of simplication introduced. In this chapter, different aspects on stress analysis methods for bolted laminates and laminates with open holes are discussed, and the areas addressed in this work are pointed out.

2.1

Consider a laminated composite plate of arbitrary shape containing an open hole and subjected to general in-plane loading, as shown in Fig. 4.

90o

+45o 0o -45o

Fig. 4. Laminated composite plate containing a hole and subjected to general in-plane loading. To determine fully the stress state in the plate, a three-dimensional analysis is required. A three dimensional stress state appears at free edges such as hole edges due to the so-called free edge effect caused by the mis-match of Poissons ratios between plies with different orientations in a laminated plate. This gives rise to interlaminar shear and normal stresses at the free edge. An accurate analysis of the stress state at a free edge requires that all the individual plies and preferably also the resin-rich zone between the plies are represented in the model. If the nite element method is used, a very ne mesh is needed close to the free edge in order to capture the steep stress gradients, unless elements with a high degree of interpolation polynomials are used. This, in combination with the model requirements in the thickness direction, leads to large FE-models which require much computer power for their solution. Several authors [1-7] have performed FE-analyses to determine the three-dimensional stress state in laminates with circular holes. In most of the studies [1-4], conventional solid elements were used. Singular elements were used in [5] and special elements with a series expansion in the thickness direction were used in [6]. Nyman and Friberg [7] used the p-adaptive FEsystem STRIPE. With two exceptions, the work by Carlsson [4] and the work by Nyman and Friberg [7], all studies were performed on laminates with only a few plies. The analysis performed by Carlsson [4] was repeated in an unpublished work by Andersson [8] who also

used the p-adaptive FE-system STRIPE. In a p-adaptive FE-method, it is possible to increase the degree of the interpolation polynomial, up to a high level. The results of this study differed considerably from those in [4], indicating that FE-solutions using conventional elements, even with very ne meshes, can be unreliable when free edge stresses are involved. Analytical methods with some simplications have also been used by some investigators [917] to determine the three-dimensional stress state close to the hole boundary. In all cases classical laminate theory was combined with boundary layer theory in the boundary layer region close to the hole. In two of the studies [11-12], the problem was simplied to a ctitious straight edge problem by assuming that the curved edge can be divided into a series of one-dimensional straight edge problems. With this simplication, it is important to account for the interlaminar stresses caused by the in-plane stress gradient [12]. Considerable simplications can be made if the interlaminar stresses close to the edge of the hole are omitted, i.e. if the laminate is treated as a homogeneous anisotropic plate using classical laminate theory. The stress analysis is performed either numerically with FEM using membrane or shell elements or by analytical methods using a complex variable approach. FEanalyses of this kind are well established and will not be further treated here. The method of complex functions was developed by Muskhelisvili [18] and extended to anisotropic materials by Lekhnitskii [19] and Savin [20]. The original papers [19,20] included exact solutions for infinite plates with circular and elliptical holes as well as approximate solutions for oval, rectangular and triangular openings. The complex variable approach has been used by many authors [e.g. 21-29]. In most of these studies, circular and elliptical holes were considered. Quasi-rectangular holes were treated in [23] and [24]. Simplied approximate solutions for innite orthotropic plates with circular and elliptical holes were derived in [22] and [25]. The exact solutions obtained with the complex variable approach is limited to innite plates. The standard procedure, well known for metals, is to use nite width corrections to overcome this limitation. The nite width correction factors for isotropic plates have frequently been used for orthotropic and anisotropic plates. The validity of doing this is questionable since the nite width correction factors for isotropic plates are not in general valid for orthotropic and anisotropic plates. Expressions for nite width correction factors for anisotropic plates have been presented in [30]. In the present work, the stress analysis was preferably carried out in two steps. In the rst step (load distribution analysis), the far-eld stress distribution in the laminate was determined, and in the second step, a detailed stress analysis of the region containing the hole was performed in order to determine the stress distribution around the hole. The load distribution analysis is carried out using FEM. For the detailed stress analysis, a method based on Lekhnitskiis complex stress functions was developed and implemented in a computer code. 2.2 Bolted laminates

The analysis of laminates containing bolt holes is considerably more complex than the analysis of laminates containing open holes. The stress state in the vicinity of a bolt hole depends on many complex parameters such as friction. The most important parameters are:

geometry and stiffness of the joined members, joint conguration, friction properties of the members being joined, clamping force and loading conditions. To include all these parameters directly in a stress analysis of a joint is almost impossible, even with the most powerful computers now available. The analysis of a bolted joint in a complex structure such as an aircraft is preferably divided into two or more steps as shown in Fig. 5. In the rst step, the internal load distribution in the joint is determined using one or a few successively rened analyses. The local stress distribution in the laminate around the fastener is then determined in a detailed stress analysis.

