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Submitted To:Mrs. Amandeep kaur Submitted By:Shilpa Priyanka MCA-3rd
Punjab College Of Technical Education, Baddowal (Ludhiana)
Benefits of e-Governance …………………………………………..….13 10.………………….4 3... Success and Failure in eGovernment projects….6 5. E-Governance Challenges Specific to India ………………………. Understanding eGovernment Success and Failure………………….4 4.Table Of Content 1. Introduction of E-Governance………………………………………….14 11.…... National E-Governance Program………………………………….3 2....………………...…. Why E-Governance…………………………………………………….18 2 .11 9. Components of E-governance ……………………………………….17 12..9 8. Conclusion…………………………………………..... Interventional strategies of e-Governance ……………………….……7 6. Types of Interactions in e-Governance ………………………………. Its Relevence to India ……………………………………………….……8 7.
and other arms of government. greater convenience. and other government agencies in an efficient. Different governments and organizations define this term to suit their own aims and objectives. “e-Government” should eventually disappear as a distinct 3 . to the contrary. Basically. processes. therefore. Indeed. has visualized e-Governance in the Indian context to mean: “A transparent smart e-Governance with seamless access. convenient efcient and transparent manner. APJ Abdul Kalam. Some widely used definitions are listed below: According to the World bank “E-Government refers to the use by government agencies of information technologies (such as Wide Area Networks. Dr. Introduction of e-Governance E-Government can be defined as the use of information and communications technologies by governments to enhance the range and quality of information and services provided to citizens. civil society organizations.” The goal of e-Government is not merely to computerize governmental records. Sometimes. and/ or cost reductions. and mobile computing) that have the ability to transform relations with citizens. Defining e-Governance Although the term ‘e-Governance’ has gained currency in recent years. there is no standard definition of this term. the term ‘e-government’ is also used instead of ‘e-Governance’. secure and authentic flow of information crossing the interdepartmental barrier and providing a fair and unbiased service to the citizen. the stress here is on use of information technologies in improving citizengovernment interactions. The resulting benefits can be less corruption. interaction with business enterprises and communication and exchange of information between diferent agencies of the Government in a speedy. cost-effective and convenient manner. These technologies can serve a variety of different ends: better delivery of government services to citizens. e-Governance is generally understood as the use of Information and communications Technology (IcT) at all levels of the Government in order to provide services to the citizens. businesses. the ultimate goal of e-Government is to transform government. cost-cutting and generation of revenue and transparency. successful e-Government is at most 20% technology and at least 80% about people. citizen empowerment through access to information. making government processes more transparent and accountable and strengthening democracy. improved interactions with business and industry. or more efficient government management. increased transparency. businesses.1. and organizations.” Thus. revenue growth. to recognize that e-Government is not an end. the Internet. It is important. it is an enabler.
4 . Psychological Component with Extensional dimension. This focuses on “e” of electronic knowledge and its proper utilization.concept. This is possible when people will be aware of their rights & duties on the one hand. (c) in creating e. Social Component : The fundamental duty of any government is to educe a society which is based on the principles of equality and justice. so that they can make better lives. and know about the governmental policies made for them on related issues on the other. Service Component with Empowerment dimension Technological Component : This relates to educate people who are in the bureaucratic structure or outside its periphery regarding use of electronic means to develop better connectivity within and with the system.knowledge workers so as to increase their potentiality. Cultural Component with Ethical dimension. is whether the integration of government and technology will serve the interests of the public. enable their participation in government and enhance citizen economic and social opportunities. Why e-Governance E-Government can transform citizen service. Social Component with Egalitarian dimension. The key question. Components of E-governance The following components can be identified: Technological Component with Electronic dimension. hence a vigilant society can be evolved where they can raise their voices by questioning the governmental decisions. Political Component with Enactment dimension. because “government” rather than technology is at the core of e-Government and technology will eventually pervade all governmental operations. This would help in attaining the “e” of egalitarian society with thrust on equality. It requires use of computers (a) in developing the data-base. and is committed to provide a respectful essence of life to its people without any discrimination of cast or race must be set up. 3. A society which is classless with no distinction between haves and haves-not. (b) in networking to facilitate the communication. for themselves and for the next generation. therefore. where nobody is marginalized from the main stream . 2. provide access to information to empower citizens.
