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A2 Media Evaluation – Amy Moss


For A2 „Media Studies‟ we were informed that we were going to be creating a 5 minute Documentary clip on a topic of our choice, combined with two ancillary tasks. The ancillary tasks consisted of a 30 second „Radio Trailer‟ and a Double Page Spread article for a listings magazine. As we had to create the first 5 minutes of a Documentary, and not the complete hour, it left us with an advantage as we were able to include vox pops, interviews, short clips, voiceovers and our own music. We wanted to use many forms of documentary conventions to capture the spectator‟s attention.

5 minute Documentary clip
For our Documentary to follow the generic conventions that most Documentaries have would mean that it would have to: Inform the spectator about a topic that affects themselves or the world in which they live in To convey their peers opinions in a diplomatic, yet entertaining manner Interviews with professionals Voiceover that is endearing and lets them develop their own opinions without being biased A narrative structure that is easy and simple to follow(Linear) As our topic was „CCTV‟ it was obvious that the theme of our documentary was going to have to be serious and political, whilst venturing into both sides for the arguments against and for CCTV. Initially, for us to establish the type of Documentary we were going to make, we decided to look at the Documentary modes that Bill Nicholls presented to filmmakers. He identified six different modes for Documentaries: Poetic, Expository, Observational, Participatory, Performative and Reflexive. Poetic Documentary mode is when the film tends to move nearer towards subjective interpretations of its subject, it also stresses mood and tone, more than it displays knowledge or acts of persuasion. Expository mode addresses the viewer directly with titles or voiceovers and often uses an account of

A shot from our Documentary interviewing an injury solicitor, keeping with the conventions of an interview with a professional.

history, however advanced arguments have also been used previously; for example in „The Conspiracy Theory‟, narrated by Jesse Ventura is in Expository mode as he often during the Documentary emphasizes on the fact he has a well-supported argument.

Observational mode is when it allows the audience to simply
„observe‟ without a voiceover or additional titles. It‟s a mode of documentary filmmaking that allows the audience to form their own opinion, without the influence of a critical voiceover, which are most often one sided. Furthermore, the style of the Documentary is often „fly-on-the-wall‟; For example, „Gimme Shelter‟ which was directed by the „Maysles Brothers‟ and Charlotte Zwerin in 1970, would be an observational mode of Documentary, as it follows Mick Jagger and the rest of the Rolling Stones around for their first tour, without a voiceover, and often shows footage of them editing or viewing the scenes that have been filmed of them.

Participatory mode is when filmmakers move from behind the
camera and in most cases appears as subjects within their own work. The filmmaker is freed to openly discuss his/her perspective in regards to the film being made. A rhetorical and mainly argumentative stance return to the documentary and the filmmaker often asserts the message further. Performative mode can often be confused with Participatory mode as they are quite similar. Performative is the mode where stories of filmmakers are told, offering a chance to often air different opinions and cause some persuasion towards the topic. An example of the Performative mode is „Super-Size Me‟, directed by Morgan Spurlock who starred in his own documentary, and in hindsight was a guinea pig to a McDonalds binge. Lastly, Reflexive mode attempts to de-mystify the art of making a documentary where the audience is subjected to certain way of viewing the Documentary. Our Documentary uses a Voiceover throughout to give the audience a Linear narrative structure, which whilst speaking directly to the spectator, offers them appropriate information and explanations. With our Voiceover, we wanted to make sure that we weren‟t directly persuading an audience to a certain side, to be either „For‟ or „Against‟ CCTV, to do this, we presented facts and opinions which were equal on both sides of the argument. Furthermore, through the use of Interviews with experts, it gave the audience a chance to listen to the statistics and facts about our topic. Whilst informing them in a fun and interactive manner, through the use of