Fig. 5. Overall design procedure for bolted joints. For a joint with complex geometry and loading conditions, FEM is the only way to determine the load distribution. Load distribution analysis with FEM has been briey discussed by the present author and his co-authors [31] and by Eriksson [32]. Poon [33] brought up the subject in his literature review on the design of mechanically fastened joints in composite structures. A FE-based design procedure including both load distribution and detailed stress analysis has

been developed by Eriksson et al. [34]. It should be pointed out that the load distribution analysis is a very important step in the design of bolted joints in composite structures. If the load distribution analysis is of poor quality it does not matter how good the local stress analysis and failure prediction are. Improved modelling techniques as well as detailed studies of the joint behaviour are needed. The determination of the local stress distribution in a bolted laminate is in general a threedimensional problem. The three-dimensional stress state is due to bending effects and to clamping of the fastener. There are three kinds of bending effects: primary bending, secondary bending and fastener bending (Fig. 6). Primary bending is caused by an external bending moment acting on the joint, whereas secondary bending is caused by the eccentricity in e.g. a single shear joint. Fastener bending occurs to some extent in every joint with a shear-loaded fastener. The bending and tilting of the fastener give rise to a non-uniform stress distribution through the thickness of the laminate, as illustrated in Fig. 7 where a normalized contact stress distribution for the bolt-hole contact in a single-lap joint is shown. Because of the large amount of modelling work and the complexity of the analysis, three-dimensional analyses of composite bolted joints are relatively sparse. Only a few studies [35-48] have been reported.

a) Primary bending

b) Secondary bending

c) Fastener bending

0 360 270 180 90 angle [deg] Angle, (degrees) 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.5 1

z t 1

normalized thickness

Fig. 7. Normalized contact stress distribution in a single-lap joint. Two-dimensional analyses in which the laminate is treated as a homogeneous continuum have been performed by several authors [31] and [49-70]. The local stress distribution in the vicinity of the hole has been determined either with the complex variable approach [31, 49-57] or numerically by FEM [35-48] and [58-70]. The contact between the bolt and the laminate has been treated in several different ways. One simple way is to assume a contact stress distribution. The sinusoidal stress distribution (frequently used for isotropic materials) has also been frequently used for orthotropic materials [51,58,60-62]. If the bolt is assumed to be rigid, the prescription of zero radial displacements at an assumed contact area of the hole boundary is another simple way of modelling the contact [35,59,68]. Chang [69] used the same technique but added an iterative procedure in which the extent of the contact area was determined. In [36], the hole periphery was loaded by an arrangement of pin-jointed bars connected between the centre of the hole and nodes at the loaded edge of the hole. The forces in the bars were then examined by an iterative procedure. If the average of the bar forces in the thickness direction was tensile, the bars were removed from the model. A similar approach was used in [66,67] where node pairs on the bolt and laminate were connected by non-linear truss elements with zero tension stiffness. In [63] and [65], a nodal point iteration technique was used to determine the contact stress distribution. The complex variable approach has also been used to solve the contact problem [31,49-57]. In nearly all cases the collocation method has been used, i.e. undetermined coefcients in an assumed series expansion have been determined by imposing the contact conditions in a number of points at the hole boundary. The extension of the contact area is determined through an iterative procedure. A rigid bolt was assumed in all studies using the complex variable approach, except in the work by Hyer et al. [50,55,56]. The effect of an elastic bolt on stress distributions in the vicinity of the bolt hole was shown to be very small.

