Ibn-al-Najjār: A Neglected Arabic Historian Author(s): Caesar E.

Farah Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 84, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1964), pp. 220230 Published by: American Oriental Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/596555 . Accessed: 15/01/2013 04:32
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it becomes all the more tempting to cast some light on him and on his works. Fawdt al-Wafaydt. assignments. was but one of at least twenty-one major works on history and literature which he authored during a lifetime devoted to scholarship and teaching. A fragment of this valuable work is preserved in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris: manuscrits arabes. reportedly of three hundred parts compressed into thirty volumes. 745. pp. 1334 A./1922). Shadhardt al-dhahab ft akhbar man dhahab. Histoire de la litt6rature arabe (Paris.). existing first-hand accounts 2 of ibn-al-Najjdr refer to his erudition and Fadl 'Abd-al-Razzaq ibn-al-Fuwati al-Baghdadi. p. Tadhkirat al-Huff a. 1925). 2 There is an account by his contemporary and associate Yaqfut al-Rfimi in his Kitab irshad al-arib ila ma'rifat al-adib. 1882). n. his research. AlDubaythi's biography of ibn-al-Najjar. 28-29. Vol. F. This monumental work. owing largely to the fact that their works survived as a testimony to their scholarly endeavors while his were mostly lost. pp. p. and when it is further understood that most of these have acknowledged their frequent dependence on him for information. associates. preserved in Dar al-Kutub (Cairo) and listed in Fihrist al-kutub al-'arabiyah fi-'l-maktabah al-K hudaywiyah. p. abu-al-Falah ibn-al-'Imad al-Hanbali. Geschichte der Arabischen Literatur. fol. (Leipzig and London. V Cairo. 360 (henceforth GAL and GAL S). 226. 229. H. This author is known to us as Muhibbulldh abu. J. p. II (Cairo. and in his relationship to his students. he appears to have been the leading Shdfii muhaddith of his age and. D. Die Geschichtschreiber der Araber und ihre Werke (Gottingen. also by another contemporary. Jahrhunderts der Hidschret. Wafayat al-a'ydn. 357. with a cheerful expression of face. When it is considered that such historians of renown as Ydq-dt al-Hamawi. Carl Brockelmann. Shammai. 150. Gustav Flilgel. 1901). many of whom lived to witness its destruction by the Mongol hordes of Hllalgu. 205.). Prologue of the seventh century of the Hijrah. 7 vols. 2179. Clement Huart. 122-23. the image of William Popper was portrayed indeed a true son of his people. the leading authority on biographical history as well. at least so it seems for the present. is available in the introductory material of Ahmad ibn-Aybak ibn-al-Dimyati's manuscript al-Mustaffdd min Dhayl ta'rikh Baghdad (li-ibn-al-Najjar). Vol. a worthy descenby applying to him the words of a great Jewish dant of an Isaiah. 1835-58). & tr. 1937).220 FISCHEL: William Popper (1874-1963) and His Contribution to Islamic Scholarship demonstrated in his teaching. pp.). was executed by a scholar who earned the high esteem of contemporaries and successors alike.H. Indeed. 1951 A. H. The principal biographical reference to ibn-al-Najjar. No. S. 1951). He dwelt in obscurity while associates and disciples of lesser competence gained recognition. an extensive biographical compilation of the leading notables of Baghdad. Muhammad ibnShakir ibn-Ahmad al-Kutubi. Shams-al-Din abu-'Abdullah al-Dhahabi. p. 103-104. Say little and do much. 633. 1949). 1856). Kamal-al-Din abu-al- This content downloaded on Tue. There is reference to al-Mudhayyal also in IHAjji Khalfah's Kashf al-zunuin 'an al-asdmi wa-'l-funun. and colleagues. IV (Ujaydarabad.Abdulldh Muhammad al-Hasan MahmMd Hibatulldh ibn-Mahisin al-Baghdadi. ed." the performance of those manifold administrative which reflects most aptly Popper's personality. 522. 327. Literaturgeschichte der Araber bis zum Ende des 12. d. ibn-Khallikan. No. II (Cairo. No. al-Dubaythi alWasiti in his unpublished and missing al-Mudhayyal 'ala ta'rikh Baghdad lil-Khatib. ibn-al-Jawzi. upon which all subsequent accounts depend. Margoliouth (Cairo. FARAH INDIANA UNIVERSITY 1. Vol. "Shammai said:-Make thy Torah a fixed duty. H. a Hillel. pp. 1351 A. al-EUawddith al-jdmi'ah wa-'l-tajarib al-nafi'ah ft al-mi'ah al-sabi'ah (Baghdad. and receive every man At the funeral ceremony in Berkeley on June 6. and in sage." Popper was 1963. VI (Cairo. 15 Jan 2013 04:32:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . From the brief biographical sketches' IN THE COURSE we have of him. Vol. executed in three volumes according to ibn-Khallikan. and a Shammai! IBN-AL-NAJJAR: A NEGLECTED ARABIC HISTORIAN CAESAR E. Tabaqdt al-Shdftiyah al-ku bra (Cairo. and ibn-al-Athir were among his contemporaries. p. Supplementband I (Leiden. 1308 A. called ibnal-Najjar. in the "Sayings of the Fathers. however. Vol. VII (Vienna. 4a. ed. p. Vol. No. 212-14.). in the eyes of associates. von Hammer-Purgstall. is by his disciple abu-Talib 'Ali ibn-Anjab al-Baghdadi al-Sallami 1 Brief biographical sketches of ibn-al-Najjar are to be found in Taj-al-Din al-Subki. Wiistenfeld. 41. p.

