# J.D.

Jobson

Applied Multivariate Data Analysis
Volume II: Categorical and Multivariate Methods With 85 illustrations in 108 parts With a diskette

Springer-Verlag
New York Berlin Heidelberg London Paris Tokyo Hong Kong Barcelona Budapest

Standardized Residuais.1 Multivariate Data Analysis.1. Inference for Lambda 6. Hypergeometric. The Independence Model as a Composite of Three Simple Models. Multinomial. Measurement Scales and Analysis 6. Product Multinomial Distribution. Exploratory and Comirmatory Analysis 6.4 Models for Two-Dimensional Tables Equal Cell Probability Model.4 An Outline of the Techniques to be Studied Topics in Volume II 6.3 Measures of Association Goodman and Kruskal's Lambda. Product Multinomial. The Loglinear Model with Interaction. Poisson.Contents Preface Chapter 6 CONTINGENCY TABLES 6.1 Bivariate Distributions for Categorical Data Joint Density Table.2 Statistical Inference in Two-Dimensional Tables The Two-Dimensional Contingency Table. Parameters for the Loglinear Model.3 Data Collection and Statistical Inference Probability Samples and Random Samples. Indepencence. Sampling Model Assumptions.2 Two-Dimensional Contingency Tables 6.1 Data Matrices 6. Row and Column Proportions. Data Matrices and Measurement Scales 6. Sampling Models for Contingency Tables. The Saturated Model. Correspondence Analysis 6.1. Test of Independence.2. Odds Ratios 6. Qualitative Scales. Poisson Distribution.2.2. Loglinear Characterization for Cell Densities. A Loglinear Model for Independence. Matrix Notation for Loglinear Model vii 1 1 2 7 8 10 11 12 17 24 27 .2.1. Constant Row or Column Densities.1. Row and Column Profiles.2 Measurement Scales Quantitative Scales.

3.3. Quasi-loglinear Models for Incomplete Tables 35 42 43 46 46 47 60 70 77 .5 Statistical Inference for Loglinear Models The Loglinear Model Defined in Terms of Cell Frequencies.2. No Three-Way Interaction.2 Some Examples Three-way Interaction. Definitions of Parameters in Terms of Cell Frequencies. Notation for Loglinear Models. Loglinear Models for Three-Way Tables.4 The Effects of Collapsing a Contingency Table and Structural Zeroes Collapsing Contingency Tables. Multiplicative Form of the Loglinear Model.6 An Additive Characterization for Cell Densities 6.3 Multidimensional Contingency Tables 6.3. Standardized Estimates of Loglinear Parameters.2. Random Zeroes.xiv Contents 6. Conditional Independence.1 The Three-Dimensional Contingency Table Models for Three-Way Tables. Inference for the Independence Model. Other Models for Three-Way Tables.2.2.7 Two-Dimensional Contingency Tables in a Multivariate Setting Simpson's Paradox 6. Summary of Loglinear Model Fitting Procedure. No Three-Way Interactions Model. Standardized Estimates and Standardized Residuais. Tests of Partial and Marginal Association. Model Selection. Conditional Independence Model. Partial Independence Model. Partial Independence. Product Multinomial Sampling 6.3. Saturated Model. Inference Procedures for the Three Simple Models 6. Independence Model.3 Four-Dimensional Contingency Tables and Stepwise Fitting Procedures Stepwise Model Selection. Hierarchical Models. Marginal Association 6.8 Other Sources of Information 6. Estimation for the Loglinear Model. Goodness of Fit and Model Selection 6. Saturated Model. Structural Zeroes and Incomplete Tables. A Loglinear Representation for Some Simpler Models. Multiplicative Form of the Loglinear Model.

