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1.1 Introduction
In the past sharing files between computers occurred via sneaker net, literally walking a file stored on a floppy disk from one computer to another. In an effort to improve the transfer of information, the modern computer network was born. A network is simply two or more computers connected together to share information and resources.

SneakerNet puters not Com connected Data transferred by foot

Network puters connected Com Data transferred electronically

Fig 1.1: The Evolution of Modern Networking Computer networks allow people to: Exchange information (e.g. databases, documents, and graphics) via connected workstations. Share resource equipment (e.g. computers, printers and scanners). Use shared applications (e.g. spreadsheets and word processing programs). Collaborate and communicate electronically.

There are many types of networks. Choosing the best network structure depends on an organizations productivity needs, its budgetary restrictions, and the types of resources to be connected. To make the best choices requires understanding the basic types of networks and their functions.

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1.2 Line Configuration

Line configuration refers to the way two or more communication devices attach to a link. A link is the physical communication pathway. There are two possible line configurations: point-to-point and multipoint.

1.2.1 Point-To-Point Provides a dedicated link between two devices.

Fig 1.2:Point-To-Point 1.2.2 Multipoint More than two devices share a single link.

Fig 1.3: Multipoint

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1.3 Basic Network Types

Schools, businesses, and other organizations select network types according to their individual needs and finances. Although network designs are quite diverse, basic network types are relatively few. They include the following: Local Area Networks. Workgroup Local Area Networks. Departmental Local Area Networks.

Metropolitan Area Networks. Wide Area Networks Enterprise Networks.

1.3.1 Local Area Network (LAN) LAN is usually privately owned and linked the devices in a single office, building, or campus. LAN can be extend throughout a company and include voice, sound, and video peripherals. It is designed to allow resources (h/w, s/w, or data) to be shared between personal computers / workstations. Beside size, LANs are distinguished from other types of networks by their transmission media and topology such as bus, ring and star. Traditionally, LANs have data rates in the 4 16 Mbps range. However its speed is increasing today and can reach 100 Mbps with gigabit system.

Workgroup Local Area Networks

A Local Area Network, LAN, connects computers and hardware devices together over a small geographic area. These computers and hardware devices are frequently referred to as nodes.

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Individual Computers


Shared Printer

Fig 1.4: Workgroup LAN: Peer-to-Peer Network A Workgroup LAN typically consists of several computers connected to one another, usually located in close proximity such as a computer lab. LANs are the most common form of networks found in most small businesses and schools. A workgroup LAN is often created for several computers to share an intermittently used resource such as a laser printer. In earlier days of networking, most Workgroup LANs used peer-to-peer networking to facilitate communication. A peer-to-peer network is built without the use of a central server, a computer used as the central storage unit for data. Each peer computer can share its resources with the other computers on the network independently. Today LANs often include central server computers. Special software protocols, such as NetBEUI, Microsofts File and Printer Sharing, and Apples Local Talk, are used for establishing communication across a peer-to-peer network.

Departmental Local Area Networks

A Departmental LAN connects: One or more Workgroup LANs. Individual computers within a department.

Within a department, a LAN allows users to connect to multiple printers, servers, and colleagues computers.

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Workgroup LAN Clients Centralized Computer: Server

Workgroup LAN Clients

Fig1.5: Departmental Local Area Networks In more complex networks such as Departmental LANs, client/server networking is usually employed. A centralized computer is used to facilitate the sharing of data and hardware with other computers on the network. These central computers are called file servers. The computers using the file server are called clients. Workgroup and Departmental LANs are connected using a Backbone Network. devices), connecting Workgroup and Departmental LANs within an office or building A

Backbone Network consists of equipment, such as routers and switches (network hardware

Fig 1.6: Workgroup and Departmental LANs within an office or building 1.3.2 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) It is designed to extend over an entire city. I.e. it can be a single network (cable television network) or connecting a number of LANs into a larger network. A MAN may be wholly owned and operated by a private company or be a service provided by a public company.

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Fig 1.7: Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Metropolitan Area Networks Two or more LANs in the same metropolitan area connected together are called Metropolitan Area Networks, MANs. Using high-speed (1.544Mbps to 155 Mbps) transmission, MANs connect smaller networks within a campus, a city, and/or neighboring suburbs.

North Campus

South Campus LAN


Fig1.8: Metropolitan Area Network Companies usually pay an outside organization to supply the physical media necessary for transmitting data. The equipment and services provided by these vendors are usually on a monthly fee-for-service basis, with a one-time installation and set-up charge. One example is when a company leases telephone lines from a telecommunications company.

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Networks at Work When making a purchase at a modern supermarket chain, information is exchanged between Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks. Consider a typical supermarket transaction: 1. Each day information, including item names, prices and stock numbers, is transmitted from the in-store server to each client checkout computer's hard drive. 2. As an item is slid across the scanner, a laser beam reads the product's bar code and displays the name and price of the item on the alphanumeric display. The bar code tells the computer the name and cost of the item, the name of the manufacturer, etc. Supermarket Checkout Counter: Workgroup LAN 3. At the same time, the item purchased is subtracted from inventory. 4. To pay for the purchase, a debit or charge card may be slid through the swipecard reader. 1. Approval is requested via the company's network from the central computer (server) at the headquarters. In this example the headquarters is located in the same metropolitan area. 5. If sufficient funds are available, a signal is sent back approving the transaction.