Fawat. lawddith. p. ar.D. was located by this ob. No.8 a Shdfi'i historian in the tradition of ibn-al-Najjdr. p. the Ibn-al-SATi's other important work. A. No. 94. was a close friend of ibn-al-Najjar. p. a dhayl to his master's. His known biographers have very little to divulge He started off with what was to be mainly a concerning his parentage and early life. companions of Ismdll ibn-al-Fadl.H. however. and back to Baghdad where he 'Abbas al-Azzawi. exe. p. 8Abu-'Ali Muhammad ibn-Ahmad ibn-'Uthman ibnQaymaz Shams-al-Din al-Dhahabi al-Turkumani al-Fariqi al-Shafi'i was born and reared in Damascus. an excellent discourser and lecturer. 2. p." server. this is borne out by Kamal al-Sha'ari al-Mawsili in his "'Uquad al-Jaman " which alludes to ibn-al-Najjar's utilization of data gathered by Yaiiqt in his travels. he himself. 103. Ms.D. al-Hamawi. spent an undetermined interlude prior to resuming 1204-941/ 1534) (Baghdad.. with an unusual grasp of hadith.13 From there he journeyed to Damascus where he heard hadith from abu-Yaman al-Kindi and ibn-al-Khuzistani. reportedly numbering three thousand shaykhs and four hundred women.write a history of each city. fol. 1367 A. 4a. Geschicht. was born and raised in Baghdad. p. Dimyati. 122): "Ja'cu't war mit ihm befreundet. after apparently exhausting local sources. "He gives the full name of his brother as 'Ali ibn-Mahmfid ibn-al-Hasan ibn-Hibatullah ibn-Mahasin ibn-Hibatullah al-Najjar abu-al-H~asan al-Bazzaz. 46 (57). 14 The only reference to him here is in the Mustafad This content downloaded on Tue.FARAI: Ibn-al-Najjar: A Neglected Arabic Historian 221 scholarship in superlative terms. but not his history of Mecca. p.1" For the next twenty-seven 12 years he sought information from the sources. 590. 5 Irshad./1957). No. then known as ibn-al-SR'i whose famous work on biography. See GAL. but we do know the chief localities he visited of dhu-'l-Qa'dah in the year 578 of the Hijrah.7 a cloth. erhielt von ihm mundliche Mittheilungen und durfte seine Reisenotizen benutzen.'February. al-Ta'rif bi-'T-mu'arrikhin. His next stop was Isbahdn (sic). 1183. p. Irshad. 10Ydqfit. / A. 188. V (Cairo. but viving portion of his main work a biographical entry for a consanguineous brother. H. studying with a leading disciple of ibn-al-NajjAr. Shadharat. the basic tools of a budding 'lim. 3Dhahabi.. this time also lost.lingered on long enough in Mecca and Medina to merchant by profession. Kitdb jami' al-mukhta~sar ft 'unwdn al-tawdrikh wa-'uyiin al-siyar.14 From Isbahan he went to NIsdp lr and which HIajji Khalfah (Kashf. Yaiquit. To them he was the undisputed authority on hadith. 264. during the early years he spent studying in his home city of Baghdad. fol. Yaq-at describes him as "cultured. coming in personal contact with the leading muhaddithiin of his time. Ydqat openly acknowledges in his works having derived from ibn-al-Najjdr much primary material for the principal works attributed to him.4 In a biographical entry. p. According to al-Dhahabi. Fawat. and Zdhir al-Sakh5i.principal informants here were al-Ikhshid. his journey. 287. his dates are given as 673/1274 to 748/1348. 15 Jan 2013 04:32:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .3 attest to the high esteem in which he was held." But the testimony of ibn-al-Najjar himself in a number of biographical entries clearly intimates that the exchange of information worked both ways. who is also capable of composing fine poetry. 36r. Geschicht. H. . Kutubi. In his studies there he excelled in the science of Traditions. contains also reference to ibn-al-Najjar. 103-104. GAL. Tadhkirat. Wiistenfeld. the noted compiler of geographiYdq{Yt cal and biographical lexica. 205. Life We have no record of how long he stayed in each Ibn-al-Najjdr was born in Baghdad on the 23rd place. No. 410. and a group of savants known as "the companions of ibn-al-Hasin. 103. 226. 9Abu-al-Faraj 'Abd-al-Rah1man ibn-'Ali ibn-Muhammad JamRl-al-Din al-Taymi ibn-al-Jawzi al-Bakri (508 or 510 to 597 A. 213. In a surpilgrimage to the holy cities of the Hijaz.9 ibn-Kulayb. See to Aleppo where he acquired more hadith. H. 9733) mentions as bringing events up to the year 656 A. Wiistenfeld. were the noted historian ibn-al-Jawzi. Wafaydt. p. Geschichtschreiber (p. I: Fi 'ahd al-Mughuil wa-'t-Turkumdn (601 A. Among his principal informants. His biographers make no mention of him or any other member of his family. isndd and usal. A large number of disciples and followers. 173. 4 According to Wiistenfeld. Irshad. the cuted as a dhayl to ibn-al-Athir's al-Kamil ft-'T-ta'rikh. pp. p. II. 12 Twenty-eight years according to Fuwati.6 and the main informants consulted. Kutubi. 761. Vol. 1951). 13 His history of Medina has survived both in an original and also in a recension. 2131. Mustafad. p.) His forefathers came from al-Jawz near Aleppo." 10 At the age of fifteen he began his protracted journey in quest of further knowledge in the field of hadith and biographical literature. Paris. ibn-al-Ma-tus. p.. See Khallikan. a connoisseur of history and polite literature. 103. I. 1'I:Jmad. S. 264. was executed as from al-Hllshimi. the master at the age of ten was well ahead of his colleagues in the study of the fundamentals of the faith.

No. he filled also the position of lecturer in the science of hadith. 1960). 8 Mentioned only in Yaqfit's Irshad. Most authorities agree that ibn-al-Najjdr wrote no less than twenty-one major 21 The school was dedicated by the Caliph al-Mustansir. In this capacity he acquired a vast following and numerous disciples who subsequently developed reputations for scholarship in their own rights. R. . al-Mu'ayyad al-Tfisi and Zaynab al-Sa'diyah. Fawat. VII. . The dedication took place in A. D. 27. Geschicht. Shafi'i. (London. particularly in Alexandria. it appears that he started his formal education with her.19 He returned home to Baghdad and took up permanent residence there ca. S. Sanguinetti (Paris. indeed ibn-Khallikan. where he lingered on for a while.." There are discrepancies in the biographical accounts of ibn-al-Najjdr's informants and the localities where he encountered them. There he heard hadith from the associates of al-Hdfiz Ahmad al-Salafi. 2179.15 The next stretch of the journey took him to ilerat where he listened 16 to abu-Rfih. No. 1853-58). Scholarship As head and principal lecturer at the Mustansiriyah ibn-al-Najjdr soon developed an enviable reputation for his vast erudition in hadith.. dependable. to Merv. Mukhtasar ta'rikh al-bashar (Istanbuil. I (p. 19In the Tadhkirat (p. Vol. 1245). No. Wfistenfeld. See Kutubi. 3b) which relies on al-Dubaythi's biographical history. dependable . Wfistenfeld. energetic in the search of hadith . 103. 108-109. as an establishment for the study and teaching of fiqh according to the rites of the four major juridical schools: Miliki. 22 According to the narrative preserved by his biographers: "He was critical. Henry Lee. he possessed fine diction and the ability to communicate . as he was on ibn-al-Najjar. Working his way westward. No. 205) gives 624 A. S. knowledgeable. History of the Arabs.). Mah mfid al-Zamakhshari. for the date. p. 1023 " for the same. With his financial position verging on bankruptcy. 17 Entitled Dhayl ta'rikh Baghdad lil-Khatib. 358.17 This monumental work exercised a telling influence in ibn-al-Najjdr's decision to pen an addendum of his own. Khalfah. H. III. 620 A. 16Ar. enjoyed considerable fame in the Shdfi-i world as ranking muhaddithun. 869). after whom it was named. sama'a in its theological connotation. 212). lVafayat al-atyan. Hanafi and Ilanbali. 565) which erroneously gives the entry as "Leid. Hitti.D. According to a description of the Mustansiriyah by ibn-Buttfitah. al-Dhahabi refers to him as "ibn-al-Mufaddal. which refers to the oral process whereby 4adith is acquired and retained. the school was part of a complex.. 103: echoed by Kutubi. 1286 A. the one religious science which gave biographical history its greatest boost and range of development. a hospital and a library. abu-al-Muzaffaribn-alSam'ani. 1840). Vol. a good portion of which he expended on the purchase of a female slave. H. 411. No. Consult Philip K. In the Mustafdd (fol.IH. pp. al-DimyAti describes him as "an attentive hafi [memorizer of the Qur'dn]. Very shortly thereafter al-Mustansiriyah 21 formally opened its doorsand ibn-al-Najj'ar was appointed head of the school. ibnal-Najjar accepted the appointment. The order herein followed is faithful to the testimony of ibn-al-Sai as preserved in al-Dhahabi's Tadhkirat even though we have a more exhaustive list of informants in ibn-alDimyati's Mustafad (fols. After spending some time in Khordsan18 he went to Hamadhdn and Damaghan. . with kitchens. From the testimony of such disciples and admiring associates. Geschicht. Rihaah. Fawat. bringing up to date individuals and events associated with Baghdad.. baths.20 He (fol. This content downloaded on Tue. 264. 70. home of another leading Shafiti muhaddith. 15 Jan 2013 04:32:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ed. 7th ed. Irshdd. 4a). See GAL. 643 A. The testimony of those in a position to know brings out the fact that his prolific writings in no way compromised his meticulous scholarship. 3b-4a). p. 20 Fuwati. the author of the celebrated dictionary on the obituaries of the notables. Kashf. 140. p. 254-2: Fortsetzung der Geschichte von Bagdad des Abu Bekr al-Chatib. I.222 FARAII: Ibn-al-Najjar: A Neglected Arabic Historian settled in the Zafarlyah quarter of the city with only three hundred dinars in his possession. learned in history and literary studies. ibn-al-Najjar came to be regarded as one of the most reliable authorities 22 to grace the annals of historical literature in Islam. . II. executed allegedly in four hundred parts and fifteen volumes. H. Those from whom he acquired information in this city. Lugd. for much of his information. 86 (Auszug. and remained with it until his death on the 5th of Sha-bdn. p. whose father had authored an extensive addendum to the history of Baghdad. he ended his extensive travels in Egypt where he resided for a number of years. " YAqfit. (December A. 1234 according to the historian-geographer abu-al-Fida' (1273-1332). 16 Indeed very early in his youth Zaynab had a molding effect on his development. often acknowledging the role of the master in shaping their views and providing the mold for their independent scholarship. Defremery and B. on the same subject. elaborately structured and nearly self-sufficient in the essential services. p.. 179. she in turn had been a student of the renowned scholar of exegetic literature. was equally dependent on them. p. Hawadith (p. Oriental Manuscripts Purchased in Turkey (London. C.