Friction has been included in [37,50,52-57,63-65]. The effect of multiple holes on the local stress distributions in the vicinity of the bolt holes was considered in [53,57,60]. Innite plates were considered in most of the studies. Only in the studies in [51,52,57] were nite plates considered using a boundary collocation method and a boundary integration method, respectively. In the rst part of the present work, a stress analysis method based on the complex variable approach was developed, the frictionless contact between the bolt and the hole being taken into account. This method and FEM have been used to calculate the stress distributions in three different pin-loaded laminates with two different widths. Two FE-models with different mesh divisions were used to study the inuence of the mesh density on the calculated stress distribution. The agreement between the stress distributions obtained with the two methods is good. The stress analysis method based on the complex variable approach is a part of a design program for composite bolted joints used at Saab AB. In this program, the stress analysis can be performed on anisotropic laminates subjected to bolt loads and to combined normal and shear by-pass loads. In the second part of the work, a three-dimensional FE model was developed to determine the non-uniform stress distribution through the thickness of the laminate in the vicinity of the hole in single-lap joints. To validate the model, an experimental programme was conducted in which strains in the vicinity of the hole and relative displacements between the joint members were measured. Computed and measured strains and displacements were compared and good agreement was generally obtained. 3 Failure prediction

Design methods for laminates with open holes and laminates in bolted joints also require criteria for strength prediction. In this section, strength prediction for laminates with both open holes and bolt holes are discussed. The rst part of the present work focuses on the strength prediction of laminates containing open holes and bolt holes and subjected to general in-plane loads. The second part focuses on the strength prediction of tension-loaded, bolted single-lap joints where through-the-thickness effects are taken into account. 3.1 Failure prediction in laminates with open holes

Consider again the in-plane loaded laminated plate shown in Fig. 4. The load at which the plate is unable to support any additional load is dened as the failure load. At this point, damage due to different failure mechanisms may be present in the laminate, depending on the stacking of the laminate. Fig. 8 shows some of the internal failure types that may occur.

Section B

Section A

Matrix cracks

Section A

Fibre failure

Fibre failure

Fibre-matrix failure

Fibre-matrix failure

Section B

Matrix cracks

Delamination

Fig. 8. Failure modes in a composite ply. These failure modes are bre failure, matrix cracking, bre-matrix failure and delamination. Matrix cracking usually occurs rst and the crack density increases with increased loading. When the matrix cracks are sufciently close, a bre-matrix failure between two matrix cracks occurs forming a small delamination. If the primary loading is compressive, local instability will occur when a certain level of delamination and matrix cracking is reached. If the primary loading is tensile and the stacking is well mixed, the nal failure will be controlled by bre failure. Delamination may also occur due to high interlaminar stresses e.g. at the free edge of an open hole. The existing methods for strength prediction can be divided into two main groups: laminate failure criteria and lamina failure models. To the rst group belong criteria which are based on laminate strength data, whereas the second group contains models which are based on ply strength data. A comprehensive review of current failure models especially with respect to the rst group is given by Awerbuch and Madhukar [71]. One of the rst attempts to predict the strength of notched laminates was made by Waddops et al. [72], who used the principles of linear fracture mechanics (LEFM) to form the Inherent

