Comparison of Various Methods of Analysis of Beam-Supported Slabs




Partial fulfillment of the Degree of

M.Tech(Civil Engineering)
Specialization in Structural Engineering


Chintan Pathak

Supervisor Prof Rajesh Chaturvedi

Civil Engineering Department


Comparison of Various Methods Analysis of Beam-Supported Slabs Introduction Literature Review Objectives of the study Model Formulation/Methodology Results and Discussions Conclusions References of Chintan Pathak (Candidate) Prof.Archana Keerti Chowdhary Principal & HOD . Rajesh Chaturvedi (Supervisor) Dr.

Changes regarding the factors affecting the durability of concrete were also incorporated. One such case is the analysis and design of slabs over flexible beams. Indian code for Design of concrete structures (BIS-456). With increasing requirement for sheltered spaces.1 INTRODUCTION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. and ever-increasing cost of land. multi-storeyed construction is preferred.1 General Slabs are an integral part of any RCC structure. Framed structures are a network of beams and columns that transmit the superstructure load to the foundation. when the primary method of design was changed from Working Stress Method (WSM) to Limit State Method (LSM). 1 . issued by the Bureau of Indian Standards was last revised in the year 2000. Increasing number of structures with beams and columns. often lead to conditions not adequately detailed in code. Preferred structural arrangement for tall construction is a framed structure.

If beams are not rigid enough. While the American Code for Concrete design ACI-318 unified the analysis and design provisions for slabs using the Direct Design Method and the Equivalent Frame Method for design of all types of two-way slabs with/without beams.Recently though. even brick masonry. 2 . This thesis aims to be a timely reference for aiding the committee to validate a long ignored provision for analyzing slabs over beams. Beams as supports lead to a different behavior than walls as supports. our code has yet to follow suit. The main properties of interest are the moments and deflection throughout the slab. this deflection and rotation can be significant affecting the moments and deflection in the resting slab. are very rigid in their plane leading to very little to negligible deflections in the plane. Indian Concrete Institute (ICI) has announced the preparation for yet another revision for BIS-456. 1. While beams are flexible and deflect in the direction perpendicular to their span and rotate to release the fixing moments. Walls.2 Objectives of the study The current investigation aims to study the behavior of slabs resting on flexible beams.

The theories of plates and shells. summarized in Timoshenko. A. made for the purpose of assisting in the interpretation of slab tests. remains the preferred text for introduction of the subject. M. Even after that. Westergaard and W. S.2 Literature survey ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------“If I have seen further than others. ii) A study of the relation between the observed and computed steel stresses in reinforced-concrete beams. S. (1959). Slabs are complex objects. Slater (1921) This study correlated the results of tests with the results of numerical analysis to aid in development of design standards for slabs.  Moments and stresses in slabs. and Woinowsky-Krieger. So. Most RC slabs can be treated as thin plates. 3 . by H. codal provisions provide simplified formulae for solving the problems of slabs. to this day. it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants. Briefed below is an account of the studies relevant to the subject. featuring in analysis courses for the first time during postgraduation. and of estimating the factor of safety. The study is divided in three parts : i) Analysis of moments and stresses in slabs. the exact analysis methods are far too complicated to be applied on routine design problems efficiently.” -Isaac Newton Lot of work has been done to advance our understanding of the behavior of slabs. iii) A study of the test results for flat slabs with a view of comparing the moments of observed steel stresses with the bending moments indicated by the analysis.