with such fullness and meticulous attention to detail that the author earned for himself the title "al-Khatib al-thdni" (the second Khatib). which suggests that ibn-al-Najjar may have executed this work to cast further light on it. 35 Brockelmann erroneously associates the " Nuzhah" part of the title with Medina. executed ap31 parently as an addendum to ibn-Makiila's conby the full name of al-Amir abu-Nasr 'Ali Yaqfit. traveling extensively through Iraq. Nos. 2 'Imad.29 In it the author mentions every companion of Muhammad. 27 The two main sources wherein a full list is attempted are Ydqfit's Irshdd (p. 28 This is the full title appearing on the fly leaf of the surviving manuscript. according to ibn-Qadi Shuhbah. e. 104. The following is a list of titles of works known to be ibn-al-Najjdr's: 27 1. 34 and XIV. listing this work as " al-Nuzhah al-thaminah fi akhbdr al-Madinah. Shadhardt..e. with considerable orientation towards sunan (traditions) and ahklcm (principles of law). ed. 45. or to perceive the nature and extent of the contents. p. No. 1115 & 11633. p. p. In the translation of the titles there is no conscious attempt to be literal as the author's utilization of rhyme does not enable us to convey the exact meaning in English.33 5.. Casiri (Madrid. hence I have resorted to a less literal translation where desirable. p. cf.) and 'Abd-al-Ghani ibn-Sa'id (d. His father abu-'l-Qasim had served as vizier to the caliph. Escurialensis. Khalfah. Geschicht. Al-Mulchtalaf wa-'l-mu'talaf (That which differs and that which conforms). 15 Jan 2013 04:32:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 30 4. Fawat. There is a listing of this work in Bibliotheca Arab. Kutubi. Shaf'iyah. 9. Al-Durrah al-thaminah fi alchbdral-Madinah (The precious jewel pertaining to the reports of Medina). and news of its chief men of virtue as well as of the ulema who have come to it). Geschicht. Syria and Khorasan and acquiring the expert's knowledge of the Traditionists and genealogists. 31Known 23 tinuation32 of al-Khatib al-Baghdddi's celebrated work on the Traditionists entitled Kitlab al-mushtabah al-jadid. Vols. Dd'irat al-ma'drif. 1876). Tadhkirat. H. 1642. p. 233. Irshdd. This is the title by which his surviving history of the Prophet's city is known.FARAH: Ibn-al-Najja-r: A Neglected Arabic Historian 223 works 23 in history and literature. Arabs. 29 The reference is to the celebrated work on early traditions of Anas ibn-Malik (d. No. 11493. 450. The work is more commonly known as "Dhayl ta'rikh Baghdad. I (Beirut. Tabaqat. 104) and Kutubi's Fawat (p.26 Known sources so far consulted yield a rather suggestive index to the variety and range of his authorship. No. p. the Qur'an. 360. Nos. Il A significant work which appears to combine two previous titles on the congruities and incongruities in the names of the Traditionists handed down from earlier authorities on the subject. author of a significant biographical dictionary. it narrates events from 2 Safar 464 A. H. H. attributed to him. 709-711) as preserved by ibn-HIanbal. 236 and n. of the Prophet. 486. M. as an understudy of AbuAhmad ibn-Sakinah. Nuzhat 35 al-wara fi akchbdrUmm al-qura (The pleasure of man in the knowledge of events concerning the mother of towns. This content downloaded on Tue. 409 A. I. 2. Khallikan." He was killed between 475 and 487 A. by his Turkish slave. No.25he mastered the seven reading versions of Islam's most sacred text. Wfistenfeld. 25 (779-850/51 A. Kashf. Al-Muttafaq wa-'l-muftaraq (Conformities and discrepancies).34 8. i.). i. 24 Subki. i. II. H. to 3 Sha'bdn 467 A. 41. I. 719. e. Ar. of the Companions of the Prophet). Vol. H. 1760-70). 6. A. XIII. Wllstenfeld. Abu-Nasr studied in Baghdad with abu-'Abdullfah al--Husayn ibn-'Ali Q4di (sic). al-tabi' lil-Mulchtalaf. Hisp. Khalfah. The caliph bestowed upon him the title "amir. 3. 32 Done in four volumes under the heading of al-KEmil (the complete). Dhahabi. 30 Listed in the Fawat but not in the Irshad. d. 385 A. p.). 412 and 450. 8453. 34 There are various versions of the title. Mecca). 7. Tabaqit alwhich brought the list up to 840 A. H. p. 3. 8198. Hitti. Kashf. al-Q&'im. Al-'Iqd al-fa'iq fi tuyftn alchbar al-dunya wa-mahisin ta'rlch al-chala'iq (The superb necklace on the essence of reports about the world and the beauties of the history of creation).e. chief qddi of Damascus. The Musnad was not the most reliable. Kanz al-imam fi matrifat al-siyar wa-'l-ahkcdm (The treasure of the imam in the knowledge of biographies and principles of law). Wafayat. Khallikdn. D. namely abu-al-Hasan al-Ddraqutni (d. i. No. Ta'rilchli-Madinat al-Salam wa-alchbar fudaIlyaha (sic) al-atlam wa-man waradaha min 'ulamT' al-anjm 28 (A history of the City of Peace.24 His remarkable genius for retention and accuracy was in evidence during his teens when. H. 264). 360. 264. Nos. Bodleian Ms. 72. Al-Qamar al-murnir fi-'l-Musnad al-kabir (Casting light on the great Musnad). 1. for additional information consult Butrus al-Bustani. H." GAL. He came from a small town not far from Isfahan where he was born in 412 A. Wafaydt. No." GAL. This ibn-Hibatullah ibn-'Ali ibn-MAkfila al-'Ijli. 226. this appears to be a treatise tracing the genealogies of famous muhaddithfin and their places of origin. Vol. he also lists the hadith. p. Jannat al-nazirin fi matrifat al-t1bitin (A paradise for the seekers of knowledge concerning the Successors. Baghdad.