music whilst experts were being interviewed, which we added in during editing, to keep the audiences focused on what was happening on screen. For our Documentary to be conventional so that it would be able to be shown on a mainstream TV Channel, it would mean that Research into similar Documentaries would need to be done. However, when it came to Research we realized that even „Dispatches‟ who have normally covered most controversial topics, hadn‟t yet made a Documentary on „CCTV‟, which meant we would have to venture into other scandals, such as phone tapping and programs such as „Caught on Camera‟. From watching many Documentaries, we came to the conclusion that there are particular methods that directors use to maintain the audiences focus, such as: Close up shots Extreme Close up shots Establishing Shots Group Shots/Two Shot for Interviews/Vox Pops Handheld camera if it‟s a frantic or rushed part of the Documentary. From viewing the conventions through other Documentaries, to film in a similar style, we had to use a tripod and if possible, often film without to emphasize on the point that CCTV is often classed as a „Peeping Tom‟ device. We were able to do this for the start of our Documentary, where we took 4 separate shots and focused on the angle of a CCTV camera would be in, and filmed places that would normally be watched by contractors who control CCTV usually. For our expert interviews, we were able to use a tripod which made the shot steady and meant that we were able to have establishing shots of the interviewees workplaces, not only that but it meant that it looked conventional in regards to the Documentaries we had viewed on the topic of CCTV. As the nature of our Documentary is a serious, yet controversial matter it meant that we wouldn‟t be able to use a handheld camera for the shot. By using the tripod it meant that we could use a wide range of shots including panning and tracking shots that were stable. As our documentary had to follow the conventions of TV documentaries, we needed to include certain aspects involving sound. For example, a Voiceover, background music, hyperbolic sound, diegetic and non diegetic sound. Whilst watching "The Conspiracy Theory" we noticed that they used a presenter, although one had been used we came to the conclusion that it took away the tension surrounding the hard hitting details of the topic, resulting in us opting for a Voiceover. By using a Voiceover we were able to use open questions that would allow the audience to engage with the debate of CCTV. Background music was used so we could build up tension for the spectator and add a sense of seriousness, whilst trying not to overpower what was being said during interviews and Vox pops. "The conspiracy theory" used hyperbolic sound to

exaggerate the points they were making, especially in regards to when they were interviewing members of the government, which in some respect made the audience feel uneasy when shots of them were shown. For our background music, we chose simple sounds with a forceful nature, we realised that this would allow the audience to feel that the subject we are covering is important and in need of confrontation. Once the music had been added, it meant the documentary was able to flow in a more stable manner, whilst keeping the audience engaged. During the research done for our documentary we watched "Supersize Me", "The Conspiracy Theory", "Gimme Shelter" This is a still shot of our opening footage, and "Suspect Nation". By watching a variety similar to ‘SuperSize me’ by Morgan Spurlock. of documentaries of different genre, it meant that we could adapt ours to the one that we felt not only caught our attention, but kept it also. We used special effects within our Documentary to allow the audience to visualize facts and figures. At the start of our documentary we included a map of England with the voiceover informing the audience about the statistics of CCTV and how many are used within the UK. We changed the speed at which the CCTV cameras came into the shot through editing. Moreover, the same technique was used in „Supersize Me‟ and we realized that it was very effective and captured our attention. Furthermore, the main effect we used was altering the focus on the camera during filming so we were able to display text on top of a moving image during editing. As our chosen channel for our Documentary was channel 4, by researching into similar programs such as Dispatches, we realized this was a technique used and was suitable for the viewing of our target audience.

Magazine Article
Our double page spread was going to be listed in the Radio Times magazine as we had looked at many others and they seemed to be more focused upon Soaps and Dramas rather than having a healthy balance between informative programs and fictional programs. To be able to understand the target audience and what they would normally look for in a magazine article, we had to look through previous Radio Times magazine articles on similar topics to ours, or even programs with the same audience. We gathered our information and included all of the necessary attributes an article needs to have to be useful and informative to the audience. For our magazine article to be authentic, we had to include suitable images and text. The generic items to include are Pull quotes, Masthead, Headlines and Drop caps.

The masthead of a magazine article is the title of the page, and is used primarily in newspapers and magazines. We used our Masthead based on the topic of our Documentary as our Documentary was going to be a one off show, it would mean we would need something to grab the audience’s attention to make sure they didn’t miss it.

We used the ‘Behind the Scenes’ header at the top right hand corner of the page because Radio Times magazine have a focus every week, and we realised that if we put it at the top it would gain more focus as it would be a program that the magazine recommends viewers to watch.

We included a ‘Radio Times’ logo at the bottom of both pages as this is something in which the listings magazine do to allow the reader to find the page from the contents page. Drop Caps were used in the article to keep with the main conventions of a magazine article as it made it look more professional and appealing.

Our article was written in column format as the generic convention is this way and it was simple yet enticed the audience.