remains straight after bending.M. elastic and of uniform thickness. Parallel beams were assumed to be of 4 . iii) The plates are homogeneous. With these factors. L.E.  Analysis of plates continuous over flexible beams by J.  Slabs Supported On Four Sides by J. P. Tables and charts have been prepared for various end conditions after simplifying the equations derived from the analysis. v) The stresses in the neutral plane are zero. the design of slabs with any degree of rectangularity or variation in adjacent panels may be handled in the same manner as in one-way construction.G. Van Buren (1936) The basis of the ACI Building Regulations for slabs supported on four sides is covered in this paper. Di Stasio and M. A minimum thickness formula is established based on limiting deflection to definite ratios of the span consistent with all cases of rectangularity and continuity. drawn vertically through the plate before bending. iv) A straight line. Newmark (1953) Approximate numerical solutions were obtained by the Ritz method for the interior panel of a plate which is continuous over a rectangular grid of flexible beams supported by columns at their intersections.The analysis is based on the assumptions that: i) The plates are horizontal and the loads acting are vertical. Goodman and N. This study was also the first recognized work on flat slabs. Sutherland. Factors of equivalent uniformly distributed loads are determined for use in calculating bending moments and shears in each direction of the slabs and supporting beams. ii) The plates are medium thick.

1950) for beams clamped at both ends. The plate was considered to be acted upon by a lateral load uniformly distributed over the whole area. The solutions include. The problem considered is that of an interior panel of a plate continuous over a rectangular grid of flexible beams which are supported at their intersections by columns. shears and deflections for several other loadings by superposition with known solutions. the known results for plates fixed against rotation and deflection at 5 . Two-way concrete slabs are usually designed without accounting for the flexibility of the supporting beam.J. results of the analysis for this case of uniform loading of the entire plate can be used to obtain moments. Numerical solutions were obtained for about 40 cases covering 3 different width-length ratios and a wide range of beam-plate rigidities. as limiting cases of the general problem. will lead to excessively high moments near the columns. The plate is considered to be acted upon by a lateral load which is uniformly distributed over its whole area.equal stiffness and uniformly spaced. The solutions include. A tabulated summary and graphs of the solutions are included. Duncan (Aeronaut. It is assumed that parallel beams are of equal stiffness and are uniformly spaced and that the system has a large number of panels in both directions. and for plates supported by a rectangular array of columns without connecting beams. The plate deflection was represented by an infinite series of polynomial functions (S-functions) derived by W. Apart from their intrinsic importance. The present work gives the theoretical distribution of moments in an interior panel for supporting beams of any stiffness. R. the known results for plates fixed against rotation and deflection at their supports. This simplification will not have much effect on the deflections and moments near the centers of the panels but in some cases. In addition to the assumptions of the standard plate theory as described above the problem has been simplified by assuming that the widths of the beams and the crosssectional dimensions of columns are small compared with the panel dimensions. and M. 2281:23. Research Council. Consequently only one interior panel need be considered. Under these conditions the bending in all interior panels may be assumed to be identical. as limiting cases. That is. the beam deflections are usually assumed to be small in comparison with the deflections of the central portions of the loaded panels.

it was not practical for use as a design procedure.their supports.  Equivalent Frame Analysis For Slab Design by W. It was soon recognized that some method was needed for extending the empirical method to structures with more extreme ranges of dimensions. At this time. After these comparisons are completed.G.P. For this reason. an "empirical" method of determining moments was developed. After a large number of reinforced concrete slab structures had been built and load-tested. the only method available for determining the moments in these structures was that of the theory of flexure for plates. The study is based on the quantitative comparison of moments in slabs as determined from analysis and from tests. an equivalent frame analysis was developed which would give approximately the same results as the empirical design method. Sozen and C. recommendations are made for an equivalent two-dimensional frame analysis which may be used to obtain moments at the design sections in reinforced concrete slabs.A. Since it was very difficult to obtain solutions to the plate problem by this method. M. and for plates supported by a rectangular array of columns without connecting beams (flat slabs). The use of this method was restricted to structures with dimensions similar to those from which it was developed. Siess (1961) The study presented here is concerned with the investigation of methods for determining moments in reinforced concrete slabs by the analysis of equivalent twodimensional elastic frames. Reinforced concrete as a material for the construction of slabs did not come into widespread use until soon after the beginning of the twentieth century. Corley. The object of this investigation is to make a quantitative comparison of moments determined by the analysis of equivalent two-dimensional elastic frames with those determined from the theory of flexure for plates and from tests on both elastic and reinforced concrete models. Contd… 6 .