Fawdt (p. this work also survived in part. The title suggests that this work may have been executed as some sort of a travelogue. i. or those on the verge thereof. 46 Entitled Kitab 'iddltiyah. about the same time he wrote the history of Medina. Ydqfit.' al-tasr (The buds. Al-Kamill fi matrifat al-rij]l (Complete knowledge of the men. the three thousand men and four hundred women whom he taught hadith.41 21. traditional lovers. Mandqibal-imdm al-Shafti (The Panegyrics of the Imam al-Shfiti). who appears to have depended largely on Ydqfit for much of his biographical data in the Fawat. known as al-Khatlb (d. But ibn-al-Sd'i. No. this work apparently was laid out in substantial detail. who gives an independent listing also for Manctqibal-Shjf/ii. Mutjam al-shuy'flkh (A compendium of the shaykhs). In it ibn-al-Najjdr kept a record of his followers.40 20. 40 This could be interpreted as a treatise on love. ie hbar al-mushtiq ila alehbar al-'ushshdq "The title as entered by Kutubi in his Fawdt (p. perhaps a description of the places he visited on his journeys. on the types of poetry). Irshdd (p.42 reportedly composed in ten volumes and often confused with ibn-al-Najjdr's Dhayl (No. 4" Fawd'id is preferable. 15 Jan 2013 04:32:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . it is difficult to tell whether by "'ushshdq " is meant the romantic or Sfif variety of " lovers. 264). i. Kitab al-mustadrak 'ala ta'rikh al-Khatib (The book of corrections on the "History" [of Baghdad] of al-Khatib). 1. Nuzhat al-wara fi akhbctr al-qura (The pleasure of man in knowledge of the towns). Nuzhat al-taraf fi akchbdr al-zarf (The ahl pleasure of the common man in the knowledge of the men of wit). the panegyrics of al-Shafi'i).45 What at first may be confused for an independent work under the heading of Ghurar al-fara'id (The choice of precious pearls) appears to be the same as what Kutubi and Ydqiit have termed Ghurar al-fawdd 46 (The choice of what benefits). makes no reference to this work.37 14. students and disciples.). This content downloaded on Tue. There is nothing to indicate from what is known of the author's background or training that he had made any formal study of medicine. 563. e. 16. 38 It is difficult to determine whether this work contains an allegorical or actual study of what the title indicates. above). A selective anthology of the popular poetry of his times. No. a treatise on propriety and manners of speech.224 FARAH: Ibn-al-Najj'ar: A Neglected Arabic Historian (Informing him who burns with desire for knowledge of those in love). p.36 13. H. 17. one of ibn-al-Najjdr's authoritative disciples. Owing to the absence of an explanatory remark or hint. 264): Ghurar al-fawi'id: hdftl ft sitt mujalladat manaqib al-Shafl'i (Choices of benefits: encompassing. given the author's theological proclivities. 89 There is no hint as to what it is that provides comfort " or " consolation " for the lonely. has no entry for it. 104) and Kutubi. 463 A. and many of whom served also as preceptors for him. ibn-alNajjdr's important book of emendations on the masterwork of al-Shdfii. on the beauties of the poets of the age). was his history of Mecca which he executed while still in his teens. in six volumes. founder of the school of jurisprudence bearing his name. 44 Partially entitled Nahwa nishwcr al-muh&darah lil-Tanfkhi. Like his history of Baghdad.44 There is also by him a treatise that seems to relate to the subject of equity. this could be a particularly valuable work. 43 YAqflt. from the information available. 87 Not listed by Kutubi. during his pilgrimage to the aijdz. GAL. a reliable guide to the works of ibn-al-Najjar. 1763) and preserved in Wfistenfeld's Geschicht. one would assume it relates to religion. 42Abu-Bakr Ahmad ibn-'Ali." 41 If interpreted in some historical context. 13014. 327 as Emendationes et additamenta. On the other hand it may be identical with the work on Mecca with the word "umm " inadvertently left out. 11. Al-Shaft /i-'I-tibb (That which cures in medicine) . an intimate associate of ibn-al-Najjar. also makes no mention of the same. consequently Kutubi. HIdjji Khalfah.39 19. There is still room for considerable doubt because our source for Ghurar al-far&'idis ibn-al-Sdti. Salwat al-waahid(Comfort for the lonely). but in analyzing the manuscripts he lists under the title.38 15. I. note 32. 12. From the testimony of HIhjji Khalfah. cf. e. Rawdat al-auliyd' fi masjid 11iyJ' (The meadow of saints in the temple of Elijah). as echoed by ibn-Qadi Shuhbah in his Tabaqdt al-Shdfl'iyah (Gotha. cf.43 In addition to these we have mention by the same informants of a collection by ibn-al-Najjdr on what appears to be. 18. enters a specific reference to al-Mustadrak. it appears that he confused this work with the Dhayl. Companionsof Muhammad). S.. 10. There is an identical entry by Brockelmann. Al-Zahr fi mahasin shutarj. Al-Azhdlr fi anwa' al-ashtar (The buds. Kashf.

'Imdd.49 and presumably its contents were too. Najjar's death and the destruction of the city.53 who flourished shortly disciples and other Shdfi'i scholars had ample opportunity to avail themselves of his writings. Strong traces of his influence on the works of associates and disciples. his works. 411. But of his monumental work. can be detected even where there was substantial integration. Surviving Works tion of the one to the other may remain largely It would be presumptuous at this time to ven. the biographical study of the Companions of the Prophet that has survived in a recension. there is reliable evidence to suggest that though a Hanbali from the town of JamR'il in Palestine. but reared in Mizzah. Ibn-al-Najjar's al-Durrah althaminah fi akchbr al-Madinah (8) seems to have come down to us in some semblance of an original format. 6 Al-Mizzi was born in Aleppo in 654 A. under assumed titles that may not be attributed to his authorship. a town not far from Damascus. 52 The addendum (dhayl) method of historical writing in Islamic historiography was much applied in various fields of history writing. it literature have been either integrated with the is possible. 50 While the full range of ibn-al-Najjdr's contribution to religious science in classical Islam may not be fully revealed. even under exhaustive investigation.5' Discussion of the rela4.4S Although the Mongols led by Hulgu for a chain of addenda. 51 Kitdb al-kamil ft ma'rifat (asmd') al-rijla ("The book: The complete in the knowledge [of the names] of the men [i. 356-57.50composed what appears to be a very similar work bearing almost an identical title. Arabs. in the intervening years between ibn-alrevision of it first begun by a noted Shafii writer. on the other hand.47 Upon his death in A. as a significant vehicle for captured and sacked the city thirteen years later. works of his successors or modified to an extent that we are unable to make a clear distinction between what is ibn-al-Najjdr's and what is not. p. The Kamal Kitab al-kamdl fi ma-rifat al-rijal deals with the obscure companions of Muhammad. were set up ject matter to the fundamentals of Islamic theas waqf (mortmain) in the renowned Nizamiyah of ology and jurisprudence was the major inducement Baghdad. this important work of ibn-al-Najjdr quite likely is not the only one of its type because a contemporary. There is also a distinct possibility that some of the works listed are either misplaced or they lack full identification and accurate categorization. the comprehensive index overlooked by earlier compilers. as we have endeavored to show where the need called for it. The relevance of this sub1245 all of his works. Yet. we are informed.52 mlyah itself according to a reliable source was We are content to relate that the Kamdl of ibn-alspared. This is particularly true of his Kitab al-kamal fi matrifat al-riyjal (10). providing direct continuity for narratives deemed destroying much of its cultural centers. 47 This reference work is not free from error. his Jamal-al-Din al-Mizzi. I. p.FARAH: Ibn-al-Najjdr: A Neglected Arabic Historian 225 5. 213.D. e. Both were concerned with those works not listed in Brockelmann's Geschichte the biography of those Traditionists who had been der Arabischen Literatur. 4 iHitti. V' 11 name: Taqi-al-Din 'Abd-al-Ghani ibn-al-Wahid From a cautious investigation into the fate of ibn-Surfir al-Jamdi'ili al-Maqdisi (541/1146-600/1203). a good portion of his writings pertaining to hadith he spent the last five years of his life in Egypt where. embarked upon an extensive journey in search of addi- This content downloaded on Tue. the Companions of Muhammad] "). to the extent the debt has been acknowledged by them. the Nizpessential to the clarification of hadith literature. H. and while his influence on important contemporaries and successors may be weaned from their known works by extensive scholarship. preliminary efforts expended in this direction promise to cast substantial light on the legacy he left behind. To begin with. he crossed paths with ibn-al-Najjar. Tadhkirat. Najjar itself experienced such a treatment in a Moreover. We shall treat these three works in some further detail. as in the case of al-Dhahabi's emendations on ibn-alNajjar's al-Kamal fi ma'rifat al-rijal. and with revision to existing Arabic works. GAL. 226. only fragments are presently available. in certain instances. and emendation as well. where he took at the age of twenty he to the study of the Iadith. Taqi-al-Din al-Jama'ili. pp. the Ta'rikh li-Madinat al-Saldm (1). 15 Jan 2013 04:32:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . it may well be that to the extent the integration has been more fully accomplished.fruitless owing to the unavailability of these works ture an educated opinion concerning the fate of in their original form. his scholarship will live on in works by others who denied him recognition or. 48 For sources consult Dhahabi. p. particularly in local histories and biographical compilations. Brockelmann did not have full access to all known depositories of Arabic manuscripts. Shadhardt.