Apart form this. 5 . integrity and transparency in its functioning. Hence personality adjustments must be carried out to cater to the needs of common man. This develops a constant pressure on the government to respond to public demands as this leads to the realization of power they can exercise on government to maintain impartiality. This explains “e” of empowerment of people in any system. The need to create value patterns conducive for e.governance to operate focusing on work ethos therefore cannot be denied. which then has to be implemented in the right spirit. readiness to connect to people. It holds responsibility of rationalizing various operative frameworks by enacting laws. This helps to maintain & sustain the cohesive force that is required by society to integrate its people and abide them to follow a uniform policy to fulfill their targets. Political Component : The political system is essential aspect of governance. As a provider of good services to its people it has to assimilate the basic needs and also expectations of common man in to the documentation of policy. Thus to work out the ethical framework is the key to move further by discarding obsolete set of values that come in the way of potential utilization. This specifically relates to “e” of extension of self so as to have constructive collaborative social relationships. to listen to their queries. will be necessary elements for behavioral modifications. to improve communicative skills etc. This refers to the importance of “e” of enactment of laws to stop society from disintegration. Thus “e” of ethical framework has to be the focal point in constructing a morality-based system. to look for solutions. Psychological Component: Developing required psyche so as to facilitate formation and inculcation of right type of attitudes in the people is prerequisite for efficiency. Service Component : The ultimate function of any welfare government is to serve. Cultural Component : With the advent of the era of knowledge explosion there is a need to reorient some of the value patterns without eroding the fundamental normative structure of any social system.
face-to-face. The primary purpose is to make government.g. or vertical i. save time. This kind of interaction is only within the sphere of government and can be both horizontal i. between national. citizen-friendly.g. e-Governance tools are used to aid the business community – providers of goods and services – to seamlessly interact with the government. tourism and investment. such as in trade. an interface is created between the government and citizens which enables the citizens to benefit from efficient delivery of a large range of public services. G2C (Government to Citizens) In this case. reduce operational costs and to create a more transparent business environment when dealing with the government. such as in licensing. fax. etc). G2E (Government to Employees) Government is by far the biggest employer and like any organization. Information and Communications Technology is used not only to restructure the governmental processes involved in the functioning of government entities but also to increase the flow of information and services within and between different entities. This expands the availability and accessibility of public services on the one hand and improves the quality of services on the other. through internet. These interactions may be described as follows: G2G (Government to Government) In this case. permits. G2B (Government to Business) Here. procurement and revenue collection. 7 days a week). service centre. This interaction is a two-way process between the organization and the employee. from where to interact with the government (e. Use of ICT tools helps in 6 . 24 hours a day. They can also be promotional and facilitative. The G2Binitiatives can be transactional. performance and output.e.g.e.4. unattended kiosk or from one’s home/workplace) and how to interact with the government (e. provincial and local government agencies as well as between different levels within an organization. telephone. The objective is to cut red tape. It gives citizens the choice of when to interact with the government (e. email. it has to interact with its employees on a regular basis. These measures help to provide a congenial environment to businesses to enable them to perform more efficiently. between different government agencies as well as between different functional areas within an organization. The primary objective is to increase efficiency. Types of Interactions in e-Governance e-Governance facilitates interaction between different stake holders in governance.
