ZeroPoint Field Induced e+e Pair Creation for Energy Production
Idea Conceived on 11/24/96 Draft Finished on 6/2/99 Paper Finished on 2/25/13
Javier O. Trevino Physicist Innovative Energy Technologies 3402 LeBlanc San Antonio TX 78247
2106010655
jtrevinoaff@gmail.com
Abstract It has recently been demonstrated that strong electric fields induce e+e pair production. An isolated monochromatic zeropoint field although stochastic in nature, has pockets of organized photons which may mimic strong transient electric fields. These pockets of strong “virtual” fields manifest themselves at predictable rates. The resulting pair production/annihilation rate is used to calculate an energy production rate based on the pair annihilation energy. Energy production rates on the order of MW/m ^{3} should result from isolating a zeropoint field in the 10 ^{}^{1}^{2} to 10 ^{}^{1}^{5} m region of the zeropoint spectrum.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of modifying the zeropoint vacuum field to mimic e+e pair producing critical electric fields. As the pairs annihilate, they create real photons that can be used as energy. I calculate the energy production rate as a function of zeropoint spectra and find the critical wavelength which produces useable rates of energy production.
Background The idea of extracting energy from empty space may seem like a fantasy, but modern scientists are exploring that very idea. Current theories include various schemes to use or capture the zeropoint field (e.g. Casimir effect mechanics). While this is a reasonable theme, I propose a new theme by asking; What about the seething mass of virtual particle/antiparticle pairs that are a property of the quantum vacuum? If we can extract e+e pairs from the quantum vacuum, this would present us with an inexauhstable source of fuel. The question is, how do we extract these particles?
Schwinger predicted that a sufficiently strong field will cause the vacuum to spontaneously break down and release particle/antiparticle pairs [4]. When the vacuum is under the influence of a sufficiently strong field, the vacuum decays to its lowest state by releasing particles.
It is currently possible to raise these particles out of their virtual existence by applying a sufficiently strong field (gravitational or electromagnetic). Hawking radiation is one example of how a strong gravitational field can cause the vacuum to release particles. There are experiments being conducted with HiZ nucleons in which the collision of two nuclei produces a transient critical electric field on the surface of the nucleus. The field is strong enough to cause a spontaneous breakdown of the vacuum – thereby releasing particles. Recently, experiments with a polarized high irradiance Laser succeded in producing electric fields strong enough to induce a breakdown of the vacuum – releasing particles from seemingly “out of nowhere.” These examples indicate that strong field experiments are consistent with Schwingers 1951 prediction that strong fields will precipitate matterantimatter pairs [4].
These methods are a demostration of the reality of strong field pair creation scenarios. However, the energy and bulk required for the effect is impractical for compact, portable power applications. Additionally, the production rate is many orders of magnitude smaller than what is needed to support realistic energy needs. What we need is a way to mimic the pair producing effects of a strong field in a reasonably compact device. The resulting pair annihilation energy density rate should approach the MW/m ^{3} range. Additionally, the device must mimic strong fields with minimal energy input to the device.
Although this seems to imply an overunity efficiency device, this is not necessarily the case. The device should consume very little energy to liberate the matter/antimatter fuel. Consider a scenario with a large battery. Suppose the battery is equipped with a normallyopen switch. It only takes a few ergs of energy to close the switch, but once you close it, huge quantities of energy flow through the circuit. However, once the switch is opened, the energy flow stops. This proposal is very similar. The e+e pairs are there – waiting for someone to “open” the vacuum. We already know how to open the vacuum (Strong Fields). The question is how do we keep the vacuum open? Specifically, how do we mimic strong electric fields indefinitely?
Strong electric fields are produced by superdense charge densities, or rapidly changing magnetic fields. One method utilizes a particle accelerator to slam heavy nuclei together resulting in densely charged quasinuclei that create intense fields at the surface of the nuclei. Another method uses intense laser pulses slamming into dense electron beams resulting in backscattered laser radiation which constructively interferes with the incoming beam to form intense transient electric fields. These methods are innovative, but they are bulky, inefficient, transient, and produce minute numbers of e+e pairs. They are not candidates for portable energy production.
Consider the following: A strong electric field is a dense ensemble of organized virtual photons. The question is: Where in nature is there already a huge assemblage of virtual photons? The answer is the zeropoint field. For many years, there was debate whether zeropoint photons were real or not. Various phenomenon, like vacuum polarization, and the Casimir effect indicated that quantum vacuum fluctuations produce measurable
effects. Recent experiments by Lamaroux reveal that these fluctuations are real [1]. Since the zeropoint field is an ensemble of randomly oriented virtual photons, why not explore the idea of “engineering” the zeropoint vacuum field to mimic a strong field?
This paper does exactly that. The theory is a semiclassical population based analysis of the quantum vacuum. We break down the Lorentz invariant zeropoint spectral energy density to monochromatic zeropoint fields. From this, and the Schwinger model of field induced pair production, a calculation is made of the number of monochromatic zero point photons necessary to induce a breakdown of the vacuum. A calculation yields the photon number density and critial field recurrence rate. A calculation is then made to pinpoint the monochromatic spectrum that has a sufficient energy density to mimic critical field strengths. The recurrence frequency is determined to deduce the pair production rate using the Schwinger model. From the pair production rate, a simple final calculation yields the energy production rate based on the nonrelativistic annihilation energy of the e+e pairs.