We made sure we included the date and time of the Documentary to make the audience aware of when it was going to be broadcasted.

Radio Trailer
For our radio trailer we did a lot of research into similar radio clips and got an idea of what to include to attract our target audience. The stations in which broadcasted similar advertisements were Capital FM and Free Radio, allowing us to come to the conclusion that the best one for us would be Capital FM as it appeals to a wide range of ages and can reach out to students who could be interested in getting into the debate. We included the majority of our interview and vox pops clips consecutively after one another, to add to the effect of it being an important topic. As our target audience ranges from 24-50 years old, it would mean that we would have to appeal to a more mature audience. Due to this reason, we included a mellow sound in the background for our Radio Trailer and made sure that the nature of our radio trailer would have a serious impact on the spectator. The time, date and channel information at the end of an advertisements on radio trailers is a generic convention, and we

sought that it would be better to have a male to speak at the end, to give a more dominant approach. As our research proved to us that the majority of radio trails were around 30-50 seconds long, which meant they were long enough to get their point across but not too long to lose the audiences focus. Our radio trail was 36 seconds long, which was the perfect amount of time to catch the audience‟s attention and keep it.

Overall, throughout our documentary we stuck to the main conventions, although we did find certain aspects challenging. For example the beginning part of our documentary had a „ripple‟ transition, at first we couldn‟t find the right one, and struggled to get it to look right. But we managed to overcome our problem and ended up getting the perfect beginning to our documentary.

Along with our Documentary we created a magazine article and a radio trail, these products were used to advertise and promote our Documentary.

Target Audience
Our target audience for our Documentary is 24-50 year old males and females educating themselves on a controversial topic. The topic we chose allows them to have a debate with fellow spectators or as part of a conversation, also by choosing a topic that everyone can have an opinion on it meant that we weren‟t just appealing to a niche audience, we were applying the thoughts of a broad audience into the spectrum. The main audience for the Documentary was young adults and seniors due to the time the documentary was scheduled to be on. The class status of the target audience is all classes, as CCTV is a topic that everyone can relate to, due to the argument that „everyone is being watched‟. Stereotypically society often splits characteristics into many categories; we haven‟t narrowed our target audience down to a race, disability or social status, meaning that in terms of gender we are aiming at both sexes. In regards to location, we chose Birmingham to film the majority of our Documentary, however we want the documentary to appeal to people who live in the UK as a whole, rather than cutting off a wide section of the UK just because they don‟t live in Birmingham, as a nation it‟s a topic that can relate to everybody.

Radio Trailer
In our radio trailer we used clips from our Documentary, we mashed up interview and Vox pops clips to add a frantic nature to the trailer and included the same

background music from our Documentary to keep with the theme. Our radio trailer compliments our Documentary because it appeals to the target audience directly and tells them about our product. Capital FM was the perfect choice to broadcast our radio trailer because it has a wide range of listeners between the busiest hours of the day. It covers a vast amount of the UK and it would mean that our Documentary trailer would be heard from most Capital stations. With over 7 million people tuning in each week, it would mean that it would reach people in the busiest of cities, including Manchester, London, Birmingham and Scotland as seen in the picture to the left. This is a great attribute for a radio station to have as it would reach all of our target audience across the UK including all social classes. For us, Capital FM Birmingham would be the ideal place to start as there is a „Say No to CCTV‟ campaign that runs in Moseley that would attract a vast amount of viewers to watch our Documentary after hearing it on the radio. According to statistics the main listener group for Capital FM is 15 – 24 which would attract over 50% of our target audience, leaving the other half to Radio Times, which leans towards a more mature audience. The elements that we used within our Radio Trailer such as; background music, voiceover and hyperbolic sound help advertise the documentary and fit in well with the reputation of Capital FM as it is aimed directly at a younger audience.