K. the layout of the slab reinforcement. The results are presented in terms of a beam stiffness parameter and the panel shape. and the detailing of the corner connections. as will be the case in a large portion of slabs supported on beams on all four sides of panels. The limitations of this theory are discussed and suggestions are made for a more accurate method of calculation to be used in design which would effect some economy in reinforcement. Further 7 . The problem of T-beam action is also critically discussed. Based on an empirical value of slab deflection at ultimate load.  Ultimate strength of reinforced concrete slab-beam system by C.K. Gamble (1972) The results of a study of the influence of the stiffness of the supporting beams on the distribution of moments within typical interior panels of reinforced concrete floor slabs are presented. It is shown that once the beam stiffness parameter exceeds 2. Taylor (1969) Results of tests on ten reinforced concrete beam-slab panels are reported. The behavior of the slabs is discussed and. Ramesh and T.L. Moments in beam-supported slabs by W. and integral with. the moment distribution are relatively insensitive to further increases in beam stiffness. Datta (1973) The paper develops a yield-line theory taking into account the compressive membrane action present in the slab-beam system having different degrees of edge restraint and different percentages of steel in the slab. were square and consisted of two-way-spanning slabs supported on.  Some tests on reinforced concrete beam-slab panels by B. which were subjected to a uniformly distributed load. the theory gives a satisfactory correlation with the ultimate loads obtained from several tests on square single panel slab-beam units. Variables in the investigation included the relative strengths of the beams and slabs. The panels. edge beams. in particular. the ultimate loads are compared with those predicted by simple yield-line theory. Hayes and R. The theory uses a rigid plastic strip approximation and takes into account the lateral bowing of the edge beam.

 Some experimental studies on a reinforced concrete slab-beam system by C. An empirical recommendation for the enhanced capacity due to T-beam action alone.  Load deflection behavior of reinforced concrete slab-beam panels by P.K. In the first stage load-deflection relationship up to yield line load is determined. The results of the method are compared with experimental results and a satisfactory agreement is noticed. The ultimate loads of the models are predicted by a method proposed by the authors and compared with the experimentally obtained values for good agreement. The second stage takes into account the effects of lateral bowing of edge beams and the compressive membrane forces to establish the load-deflection relationship. and the degree of edge restraint at the surrounds of the slab provided by the varying lateral rigidity of the edge beams. which induces some pre-compression in the slab.B. Desayi and A. Kulkarni (1979) The authors present a method for the determination of complete load-deflection characteristics of reinforced concrete isolated slab-beam panels subjected to uniformly distributed loading. The variables included are the percentage of reinforcement. The method is developed in two stages.studies are in progress and it is hoped that a rational basis will be established for the design of a slab-beam system on ultimate strength criteria. Ramesh and T. Contd… 8 . is also made.K. Datta (1975) Experimental tests on nineteen single-panel square slab-beam models are reported in order to study the enhancement of the load-carrying capacity due to the development of compressive membrane forces.

the effect of end conditions. The results indicate that the proposed method can predict the load deflection behavior satisfactorily. and work on all aspects. including. Mattarneh (2007) The paper gives the results of an analytical method proposed to predict the load deflection behavior of partially restrained slab strips. it is rarely feasible to use it for practical implementations. Amarnath. Ibrahim and H. is mainly aimed at simplifying the results from numerical analysis to propose a more usable empirical solution. the study of slabs since the theory of plates was first proposed by Kirchhoff in 1888. Muthu. A parametric study has been made on the load enhancement beyond yield line load and the results are presented. So. this has yet to be implemented by the IS codes. 9 . Unification will ensure the design of all two-way slab systems with same reliability. the problem of slabs is still not clearly understood.2 Critique While exact analysis is important from an academic point-of-view. moment and deflection theories. 2. An experimental study was designed to cast and test ten partially restrained slab strips with different edge rigidity.U. The effect of deflection prior to yield line load on the development of compressive membrane forces was incorporated in the theoretical analysis. Phenomenal study by Westergaard in 1920 started the unification of slab analysis methods. Load deflection behavior of partially restrained slab strips by K. material model of RCC for finite element analysis. Although. and the effect of shape and slope of the slab under consideration. K. A comparison has been made between the results of the proposed and one of the other methods available in the literature. As can be seen from the literature review. A.