Results of a simplified computer model of the monochromatic zeropoint field indicate that these fields can have pockets of organized photons which mimic locally strong fields.
Introduction The quantum electromagnetic field is an exchange of virtual photons among charged particles. At any point in time, the quantum and classical field Hamiltonian’s must be equal. The expression that describes this equivalence is well known and accepted in the literature [4,5].
H
1
8
V
d
3
(
x E
2
B
2
)
k
(
n
k
1
2
)
(1)
Quantum Field Theory states that the field operators E, B, and the number operator
not commute, and there is never a situation where we know exactly how many photons there are in the field [5]. We only know that an array of them are summed to produce the Hamiltonian. We use the latter fact to construct a semiclassical population based theory of virtual field induced pair production. The idea of the electromagnetic vacuum field interacting with the particle vacuum field is not new. Dyson briefly mentions such an effect under the guise of “internal” vacuum polarization [6].
do
n k
Our goal is to mimic strong “real” fields by using the already existing virtual photons within the zeropoint field to create a virtual electric field.
Vacuum Spectra Vacuum zeropoint photons are virtual photons that obey a Lorentz invariant spectral energy density [4,8,9].
(
)
3
2
2
c
3
(2)
Integrating over the frequency gives us the monochromatic energy density
u
(
)
(
)
d
4
8
2
c
3
.
(3)
The zeropoint Hamiltonian is simply the sum of zeropoint photon energies and is expressed as
H
2
.
(4)
Th energy density of the whole field can be neatly expressed as the summed product of the whole field number density, and zeropoint photon energies
U
2
n
(5)
where the number density is the monochromatic energy density divided by the quantized vacuum photon energy
n
(
)
2
u
(
)
.
(6)
The expressions above are our tools from which we will compute the parameters necessary for zeropoint field induced pair production.
Computations
Crital Field The first piece of information we need is to answer the question of how strong of a field does it take to induce pair creation? We go to Schwingers Field Induced Pair Production model which describes the probability per unit volume per unit time for pair creation given by the expression below [4]
W
^{2}
e
E
2
0
2
c
2
j
1
j
2
[exp(
j
m
2
c
3
eE
0
)]
.
(7)
E _{0} is the electrostatic field intensity and j is summed from 1 to infinity. First of all, the expression can be simplified by observing the fact that the summation converges rapidly. The function is asymptotic with respect to E and j. When E _{0} is 10 ^{1}^{5} V/m, the first term accounts for almost 100% of the whole sum. When E _{0} approaches 10 20 V/m, the first term accounts for more than 60% of the whole sum, and W approches the asymptote after the first 20 terms. In fact, W approches the asymptote after the first 20 terms for all values exceeding 10 20 V/m. See graph below:
field of ~ 10 ^{1}^{8} V/m based on forcing the exp( ) argument to approach 1 [4]. This yields a
probability value of W = 4 x 10 ^{5}^{6} and an energy density of 4.4 x 10 ^{2}^{4} J/m ^{3} .
experiments reveal that critical fields lasting ~ 10 ^{}^{2}^{0} seconds in the vicinity of a large
quasinucleus create e+epairs [2]. So if we let the probability be 1, the timescale be ~ 10 ^{}^{2}^{0} seconds, and the volume be based on typical heavy element nuclear volumes (~ 10 ^{}
^{4}^{2} m ^{3} ), then W = 10 ^{6}^{2} . of 2.3 x 10 ^{2}^{9} J/m ^{3} .
However,
This yields a critical field of 3.6 x 10 ^{2}^{0} V/m or an energy density
The table below outlines the discussion above.
E (V/m) 
W (prob/m ^{3} sec) 
Energy Density (J/m ^{3} ) 

5.5 
x 10 ^{1}^{5} 
1 
1.35 x 10 ^{2}^{0} 

1.0 
x 10 ^{1}^{8} 
10 
^{5}^{6} 
4.4 
x 10 ^{2}^{4} 
3.6 
x 10 ^{2}^{0} 
10 
^{6}^{2} 
2.3 
x 10 ^{2}^{9} 
Table 1. Properties of the Schwinger Probability Function
From these calculations, it is difficult to say exactly what the threshold for critical field pair creation is, but, we can safely say that critical energy densities are on the order of 10 ^{2}^{0} to 10 ^{2}^{9} J/m ^{3} .
Photon Density Next, we want to know how many monochromatic photons does it take to produce a field with those energy densities. We will use the monochromatic energy density formula (Eqn 3) to create a table of results. Since it is easy to calculate other properties other than number density, the table is expandeded to include quantities such as photon lifetime, photon range, and individual photon energy density. Properties of monocromatic bandwidths from wavelengths of 1 meter (Radio Waves) to 1x10 ^{}^{2}^{0} m aare shown in the table below. Keep in mind that the goal is to calculate the number of monochromatic photons needed to create a critical electric field with energy densities from 10 ^{2}^{0} to 10 ^{2}^{9} J/m ^{3} .