p. Kairo I. n." 67 "C The last word on the 'Correction of the Correction' of the names of the men [Companions]. upon 8I after the death of ibn-al-Najjar. 833 A. I. 190/I. No. 56 It appears to take into account the authoritative basis of the six canonical works on Hadith. Kairo I. Fihrist. 10860). 779. I No. 429. The treatment was entitled Tahdhib al-tahdhib ("Correcting the Correction") . 112.. LAlell. 395. there were a number of extracts of ibn-alNajjar's significant work. 360. 239. 15 Jan 2013 04:32:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . (BulAq. II 594. 767 A.57 This significant biographical work deals with the Traditionists utilized by ibn-Ishdq. and encompasses important muhaddithfin overlookedin the six canonical books on the subject of Prophetic tional knowledge on the subject and on the Traditionists (Muhaddithfin). 780. but there is also a published version of it by a Delhi press. Mus. 81 Consult introductory remarks of August Fischer. 82 In Zeitschrift der Morganldndische Gesellschaft. I 754. Wiistenfeld. Hitti. more immediately it is a continuation of al-Jamd'ili's Kamal. In addition to this work. p. Mesh. entitled was in turn al-rij aJ. 809/1406). Kashf (No. 804/1401 )." 62 in which thirty-five new biographies are added to those already known. cf. Cairo. 68 Literally: "The reliable hadiths of (the book) Correction of (the book) The complete. I (p. particularly in those of al-BukhAri (d.64 In addition to the recension./1291. almost identical with Bukhari's except for the isndds. we are fortunate to possess a copy of this work intact. Vol. 116.69 GAL. ZDMG 90. Bank.226 FARAH: Ibn-al-Najjar: A Neglected Arabic Historian hadith. Arabs. S." 68 A copy is listed as extant. while Geschicht. 170) lists only one more (citing Khalfah. p. Cf. 769. Mus. existing manuscripts of this work: Berlin 994/5. Br.. Paris 2089-91. 748/1347) under the title of Kitab al-tahdhib fi mukhtasar tahdhib al-kamdl. and Khuldsat altahdhTb asmd&' fi al-rijal 67of Ahmad ibn-tAbdullah al-Khazraji (d. II 594. 875).55 and the resultant work was known subsequently as Kitab al-tahdhib. 401 seq. Berlin 9337/8. D. 54. I. Asaf. 216 -10. Lee 112. pp. lists it as: Abu-'Abdulldh MuglatAy ibn-Qilij ibn-'Abdullah 'AlTM-al-Dinal-Bakghari al-Hikri al-Hanafi (No. of Turkish origin. 406. He remained at this post for the next twenty-three years. 64) and S.).63 another Shdfii scholar of hadith literature who followed in the footsteps of ibn-al-Najjdr. 170. XLIV (1890). 420. 174. Upon his return he settled in Damascus and accepted the first appointment made at the Ashrafiyah for the lectureship in hadith. Biographien von Gewdhrsmdnnern des Ibn Ishaq. I (p. Kairo I 233. it survives in a mere fragment-GAL.6" An attempt to adumbrate this significant work is August Fischer's " Neue Ausziige aus ad-Dhahabi und Ibn an-Naggar. Browne 144. 177). Hitti. H. p. until his death in 742 A. and in 734 A. D. No. 754.).58the first and most authoritative biographer of the Prophet Muhammad. 272/4. No. only in the recension of ibn-HishAm (d.54 Tahdhib al-kamal fi acsmX' subjected to additional emendation and enlargement by tAld'-al-Din Mughulta'i ibn-Qilij. Geschicht. Faig 1478/9 (Autogr. GAL. X. moreEntitled al-Jlmi' al-Sahih. GAL. 1891. 605-07) as follows: Faiz 1427 (autogr. and Bodleian I. 1426. Khalfah.65 al-Ahadith al-'-iwl min tahdhib al-kamdl66 of al-Jawhari (d. hauptschlich aus ad-Dahabi (Halle a. Geschicht. 360) lists a single part: Berlin 9930/1. I.) in Egypt. Berl. St. letzteres Qilij 'A.) and his important biography did not survive in full.). 71. 67 Originally a large work of thirteen volumes. 48 [60] gives it as: Nasir-al-Din abu-'Ali Mughaltay ibn-Qilij ibn-'Ali 'A1a'-al-Din al-Bakghari al-Hikri al-Hanafi. 410-12. Bodl. 65A copy of this work in Dar al-Kutub. hence the title al-Kamal fi matrifat al-rijdl (Complete knowledge of the men [Companions]) . 64 (75). Fihrist. WUstenfeld.6O or not in agreement with them. 852. p. Bodl. (p. GAL. Geschicht. 63 To him is attributed also the Taqrib al-tahdhib (Approximating the " Corrections " [al-Mizzi's]) . pp. 360) indiscriminately makes the following entries as representing copies of this work: Gotha 1713. No.. p. 214-16. D. (1341). II (p. Kashf. XII. " Two versions of the name are given for the same biographical information. Cairo I 232. 487. 69 GAL. namely Ikmdl tahdhib al-kamdl of ibn-al-Mulaqqim (d. 1889).. Also called al-Sahih. Paris 1630. 8 vols.) 59 and This content downloaded on Tue. I (pp. 699. vii. Cairo. 1635.56 An abridgement of the same was made by abu-tAbdulldhMuhammadal-Dhahabi (d. Dar al-Kutub. Madinah As concerns ibn-al-Najjar's al-Durrah al-thaminah fi akhbar al-Madinah.-following the death of ibn-Sayyid-al-Nds-he was appointed the lecturer on hadith at the ZAhiriyah in Cairo. FAtih 4304. A new treatment of al-Dhahabi's recension was rendered by the celebratedibn-Hajar al-'Asqaldni. he was born in 689 A. Or. Jeni 837/8. For a biographical note on al-'Asqalani see Wilstenfeld. 64 Vfistenfeld. first listed this work. Medina. A. No. Hamid. Geschicht. 215/9.P. I. 1296 A. Paris 2089/91. Arabs. Geschicht. 9930/1. 64 The work survives in a number of manuscripts listed by GAL. Kiipr. 745/8. This first of a series of revisions. where he died 762/1361.68 7. No. 227. II. Br. 1429. 226. 870 Muslim ibn-al-Hajjaj (d. 876): Indices ad sex' libros traditionum (An index of the six books of the Traditions). 233. H. soon became an expert on the Traditionists and genealogies. No. 923/1517). 8 He died in Baghdad (ca. p. 637. 1. ca. II (p. 1635 Suppl. 2. p. See Wtistenfeld.