Technologically advanced Institutes with expertise must be set up which must established themselves as the centers of excellence by imparting to people the e-knowledge. reorienting mind sets etc. A large-scale connectivity has to be ensured. This is to be learn that how & where role shift is required. The framework has to be supportive of fundamental societal normative pattern so that it gets extra leverage for perpetuating necessary values patterns.making these interactions fast and efficient on the one hand and increase satisfaction levels of employees on the other. Electronic Accessibility: There is a need to equip people with necessary knowledge regarding use of electronic multi media by imparting it through various Institutions. at various levels of governmental functioning. though management of these would vary in pace in different countries.governance. Role Shifting Strategies : New stresses are the by products of knowledge based society. Ethical Framework: Apart from legal framework morality has to be the key area where any society must work out strategic plan by designing ethos before adopting e. Transitive Counseling: In order to reduce the resistance. Each role. organizational as well as personal must shift in such a way that effects of change can be managed without resulting into situation of crisis. Interventional strategies of e-Governance : As e-Governance has shortened the gap between different cultures by trying to create a global society with mega cultural emphasis the following strategies can be identified. 7 . Institutional Networking: Various agencies needed at different levels of governmental functionaries must be brought within the purview of constitutional framework by enacting laws for controlling their formal as well as informal constituents. Hence more humanitarian psychological coping mechanisms based on collaborative role shifts 2have to be introduced. 5. people need to be prepared for coming out of transitional phase. Thus proper counseling is required regarding changes in attitudes. the use of which will facilitate achievement of this objective.
procedures etc later extending to detailed information including reports (including performance reports).6. It is expected that this would lead to: Better access to information and quality services for citizens: ICT would make available timely and reliable information on various aspects of governance. information would be made available with respect to simple aspects of governance such as forms. enhanced decision making abilities and increased efficiency across government – all contributing to an overall environment of a more accountable government machinery. effort and money. Benefits of e-Governance In the end. The end result would be simplification of the functioning of government. weeding out of redundant processes. e-Governance is about reform in governance. 8 . resulting from online and one-point accessibility of public services backed up by automation of back end processes. Simplicity. would result in enhanced productivity and efficiency in all sectors. simplification in structures and changes in statutes and regulations. providing public services to citizens which would be required right from birth to death. facilitated by the creative use of Information and Communications Technology. in turn. efficiency and accountability in the government: Application of ICT to governance combined with detailed business process reengineering would lead to simplification of complicated processes. rapid strides in mobile telephony.e. Expansion of telephone network. In the initial phase. public database. rules. there would be an immediate impact in terms of savings in time. This. Expanded reach of governance: Rapid growth of communications technology and its adoption in governance would help in bringing government machinery to the doorsteps of the citizens. laws. decision making processes etc. The ultimate objective of eGovernance is to reach out to citizens by adopting a life-cycle approach i. spread of internet and strengthening of other communications infrastructure would facilitate delivery of a large number of services provided by the government. As regards services.
Apart from being an asset to the country it offers some unique issues. • According to an officer from NIC. in local languages. E-Governance Challenges Specific to India We list down some of the challenges which are specific to India . So the information that resides with one department has no or very little meaning to some other department of Government. an important one being Establishing Person Identities. Population: This is probably the biggest challenge. Different Languages: A challenge due to the diversity of the country. This can mainly be attributed to Lack of Communication between different Departments.7. Lack of Key Persons: eGovernance projects lack key persons. • • • • Lack of Integrated Services: Most of the eGovernance Services being offered by state or central governments are not integrated. but from other aspects as well. Apart from this. There is no unique identity of a person in India. Ensuring eGovernance in local language is a big task to achieve. It enforces need to do governance (upto certain level).(Some of the inputs are taken from an officer from NIC). keeping the database of all Indian nationals (& keeping it updated) are some other related challenges. success factors of e-Gov projects o 10% Technology o o o 60% Process 20% Change Management Rest is luck 9 . measuring the population. not only from technological aspect.
The Government of India aspires to provide: Governance that is easily understood by and accountable to the citizens. has indicated its commitment to provide efficient and transparent government to all strata of society. efficiency and accountability • Managing voluminous information and data effectively • Information services • Swift and secure communication 10 . cost-effective and responsive governance • Convenient services to citizens and businesses • Greater citizen access to public information • Accountability in delivery of services to citizens Management • Simplicity. in various forums. An effective government that delivers maximum value for taxpayers’ money (quick and efficient services) Hence the Government of India views e-Governance as a vehicle to initiate and sustain reforms by focusing on three broad areas: Governance • Transparency • People’s participation • Promotion of a democratic society Public services • Efficient. Its Relevence to India: The Government of India. open to democratic involvement and scrutiny (an open and transparent government) Citizen-centric governance that will cover all of its services and respect everyone as individuals by providing personalised services. E-Governance is now mainly seen as a key element of the country’s governance and administrative reform agenda.8.