6 Other Sources of Information Cited Literature and References Exercises for Chapter 6 Questions for Chapter 6 Chapter 7 MULTWARIATE DISTRIBUTIONS.1 The Weighted Least Squares Theory The Product Multinomial Distribution Assumption.3. REGRESSION and CANONICAL CORRELATION 7.1 Multivariate Distributions and Multivariate Random Variables Joint Distribution. Determining Linear Functions Among the Row Proportions. Adding Interaction Effects 6. Sampling Properties of the Row Proportions.4 The Weighted Least Squares Approach 6.5 Logit Models for Response Variables The Logit Function.1 Multivariate Random Variables and Samples 7. Repeated Measurement Designs.5 Two or More Response Variables Defining Response Functions.4.4.4.3. Relationship to Logistic Regression. Conditional Distributions and Independence. Continuation Differences. Polychotomous Response Variables 6. Weighted Sums for Ordinal Responses 6.4.2 Statistical Inference for the Weighted Least Squares Procedure 6. Partitioning the Random Variable. INFERENCE.4.6 Other Sources of Information 6.Contents 6. The Linear Model to be Estimated.1. Correlation Matrix xv 82 87 87 87 96 98 102 104 115 116 117 121 131 131 132 . Continuation Ratios 6. Mean Vector and Covariance Matrix.4.3 Some Alternative Analyses Marginal Analysis. Averaging or Summing Response Functions. Determining the Weighted Least Squares Estimator 6.4 Weighted Least Squares Estimation for Logit Models The Logit Model as a Special Case of a Weighted Least Squares Model. Fitting a Logit Model.

Mahalanobis Distance and Generalized Variance. Distribution of Probability Density Contour 7. Sample Correlation Matrix. Conditional Distributions.xvi Contents 7. Partial Correlation 7.4 Other Sources of Information 7.4. Linear Transformations.4 Inference for the Multivariate Normal 7.1 Testing for Normality Mahalanobis Distances from the Sample Mean.4 Other Sources of Information 136 140 144 144 145 7. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors for Sums of Squares and Cross Product Matrices 7. Generalized Variance for Correlation Matrices. p-Dimensional Ellipsoid. Constant Probability Density Contour.3 Geometrie Interpretations for Data Matrices p-Dimensional Space.2 The Multivariate Normal Distribution 7.1.1 The Multivariate Normal Multivariate Normal Density. Generalized Variance.2 Multivariate Samples Sample Mean Vector and Covariance Matrix.3.3 Testing for Normality. Multivariate Regression Function. Outliers and Robust Estimation 7.2 Partitioning the Normal Marginal Distributions. Hotelling's T 2 .2. Inferences for Linear Functions 146 148 148 150 156 157 157 157 . Multivariate Trimming 7.3.1. Trace Measure of Overall Variance.2 Multivariate Outliers Multivariate Outliers and Mahalanobis Distance.3 Robust Estimation Obtaining Robust Estimators of Covariance and Correlation Matrices. n-Dimensional Space. Testing for Multivariate Outliers. Multivariate Skewness and Kurtosis.2. Multiple Outhers 7.1 Inference Procedures for the Mean Vector Sample Likelihood Function.1.3. Transforming to Normality 7. Simultaneous Confidence Regions. Inference.3. Sums of Squares and Cross Product Matrices. Multivariate Central Limit Theorem 7.

3 Other Sources of Information Cited Literature and References Exercises for Chapter 7 xvii 160 163 165 169 169 170 181 190 191 193 . Testing the Hypothesis that Some Coefficients are Zero. Influence. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for VaUdity of Univariate F Test 7. Total Redundancy.5. Canonical Weights and Canonical Variables. Structure Correlations or Canonical Loadings. The Canonical Variables.3 Mahalanobis Distance of the Mean Vector from the Origin Mahalanobis Distance of Mean Vector from the Origin. Residuais.1 Multivariate Regression The Multivariate Regression Function. Application to Financial Portfolios 7. Sample Canonical Correlation Analysis. Zellner's Seemingly Unrelated Regression Model 7.2 Repeated Measures Comparisons Repeated Measurements on a Single Variable. Residuais.4. An Alternative Test Statistic.2 Canonical Correlation Derivation of Canonical Relationships.4 Inference for the Covariance and the Correlation Matrices Wishart Distribution. Relationship to Generalized Least Squares. Test for Equal Variance-Equal Covariance Structure. Test for the Hyunh-Feldt Pattern. Influence. Other Tests.5. Inference for Canonical Correlation. Outliers and Cross Validation 7. Redundancy Analysis and Proportion of Variance Explained. Inferences for Linear Functions. Relationship to Multiple Linear Regression. Relationship to Ordinary Least Squares. Test Statistics for Repeated Measures Designs. A Test for Zero Correlation. Estimation of the Error Covariance Matrix.4.Contents 7. Repeated Measures in a Randomized Block Design.5. Partial and Multiple Correlation 7.5 Other Sources of Information 7. Independent Blocks.5 Multivariate Regression and Canonical Correlation 7. Outliers and Cross Validation. Equal Correlation Structure.4. Relation to Multiple Regression. Estimation of the Multivariate Regression Model.4. Redundancy Measure for a Given Canonical Variate. Profile Characterization. Sphericity Test and Test for Independence. An Eigenvalue Problem.

DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS and QUALITATIVE RESPONSE MODELS 8.1.6 Other Sources of Information 8. Statistical Inference for MANOVA. Multivariate Regression and Analysis of Covariance Some Relationships to the Multivariate Regression Test for H0: ABM = 0. Notation for Samples. Correlation Ratio. An Alternative Test Statistic. Among Group Sum of Squares Matrix.2. Mean Vector for Group k and Common Covariance Matrix. Cell Parameter Coding. Notation for Several Multivariate Populations. Horizontal Profiles Given Parallel Profiles.1.4 Balanced Two-Way MANOVA The Model. Equal Profiles Given Parallel Profiles.2 Discriminant Analysis 8. Inference.5 An Unbalanced MANOVA with Covariate 8. The Special Case of Two Groups.xviii Contents 195 Questions for Chapter 7 Chapter 8 MANOVA.1 One-Way Multivariate Analysis of Variance Comparison to Univariate Analysis of Variance. 209 209 209 222 229 234 239 241 242 244 . Testing for the Equality of Covariance Matrices 8. Canonical Discriminant Functions. An Eigenvalue Problem. The Multivariate Paired Comparison Test 8. A Bonferroni Approximation.3 Profile Analysis with Repeated Measurements Comparing Profiles. Within Group Sum of Squares Matrix.1. Sums of Squares Matrices. Parallel Profiles. The Non-Full Rank Design Matrix. Bartlett's Test. Multivariate Analysis of Covariance 8. Sample Grand Mean Vector.1.1 Fisher's Discriminant Criterion and Canonical Discriminant Analysis Fisher's Discriminant Criterion. Grand Mean Vector. Sample Mean Vector and Sample Covariance Matrix for Group k. Wilk's Lambda Likelihood. Total Sum of Squares Matrix. Ratio F-Statistic.2 Indicator Variables.1.1 Multivariate Analysis of Variance 8. Horizontal Profiles 8. Multiple Comparison Procedures Based on Two Group Comparisons. Inferences for Canonical Discriminant Functions.1. The Multivariate Analysis of Variance Model.

Split Sample.2.2. The Role of the Intercept and Categorical Variables.2. Stepwise Logistic Regression. Discriminant Analysis and Dimension Reduction 8. Logistic Regression with c Explanatory Variables. Maximum Likelihood Criterion.2 Discriminant Functions and Classification Discrimination Between Two Groups with Parameters Known. Covariance Matrix for Estimated Coefficients.A Caution. Effect of Correlation Structure on Discriminant Analysis.3.3 Qualitative Response Regression Models and Logistic Regression 8. Comparison of Correlation Coefficients and Discriminant Function Coefiicients. Jackknife Procedure. Newton-Raphson Procedure. Discriminant Analysis and Canonical Correlation. Bias When Parameters are Unknown 8. Testing for Zero Intercept. Evaluation of a Discriminant Function as a Classification Mechanism. The Jackknife Approach. Multiple Group Classification. Probability as a Function of Other Variables.2. Interpretation of the Discriminant Analysis Solution. Inference for the Dichotomous Logistic Regression Model. Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Dichotomous Logistic Regression. Interpretation Using Correlations.5 Other Sources of Information 8. Alternative Response Functions. Classification of an Unknown. Minimax Criterion.1 The Dichotomous Response Model The Point Binomial. Minimum Total Probability of Misclassification Criterion. Comparing Nested Models and Inference for Coefficients. Graphical Approach to Group Characterization.Contents An Alternative Test Statistic-F. Infiuence Di- xix 258 274 277 278 278 279 . Summary. Dummy Variables as Explanatory Variables . Bayes Theorem Criterion. More Than Two Groups 8. Goodness of Fit. Classification in Practice. Fisher Criterion and Mahalanobis Distance. Nearest Neighbor Method 8. Minimum Cost Criterion. The Fitted Model and Classification. Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness of Fit Test.3 Tests of Sufficiency and Variable Selection Two Groups.4 Discrimination Without Normality Discrimination Using Ranks. Quadratic Discriminant Function and Unequal Covariance Matrices.