u 
n 

R 
(m) 
(1/s) 
(1/s) 
(J) 
(eV) 
(J/m ^{3} ) 
(#/m ^{3} ) 
(s) 
(m) 
1.00E+00 
3.00E+08 
1.88E+09 
9.93E26 
6.20E07 
6.24E25 
6.28E+00 
6.67E09 
2.00E+00 
1.00E01 
3.00E+09 
1.88E+10 
9.93E25 
6.20E06 
6.24E21 
6.28E+03 
6.67E10 
2.00E01 
1.00E02 
3.00E+10 
1.88E+11 
9.93E24 
6.20E05 
6.24E17 
6.28E+06 
6.67E11 
2.00E02 
1.00E03 
3.00E+11 
1.88E+12 
9.93E23 
6.20E04 
6.24E13 
6.28E+09 
6.67E12 
2.00E03 
1.00E04 
3.00E+12 
1.88E+13 
9.93E22 
6.20E03 
6.24E09 
6.28E+12 
6.67E13 
2.00E04 
1.00E05 
3.00E+13 
1.88E+14 
9.93E21 
6.20E02 
6.24E05 
6.28E+15 
6.67E14 
2.00E05 
1.00E06 
3.00E+14 
1.88E+15 
9.93E20 
6.20E01 
6.24E01 
6.28E+18 
6.67E15 
2.00E06 
1.00E07 
3.00E+15 
1.88E+16 
9.93E19 
6.20E+00 
6.24E+03 
6.28E+21 
6.67E16 
2.00E07 
1.00E08 
3.00E+16 
1.88E+17 
9.93E18 
6.20E+01 
6.24E+07 
6.28E+24 
6.67E17 
2.00E08 
1.00E09 
3.00E+17 
1.88E+18 
9.93E17 
6.20E+02 
6.24E+11 
6.28E+27 
6.67E18 
2.00E09 
1.00E10 
3.00E+18 
1.88E+19 
9.93E16 
6.20E+03 
6.24E+15 
6.28E+30 
6.67E19 
2.00E10 
1.00E11 
3.00E+19 
1.88E+20 
9.93E15 
6.20E+04 
6.24E+19 
6.28E+33 
6.67E20 
2.00E11 
8.25E12 
3.64E+19 
2.28E+20 
1.20E14 
7.51E+04 
1.35E+20 
1.12E+34 
5.50E20 
1.65E11 
1.00E12 
3.00E+20 
1.88E+21 
9.93E14 
6.20E+05 
6.24E+23 
6.28E+36 
6.67E21 
2.00E12 
1.00E13 
3.00E+21 
1.88E+22 
9.93E13 
6.20E+06 
6.24E+27 
6.28E+39 
6.67E22 
2.00E13 
1.00E14 
3.00E+22 
1.88E+23 
9.93E12 
6.20E+07 
6.24E+31 
6.28E+42 
6.67E23 
2.00E14 
1.00E15 
3.00E+23 
1.88E+24 
9.93E11 
6.20E+08 
6.24E+35 
6.28E+45 
6.67E24 
2.00E15 
1.00E16 
3.00E+24 
1.88E+25 
9.93E10 
6.20E+09 
6.24E+39 
6.28E+48 
6.67E25 
2.00E16 
1.00E17 
3.00E+25 
1.88E+26 
9.93E09 
6.20E+10 
6.24E+43 
6.28E+51 
6.67E26 
2.00E17 
1.00E18 
3.00E+26 
1.88E+27 
9.93E08 
6.20E+11 
6.24E+47 
6.28E+54 
6.67E27 
2.00E18 
1.00E19 
3.00E+27 
1.88E+28 
9.93E07 
6.20E+12 
6.24E+51 
6.28E+57 
6.67E28 
2.00E19 
1.00E20 
3.00E+28 
1.88E+29 
9.93E06 
6.20E+13 
6.24E+55 
6.28E+60 
6.67E29 
2.00E20 
Table 2. Properties of the Monochromatic Spectral Energy Density
Using the number density formula, it is simple to calculate the number of ZPE photons per cubic wavelength. We simply transform the frequency variable to a wavelength
variable in the number density formula where
2
c
. The transformation goes like
N
(
)
n
(
)
2
(
)
^{3}
8
2
c
3
2
.
(8)
The result is that the number of photons per cubic wavelength is a constant – namely 2. Referring to the table above, and recalling the energy density requirement for strong field pair creation is 10 ^{2}^{0} to 10 ^{2}^{9} J/m ^{3} , the wavelength which can create this energy density is found.
The result is that it takes approximately six virtual photons with a wavelength no larger than ~ 8.25 x 10 ^{}^{1}^{2} m to induce pair creation.