various agencies of the Government and civil society organizations have taken a large number of initiatives across the country. 11 . Chennai) • 80% of Service Tax returns electronically processed Indian Railways (Government of India) • Anywhere to Anywhere reservation from Anywhere • Electronic Booking of tickets on select sectors • Online Information on Railway reservation on Internet Postal Department (Government of India) • Direct e-credit of Monthly Income Scheme returns into the investors accounts • Dematerialization of Savings Certificate (NSC) and Vikas Patras (KVP). Govt. Driver’s License. Property Registration.7 million farmers. This project has benefited 20 million rural land records covering 6.needed by farmer to obtain bank loans. significant reduction in corruption. It has also ensured increased transparency and reliability. offering full portability Passport / Visa (Government of India) • 100% passport information computerized • All 33 Regional Passport Offices covered • Machine readable passports at some locations AP Online (State Government of Andhra Pradesh) An Integrated Citizen Services Portal providing citizen centric services such as: Birth/Death Certificates. Delhi. Payment of taxes / utility bills etc.9. Applications & Forms. settle land disputes etc. exploitation and oppression of farmers. Bhoomi – Automation of Land Records (State Government of Karnataka) It provides computerized Record of Rights Tenancy & Crops (RTC) . Initiative Till Date Recognizing that e-Governance is playing an increasingly important role in modern Governance. Indicated below are some of the key initiatives taken in the country across some of the important citizen/business related departments Customs and Excise (Government of India) • 98% of export and 90-95% of import documentation computerized • Electronic filing through ICEGATE at 3 locations (Mumbai.
o Market rates of vegetables. both central and state governments provide different services to business and industry Gyandoot: Intranet in Tribal District of Dhar (State Government of Madhya Pradesh) This project offers e-governance services including online registration of applications. • Key services provided to citizens o Information on Mandi (farm products market) rates o On-line public grievance redressal o Sending and receiving information regarding land records. have further built upon this initiative. The estimated saving of 70 million man-hours of citizen time valued at US$ 35 mil (investment in CARD US$ 6million).CARD – Registration Project (State Government of Andhra Pradesh) Computerisation Administration of Registration Department (CARD) impacting 10 million citizens over a period of 3 years. etc. This has positively 12 . Similar initiatives in other states like SARITA (State Government of Maharashtra) STAR (State Government of Tamil Nadu). caste certificates and other official documents. income certificates. caste & income certificates and Rural Market (Gaon ka Bazaar).8 million titles with title searches made in 1. It also provides services such as Information on Mandi (farm products market) rates.Integrated Citizen Services Center (State Government of Rajasthan) • Implemented using a PPP (Public Private Partnership) model • Private partner paid by the government department / agency • G2C services like: o Payment of electricity. telephone bills o Payment of taxes o Ticket Reservations o Filing of Passport applications o Registration of birth/death o Payment by cash/cheque/ credit card The above cases of e-Governance initiatives are only illustrative. most citizen services are provided by state i.4 million cases. o Rural e-mail facility.e. fruits and other items e-Mitra . The system ensures transparency in valuation of property and efficient document management system. water.e. provincial governments and very few by the central i. village auction site etc. rural e-mail facility. federal government. In India. LOKMITRA (State Government of Himachal Pradesh) • Offers e-governance services: o Online registration of applications. It has completed registration of 2. On-line public grievance redressal. Many of the State Governments have successfully implemented several such initiatives. However. village auction site etc.