Generalization to r Principal Components.4 The Various Forms of X'X and Principal Components Interpretations Using Correlations.3.5 8. A Conditional Probability Approach 8.2 8.4 299 303 304 8.1 A Classic Example 9.1 Principal Components 9.1.3.3.1.3.2 An Ad Hoc Approach 9.3. The Chi and Deviance Statistics. Principal Component Scores 9. Principal Components and Multivariate Random Variables. Spectral Decomposition.3 8. Other Nested Partitions. Weighted Least Squares or Minimum Logit Chi-Square Estimation Other Sources of Information The Multinomial Logit Model Parameterization of the Model.7 8. Continuation Ratios.xx Contents agnostics. Other Sources of Information The Conditional Logit Model and Consumer Choice Multivariate Qualitative Response Models Loglinear Models for Dependent Variables. The Füll Rank Case. Standardized Principal Components. 327 329 334 345 346 346 346 350 367 . Using Multinomial Logit Models. The Eigenvalue Problem.9 321 321 322 Cited Literature and References Exercises for Chapter 8 Questions for Chapter 8 Chapter 9 PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS.3. Communality or Variance Explained. The Deviance Statistic.3. Inference for the Multinomial Logit.1. Alternative Characterizations and Geometry.3.1.8 8.6 306 306 8. Influence. FACTORS and CORRESPONDENCE ANALYSIS 9. Leverage.3 The Principal Components Approach Characterizing the First Principal Component. The DFBETA Measure The Probit Model Logistic Regression and Probit Analysis: A Second Example Multiple Observations and Design Variables The Model and Maximum Likelihood Estimation. The Chi Statistic. Estimation Using Single Equation Methods. Relation Between Loglinear Parameters and Logits.

Indeterminacy.6 A Second Example 9.1.2. Multiple Regression and Supplementary Points Multiple Regression. Estimation of the Common Factor Model. The Geometry of Factor Analysis 9. The Principal Components Biplot. A Useful Preliminary Test. Factor Analysis Using the Correlation Matrix.1. Equal Correlation Structure and the Number of Factors.1 The Factor Analysis Model and Estimation The Model. The Broken Stick Model. Oblique Rotation. A Test for Equality of Eigenvalues in Covariance Matrices. Quartimax Criterion. Geometrie Mean Criterion. Cross Validation.3.2 Biplots and Matrix Approximation 428 Constructing Biplots.2.5 Principal Components.2 The Exploratory Factor Analysis Model 9.2 Factor Rotation The Theory of Rigid Rotation. Rank Correlation and Robust Principal Components Analysis 9. Should all the Variables be Retained 9. Average Criterion. Supplementary Dimensions and Points 9. Symmetrie Biplot .3 Singular Value Decomposition and Matrix Approximation 426 9. Determination of the Number of Factors.3.1. Covariance Biplot.2.3 Factor Scores 9. Goodness of Fit.4 The Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method The Maximum Likelihood Approach. Akaike and Schwartz Criteria 9.Contents How Many Principal Components. Influence. Robust Principal Components Analysis. Principal Factor Approach 9. Procrustes Rotation.7 Other Sources of Information 9.1 Singular Value Decomposition and Principal Components 427 9. Other Rotation Methods.2. Varimax. Orthomax.7 Other Sources of Information xxi 378 381 388 388 389 398 410 413 417 419 426 9.5 Results From a Simulation Study 9. Scree Test.6 Outliers and Robust Principal Components Analysis Identification of Outliers.2. Estimation of the Factor Model Using Principal Components. A Cross Validation Approach.2.2.