Structure of The Vacuum Photon Field Now, let us consider the organization of the vacuum photon field. Consider the generalized QED electric field [4]
E rt
(
)
i
2
V
1/ 2
[
a
(0)
e
i
k
t
e
ik
r
*
a
(0)
e
i
k
t
e
ik
r
]
e
,
(9)
and compare it to the QED vacuum field [4]
E
0
( )
t
i
2
V
1/ 2
[
a
(0)
e
i
k
t
*
a
(0)
e
i
k
t
]
e
,
(10)
The QED fields are expressed using creation and annhilation operators with a magnitude represented by the expression under the square root symbol. The only difference between a “real” electric field and the “virtual” zeropoint field, is a dependence on r . The
, gives a measure of the randomness of the photon
If
0
, then the field is random and has an average value of zero. Notice that when
, formula 8 and 9 are identical. From this we can say that a real electric field
is composed of an organized ensemble of virtual photons that adhere to the Hamiltonian equivalence (eqn 1). On the other hand, the vacuum zeropoint photon field is a random ensemble of virtual photons that follow not only the Hamiltonian equivalence, but also must adhere to the vacuum spectral energy density (eqn 2).
Random Vector Particle Vacuum Field Expression It is not easy to “see” what is going on in the quantum field expressions (eqn 9,10). In order to grasp the monochromatic field concept, we are going to construct a random vacuum field as a sum of randomized monochromatic fields. Our purpose is to discretize the field so we can simulate it on a computer.
We discard the wave mathematics because the lifetime,
each particle are short (on the order of the inverse frequency and wavelength
_{.}
respectively). Nothing is “waving.” Each particle appears and dissappears at a time
_{}_{} of
2
_{}_{t} _{}
and range, _{c}_{}_{t}
2
During its lifetime, it travels a distance in the k direction. At any time, the number of
photons per unit volume must be
wavelength (eqn 8).
3
8
2
c
3
n
so there are six photons per cubic
Using this scenario, we can express the discretized monochromatic vacuum field as pixelated fields of cubic wavelength volumes.
E
i
6
j 0
j
2
0
2
q
j
3
1/ 2
ˆ
[ k ]
(11)
Notice that we use the cube of the photon wavelength as the quantized volume
where q is simply the factor that corrects for the effective volume of the photon. Since
each kˆ is random, the vector sum over only six photons is almost never zero.
3
q ,
6
j 0
ˆ
k
j
0
(12)
This implies that on a small scale (wavelength sizes), localized nonzero fields do exist within a monochromatic random photon field. We will explore more of this later in the paper in the form of computer screen captures of the pixelated zeropoint field.
Since each photon has energy density
3
2
q
and there are 2 photons per cubic
wavelength, then summing the discretized photon energy densities should yield the monochromatic energy density u() (eqn. 3).
N 6
j
0
j
2q
3
4
8
2
c
3
(14)
N 

Solving for q , we get 
_{q} _{} 
. Formally, N = 2, but in discrete mathematics, we let N 


= 6. The formal result assures that the spectral energy density is maintained.
So, to recapture the big picture. The monochromatic vacuum field is composed of pixelated vacuum fields which follow the spectral energy density (eqn 2). Since each pixelated field adheres to the spectral energy density, then the total monochromatic field inherently follows the spectral energy density. There are an infinite number of monochromatic fields. One can easily see that when looking at the total vacuum, at any
fixed position r, there are an infinite number of photons with the
’s all adding to zero.
k
j
N
0
j
0
k
j
(
) 0
(15)
Energy Production Rate The question now becomes; If we can isolate a critical wavelength monochromatic zero point field, and if periodic localized strong fields occur, then at what rate does pair production occur? We can then calculate how much energy we can extract from the resulting gamma radiation as the e+e pairs annihilate.
Propagation Vector Statistics First, we divide a cubic volume of space V, into pixels of volume
six randomly oriented photons. There is a finite probability p, that six photons will point in the same general direction. This is a strong field condition. If there are N pixels per
cubic meter, then there will be pN strong field pixels. Equivalently, the volume containing the fields is V. However, only a fraction of the volume contains strong field conditions, so the effective volume is fV, where f is the fraction. We now need to find f (or p).
3
.
A pixel contains
Given n choices, a photon has a 1/n probability of pointing at any one choice. If a sphere is divided into only two pixels (upper and lower hemisphere), the probability for a photon to point at either hemishere is ½. Now, what is the probability of six photons pointing to
the same hemisphere. The answer is p = (½) ^{6} = 0.0156. The probability for six photons to point at a single pixel in a sphere pixelated into n pixels is is p = (1/n) ^{6} . Clearly, as n approaches infinity, the probability approaches zero. In fact, the probability for six photons to point in the exact same direction is zero. The question is, how close is close enough? In essence, what is a reasonable value for n such that if six photons point within the solid angle subtended by 4/n, then the resulting field is strong enough for pair creation?
We need to explore the sensitivity of the electric field to photon propagation vectors. If all the vectors point in the same direction, the electric field is maximum. If the vectors are all pointing away from each other, the electric field is zero. Equation 11 describes the zeropoint electric field as the sum of vectors.