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Flaw Model (IFM). The use of LEFM has been questioned by Kanninen et al. [73], who pointed out that damage in a composite laminate caused by several failure modes is quite different from a simple through-the-thickness crack in metals, and that self-similar crack growth is not likely to occur in a composite laminate. Strength predictions based on the maximum stress at the hole edge are in general very conservative for composite laminates. In order to overcome the severe conservatism in using the maximum tangential stress at the hole edge, Whitney and Nuismer [74,75] introduced the principle of evaluating the stress level at a characteristic distance away from the hole edge. They formulated the well-known Point Stress Criterion (PSC) and the Average Stress Criterion (ASC). These criteria are simple to apply and are therefore attractive to designers. Both the PSC and ASC have been widely used to predict the strength of laminates with open holes and bolted laminates [25] and [76-80]. One problem with these models is that the characteristic length is a function of both notch type and notch size for the same laminate. For circular holes, this problem was addressed by Karlak [81] and Pipes et al. [82], who proposed relationships between the characteristic distance used in PSC and the hole radius. Bcklund [83] concluded that IFM, PSC and ASC are all semi-empirical in the sense that the criteria parameters can not be calculated or postulated on the basis of fundamental data for the composite material. A new model, the Fictitious Crack Model (FCM), later renamed the Damage Zone Model (DZM), was proposed for composite materials. The DZM simulates the damage development in the stress-intense region at the edge of the notch by introducing a crack with cohesive stresses acting at the crack surfaces. The cohesive stresses are assumed to be linear functions of the crack opening. The model is based on the two fundamental parameters, the unnotched tensile strength and the apparent fracture energy. The DZM has been used in a number of studies to predict the strength of laminates containing cracks and holes of various shapes [84-86]. Very good agreement between predicted and experimental strength has been obtained in all studies. The numerical procedure of the DZM makes it less attractive to designers than e.g. ASC and PSC. Eriksson and Aronsson [87] developed the Damage Zone Criterion (DZC), which is based on the two fundamental laminate parameters unnotched tensile strength and critical damage zone length. The failure load is determined from a simple equilibrium equation at the point of failure when the damage zone has reached a critical size. The stresses within the damage zone are assumed to be constant and equal to the unnotched strength of the laminate, and the stress distribution ahead of the damage zone is assumed to have the same shape as the linear elastic stress distribution. The lamina failure criteria can be divided into two groups: rst-ply failure and progressive failure criteria. The rst group contains characteristic distance approaches applied at the plylevel [89-95]. Garbo and Ogonowski [89] evaluated the Tsai-Hill failure criterion at a characteristic distance from the hole while El-Zein and Reifsnider [90] used the principle of the Average Stress Criterion (ASC) at the ply level by assuming that failure occurs when the average ply bre stress over a characteristic distance is equal to the critical bre stress. Tan [91-95] evaluated a bre failure criterion and the Tsai-Wu criterion along a characteristic curve.

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In the progressive failure criteria, the stiffness properties of the material are successively degraded as the plies fail. The failure of a ply is predicted using e.g. Tsai-Wu, Tsai-Hill, Hashin etc. and the material degradation is accomplished by setting some of the components in the lamina stiffness matrix to zero depending on the type of failure. Examples of such damage models are found in [96-100]. Delamination was included in some of the models [96,98,99] by using stress-based polynomial criteria in terms of the interlaminar shear and peel stresses. Predictions of delamination onset at the free edge of holes in composite laminates are made in [5] and [12-16]. Ericson et al. [5] used a fracture mechanics approach evaluating the total strain energy release. Shalev and Reifsnider [13] used a criterion based on the order of singularity of the stress eld and the energy release rate. Stress-based polynomial criteria in terms of the interlaminar stresses evaluated at a characteristic distance from the hole edge were used in [12] and [14-15]. In most of the studies of laminates with holes, uniaxial loading conditions have been considered. Only a few authors [21,94,101-104] have considered laminates with holes subjected to more complex loading situations such as biaxial and shear loading. Whitside et al. [21] included a biaxial tension-tension test in their comprehensive experimental study on different types of bre-reinforced epoxy laminates. A similar test procedure was used by Liebowitz and Jones [101] and by Daniel [102,103] who performed biaxial tension-tension tests with different ratios between the loads in the two loading directions. Tan [94] performed shear tests on laminates with elliptical holes using a rail shear test xture. Gamziukas and Carlsson [104] performed shear tests on I-beams with an irregular cutout. Studies on the strength prediction of notched laminates subjected to general in-plane loading situations such as biaxial loading are even more sparse than the experimental studies on the subject. Lee [96] analysed the biaxial tests in [101] using a progressive failure criterion. Tan [94] analysed shear tests as well as the biaxial test by Daniel [102,103] using a ply-failure approach applied at a characteristic distance from the hole edge. Hollman [88] analysed the shear-loaded graphite/epoxy beam with an irregular cut-out in [104], using the Point Stress Criterion (PSC) and the Damage Zone Model (DZM) for strength prediction. The major advantage of the laminate strength prediction methods over the lamina strength prediction methods is that the complex mechanisms of laminate failure including bre failure, matrix cracks and delamination can be taken into account in a simple and accurate way. A general limitation of these methods is that tests have to be made on each laminate conguration used in the design in order to determine the laminate fracture parameters. This limitation can, however, be effectively overcome by establishing analytical and experimental models to determine the fracture parameters using only a limited amount of test data. The lamina models on the other hand have the advantage that the strength of the laminate is predicted from basic strength parameters for the ply, i.e. the amount of testing required to predict the strength for a wide range of laminate congurations is generally less than for the laminate models. It is, however, very difcult to nd a failure criterion which is capable of predicting the strength of a laminate containing several bre orientations using strength