The vision of NeGP is to make all Government services accessible to the common man in his locality through common service delivery outlets. enhancing crop productivity. who have few opportunities to interact with government and benefit from its services and schemes Include all sections of the society in the mainstream of development Enabling rural and traditionally marginalized segments of the population to gain fast and convenient access to services in their own neighborhoods. This plan attempts to cover all the important areas relating to e-Governance – Policy. its vision and proposed strategy. Infrastructure. etc. food security. marketability and commercial information relating to agricultural products. ministries/departments. 10. Assessment and Awareness etc. etc. Provide greater access to excluded groups.impacted the quality of life of citizens. Government Process Reengineering. The focus of the plan includes the following sectors/projects: Agriculture E-governance projects in the agricultural sector can provide benefit to farmers and the rural people and also enhance the lives of urban poor. Training. The implementation strategy envisages clear definition of service goals and metrics for each project and structured stakeholder consultations with all stakeholders including citizens and civil society organizations before the service goals of each project are firmed up. 13 . enhancing the reach of and ease of access to micro-credit. The main programs relevant to vulnerable and marginalized groups are registration of births and deaths. Even at the stage of formulation of the NeGP. Project Management. grievances and suggestions. health programs. Hence e-Governance affords an excellent opportunity for India to radically improve the quality of governance and thereby: Allow for two-way communication between government and citizens not only for service delivery but also to receive opinions of citizens on policies and government performance . Finances. Municipalities The coordinating agency is the Ministry of Urban Development. There are numerous subprojects pertaining to provision of timely expert advice to farmers. IT industry representatives and civil society organizations. nsultations were held with various stakeholders including state governments. across the Central and State Governments. the Government of India has formulated a national program – the National e-governance Plan (NeGP). Capacity Building. National E-Governance Program Taking note of the potential of e-governance to improve the quality of life of the vast population of the country.
it is often confusing and time-consuming to have to visit different departments and identify the right official or office to avail of some service. 11. it is aimed to establish 100. On the basis of the range of figures provided in these surveys. Findings from Existing Surveys In industrialized countries there have been a few surveys of ICT projects in government . One overview concludes. The CSCs provide assisted community access points – a necessity in a country with relatively low levels of literacy and ICT penetration in rural areas. we can estimate that something like one-fifth to one-quarter of industrialized country government ICT projects fall into the total failure category. infrastructure development etc. provision of basic services. and that only a minority fall into the success category. "successful examples of computerization can be found . Partial failure : major goals for the initiative were not attained and/or there were significant undesirable outcomes.000 CSCs predominantly in the rural areas to serve the needs of the traditionally underserved areas. We can divide e-government initiatives into three camps: • • • Total failure : the initiative was never implemented or was implemented but immediately abandoned. This one stop shop is also helpful in increasing accessibility. Under this program. enabling faster service delivery. something like one-third to three-fifths fall into the partial failure category. Success and Failure in e-Government Projects This section is dedicated to the analysis of success and failure in the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in governmental activities. Common Service Centres (CSCs) It is one of the integrated projects envisioned in NeGP. but 14 . Success : most stakeholder groups attained their major goals and did not experience significant undesirable outcomes. These centres are very effective in providing multiple services provided by different departments at a single location. Current survey evidence from developing/transitional countries is very limited. For a common citizen. curbing corruption and reducing difficulties faced by vulnerable and marginalized groups. Gram Panchayats (elected village administration) The important programmes being implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development for poverty reduction are employment generation. The objective is to increase participation of rural population in the government and women empowerment.
there is no evidence.frustrating stories of systems which failed to fulfill their initial promise are more frequent" . reports from individual developing countries find failure to be the dominant theme . likewise. with examples summarized below: Health information systems in South Africa's public sector: widespread partial failure of high cost systems with little use of data . perhaps considerably higher. a poll was conducted on the egov4dev mailing list. to support the idea that egovernment failure rates in developing/transitional countries should be any lower than those in industrialized countries. At the very least. • • • IS in the Thai public sector: "failure cases seem to be the norm in Thailand at all governmental levels" . It produced the following estimates: Classification Total Success Partial Failure Total Failure Percentage 20% 30% 50% 15 .to support the idea that e-government failure rates in D/TCs might be higher. So. nor is there any theoretical reason. there are plenty of practical reasons such as lack of technical and human infrastructure . we can estimate the following thresholds levels: Classification Success Partial Failure Total Failure Percentage 15%60%+ 25%+ Table 1: Success and Failure of eGovernment in Developing/Transitional Countries (Past Survey Estimates) Poll Results In September 2002. Failure seems to be the main message here and. A few more specific multiple-case studies have been conducted. Donor-funded public sector ICT projects in China: all were found to be partial failures World Bank-funded public sector ICT projects in Africa: almost all were partial failures. often systems that closed down after a year or so of operation . On the other hand. then.