Magazine Article
For our magazine article we used many still shots that were included within our Documentary and realized that it would be the best way to show off our topic well. We used the CCTV shot from our Documentary as the main image for our article relating the text to our target audience, whilst showing the audience exactly what they were going to be watching. As our Magazine article was aimed towards a more mature audience it meant that we would have to approach the audience differently in comparison to how we approached the audience of our Radio Trailer. In our Magazine article we used colloquial language to attract the audience and made it a formal article, as the „Radio Times‟ is a modern yet reserved listings magazine. The main reason why we chose Radio Times was because they are an appealing listing magazine to the audience we are targeting, and have a readership of over 3 million people. Furthermore, Radio Times includes many different types of articles such as programs and Documentaries on the mainstream channels, which for us was

essential. As this magazine differentiates between the nature of topics they use, it was an appropriate choice for our Documentary as CCTV is a serious topic yet underrated. Moreover, I felt as though our Magazine article is what really pushed the Documentary advertisement wise, because the article itself was very detailed and allowed an insight into what the audience was about to view. The radio trailer in contrast was an assistant to the Magazine Article as Radio Times covers the majority of our target audience, whereas the Radio Trailer station covers a minority of them.

During the research and planning we used surveys to find out information regarding our target audience and what they would like to see in an upcoming documentary. We asked both males and females ranging from the ages of 16-18 years old and asked many people within our target audience. We drew a lot of information from the results and found that many of the conventions they wanted to see had been included within our documentary. In context with this, we decided that the fairest way to gain feedback would be from completing more surveys concerning our Documentary, Magazine article and Radio Trail.

Documentary Feedback
We asked many students about our Documentary as we wanted to gain feedback on our sound in the Documentary.
Do you believe the background music is relevant to the topic of CCTV? 0 On a Scale of 1-10, how consistent are the sound levels throughout?
Scale No 5 Y es 0 10 Amount of People 27% 20% 15 7% 20 13% 33% Scale No 6 Scale No 7 Scale No 8 Scale No 9

N o

From this feedback we managed to observe that we had correctly used the perfect balance between forceful, yet simple music. We also speculated about our sound levels, as during editing we had to make sure that they were consistent throughout and didn‟t get louder in any places. Towards the end of our Documentary we asked the target audience what they would rate our Documentary out of 10. We were pleased with the results; however we realized that if we were going to improve the Documentary, it would be a smart

decision to make sure we checked the sound, due to it in some places often overpowering certain shots.

Overall, on a scale of 1-10, how would you rate our documentary?
12 10 Scale of 1-10 8 6 4 2 0 Scale No. Response 1 1 0 2 2 0 3 3 0 4 4 0 5 5 0 6 6 0 7 7 4 8 8 6 9 9 3 10 10 2

Radio Trailer
We asked a vast amount of questions in regards to how effective the radio trailer was in advertising our product.
Does the Radio Trailer make you want to watch the Documentary?
Are the sound levels easy enough to hear?

20 15 10 5 0 YES NO



Does the music suit the genre of the topic?

5 93% 0 yes no


The results from these weren‟t particularly great, especially for the volume of the sound. However, the feedback we did receive were statements such as “I enjoyed the overlapping of music, it made it seem really interesting and made me want to know more about the topic”. The overall feedback for the radio trailer stated that 93% of the people we asked stated that the music was well suited to the genre of the topic that we had chosen, which was very positive. The radio trail was the correct length, and with the feedback we received it worked well with the Documentary.

Magazine Article
The first question we asked regarding the magazine article was “Is our DPS
Amount of People
Is our DPS similar to ones you would find in a 'Radio Times' magazine?

similar to the ones that you would find in a „Radio Times‟ magazine?”. This

question was essential as we wanted to gain feedback as to whether it fitted within the generic conventions of a listings magazine.

From this feedback, we came to the YES conclusion that our magazine article was a perfect advertisement for our Documentary because it followed the simple conventions of an article that would be listed within „Radio Times‟ magazine.

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0


The following questions we asked were “Are the images in the DPS relevant to the
topic of CCTV?” AND “If you were flicking through the magazine, would this article grab your attention?” We asked these questions because we needed to

find out whether the images we had used were appropriate to the topic, and if they captured the attention of the reader.
Are the images in the DPS relevant to the topic of CCTV?
20 15 10 5 0 YES NO

By the feedback we received from these questions, we realised that in contrast to our Radio Trail, we realized that our magazine article complimented our Documentary in a completely different way. We become conscious of the fact that our magazine article was the main way in which we would attract an audience because the feedback for the magazine article was all positive. In regards to the last question, which was an open question “Are there any ways you could improve our Double Page Spread?” Many people answered with “There are no ways I can improve this, the necessary attributes that a magazine article would have are already there” and “I couldn‟t fault it”.