Partial Contributions to Total Inertia. Coordinates for Row and Column Profiles. Squared Cosines.4. Standardized Euclidean Distance. Correspondence Matrix and Row and Column Masses. Review of One-way ANOVA Notation.xxii Contents 9.2 Other Sources of Information 9. Relationsbip to Pearson Chi-square Statistic. Correspondence Analysis for Multidimensional Tables 9.4.5 Correspondence Analysis in Multidimensional Tables Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Burt Matrices 9. Row and Column Profiles. Using Mean-Centered Variables. Canonical Correlation 9.6 Other Sources of Information Cited Literature and References Exercises for Chapter 9 Questions for Chapter 9 Chapter 10 CLUSTER ANALYSIS and MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCALING 10. Euclidean Distance. Bivariate Correlation.4. Total Inertia.1 Proximity Matrices Derived from Data Matrices 10.1 Correspondence Analysis for Two-Dimensional Tables Some Notation.1 The Measurement of Proximity Between Objects Similarity. Relationship to Generalized Singular Value Decomposition of O.3. Generalized Least Squares Approximation.4 Correspondence Analysis 9. Simultaneous Linear Regression. Row and Column Profile Deviations and Eigenvectors. Departure from Independence. Some Alternative Approaches to Correspondence Analysis.4 Other Sources of Information 9. Generalized Singular Value Decomposition. Dissimilarity. Euclidean Distance and the Centroid. Principle of Distributional Equivalence. Scaling the Response Categories. Manhattan or City Block 453 453 461 462 465 467 469 474 483 484 486 .3 Correspondence Analysis and Prequency Response Tables A Dual Scaling Approach. Mahalanobis Distance and Multivariate Distance.4.4. Euclidean Distance in Matrix Form. Averaging the Profiles.3 Other Sources of Information 431 431 433 9.4.1.

Some Relationships Between Similarity and Euclidean Distance. A Binary Data Example. Distance Measures Averaged Over Variables. Some Multivariate Approaches to Hierarchical Clustering.1.2 The Measurement of Proximity Between Groups Single Linkage or Nearest Neighbor. Cophenetic Correlation and Cluster Validity.2 Cluster Analysis 10. Choosing the Number of Clusters. Principal Components and Factor Analysis. Stress. Complete Linkage of Furthest Neighbor. Mixtures of Categorical and Interval Scaled Variables 10. Similarity Matrices. Algorithms for Determining Proximity. An Example with Outliers 10. Profile Shape. Incremental Sums of Squares. 10. Test Statistics for Number of Clusters. ANOVA. Pseudo-t2 and Beales' F-Ratio. Relationship to Analysis of Variance. Scatter and Level. Matching Coefficients for Binary Variables. Sums of Squares Derived from MANOVA Matrices.3 Combining Hierarchical Cluster Analysis With Other Multivariate Methods Interpretation of the Cluster Solution. Pseudo-F. Point-Biserial Correlation. Comparison of Group Proximity Measures. Correlation Type Measures of Similarity.2 Assessing the Hierarchical Solution and Cluster Choice Dendograms and Derived Proximities. Gamma and G(+). Ä2-Type Measures.2. Correlation-Type Measures of Cluster Quality. Distance Between Centroids.2. Measures Based on Centroids and Sums of Squares. Some ANOVAType Statistics.Contents Metrie.1 Hierarchical Methods Agglomerative versus Divisive Processes. Principal Components Analysis Prior to Cluster Analysis xxiii 508 518 519 534 553 . Minkowski Metrics. Proximity Measures for Categorical Data. A Multivariate Measure of Proximity 10.2. Double Mean-Centered. Ultrametric Inequality. MANOVA and Discriminant Analysis. Alternative Derived Proximities Based on Centroids. An Algorithm for Updating the Proximity Measures. Average Linkage.

3. The Additive Constant Problem.3 Other Scaling Models Individual Difference Models.6 Other Sources of Information 559 563 568 568 570 10. Relation to Cluster Analysis. Shepard-Kruskal Algorithm. On the Measurement of Cluster Recovery and External Measurement Criteria 10. Thefc-MeansAlgorithm.4 Other Clustering Methods Partitioning Methods. Variable Standardization Procedures. The Fundamental Theorem of MDS.2 Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling Ordinal Scaling. Density Methods.3. The Nonmetric Phase and Monotone Regression. Using Similarities. Clumping Techniques or Fuzzy Clustering 10. Improving the Solution. The Pool Adjacent Violators Algorithm. Ties in the Original Dissimilarities. The ALSCAL Algorithm 10. Monte Carlo Studies. The Metrie Phase. Selection and Interpretation Phase. Cluster Choice.3. Metrie Multidimensional Scaling Beginning with D. The Evaluation Phase. Classification Typologies and Q-Sort Methods.5 Cluster Validity and Cluster Analysis Methodology Cluster Validity. Application of Metrie Scaling 10. Selecting the Initial Partition. The MDS Solution.1 Metrie Multidimensional Scaling Constructing a Positive Semidefinite Matrix Based on D.xxiv Contents 10. An Alternative Derivation for A. Evaluation of Internal Criterion Measures.2. An Approximate Solution. Relation to Cluster Analysis. Metrie MDS and Principal Coordinates Analysis. Preference Models and Multidimensional Unfolding 10.2. Evaluation of Clustering Algorithms.3.3 Multidimensional Scaling 10.2. Monte Carlo Studies of the Stress Function. The Underlying Cluster Population. Ties and Types of Monotonicity.4 Other Sources of Information Cited Literature and References Exercises for Chapter 10 Questions for Chapter 10 584 601 602 603 606 612 .