For six monochromatic photons, the field becomes (remember that N = 6/)
Ei
6
j 0
j
12
0
2
3
j
1/ 2
[
ˆ
k
j
]
12
0
2
3
j
1/ 2
k ˆ
1
k ˆ
2
k ˆ
3
k ˆ
4
k ˆ
5
ˆ
k
6
If rˆ is an arbitrary unit vector, then
E k [
r
]
r ˆ
12
3
1/ 2
cos(
1
)
cos(
2
)
cos(
3
)
cos(
4
)
cos(
5
)
cos(
6
)
So, the field is maximized when the angles are not only the same, but close to zero.
Clearly, we can choose an arbitrary unit vector that minimizes the angles.
is not mathematically obvious is that in order for a strong field condition to occur, we
must minimize the variance in the angles. Equivalently, we must maximize the sum of one of the components of each unit vector. In the language of vectors we can expand the unit vectors into components
The part that
ˆ
k
1
k ˆ k ˆ k ˆ k ˆ k ˆ
2
3
4
5
6
X
1
x Y y Z z X
1
1
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
2
x ˆ Y y ˆ Z
2
2
ˆ
z
X i 
2
Y
i
2
Z
i
2
is always true. For six unit vectors, the field is
maximum when the sum of one of the components is nearly six, and the sum of the other components is near zero. The Maximum Field Condition below summarizes what we need.
where the condition
1
6
i 1
X
i
6
and
6
i 1
Y
i
0
and
6
i 1
Z
i
0
or
6
i 1
6
i 1
X
X
i
i
0
0
and
and
6
i 1
6
i 1
Y
i
or
Y
i
6
0
and
and
6
i 1
6
i 1
Z
Z
i
i
0
6
The question is, how close to six must we be for a strong field condition to be defined?
If we look at the Schwinger function results, we see that W ~ E ^{2} and E _{c}_{r}_{i}_{t} > 10 ^{1}^{5} V/m. I propose that once you exceed the critical field strength, suborder of magnitude estimates of E will produce insignificant changes in W. From this, I will simply state that when exceeding the 10 ^{1}^{5} V/m threshold, if E _{e}_{f}_{f} > 0.9 E _{c}_{r}_{i}_{t} , then we have sufficient conditions for pair creation. Obviously, six random photons will have six different angles. To simplify the analysis, let us assume that the largest random angle is the angle for all six photons. Now, we solve for the angle and find that = .45 rad (25 deg). This represents a unit solid angle of .2 steradians. A unit sphere has a surface area of 4 steradians, so this will divide the sphere into 62 pixels. Thus, n = 62 so p = 1 x 10 ^{}^{1}^{1} . Essentially, there is a probability of 1 x 10 ^{}^{1}^{1} that six random photons will point to within 25 degrees of each other and create a strong field within 90% of the critical field value. This is only valid for zeropoint photons of wavelengths smaller than 10 ^{}^{1}^{1} m.
Therefore, the effective volume is V _{e}_{f}_{f} =
10 ^{}^{1}^{1} V.
Computation Example:
From table 1, we already know that an electric field of 5.5 x 10 ^{1}^{5} V/m has a Schwinger number of W = 1 (prob/m ^{3} sec). The wavelength that corresponds to that energy density in table 2 is approximately 8.25x10 ^{}^{1}^{2} m. The volume of pair producing effects only occupies a fraction of a cubic meter (10 ^{}^{1}^{1} V). If we divide a cubic meter into cubic wavelength pixels, we will have 10 ^{3}^{3} pixels measuring approximately 10 ^{}^{1}^{1} m on each side (cubic wavelengths). So, the Effective Volume = 10 ^{}^{1}^{1} x 10 ^{3}^{3} pixels ~ 10 ^{2}^{2} pixels. Thus, there are only 10 ^{2}^{2} strong field pixels in a cubic meter. Remember that a pixel which represents a cubic wavelength contains six zeropoint photons. This is because we calculated that the number of photons per cubic wavelength is constant – namely, there are 2 photons per cubic wavelength according to equation 8.
Now since we know the Schwinger value W = 1 (prob/m ^{3} sec), each pixel that has strong field conditions will produce 1 pair per cubic meter per second. so to calculate the Effective Probability Rate P _{w} , we simply multiply W by the effective volume.
P _{w} = W x V _{e}_{f}_{f} which has units of (prob/sec).
Our effective volume is 10 ^{}^{1}^{1} m ^{3} , thus, we have a pair creation rate of 10 ^{}^{1}^{1} pairs per second. Assuming that all pairs annihilate into gamma radiation, the resulting energy production is the nonrelativistic gamma radiation energy (10 ^{}^{1}^{4} J) multiplied by the production rate. Therefore the energy production rate is 10 ^{}^{2}^{5} Watts per cubic meter.
This result is miniscule and informs us that we need to seek smaller wavelengths for greater energy production.
The discussion above was primarily aimed at going through the motions of actually calculating an energy production rate based on the fairly obscure theory described in this paper.