1 Product information transm itted to checkout

com puter Hard Drive
Inventory Data

is 3 Hard driveed to program m

subtract item from inventory


Alphanum eric display

Bank card

card 4 Swipebank info reads

reads 2 Scannerinformation product

Bar code

41390 015

Fig 1.9: Supermarket Checkout Counter: Workgroup LAN

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Supermarkets MAN
Ha q a r e d u rte S rv r e e
e u ns 4 R q est fu d ns ro 5 Fu d app ved -h u 9 In o se server

u d te h a q a r p a s e d u rte s rv r e e

S p rm rk t ue a e H a q a rs e d u rte S p rm rk t ue a e L N A 7 S rver and /8 e

c e k u c mu r h c o t o p te u d te d ily pa d a

7 /8 N ig b rh o e ho od F o S re o d to

2 5 .2

Fig 1.10: Supermarkets MAN 6. At the end of the business day the in-store central computer (server) receives updated information from each cash register computers hard drive. 7. New items, prices, and stock numbers are entered and transmitted to each computer for the next business day. 8. Data about the days transactions are transmitted to the headquarters server. 9. Data about the days transactions are transmitted to the headquarters server.

Supermarkets Departmental LAN

InSoeC nr l t r e ta C mue ( ev r o p t r S r e)

C be al s

2 5 .2

2 5 .2

2 5 .2

D p r mn C e k u C mues e at e t h c o t o p t r ( l ns C t) ie

Fig 1.11: Supermarkets Departmental LAN

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2. The headquarters server indicates when stock is low and sends instructions to the warehouses for more supply deliveries.
3. Banking is also handled through the network. A payment request is sent

electronically by the supermarket computer to your bank. Supermarkets WAN

F o S p ly od up W re o s a hue

S p rm rk t ue a e H a q a rs e d u rte

1 0 1 1

Lcl oa Bn ak

1 2

2 5 .2

N ig b rh o e ho od F o S re o d to

Fig 1.12: Supermarkets WAN

4. In turn the bank subtracts the amount from your account and directs a credit to the supermarkets account. 1.3.3 Wide Area Network (WAN) It provides long-distance transmission of data, voice, image and video

information over large geographical areas that may comprise a country, or even the whole world. WANs may utilize public, leased, or private communication devices, usually in A WAN that is wholly owned and used by a single company is often referred to Wide Area Networks Wide Area Networks, WANs, span large geographical combinations, therefore span an unlimited number of miles. as an enterprise network. distances, even over oceans or across continents. WANs overcome the distance limitations imposed by LANs.

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WANs can be used to connect: LANs within a school campus Networks within a city, a state, a country, or across the world.


College LAN

Your School LAN University LAN

Fig 1.13: Wide Area Network (WAN) WANs can use either analog (telephone lines) or digital (such as satellite transmission) signals, or a combination of both. WANs can be privately owned by large corporations or they can be public. Wide Area Networks that span the globe are sometimes referred to as Global Networks.

Fig 1.14: Wide Area Network (WAN)

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1.4 Internetworks

Fig 1.15: Internetworks Internetwork / internet is refer as when two or more networks are connected. Individual networks are joined into internetworks by the use of internetworking Intranet: a generic term used to mean an interconnection of networks. Internet: the name of a specific worldwide network.

devices (such as routers, gateways).

1.5 Topology
Topology of a network is the geometric representation of the relationship (peer-topeer or primary-secondary) of all the links as linking devices. It refers to the way a network is laid out, either physically or logically Basic topologies: star, bus, and ring Peer-to-peer: all the devices share the link equally. E.g. ring, bus Primary-secondary: one device controls traffic and other must transmit through it. E.g. star, bus. 1.5.1 Star Each device has a dedicated point-to-point link only to a central controller (hub), which act as an exchange.
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Advantage: Easy to install and reconfigure; robustness and easy fault identification and fault isolation. Disadvantage: Whole network down when hub is not working




Node Fig 1.16: star topology


1.5.2 Bus It is a multipoint line configuration, where one long cable acts as a backbone to link all the devices in the network. Nodes are connected to the bus cable by drop line (a connection running between the device and main cable) and taps (a connector). Advantage: easy of installation; less cable than, star topology. Disadvantage: there is a limit on the number of taps a bus can support and on the distance between those taps cause by heat (signal reflection) and losing of energy during transmission; difficult reconfiguration and fault isolation.

Fig 1.17: Bus topology

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1.5.3 Ring Each device has a dedicated point-to-point line configuration only with the two devices on either side of it. Each device in the ring incorporates a repeater. Signal is passed along the ring in 1 direction. Advantage: Easy to install and reconfigure, Simplified fault isolation. Disadvantage: Media and traffic consideration maximum length and number of devices); A break in the ring can disable the entire network.




Node Fig 1.18: Ring topology

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These different types of networks are used to communicating the computers i.e. sharing resources and exchange of information's etc together which are located at different parts of world by systematic manner and set of rules.

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1. B. A. Forouzan (2008), Data Communication and Computer Networking, 3rd edition, Tata McGraw Hill publications, New Delhi, India. 2. W. Tomasi (2008), Advanced Electronic Communication Systems, 5th edition, Prentice Hall of India, India. 3. Prakash C. Gupta (2006), Data Communications and Computer Networks, Prentice Hall of India, India. 4. William Stallings (2007), Data and Computer Communications, 8th edition, Prentice Hall of India, India. 5. T. Housely (2008), Data Communication and Tele Processing Systems, 2nd edition, BS Publications, India 6. 7. 8. 9. s.htm 10.

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