and important people visiting the city in subsequent years. but it is not possible to ascertain therefrom whether this listing is independent of the Gotha manuscript. 769 and 852 when examined revealed the codes " Bod. as they do not give a separate listing for it.. The work treats in considerable detail the biographies of the notables residing in or associated with Baghdad. its inhabitants. To contemporaries and successors. 226) say in sixteen volumes. Baghdad But of the major works by ibn-al-Najjdr that have survived in full or in part.) who originally had hailed from al-Yaman (Yemen). 70 but the whereabouts of this copy is not presently known. 205) that ibnal-Najjar's " collections " which evidently " exceeded forty books" may have had certain volumes confused with the Dhayl.72 Other manuscripts presumed to be copies of al-Durrah appear to yield only recensions introduced thereto by later historians.75 Actually al-M1araghi's recension was based not on the origiscrutiny. 78 Borne out in the introductory remarks of al-Mardghi in the Bodl. which the author completed at the age of fifteen or sixteen.74 and was really more in the nature of an enlargement of al-Durrah. p. still the total by this reckoning would come to twenty-six volumes. In such an eventuality. 765 A. Muhammad's work there. I. V (Cairo.FARAH: Ibn-al-Najjdr: A Neglected Arabic Historian 227 over. Marsh 415 and Bod.7 gives an incisive look into the history of the city and the important people associated with it from the days of the Prophet Muh1 ammad until the times of ibn-al-Najjdr. the central mosque. H. 1290 u. the former consists of 184 folios.73 The recension was entitled Tahqiq al-nusrah fi talkhis maalim ddr al-hijrah. 360. known more popularly as Dhayl ta'rikh Baghdad. Kashf. Yet the fact that such a work could be subjected to a number of recensions attests to the high esteem with which these authors held al-Durrah. 77 Only the name. J. 527. 79 Reliable testimony to that effect is given by Khalfah. 1938. I. Lee." There is reference to the original in Fihrist Dar al-Kutub. p. 405.79 Biographies are listed alphabetically in 76 The basic source of reference is Khalfah. cited in GAL. No. 741 A. though Fuwati himself adheres to the number sixteen. Geschicht. on perusal shows the work is divided into four parts.78 8. p. Indeed. see also Wilstenfeld. The testimony of most authorities. 'ImAd. p. al-Matari's son tAfif-al-Din (d. the Dhayl may consist of the Dhayl proper. 463. and a list of works attributed to him are given by WUstenfeld. Oriental Manuscripts purchased in Turkey (London. a brief biographical note appears on him in the 75Only Royal Asiatic Society. 15 Jan 2013 04:32:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . although the fly sheet bears not "Gotha 1713" but the inscriptions: " No. arab. H. 71 Wfistenfeld. this constituted another tribute to ibn-al-Najjdr's scholarship. 1308 A. cf. It is quite likely that those who claim it was done in thirty volumes included his Mustadrak. II. obituary. 41) he arouses doubt as to whether all volumes pertain to the same title. mostly of the sixth and seventh centuries of the hijrah. No. 169. 2197. 4. It is on this version of the Durrah that al-Mardghibased his treatment of Medina's history. preludes to the Hijrah. wherein while acknowledging the number at thirty (affirming the statements of Kutubi.. and Subki. the latter of only 48. Geschicht. 2b. Marsh 527 ". 73 What GAL. A number of sources (Dhahabi. Ms. This content downloaded on Tue. Al-Maraghi had studied in Cairo before taking up his post in Medina. . 359 Cat.). fol. 123. No. while al-Mardghi was serving as q&diin Medina. This remarkable history. a portion of the Mustadrak and perhaps three or four of ibn-al-Najjdr's other works dealing with biography. The earliest of these recensions was by Zayn-al-Din al-Mardghi. Marsh 527 ms. No. and both refer to al-MarAghi's Nusrah. but on an addendum 76 to the Durrah made by al-HIfiz Jamal-al-Din Muhammad ibn-Ahmad al-Matari 77 (d. 264. refers to the existence of an autographed copy of the same in the Lee collection. Nos. p..) who had resided in Medina also added his comments to the manuscript in the form of another dhayl.. GAL. 132. 172. 1840). Tabaqat. Geschicht. 70 Entry 112 in H. only what reads "Gotha 1713" is the manuscript. a prolegomena and a conclusion with a critique on the virtues of Medina. 368. p. Tadhkirat. The only way to try to explain the discrepancy is to lend some credence to the statement of Fuwati in his Hawadith (p. Shadharft. coupled with an examination of the surviving portions of this valuable work. Fawat. p. A considerable portion is devoted also to the study of Medina's hallowed monuments. nal. 2302. '7 Revised Bodleian listings should read: Marsh 415. is of particular value for the lacuna it fills in our knowledge of the city during the crucial decades preceding the end of the tAbbdsidhegemony. H. Kashf. p. 72 The Gotha ms. his Ta'rlkh li-Madinat al-Sa7im. Leetzen. 2179. his death. No. 202. suggests that it was indeed executed in thirty volumes.H. 2713. done in 766 A. Vol. Kahira (Cairo) 1808. I (p. p. 360) lists as Bod. 212. adding what his predecessors had omitted and bringing it up to date without compromising the substance as it reached him. p. p.