If you were flicking through the magazine, would this article grab your attention?
20 15 10 5 0

For us gaining feedback for all texts was essential because we wanted to hear about the aspects of YES NO the Magazine Article and Radio Trail that possibly complimented the Documentary. The repetitive comments that were being made through feedback was about sound, I think sound during our Documentary is something that could have definitely been improved

because I thought that in some parts our sound levels were a little higher than we anticipated them to be. However, as the Documentary continued many people stated it got better in the end, which is something we have learnt, that we could have made some minor adjustments. In regards to the Magazine Article, overall I was pleased with the feedback as it was all positive which meant that if the article were to be published in a magazine, it would certainly fit in and welcome people to watching our Documentary.

The research and planning for our Documentary was extremely important as it meant that we could schedule when we were going to film and obtain background information on what to include in a Documentary to make it more entertaining and conventional. During the initial stages of Research and Planning, we decided to create a mind map of prospective topics that we could do, once we came to the conclusion that it was CCTV we drew up storyboards that we could follow for when we began filming. These storyboards were lucrative although we didn‟t use any media technologies. To get an insight into the topic of CCTV, we looked out for articles in newspapers that could have been written on websites such as The Guardian, The Sun, The Telegraph and Daily Mirror to get a wide range of tabloids and broadsheet opinions. Also we searched Google looking for possible sources of information, and came across a number of organizations that were „for‟ and „against‟ CCTV which were very helpful when looking for possible interviews and statistics to display to the audience. By using the websites that we had found we were able to gain facts/figures that we previously might not have been able to find. Channel 4 was the channel in which we chose for the broadcasting of our Documentary, meaning we had to research into their Channel remit to make sure that we were keeping with their 4 rules in regards to entertaining and informing an audience. In regards of viewing A ‘Say NO to CCTV’ website we found during similar documentaries, we Research on Google. found a wide range of them on Youtube and internet players such as Channel 4, despite the fact that Dispatches hadn‟t previously done a Documentary on CCTV. As we had accumulated a vast amount of information on out topic by this stage we needed a place to put it, this is where we used blogger and started to post our research individually. Blogger was very helpful as it meant we could refer back to it whenever we wished, especially when we wanted to include facts and write our script.

Storyboards for Filming.

Annotated imaged of previous Radio Times magazine articles.

Also for Research, we had to look into other Radio Times magazine articles, to establish their generic conventions and include the elements we would need to make our article efficient.

For the planning, we set out a filming schedule and followed our Storyboards for when to film certain parts of our Documentary. This was very helpful as it meant that we were very organized and could keep up with the deadlines for each task. To make sure that we completed all tasks successfully without putting ourselves, or the equipment we were using at risk. We had to make sure we did a Student Risk Assessment beforehand on the locations we were going to be filming on and the problems we could be presented with.
The Student Risk Assessment that we completed before filming.

Once we had completed all Research and Planning for our topic, it meant that we could go onto filming our Documentary. We used a Canon HG20 Camera to film all of our footage, with the advantage of it having focal zoom, it meant we could film certain shots with ease. The camera itself was very self explanatory to use and was very light and easy to hold if we needed to film a handheld shot. We were also supplied with a tripod, which helped us a lot due to the number of steady and controlled shots we had to film. Using a tripod also meant that we could film certain shots from awkward angles without it being uneven. We used the tripod for extreme close up shots, close up shots, zooming in and out, vox pops and our expert interviews. Although the tripod was sometimes hard to maneuver when in a

rush trying to get to certain interviews, it was a price we were willing to pay for a professional looking shot. In addition to the camera and tripod, we were equipped with a set of headphones and a microphone. We used a directional microphone for recording all of our interviews, vox pops and our voiceover, whilst we were using the microphone we had to ensure that we had the headphones plugged in to check whether the sound level was correct and we were able to hear the appropriate sounds, with hardly any background noise.