Now
wavelengths in the table below. calculations.
that
we’ve
done
a
calculation,
various
All entries and results are order of magnitude
I
will
simply write
out
results
for
Wavelength 
Effective 
Schwinger 
No. of e+e pairs per second 
Energy Production Rate (Watts/m ^{3} ) 

(m) 
Volume (m ^{3} ) 
Value (W) (prob/m ^{3} sec) 

_{1}_{0} 
11 
_{1}_{0} 
11 
1 
_{1}_{0} 
11 
_{1}_{0} 
25 

_{1}_{0} 
12 
_{1}_{0} 
11 
10 
^{6}^{0} 
10 
^{4}^{9} 
10 
^{3}^{5} 
5x10 ^{}^{1}^{5} 
_{1}_{0} 
11 
10 
^{6}^{8} 
10 
^{5}^{7} 
10 
^{4}^{3} 
Table 3. Energy Production Rate (e+e annihilation) from “Virtual” Strong Field Induced Pair Production
These are order of magnitude calculations. Notice that if we reduce the wavelength to
One can see that the critical
wavelength where the energy production rate increases dramatically is when the photon wavelength approches 10 ^{}^{1}^{1} m.
10 ^{}^{1}^{2} m, the energy production rate increases very rapidly.
Let us now calculate a more precise wavelength that we need to isolate in order to produce a more reasonable energy production rate – say one megawatt per cubic meter.
Megawatt Calculation First, we need to generate a table similar to table 1 containing Schwinger values and energy densities. Notice that the electric field determines the Scwinger number (W), and the energy density U.
From the Schwinger number (W), we calculate the probability rate since P _{w} = W x V _{e}_{f}_{f} The energy production rate is (P _{w} ) x (1 x 10 ^{}^{1}^{4} J). As before, we only use the first term in the Schwinger function because of its rapid convergence.
E 
W 
U 
Prob Rate 
Energy Production Rate 
(V/m) 
(prob/m^3sec) 
(J/m^3) 
(1/sec) 
(W/m^3) 
1.00E+16 
1.63E+24 
4.43E+20 
1.63E+13 
1.63E01 
1.03E+16 
8.57E+24 
4.65E+20 
8.57E+13 
8.57E01 
1.05E+16 
4.33E+25 
4.88E+20 
4.33E+14 
4.33E+00 
1.08E+16 
2.11E+26 
5.13E+20 
2.11E+15 
2.11E+01 
1.10E+16 
9.89E+26 
5.39E+20 
9.89E+15 
9.89E+01 
1.13E+16 
4.47E+27 
5.66E+20 
4.47E+16 
4.47E+02 
1.16E+16 
1.95E+28 
5.95E+20 
1.95E+17 
1.95E+03 
1.19E+16 
8.22E+28 
6.25E+20 
8.22E+17 
8.22E+03 
1.22E+16 
3.35E+29 
6.57E+20 
3.35E+18 
3.35E+04 
1.25E+16 
1.32E+30 
6.90E+20 
1.32E+19 
1.32E+05 
1.28E+16 
5.03E+30 
7.25E+20 
5.03E+19 
5.03E+05 
1.31E+16 
1.86E+31 
7.62E+20 
1.86E+20 
1.86E+06 
1.34E+16 
6.67E+31 
8.00E+20 
6.67E+20 
6.67E+06 
1.38E+16 
2.32E+32 
8.41E+20 
2.32E+21 
2.32E+07 
1.41E+16 
7.85E+32 
8.83E+20 
7.85E+21 
7.85E+07 
1.45E+16 
2.58E+33 
9.28E+20 
2.58E+22 
2.58E+08 
1.48E+16 
8.23E+33 
9.75E+20 
8.23E+22 
8.23E+08 
1.52E+16 
2.56E+34 
1.02E+21 
2.56E+23 
2.56E+09 
1.56E+16 
7.75E+34 
1.08E+21 
7.75E+23 
7.75E+09 
1.60E+16 
2.29E+35 
1.13E+21 
2.29E+24 
2.29E+10 
1.64E+16 
6.58E+35 
1.19E+21 
6.58E+24 
6.58E+10 
1.68E+16 
1.85E+36 
1.25E+21 
1.85E+25 
1.85E+11 
Table 4. Energy Production Rate (e+e annihilation) as a function of electric field strength
Then, we generate another table similar to table 2, but with energy densities that contain the band of energy densities found in the Schwinger table above.