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parameters determined from tests with unidirectional laminates. Another disadvantage of the lamina progressive failure models is that the analysis is expensive and time-consuming. A more dense nite element mesh is generally required for the lamina progressive failure models than for the laminate models for accurate predictions. In this work, a series of experiments with both uniaxially loaded laminates and laminates subjected to combined tension and shear loading was carried out. The strengths of these specimens were predicted using the PSC and the DZC extended to general in-plane loading situations. Good agreement between predicted and experimental strengths is obtained with both criteria. 3.2 Failure predictions in laminates with bolted joints

A bolted joint in a composite structure can fail in a number of ways as shown in Fig. 9. Bolt failure is often a secondary failure mode in composite structures i.e. the bolt fails after the laminate has failed in bearing. Pull-through failure is the predominant failure mode in joints with axially loaded fasteners or a secondary failure mode in a single shear joint with shear loaded fasteners. This failure mode will not be treated here. The remaining failure modes: bearing, net-section and shear-out are the basic failure modes of a laminate in a composite bolted joint with shear-loaded fasteners. The shear-out failure mode occurs mainly in joints where the distance between the hole edge and the edge of the laminate is short or in highly orthotropic laminates such as cross-ply laminates. The shear-out failure mode can be avoided by using appropriate design rules for edge distances and stacking sequences. Shear-out failure will not therefore be further addressed here.

a) Net-section failure

b) Bearing failure

c) Shear-out failure

d) Fastener failure

13

Net-section failure in tension or compression is assumed to occur by the same mechanisms as for laminates with open holes. The same failure criteria as for open holes which were described in the previous section, are therefore used to predict net-section failure of laminates in bolted joints. Bearing failure is primarily a compressive failure occurring close to the contact region at the hole edge. The failure is caused by the compressive contact stresses acting on the hole boundary. Bearing failure is, like any compressive failure in a composite laminate, associated with delamination and ply-buckling, which implies that the bearing strength is strongly affected by the lateral constraint of the material surrounding the loaded hole. The effect of the lateral constraints on the bearing strength has been shown experimentally in [105-109]. Eriksson [112] formulated a bearing strength prediction model, the Delamination Buckling Model (DBM), from stability considerations. The bearing strength is also strongly dependent on the layup of the laminate [110] and is sensitive to environmental conditions such as high temperature and high moisture content in the laminate [111]. With the exception of the DBM, the strength prediction methods for bearing failure are either of the laminate type [51,59] or the lamina type [58,61,66-68,113], according to the description in the previous section. At the laminate level, the ASC [51,59] in terms of the radial stress has been used to predict the bearing strength with characteristic distances determined from bearing strength tests. In the strength predictions studies with lamina methods, various ply failure criteria such as Distortional Energy, Tsai-Wu, Yamada-Sun have been used either in combination with a characteristic distance or as progressive failure models. Relatively few authors deal with the failure analysis of a bolted joint on the basis of a threedimensional stress state [39,42,46,47]. Chen and Lee [39] used the maximum stress theory to predict in-plane bre, matrix and shear failure and the Ye delamination criterion [41] in a progressive damage model. A progressive fatigue modelling technique which includes a progressive failure analysis has been developed by Shokrieh et al. [45]. A set of stress-based failure criteria were used to predict matrix tension, matrix compression, bre tension, bre compression, bre-matrix shear out, delamination tension and delamination compression. Gamble et al. [42] used a modied version of the Hill-criterion in a progressive damage model. The criterion was able to predict bre failure, matrix splitting and delamination. Delamination initiation in laminates with pin-loaded holes was predicted by Persson et al. [47] using the strain energy density criterion. In the rst part of this work, two very simple stress-based criteria were proposed for the prediction of tension and bearing failure in composite bolted joints, and the validity of the criteria has been demonstrated in tests with realistic tension- and shear-loaded multi-fastener joints. Comparisons between experiments and predictions show that the strength of these joints is fairly well predicted with the simple failure criteria. In the second part, an experimental programme was conducted to characterize the damage development in single-lap joints. Based on the results from this experimental investigation, a failure analysis procedure for the prediction of bearing failure dominated by kinking was developed. The failure analysis procedure was validated against experiments and good