The figures cannot therefore be seen to have strong statistical significance. the first:last category ratio can be seen to have indicative value for adjustment purposes (see below). However. Survey Results Further evidence comes from the survey of e-government case reports. This is supported by interviews with the case study providers. some of whom were aware of total failures in their organisation. However. incorporation of total failures into the assessment framework is difficult and it is therefore likely that the figures provided underestimate the proportion of total failures. into one of the three outcome categories. Classification Success Partial Failure Total Failure Total Number (Percentage) 7 (17%) 29 (69%) 6 (14%) 42 (100%) Table 3: Success and Failure of eGovernment in Developing/Transitional Countries (Current Survey Estimates. but felt unable to use them. and the 'partial failure' category is a residual from votes which were only cast on the first and last categories. unadjusted) The case reports are works submitted for academic assessment.Table 2: Success and Failure of eGovernment in Developing/Transitional Countries (Poll Estimates) Only fifteen respondents voted to produce these results. with evidence. Each case is classified. There has been no systematic evaluation of biases that may arise because of this assessment or because of the group from which the reports are drawn. adjusted) 16 . (Follow this link to view a thumbnail sketch of each case). Adjusting the figures on the basis of the poll result ratio of total failure:success produces the following figures: Classification Success Partial Failure Total Failure Total Percentage (Number) 15% (7) 50% (29) 35% (18) 100% (54) Table 4: Success and Failure of eGovernment in Developing/Transitional Countries (Current Survey Estimates.
In simple terms. a further half are partial failures. but in which the tactical or strategic management components do not work. we cannot use these figures as evidence that e-government failure rates are higher in developing/transitional countries than in industrialised countries. Most of the successes are operational-level systems that automate basic clerical functions like data processing. the Exchange explains the causes of e-government failure and success. the greater the chance of success. Two models for understanding these causes have been developed. The Factor Model identifies a set of ten key factors: external pressure.11. and roughly one-seventh are successes. overall vision/strategy. Because of limitations in the methods used. From analysing these and other cases. One plain conclusion is that. design. The smaller the gap. through middle/tactical management in the middle. the management pyramid goes from clerical/operational functions at the bottom. internal political desire. 17 . the higher up the management pyramid you go. project management. the greater the likelihood of failure. The Design-Reality Gap Model identifies a gap that exists for all e-government projects between the design assumptions/requirements and the reality of the client public agency. competencies. technological infrastructure. Understanding e-Government Success and Failure The working estimates from the two surveys suggest that more than one-third of egovernment projects in developing/transitional countries are total failures. to senior/strategic management functions at the top. Presence or absence of these factors will determine success or failure. the clear weight of evidence is that the great majority of e-government projects are failures of some kind. and other. Many of the partial failures are systems in which the operational component works. Systematic analysis of the individual cases suggests a mix of points and issues. the greater the risk that the project will fail. The larger this gap between design and reality. change management. However. politics/selfinterest.
to fundamentally change as to how the government operates. both in terms of direction and magnitude.Conclusion It is evident from above discussion that objectives of achieving e-governance and transforming India goes far beyond mere computerization of stand alone back office operations. The change in the mindset to develop and accept the distributed and flat structured e-governance system is required at the top level system to beat the inertia. It will require basic change in work culture and goal orientation. The proposed changes are likely to be met with a lot of inertia which can not be overcome by lower and middle level officials with half hearted attempts to diffuse the technology. and simultaneous change in the existing processes. 18 . It will require skilled navigation to ensure a smooth transition from old processes and manual operations to new automated services without hampering the existing services. This can be achieved by initially moving ahead in smaller informed initiatives in a time bound manner and avoiding large and expensive steps without understanding the full social implications.12. Every small step thus taken should be used to learn about hurdles and improve upon the next steps. processing and retrieving the information through an electronic system and use that information for decision making. It means . and this implies a new set of responsibilities for the executive and politicians. Foremost of them is to create a culture of maintaining.