u 
n 

R 
(m) 
(1/s) 
(1/s) 
(J) 
(eV) 
(J/m ^{3} ) 
(#/m ^{3} ) 
(s) 
(m) 
6.13E12 
4.90E+19 
3.08E+20 
1.62E14 
1.01E+05 
4.43E+20 
2.73E+34 
4.08E20 
1.23E11 
6.05E12 
4.96E+19 
3.11E+20 
1.64E14 
1.02E+05 
4.65E+20 
2.84E+34 
4.03E20 
1.21E11 
5.98E12 
5.02E+19 
3.15E+20 
1.66E14 
1.04E+05 
4.89E+20 
2.94E+34 
3.98E20 
1.20E11 
5.90E12 
5.08E+19 
3.19E+20 
1.68E14 
1.05E+05 
5.14E+20 
3.05E+34 
3.94E20 
1.18E11 
5.83E12 
5.15E+19 
3.23E+20 
1.70E14 
1.06E+05 
5.40E+20 
3.17E+34 
3.89E20 
1.17E11 
5.76E12 
5.21E+19 
3.27E+20 
1.72E14 
1.08E+05 
5.67E+20 
3.29E+34 
3.84E20 
1.15E11 
5.69E12 
5.27E+19 
3.31E+20 
1.75E14 
1.09E+05 
5.96E+20 
3.41E+34 
3.79E20 
1.14E11 
5.62E12 
5.34E+19 
3.35E+20 
1.77E14 
1.10E+05 
6.26E+20 
3.54E+34 
3.75E20 
1.12E11 
5.55E12 
5.41E+19 
3.39E+20 
1.79E14 
1.12E+05 
6.57E+20 
3.67E+34 
3.70E20 
1.11E11 
5.48E12 
5.47E+19 
3.44E+20 
1.81E14 
1.13E+05 
6.90E+20 
3.81E+34 
3.65E20 
1.10E11 
5.41E12 
5.54E+19 
3.48E+20 
1.83E14 
1.14E+05 
7.25E+20 
3.96E+34 
3.61E20 
1.08E11 
5.35E12 
5.61E+19 
3.52E+20 
1.86E14 
1.16E+05 
7.62E+20 
4.10E+34 
3.57E20 
1.07E11 
5.28E12 
5.68E+19 
3.57E+20 
1.88E14 
1.17E+05 
8.01E+20 
4.26E+34 
3.52E20 
1.06E11 
5.22E12 
5.75E+19 
3.61E+20 
1.90E14 
1.19E+05 
8.41E+20 
4.42E+34 
3.48E20 
1.04E11 
5.15E12 
5.82E+19 
3.66E+20 
1.93E14 
1.20E+05 
8.83E+20 
4.59E+34 
3.44E20 
1.03E11 
5.09E12 
5.89E+19 
3.70E+20 
1.95E14 
1.22E+05 
9.28E+20 
4.76E+34 
3.39E20 
1.02E11 
5.03E12 
5.97E+19 
3.75E+20 
1.97E14 
1.23E+05 
9.75E+20 
4.94E+34 
3.35E20 
1.01E11 
4.97E12 
6.04E+19 
3.79E+20 
2.00E14 
1.25E+05 
1.02E+21 
5.12E+34 
3.31E20 
9.93E12 
4.91E12 
6.11E+19 
3.84E+20 
2.02E14 
1.26E+05 
1.08E+21 
5.32E+34 
3.27E20 
9.81E12 
4.85E12 
6.19E+19 
3.89E+20 
2.05E14 
1.28E+05 
1.13E+21 
5.52E+34 
3.23E20 
9.69E12 
4.79E12 
6.27E+19 
3.94E+20 
2.07E14 
1.29E+05 
1.19E+21 
5.72E+34 
3.19E20 
9.57E12 
4.73E12 
6.34E+19 
3.98E+20 
2.10E14 
1.31E+05 
1.25E+21 
5.94E+34 
3.15E20 
9.46E12 
Table 5. Zeropoint field energy density as a function of Zeropoint photon wavelength
From the Scwinger table, we can see that an electric field with an energy density of ~ 7.6
x 10 ^{2}^{0} J/m ^{3} induces a pair production/annihilation rate of slightly over a megawatt per cubic meter. The corresponding zeropoint field which has the same energy density is composed of virtual photons with a wavelength of 5.3 x 10 ^{}^{1}^{2} m.
In conclusion, if – in a cubic meter of space  we isolate a zeropoint field composed of virtual photons which have a wavelength of 5.3 x 10 ^{}^{1}^{2} m, then periodic regions of organized photons will create pockets of strong “Virtual” fields. These virtual fields will induce a breakdown of the vacuum – releasing e+e pairs at a rate of ~ 10 ^{2}^{0} per cubic meter per second. As the pairs annihilate, the resulting gamma radiation will have an energy production rate of ~ 1 Megawatt per cubic meter of device volume.
Now, having said all that, let’s test the validity of the model by programming a computer
to follow the specifications laid out above. In particular, the model will simulate the
statistics of a stochastic monochromatic zeropoint field.
Computer Model
It is a relatively simple matter to simulate the monochromatic random photon field
described above, on a computer. Our only criteria are that we follow the spectral energy
density – that is the number of photons per cubic wavelength is constant (2).
model uses a volume of space with six random photon propagation vectors. The volume
of space is equal to a cubic wavelength.
direction and expand the vector in a cartesian x,y,z coordinate system. We sum the
photon unit vector elements until the Maximum Field Condition above is met. We count the number of iterations it takes to meet the condition and associate a probability with
this, P ~ 1/n.
find the angle it makes with respect to the largest contributing coordinate. This angle is
used to calculate the fraction of surface area subtended onto a unit sphere
The
We allow each photon to propagate in a random
Every time the critical condition is met, we form a resultant unit vector and
f = (arcos()) ^{2}
The sphere is divided into pixels corresponding to that fractional area and we count the number of pixels
N = 4/f
This is the same N discussed previously describing the probability of finding six photons pointing in the same general direction. The probability of finding six photons to point in the same direction is
P = (1/N) ^{6}
The computer model result differs from the theoretical result mainly because the random number generator is not totally random. Every time I run the model, the random number seed is the same, so we get similar results every time.