pp.87 There is in addition an abridgement of this work by ibn-al-Dimydti 88 (d.86 which survived and has been published. 563. I. Vol. An analysis of the contents of manuscripts 81 preserved in the Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris) but attributed hitherto to al-Khatib al-Baghdddi. 2131. XI (1908). 2128-2131. The error was perpetrated by the Baron de Slane. 88 Full name: abu-'l-Hasan Ahmad ibn-Aybak ibn-'Abas the dullah al-Husayni. 90 The ms. Baghdad: Ahdli press. Catalogue des manuscrits arabes de la Bibliotheque nationale. who explains his findings in " Sur une identification de deux manuscrits arabes de la Bibliotheque nationale. On examining this volume which lists over four hundred biographical entries starting with 'Abd-al-Mughith ibn-Zuhayr (d. Until the present the biographers of ibn-alNajjar had led us to believe that only volume ten of this monumental history had survived.90 Upon a careful examination of the contents of this manuscript and its comparison with the surviving parts of ibn-al-Najjdr's Dhayl we find that it cannot serve as an adequate index to the range and magnitude of the work it purportedly abridges. H. GAL. Dhayl Tadhkirat al-huffdz lilDhahabi. the title page of ms.. al-Asturlabi known as " Bad!"al-Zaman. 150. 84 Yahfida purchase. H. celebrated historian of the holy sites 85 (T. H. 3518. consists of eighty-four folios of average size with a total listing of one hundred and seventy-two biographies abridged. 91 Known as abu-al-Fadl Ahmad ibn-abi-Tdhir Tayffir. 27.) entitled Ta'rilh Baghdad. p." which indicates that these portions fall into the last one or two volumes of the original.). 78. xe se. the family hailed from Damietta in Egypt where he was born in 700 A. also Jalal-al-Din al-Suyfiti. p. The first known work on the history of Baghdad was by Almad ibn-Thhir al-Baghdddi9l (d. moreover. of which only his history of Baghdad appears to have survived.) entitled alMustafad min dhayl ta'3rikh Baghdad89 (That which is learned from the " Addendum to the history of Baghdad"). No." The mistaken identity was first discovered by emile Amar. during the caliphate of al-Ma'miin. I. 15 Jan 2013 04:32:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . selected two hundred and one biographies of ibn-al-Najjdr's Dhayl. and the ensuing compendium was called al-Muntaichab al-mukhtdr. where he lived and wrote about fortyeight works.) and ending with 'Ali ibn-al-Husayn. . . 1347 A. 80 Damascus. 65a and 145. 201. 832 A. I. H. 360-3. 233. 765 A. 280 A. 7606. H. H. For a biographical note see abu-al-Mahasin Muhammad ibn-'Ali al-Husayni al-Dimashqi (d. Arab d. Dhayl Tadhkirat al-huffaz (Damascus. D. we find that it coincides with volume twenty of the original. GAL.82 yields a portion of volume twenty-one. 2179. Additional more recent discoveries in the Robert Garrett collection of Arabic manuscripts of Princeton University 84 yield three parts starting with the biography of Nasr ibn-Yahya al-Kirmani and terminating abruptly with that of llibatulldh ibn-al-Husayn . son of Hdrfin al-Rashid. Presumably the change in numbering can be attributed to a different arrangement by a later copyist who most likely reduced the original number of thirty to sixteen. p." Journal Asiatique.228 FARAH: Ibn-al-Najjar: A Neglected Arabic Historian Muhammad ibn-Ahmad Taqi-al-DIn al-Fasi (d. p. he returned thence to Egypt where he died. fols. and apparently all of volumes twenty-two and twenty-three 83 of the original. 2131 carried the inscription (translated from the Arabic): "another volume of the 'History' of al-Khatib al-Baglidadi. 7. see Fihrist. 86 85 conformity with the tabaqat (classification) method then prevailing. known as ibn-al-Dimyati. 92 The only reference-apparently first listed in alFihrist of al-Nadim-is by Khalfah. 54.H. 65a and 145 the contents of the manuscript seem to embrace part of volume XXI. Kashf. H. Interested in the study of Hadith. p.H. 83 Amar's finding is sustained by an examination of Ms. 81 82 Arab 2128-2131.92 Two Khalfah. No.). H. p. Wiistenfeld. I." The listings cover the alphabetical letters "hha'." 87 Edition 'Abbds al-'Azzdwi (Iraqi lawyer-historian). 1357 A. from a princely family of Khorascin. 583 A. Iashf. each entry beginning with the ism. History 42. Zdhiriyah. 355. 360 (443). 749 A. coinciding with volume sixteen of the condensed copy. p. Known as " al-Mukhtdr al-mudhayyal 'ala ta'rzkh GAL. p. No. and a more recently executed copy of this manuscript preserved in the Bodleian collection as Ms. 'Azzawi. ibn-al-Najjfr. there is considerable doubt concerning the authenticity of the Mustafdd's claim of being an abridgement of the Dhayl. No. this magnum opus of ibn-al-Najjdr was one in a series of continuations. in one volume alone. nos.ijaz). S. No. As the term " dhayl " implies. Ta'rif. accordingly. (1938). as compared to the unabridged volume ten of the Dhayl's biographical entries exceeding four hundred.80 This is the testimony of HIjji Khalfah in his Kashf (p.). but born in Baghdad in 204 A. 237-42. which embrace biographical listings from 'Ali ibn-uiuhammad to al-Fadl ibn-Muhammad. This content downloaded on Tue. Cf." "waw " and " ya'. V. 89 The only known manuscript of this work is preserved in Dar al-Kutub of Cairo. and what appears to be all of volumes XXII and XXIII of the original. name suggests. 120) as echoed by subsequent writers. Vol. Geschicht. according to the statements contained in fols../1929 A. he came to Damascus and studied with al-Mizzi among others in 740 A.

674/1274). GAL. 562 A. II. I. hence the exact title has not been ascertained. were also housed. 145 and 335 (new ed. III (Istanbuil. 637 A. 96 Khalfah. Ibn-al-Fuwati was put in charge of the and a respectable following of disciples who became famous in their own right. 1870). Cairo. This content downloaded on Tue. p. Wtistenfeld. 567. cf. ibn-al-Najjdr's. H. H. indeed his reputation attracted ibn-al-Najjdr to his son for information. Wafaydt. H. 323 -1. Persian and Turkish Mss. 100 Khalfah. in the library of Trinity College (Cambridge. his ancestors came from Kanja in the province of Arran near Dubaytha (or DAbitha.) 95 in fifteen volumes under the heading of Dhayl ta'rlkh Baghdad lil-Khatib. No. l. Khallikdn. Ta'rikh Baghdad.94 reportedly in fourteen volumes. Dhahabi.. The first of the addenda to al-Khatib's history was written by abu-Saed 'Abd-al-Karim ibn-alSam'ani (d. also Cambridge 169 (extract by al-Dhahabi [GAL. 4. No.. Wafayat. 2179. 'Abd-al-Razzdq ibn-Ahmad al-Shaybani. Geschicht. from a learned family settled in Merv where his father and grandfather. Al-Khatib's work subsequently became the target of numerous dhayls. Continuations of the Dhayl The first in the series of continuations was executed by a well-known student of ibn-al-Najjdr. 565. No. Irshad. also Khallikan. not the least among them was ibn-al-Najjar. p. abu-Bakr al-Khatib al-Baghdadi 93 (d.). His important dhayl on ibn-alNajjdr's work is missing. were held in high esteem. Paris 2133. and after considerable traveling he returned to Baghdad and became the most renowned scholar of hadith and history of his age. a student of both ibn-al-Sdi and the eminent philosopher-astronomer Nasir-al-IDin al-Tfisi (d.). II.).. II. 402-03. as numerous as his mentor's. in the orientation of his selections he undoubtedly was attempting to update also alSam'ani's work and to avoid duplicating his biographical entries. fIuffad. 