Every time we had finished filming, sticking with our filming schedule we made sure that we uploaded the clips to our assigned Apple iMac. This meant that we had accumulated a numerous amount of clips and all we had to do was open final cut express and „Log and Transfer‟ them for us to be able to edit them. Once all of our clips were imported to Final Cut Express we were ready to edit them individually and bring them all together. On many occasions we changed the speed of the We slowed down the text to allow the clips, either reducing or audience to read it, whilst the deep focus increasing it to give the clip a in the background moves slowly also. special effect on the audience. By reducing it, it gave the clip a mellow pace A still of the opening of our Documentary with and meant that the information we were the ‘CCTV: To Protect or To Pry?’(In providing alongside it was important and should Typewriter Text) be taken note of. If the clip was sped up, it meant that we were trying to prove a point or adding to playing on the rushed emotion of the audience. To do this, we had to click on „Modify‟ at the top of Final Cut Express and find „Speed‟. Throughout our Documentary we realised that in some parts the sound levels were not the same, particularly on a vox pop we had filmed outside where the woman we were filming had got extremely close to the microphone without us noticing. To rectify this we had to use the razor blade tool to cut the clip separately so we were able to spot where the sound dipped or rose. The sound levels were easy enough to change and meant that we were able to keep them balanced, we managed to do this

for the majority of our clips and it meant that the Documentary flowed a lot easier than it had previously. Once all of the sound levels had been checked, we wanted to add text for the Interviews and the deep focus. We used the Typewriter text for our title text “CCTV: To Protect or To Pry?” which worked effectively because it meant that we could keep within the theme of it being a formal matter. A transition that we used in between the clips was Cross Dissolve so the clips flowed smoothly after one another. We needed this because without it, it would look like the clips were bluntly cut and wouldn‟t flow as well without. The transitions were easy enough to add at the beginning and the end of the clips.

Once everything involving cutting and adding transitions had been done, we needed to add the background music and the voiceover to the timeline which all in all was fairly simple. Firstly, we added our voiceover which we had recorded on the camera, using the microphone we were provided, we had made sure we filmed them individually so they would be a lot easier to add. After that, we added the background music, and made sure the sound levels were low so we could hear the voiceover throughout the 5 minute clip.

This is a screenshot of Final Cut Express before we added all of our clips, the toolbar on the right hand side allows us to edit the clips, whether that would be splitting or decreasing the level of sound. (The tools we used are circled in red)

Radio Trailer
For our Radio Trailer we used Final Cut Express and Garage Band to compile the clips together so they overlapped and added a rushed nature which complimented the Documentary that the topic we were covering was urgent. We used the same background music for the radio trailer as we did for the Documentary. Once we had compiled all of the vox pops and interview clips together we had to export the track as an mp3. As we had already gained the necessary skills needed to create a radio trailer from creating our Documentary the procedure was very easy and straightforward. For our Radio Trailer we learnt from our previous criticisms of sound and made sure that it was all equal and flowed enough that we were able to hear everything at the same level.

Track Name

Track Mixer

Track Timeline Instrument Controls

Add new track button

LCD and player controls

Magazine Article
To be able to produce an effective magazine article we used InDesign, which allowed us to create a double page spread. For our article text we used Microsoft word, which allowed us to simply copy it into InDesign. In order to create our double page spread, we added the text first which left us the adequate amount of space for our images and mastheads. By using the column tool, we were able to split it correctly.

The page was split into three columns to leave us room to include images and a masthead.

Once the necessary steps had been taken regarding text including using DropCap to make it look more professional. We were able to change the size of the text if we needed more room to be able to add images. To do this we used the box tool to add an image, and did this four times to be able to add all images. Lastly, we wanted to make a few alterations to the color of the text so we changed the „Behind the Scenes‟ text to red, which was a very easy step to do and meant that The ‘Behind the’ Scenes text our text stood out against the images we colour was changed to red to had added. make it stand out, and keep
with the theme of ‘Radio Times’

The DropCap was added to make it look more professional.

Once the Documentary and the two ancillary tasks had been completed, the only step left to take was to upload them to Blogger and Youtube. We uploaded the Documentary to Youtube so we were able to embed the html code into our Blogs and would make it easier for the audience to view it.

This is a screenshot of us uploading our Documentary to YouTube so we were able to view it on Blogger.

Secondly, the Double Page Spread had to be converted from a PDF to a JPEG which was done by going to File > Save as > JPEG, so we could also add that to our blog and refer to it when we wished. Another form of technology that we used was SoundCloud for the uploading of our Radio Trail, this meant that it was easier for the audience and us to listen to it because not everybody would have GarageBand to be able to listen to it, therefore it meant that our product was more accessible to our target audience.