14

agreement between predicted and experimental results was generally found. The failure analysis procedure was then used together with three-dimensional FE analyses to study numerically the effect of different factors on the strength. 4 Design methods

Several analysis programs for composite bolted joints are available for composite structure designers. Snyder et al. [114] examined six different analytical programs and discussed their merits and disadvantages. In addition to these programs, Madenci [115] has developed a design and analysis program which is capable of handling multi-fastener joints with interaction between the fasteners, nite geometry, friction and by-pass loading. All the programs are analytically based and most of them use the complex variable approach. There is only one program among those examined in [114] and the program developed by Madenci in which the contact stress distribution between the bolt and the hole is determined. There are, however, a couple of FE-based programs in which the contact stress distribution is determined, [32] and [34,116]. The stress analysis method based on the complex variable approach used in this work for the analysis of laminates in bolted joints and laminates with open holes has been used as a basis for a design program for bolted joints called COBOLT. COBOLT is capable of analysing a large number of joints using both simple and more advanced failure criteria. It is possible either to solve the frictionless contact problem or to use a xed cosine distribution in the stress analysis. All the design and analysis codes already mentioned are two-dimensional whereas the stress state in a bolted joint is in general three-dimensional. To account for the three-dimensional effects, the two-dimensional analyses have to be corrected by correction factors. A design tool based on a three-dimensional analysis would make it possible to include the bending effects in the local stress analysis and thereby reduce the conservatism in the design. As a rst step towards such a design tool, a mesh generation programme which generates three-dimensional FE models of an isolated region around a fastener (Fig. 10) has been developed. This tool has partly been used for the generation of three-dimensional FE models in this work.

15

16

PAPER A The problems related to the determination of the load distribution in a multi-row fastener joint using the nite element method are discussed. Both simple and more advanced design methods used at Saab Military Aircraft are presented. The stress distributions obtained with an analytically based method and an FE-based method are compared. Failure predictions with a simple analytically based method and the more advanced FE-based method of multi-fastener tension and shear-loaded test specimens are compared with the results of experiments. Finally, complicating factors such as three-dimensional effects caused by secondary bending and fastener bending are discussed and suggestions for future research are given. PAPER B Stress and failure analyses of composite laminates containing holes are presented. Both the nite element method (FEM) and an analytical method, based on complex stress functions, are used to determine the stress distributions around the holes. Failure criteria, including the Point Stress Criterion (PSC) and the Damage Zone Criterion (DZC), are used to predict the strength of test specimens subjected to complex loading conditions. A comprehensive test program was carried out to establish criteria parameters and to generate data to validate the stress and failure analysis. For this purpose, a special test xture was designed. Good agreement was found between predicted and measured results. PAPER C A comprehensive experimental program was conducted to measure and characterize the development of damage in the vicinity of fastener holes in graphite/epoxy composite laminates. This was carried out to generate data which can be used for development of appropriate failure criteria. Test specimens were loaded in quasi-static cycles with successively increasing loads, and damage development in the vicinity of the bolt holes was detected using different methods such as strain measurements, acoustic emission, X-ray and microscopic examination. Several failure modes were detected in a series of events starting at load levels far below the level at which the rst visible evidence of damage appeared on the load-displacement curve. Failure modes included matrix cracking, bre fracture, delamination, and kinking. PAPER D A three-dimensional nite element model of bolted composite joints has been developed to determine non-uniform stress distributions through the thickness of composite laminates in the vicinity of a bolt hole. An experimental programme was conducted to measure deformation, strain, and bolt load on test specimens in order to validate the numerical model developed. Strains in the radial direction at different radii and different angles were measured in the vicinity of the bolt hole at the shear plane between the plates. The degree of secondary bending