14. where he died in 711 A. Wafaydt. H.FARAH: Ibn-al-Najjdr: A Neglected Arabic Historian 229 centuries later. Ijawadith. in Darzijan on the west bank of the Tigris. The Caliph al-Mustansir appointed ibn-al-S5Ji librarian of the Nizamlyah where his writings. Vol. 463 A. a second edition (ten years later). H. Shadhardt. 9. Palmer. 1309 A.) Fuwati (student of ibn-al-Sa'i). Wiistenfeld. 1022/6 in 1349 A. 723 A. 2. 461 A. No. Abu-al-Fida'. Geschicht. 101Not to be confused with Abu-al-Ma'dli ibn-Rdfi' al-Salami. Taymfir Basha (1934). 46]. Dhlahabi. Ydqfit. until his death. IX. 98 There is a copy extant. XIV.98 AbucAbdulldh Muhammad ibn-al-Dubaythi al-Wasiti (d. 96 Stemmed from the tribe of Sam'an and the banuTamim. beside himself and his son. He began his studies in earnest at the age of eleven. Some of the important works of al-Salami that have been published and preserved: Jami' al-Mukhtasar. 60.100 Ibn-al-Najjdr was a contemporaryand sometime associate of al-Dubaythi. H. 633. Khalfah. reportedly in eighty volumes. Tadhkirat. 88. better known to historians as ibn-al-Fuwati (d.101 who is better known to us as ibn-al-Sadi (d. p. pp. p. 94 First edited by the established muhaddith abu-alYumn Masfid ibn-Muhammad al-Bukhari (d. I. H. He was born in 506 A. 102 'Imdd.) GAL. philosopher and a scholar of hadith. S. 386. 2524). 33. p. H. No. (1931). Vol. V. No. iT. p. No.) 99 continued the work in three vol"'Born Jumada II 392 A. Tdj-al-Din 'Ali ibn-Anjab al-Salldmi. p.) wrote a similar book under the same title. " A well known scholar of Traditions and historian. Catalogue of the Arabic. 547) a spot near Wasit in Iraq where abu-al-Fadl was born in 558 A. 406. p. Khallikdn. VI. before embarking upon an extensive journey from the Uijdz to Khorasdn and gathering such a wealth of information as to earn him a berth among the superior writers of his day. Kashf. p. 384. ed.. Ibn-al-Sdei studied history and hadith with ibn-alNajjar excelling in both areas first as a student and later as a scholar whose erudition and versatility earned for him a high position among the ranking ulema of his age. 2179. Geschicht.bringing al-Samcani'swork up to date and adding what events he had overlooked. 120. 672 in turn continued ibn-al-Sdei's dhayl on A.102 with full coverage of events from 656 A. H. H. II. and received his early training from his illustrious father. Published in Cairo from the Kbprdlii ms. Wiistenfeld. Manaqib al-KhulafV' al-'Abbisiyin (Bulaq.. 2179 (preserved in British Museum: Add. XXI. Kashf. No. to the same extent that alDubaythi sought in turn to avoid duplicating ibn-al-Najjar's biographical listings. p. No.) under the title " Jadmi ta'rikh Baghdad " (All encompassing history of Baghdad). T Not much is known of his life other than the fact he had served as qadi in Egypt. No. No. serving as the khatib of Baghdad. 15 Jan 2013 04:32:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and the stylistic pattern he set therein was faithfully pursued by his successors with its heavy emphasis on the isndd. like his father he served as khatib (whence the title "al-Khatib"). see E. 605. Kashf. Irshdd. 152. H. historian. 1286 A. Yaqfit. Fihrist. he had thorough training in hadith umes as al-Mudhayyal gala ta'r1ichBaghdad lilKhatTb. Mukhtasar ta'rikh al-bashar. the method utilized by the muhaddithun.96 Of this work there is an abridgment by abu-al-Fadl Muhammad al-Ansdri al-Khazraji 97 under the title Muckhtasarta'rlch Baghdad lil-Sam'dni. H. While the purpose of his writing a dhayl was to update the celebrated work of al-Khatib. 154.

and Professor Sanjian. Baron. Professor Baron originally suggested to me further research into Jewish history in Babylonia-Mesopotamia under Iranian rule. Jews in Pagan to this fact. Dhahabi. K. JEWS IN PAGAN ARMENIA comments on the Jews in Armenia made by my The only certainty is that there were Jews in teacher. II. 105 Khalfah. n. Summary This brief sketch of his life and works. Mr. p. No. 1952). in Hebrew). I. Baron. 10. a sort of dictionary of names and cognates. pp. on Abraham in Kurdistan. Kashf. and Obermeyer. is wrapped in the obscurity of scattered primary sources which allude only tangentially to him.. 2179. 'Ata' Malik al-Juwayni (d. Sanjian of Harvard University for instruction in Armenian history and classical Armenian. is a comprehensive dictionary of the important men of the seventh century. al-Mizzi and al-Dhahabi with whom he studied. 1961.. This content downloaded on Tue. legends on the Jewish origins of certain noble Armenian families. 1283). Geschicht. for reading and commenting on this paper. Dhayl ta'rikh ibn-al-Saci and his other valuable writings on history. I am grateful also to Professor A. Armenia. serves to highlight ibn-alNajjar's importance to our understanding of medieval Islamic historiography. 433 -2. Gregor Maksudian. 172. 52. Tadhkirat. achievements or status.105in which 108 A principal source for our knowledge of the Mongol and Jalayirid periods. through the encouragement of his father he studied with the best. VI. Much of our knowledge of the author. Another journey to Damascus brought him in contact with al-Birzali. and to Professor Richard N. Jewish Communities of Kurdistan (Jerusalem. 387. 283. Armenian Judaism. see also Hullin 54b. Here we shall limit our ex'See Salo W. Gregor Lusato him as a token of respect and gratitude. Social and Religious History of amination to demographical information. What has been assembled here will. Frye.associates and disciples. 2 On Jews in Kurdistan. Both Jewish and Armenian sources attest topic is treated as follows: I. TradiWe shall consider below (Part III) Armenian tions on Armenia's Part in Israelite History. and a lexicon of his five hundred disciples. accompanying him to Damascus in 713 A. H. bureau for the official recording of events by the then wdli of Baghdad.. 1929). H. 1946). Bab. returning to Cairo he studied Hadith with Qutb-al-Din al-Halabi and ibnSayyid-al-Nas. and is dedicated Armenia 2 before the coming of St. Professor Salo W. THE JEWS IN PAGAN ARMENIA JACOB NEUSNER DARTMOUTH COLLEGE the Jews (Philadelphia. Wiistenfeld. XXII. 10. ns. Talmud Bava Batra 91a. No. THIS PAPER CONSTITUTES an elaboration of the I. Pesahim 7a. it is hoped. No. see especially Abraham BenYaakov. sometimes explicit but often implicit in their acknowledgements and writings.1 The voric. Hijrah. 132. 9-11. 155. p.230 FARAH: Ibn-al-Najjdr: A Neglected Arabic Historian the author completed the chain of listings of the men and women of Baghdad who ranked high among contemporariesfor their knowledge. Kerem Iemed VI. 165. p. His Hawddith. 15 Jan 2013 04:32:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Often the little we know is compounded by mistaken identities and attributions. and II. and III. cited above. p. 372. see Ginzberg. II. place in better perspective from the point of view of history and scholarship not only the position of ibn-al-Najjdr as a historian of merit. Menahoth 29a. 183. provided the incentive for this investigation. 104 Born. in addition he penned a compendium of secular poets of the same century. No. whose dependence on him. 36-7. On Jews in Iberia. however. Legends of the Jews (Philadelphia.'03 The final chapter in the continuation of ibn-alNajjdr's famous work was written by Muhammad ibn-Rdfi' Taqi-al-Dln al-Salami al-Samidi (d. 774/ 1372) 104 under the heading al-Mukhtdr al-mudhayyal bihi 'ala ta'rikh ibn-al-Najjar. S. in Cairo. 404-5. but that of his renowned contemporaries.. Die Landschaft Babylonien (Frankfurt. Rapoport. 704 A. pp. 447. 33 (42 ). GAL. Wtistenfeld. 169. as weaned from scattered sources. II. Geschicht. 204. He was thus in the enviable position to gather material for his monumental work.