One can see the results of the model in Appendix A. The point to all of this is that there exists a nonzero probability that six random vectors point in the same general direction +/ 30 degrees. This represents a strong field condition. The probability P is simply the fraction of unit volume regions that have strong field conditions. The result is that isolated monochromatic fields have localized strong fields. That is the whole point of this paper.
Candidate Devices The critical wavelength was found to be ~ 5.3 x 10 ^{}^{1}^{2} m producing 1 MW per cubic meter. Casimir geometries with those dimensions may or may not be possible. Current levels of technology can machine optics to a precision of 100 angstroms. Improved quantum technologies may allow us to create precision Casimir cavities with subatomic dimensions. Our goal is to calculate the exclusion bands for various geometries and try to design a zerobandwidth cavity centered around 5.3 x 10 ^{}^{1}^{2} m. Smaller cavities (10 ^{}^{1}^{3} m) will simply vaporize the device due to the extreme energy production rates (>10 ^{3}^{5} Watts).
Conclusion The goal was a to develop a theory for a source of e+e pairs for energy production applications. I introduced the concept of modifying the zeropoint vacuum field to mimic e+e pair producing strong electric fields. I developed a semiclassical population based quantum field theory in which I use zeropoint virtual photons to generate a pair creating critical virtual electric field. I started with the zeropoint spectral energy density and broke it down to monochromatic fields. I then calculated the number of monochromatic zeropoint photons necessary to induce a breakdown of the vacuum. I found that the photon number density (per cubic wavelength) was a constant. From this, I developed a simple computer model of a monochromatic zeropoint field and found that these fields have pockets of organized photons which mimic locally strong fields. This resulted in discovering that the probability of six random photons aligning themselves to within 90% of the maximum vector potential was 10 ^{}^{1}^{1} . This resulted in an interpretation that in a volume V, about 10 ^{}^{1}^{1} V of the volume contains strong field conditions. I then calculated the pair production rate using the Schwinger model and the computer simulation results. From the pair production rate, I deduced the energy production rate based on the non relativistic annihilation energy. I found that the critical photon wavelength required to create pairs is ~ 5.3 x 10 ^{}^{1}^{2} m producing energy at a rate of 1 MW per cubic meter.
The presentation suggests that IF we can isolate a sufficiently energetic zeropoint electromagnetic field, then the statistics of the spectral energy density function will create periodic strong localized fields that can mimic the organized virtual photons that produce real electrostatic fields. If the field has a sufficient energy density (short wavelength
zeropoint photons), then we can extract e + e  pairs from the quantum vacuum. The annihilation of these pairs will result in radiation that can be converted to useable energy.
Acknowledgements Special thanks are due to Harold Puthoff and the small group of Vacuum researchers that are relentlessly searching for ways to tap the vacuum field energy. The huge volume of work published gave me the confidence that this work is worth pursuing. Special thanks are also due to Peter Milonni for publishing his book  The Quantum Vacuum  from which I learned most of the basics of Quantum Field Theory as applied to the quatum vacuum.
References
[1]
S.K. Lamaroux, Phy Rev. Lett., Vol. 78, No. 1, pp 5 (6 Jan 1997): Demonstration
[2] K.M. Hartmann., Am J. Phy., Vol 53 No. 2, pp, 137, (Feb 1985): Population Explosion in the Vacuum.
[3] 
J. Schweppe et al., Phy. Rev. Lett., Vol 51, pp 2261 (1983): 
[4] 
P.W. Milonni, Academic Press 1994, The Quantum Vacuum, Ch 2. 
[5] 
W. Heitler, Dover 0486645584, The Quantum Theory of Radiation, Ch 2. 
[6] F.J. Dyson, Phy. Rev., Vol 75, pp 486 (1949): The Radiation Theories of Tomonaga, Schwinger,and Feynman.
[7] D.C. Cole and H.E. Puthoff, Phy. Rev. E, Vol 48, pp 1562 (1993): Extracting Energy and Heat from the Vacuum.
[8] H.E Puthoff, Phy. Rev. A., Vol 40, No. 9, pp 4857 (1989): Source of Vacuum Electromagnetic ZeroPoint Energy
[9] H.E Puthoff, Phy. Rev. D., Vol 35, No. 10, pp 3266 (1987): Ground State of Hydrogen as a ZeroPointDetermined State.
APPENDIX A
COMPUTER MODEL OF MONOCHROMATIC VACUUM
ZeroPoint Field Snapshot #2. Top chart shows regions of moderately strong fields (E > 0.66 E _{m}_{a}_{x} ). Bottom chart shows LOGIC determination of definite strong regions (IF E > 0.8 E _{m}_{a}_{x} , THEN Pixel = Black, ELSE, Pixel = Grey.)
ZeroPoint Field Snapshot #3. Top chart shows regions of moderately strong fields (E > 0.66 E _{m}_{a}_{x} ). Bottom chart shows LOGIC determination of definite strong regions (IF E > 0.8 E _{m}_{a}_{x} , THEN Pixel = Black, ELSE, Pixel = Grey.)
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