Product of Two Matrices. Homogeneous Equations . Submatrix 1.3 Determinants and Rank Determinant. Basis for an n-Dimensional Space. Orthogonal Matrix 2. Multiplicative Inverse.5 Partitioned Matrices Product of Partitioned Matrices. Length of a Vector. Kronecker Product 1. Symmetrie Matrix. Inverse of a Partitioned Matrix. Transpose of a Matrix. Positive Definite. Diagonal Elements.Trivial and Nontrivial Solutions 617 617 617 620 625 629 630 632 633 634 634 636 639 .7 Derivatives of Matrix Expressions 2.Contents XXV 1. Relation Between Inverse and Determinant. Determinant of a Partitioned Matrix 1.6 Expectations of Random Matrices 1. Linearly Independent Vectors. Linear Transformation. Directed Line Segment. Projection 2. Scalar Multiplication of a Matrix. Diagonal Matrix. Additive Inverse.1 Matrices Matrix. Angle Between Vectors. Addition of Matrices. Linear Algebra 2. Null or Zero Matrix. Rotation. Positive Semidefinite. Orthogonal Transformation.2 Linear Dependence And Linear Transformations Linearly Dependent Vectors.1 Geometrie Representation for Vectors n Dimensional Space. Square Matrix. Matrix Algebra 1. Nonnegative Definite 1. Identity Matrix. Idempotent Matrix.2 Matrix Operations Equality of Matrices. Nonsingular. Coordinates. Row Vector and Column Vector. Rank of a Matrix 1. Generation of a Vector Space and Rank of a Matrix.3 Systems of Equations Solution Vector for a System of Equations. Orthogonal Vectors. Scalar Multiplication. Congruent Matrix. Addition of Vectors. Negative Definite. Trace of a Matrix.4 Quadratic Forms and Positive Definite Matrices Quadratic Form.

Data Set V7. Eigenvalues. Data Set V13. Matrix Approximation. Eigenvalues for Nonnegative Definite Matrices 3. Projection.Projection Operator 640 3. Complete Singular Value Decomposition. Data Set V8. Characteristic Polynomial. Data Set V18. Data Set V2. Data Set VI. Spectral Decomposition. Data Set V20. Data Set V15. Orthogonal Complement. Data Set V12. Data Set V6. Data Set V19. Ordinary Least Squares Solution Vector. Data Set V10. Projection Operators and Least Squares Column Space.1 Eigenvalue Structure for Square Matrices Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors.xxvi Contents 2. Data Set V21. Latent Roots. Relationship to Spectral Decomposition and Eigenvalues DATA APPENDLX FOR VOLUME II Introduction . Data Set V17. Idempotent Matrix . Data Set V16.2 Singular Value Decomposition Left and Right Singular Vectors. Characteristic Roots.4 Colunm Spaces. Data Set V9. Generalized Singular Value Decomposition. Data Set V4. Data Set Vll. Data Set V22 Table VI Table V2 Table V3 Table V4 Table V5 Table V6 Table V7 Table V8 Table V9 Table V10 Table Vll Table V12 Table V13 Table V14 Table V15 Table V16 642 642 647 651 651 658 660 662 663 667 670 674 678 682 684 686 688 690 694 696 697 . Eigenvalue Structure and Singular Value Decomposition 3. Data Set V5. Data Set V14. Data Set V3. Eigenvalues and Eignevectors for Real Symmetrie Matrices and Some Properties.

Contents Table V17 Table V18 Table V19 Table V20 Table V21 Table V22 AUTHOR INDEX SUBJECT INDEX xxvii 699 700 700 701 702 703 711 714 .