While Indian Code suggests Moment Coefficient Method for wall supported as well as beam supported slabs. FEM is an algorithm advanced from Finite Difference Method (FDM). This and further studies at the University of Illinois. Most commonly used numerical method these days is the Finite Element Method (FEM).3 Methodology ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Slabs present complicated differential equations without an exact analytical solution. with and without beams. 10 . ignoring the effect of beam flexibility and suggest the EFM for design of only Flat Slabs. Solution can generally be obtained by applying one or more numerical methods. This ensures similar reliability in design for all two-way The congruence of results with the experimental results prove the correctness of the theory and solution method. ACI suggests Equivalent Frame Method (EFM) for design of all two-way slab systems. led to the development of the ACI codal provisions for design of two-way slabs with or without beams. The study also compares the results with the FDM for the special case of very rigid supporting beams. Two methods result in variable reliability of design with the result that the beam-supported two-way slabs are designed much conservatively. (1953) derived numerical results for the case of Beam supported slabs with various beam stiffness’s and various ratios of rectangularity. Currently. Sutherland et.

al.Present study is an attempt to compare the various methods of slab analysis namely the Indian Standard (IS-456). (1953) alongwith the computer-sided finite element analysis of slabs for various long span to short span ratios. Canadian Standard (CSA-A23. European Standard (Eurocode-2) and the study of Sutherland et. American Standard (ACI-318).3). 11 .

(1953) and FEA by Staad Pro for various stiffness ratios for beams.1/2) at the mid-point of the slab as the study of Sutherland et. Xa=Xb= w (1/2.277 2 0..4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The following chart and table show the deflection w (1/2.352 1 0. 1/2)(Deflection) as per Sutherland in mm w (1/2. 12 .45497 1 0.35957 4 0.5 0.1/2) (Deflection) in mm (STAAD) (Node 1556) 5 0.559 0.578673 0.28339 6 0.

22748 6 0.349 Contd… 13 .The following chart and table shows the deflection w (0. Xa=Xb= w (0.237 0.5 0. 1/2) of the mid-point of the beam as per the study of Sutherland (1953) and Staad Pro.067 2 0.06087 2 0.141 1 0.346819 0.13498 9 0.1/2) (Deflection) in mm (STAAD) (Node 215) 5 0. 1/2)(Deflection) as per Sutherland in mm w (0.

067 0.06144 14 . Staad Pro and IS-456 for various beam stiffness ratios.064 0.0732 0.05332 5 0.1/2) (in KNm/m) as per IS 456 5 0.The following chart and table show the Moment at the mid-point of slab as per the Study of Sutherland.06144 0.06144 1 0.5 0.06 0.06144 2 0. 1/2) (in KNm/m) as per Sutherland Mx (1/2.04733 4 0. Xa=Xb= Mx(1/2.1/2) (in KNm/m) (Node1556) Plate 2096 Mx (1/2.05002 2 0.057523 0.

3-04. Conc. 4. 2000. Detroit. Am. CSA Standard A23.E.5 References ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. Rexdale. Design of Concrete Structures. Reinforced Concrete Design (Second Edition). Michigan. Design of Concrete Structures. 3. S. and Menon. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete And Commentary. Technical Report to Office of Naval Research. Eurocode – 2. 2. Ontario. 15 . S.. D. European Committee for Standardization. L. 2003. Bureau of Indian Standards. 6. Newmark. 5.M. New Delhi.. 1953. 1992. University of Illinois. IS 456: 2000 — Plain and Reinforced Concrete – Code of Practice (Fourth Revision)..G. Goodman. Pillai.. Sutherland. Analysis of Plates Continuous Over Flexible Beams.U. Tata McGraw Hills. Canadian Standards Association. ACI Standard 318-11. Institute. N. Urbana. 2011. 2004. New Delhi. Bruxelles.

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