17

in the joints was determined from strain measurements at certain points on both sides of the laminate. In the experiments, a number of parameters such as laminate lay-up, laminate thickness, bolt diameter, bolt type, clamping force and lateral support were varied. Each specimen conguration was analysed using the three-dimensional nite element model. In general, the computed and experimental results showed good agreement. PAPER E A systematic parametric study has been carried out to determine the effect of eight different parameters which affect the strength of bolted composite laminates. The parameters studied were: laminate thickness, lay-up, bolt diameter, bolt conguration (countersunk or protruding head), friction, clamping force, clearance and lateral support. The parametric study has been organised as a reduced two level factorial test. Finite element analyses were used to simulate the experiments. Three-dimensional nite element analyses were used to determine the stress distributions in the vicinity of the bolt hole. Failure was predicted using a quadratic failure criterion evaluating bre stress and transverse shear stress at a characteristic distance from the edge of the bolt hole. Experimental results were used to validate the analysis procedure. Good agreement between predicted and experimental failure loads was found. The stress and failure analyses were then used in the numerical parametric study. The results from the parametric study show that laminate thickness, friction, clamping force and bolt conguration are the parameters with the strongest inuence on the strength of the joints.

18

PAPER A: Ireman and Nyman developed the analytical method. Ireman implemented the method into a computer code and carried out all the analyses. Hellbom contributed with the experimental results. Ireman wrote the paper and initiated the work. PAPER B: Ireman and Erikson extended DZC to two axial loading conditions. Ireman initiated the work, planned the experiments, implemented the method, carried out all the analyses and wrote the paper. PAPER C: Ireman initiated the work and wrote the overall test plan. Ranvik carried out the experiments. All authors contributed to the writing of the paper. PAPER E: Ireman developed the failure criterion. Purin created the FE models and carried out some of the analyses. Ireman initiated the work and wrote the paper.

19

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101. Liebowitz, H. and D. L. Jones. Biaxial Test of Flat Graphite/Epoxy Laminates, School of Engineering and Applied Science, The George Washington University, NASA CR165793 (1981). 102. Daniel, I. M. Behaviour of Graphite/Epoxy Plates with Holes under Biaxial Loading, Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 20, pp. 1-8 (1980). 103. Daniel, I. M. Biaxial Testing of [02/45]S Graphite/Epoxy Plates with Holes, Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 22, pp. 188-195 (1982). 104. Gamziukas, V. and G. Carlsson. Shear Tests with I-beams of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic Containing a Web Cutout, The Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden, Report FFA TN 1986-78, (1986). 105. Collings, T. A. On the Bearing Strength of CFRP Laminates, Composites, Vol. 13, pp. 241-252, (1982). 106. Stockdale, J. H. and F. L Matthews. The Effect of Clamping Pressure on Bolt Bearing Loads in Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics, Composites, Vol. 7, pp. 34-38, (1976). 107. Collings, T. A. The strength of bolted joints in multidirectional CFRP laminates, Aeronautical Research Council, current Paper 1380 (1977). 108. Wang, H-S., C-L. Hung and F-K Chang. Bearing failure of bolted composite joints. Part I: Experimental characterization, Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 30, pp. 12841313 (1996). 109. Oakeshott, J. L., M. Gower, S. Perinpanayagam and F. L. Matthews. Development of failure in bolted joints in woven CFRP Laminates, AGARD Conference Proceedings 590, Florence, Italy, 2-3 September 1996. 110. Quinn, W. J. and F. L Matthews. The Effect of Stacking Sequence on the Pin-Bearing Strength in Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics, Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 11, pp. 139-145, (1977). 111. Kim, R. Y. and J. M. Whitney. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on Pin-Bearing Strength of Composite Laminates, Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 10. pp. 149155, (1977). 112. Eriksson, I. On the Bearing Strength of Bolted Graphite/Epoxy Laminates, Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 24, pp. 1264-1269, (1990). 113. Soni, S. R. Failure Analysis of Composite Laminates with a Fastener Hole, ASTM STP 749, Joining of Composite Materials, pp. 145-164, (1981). 114. Snyder, B. D., J. G. Burns and V. B. Venkayya. Composite Bolted Joints Analysis Programs, Journal of Composites Technology & Research, JCTRER, Vol. 12, pp. 4151, (1990). 115. Madenci, Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, The university of Arizona, Tucson, private communication.

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116. Eriksson, I., P. Mller and J. Bcklund. Design of Bolted Composite Laminates - A Special Purpose Finite Element Method of Solution, Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM/9), Madrid, Spain, 12-16 July, (1993).

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